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absolute privilege - Doctrine that protects persons from claims

alleging defamation where the alleged defamatory statements were
made by members of legislative assemblies while on the floor of the
assembly or communications made in the context of judicial
proceedings, as part of a trial. (Almonte vs Vasquez G.R. No. 95367
May 23, 1995)
2. Act of State - Every sovereign state is bound to respect the
independence of every other state, and the courts of one country will
not sit in judgment on the acts of the government of another, done
within its territory. [Underhill v. Hernandez, 168 U.S. 250]
3. actio personalis moritur cum persona - Lat. [The doctrine that]
personal action terminates or dies with the person. [Santos v. Sec. of
Labor, L-21624, 27Feb. 1968].
4. adherence of jurisdiction
acquired jurisdiction, that
done all that it can do in
COMELEC G.R. No. 207264

- The principle that once a court has

jurisdiction continues until the court has
the exercise of that jurisdiction (Reyes vs
October 22, 2013)

5. Aguinaldo - It effectively extinguishes a reelected officials

administrative liability from alleged wrongdoing during a previous
term. (Perez vs COMELEC G.R. No. L-55873 February 25, 1985)

6. Aid of Legislation - Congress may conduct investigations and compel

private individuals to furnish information when necessary and proper
to execute Congress authority to legislate. (Romero vs Estrada G.R.
No. 174105 April 2, 2009)
7. alter ego - a corporation, organization or other entity set up to provide
a legal shield for the person actually controlling the operation (PND et
167530 March 13, 2013
8. Appropriations Control - prohibiting expenditure of any public money
without legislative authorization." MARIA CAROLINA P. ARAULLO v.
BENIGNO SEMION C. AQUINO III, G.R. No. 209287, July 1, 2014
9. archipelagic doctrine - It is the 2nd sentence of Section 1, Art. I of the
Constitution which states that the waters around, between and
connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth
and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.
assimilation of facts - Where what purports to be a finding upon
a question of fact is so involved with and dependent upon a question
of law as to be in substance and effect a decision on the latter, the
Court will, in order to decide the legal question, examine the entire

record including the evidence if necessary. (People vs Cayat G.R. No.

L-45987 May 5, 1939)
Augmentation - Prohibition against transfer of appropriations
(PHILCONS vs Enriquez G.R. No. 113105 August 19, 1994)
AUTOLIMITATION - The doctrine where the Philippines adheres to
principles of international law as a limitation to the exercise of its
sovereignty. (Garces vs CA G.R. No. 114795 July 17, 1996)
Belligerent Occupation - A condition in which territory is under
the effective control of a foreign armed force (Sameth vs Director of
Prisons G.R. No. L-351
April 30, 1946)
Bicameralism - is one in which the legislators are divided into
two separate assemblies, chambers or houses. (ABAKADA PARTY LIST
vs PURISIMA G.R. No. 166715 August 14, 2008
blending powers - Instances when powers are not confined
exclusively within one department but are assigned to or shared by
several departments, e.g., enactment of general appropriations law.
(CIR vs CA G.R. No. 207843 July 15, 2015)
BRANDEIS - a question of fact is dependent upon a question of
law (Ople vs Torres et al G.R. No. 127685 July 23, 1998

Checks and Balances - The system of dividing power among the
three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) to
prevent any one from having too much power. Each branch has some
authority to check the power of the others, thereby maintaining a
balance among the three ( Angara vs ELECOM G.R. No. L-45081 July
15, 1936)
civilian supremacy - It refers to a democratic form of
government where civilian legislators are in charge of the governing
of the nation - in other words NOT a military dictatorship. (Abadia vs
CA G.R. No. 105597 September 23, 1994)
Colorable Legislation - mandates that a balance of power is to
be struck between the different components of the State i.e. between
the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. (Mighty Corporation
vs E&J Gallo Winery G.R. No. 154342
July 14, 2004
command responsibility - is a rule of substantive law that
establishes liability and, by this account, cannot be a proper legal
basis to implead a party-respondent in an amparo petition. IN THE
v. GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, et al., G.R. No. 189155, September
07, 2010
condonation - is a limited empowerment of the electorate over
the accountabilities of their elective local officials. (PDIC vs COA G.R.
No. 171548
February 22, 2008

constitutional supremacy - since the Constitution is the
fundamental, paramount and supreme law of the nation, it is deemed
written in every statute and contract. (Manila Prince Hitel vs GSIS G.R.
No. 122156 February 3, 1997
continuous voyage - Goods reloaded at an intermediate port on
the same vessel, or reloaded on another vessel or other forms of
transportation may also be seized on the basis of the doctrine of
ultimate consumption (US vs Steamship RUBI et at G.R. No. L-9235
November 17, 1915
Curtailment - the action or fact of reducing or restricting
something (Gonzales vs COMELEC G.R. No. L-27833 April 18, 1969
Decentralization of Administration - It is a transfer of
responsibility for planning, financing and management of certain
public functions from central government and its agencies or
commissions to field units of government agencies, or semi
autonomous government ( Ganzon vs CA G.R. No. 93252 August 5,

Declaratory Relief - refers to a judgment of a court which
determines the rights of parties without ordering anything be done or
awarding damages. ( Ferrer vs Rocco G.R. NO. 174129
July 5,
Dominium - refers to the capacity to own or acquire property,
including lands held by the State in its proprietary capacity (Lee Hong
Hok vs David G.R. No. L-30389 December 27, 1972
Drago - The doctrine held that international law did not
authorize European powers to use armed intervention to force
American republics to pay public debts.(Guevara vs BPI G.R. No.
159786 August 15, 2006
effective nationality - If a person has more than one nationality,
he shall, within a third State, be treated as if he had only one; the
third State shall recognize exclusively either the nationality of the
State in which he is habitually and principally resident, or the
nationality of the State with which he appears in fact to be most
closely connected. (Frivaldo vs COMELEC G.R. No. 87193 June 23,

Effective occupation - Discovery alone is not enough. For title to
finally vest, discovery must be followed by effective occupation in a
reasonable time and attestation of the same. (Magallona vs Ermita
G.R No. 187167
August 16, 2011

eminent domain - The right of a government over the private

lands within its jurisdiction. Usually invoked to compel land owners to

sell their property in preparation for a major construction project such
as a freeway. (Masikip vs City og Pasig G.R. No. 136349
January 23, 2006

enrolled bill - rule is a principle of judicial interpretation of rules
of procedure in legislative bodies. Under the doctrine, once
a bill passes a legislative body and is signed into law, the courts
assume that all rules of procedure in the enactment process were
properly followed. That is, "[i]f a legislative document is authenticated
in regular form by the appropriate officials, the court treats that
document as properly adopted. (Morales vs Subido G.R. No. L-29658
February 27, 1969
Equal Representation meaning that all groups are
fairly represented. One man, one vote, the principal that each vote
have equal value
have equal populations (Aquino vs COMELEC G.R. No. 189793
April 7, 2010
Equipoise Doctrine - is a state in which opposing forces or
actions are balanced so that one is not stronger or greater than the
(Mendez vs CA G.R. No. 124491 June 1, 1999

Estrada Doctrine recognition has been construed as approval
and non-recognition, disapproval of a government. (Romualdez vs
COMELEC G.R. NO. 167011
April 30, 2008
Ex necessitate legis - By necessary implication of law COA CEBU
vs. PROVINCE OF CEBU G.R. No. 141386; November 29, 2001
Executive Agreement - an international agreement, usually
regarding routine administrative matters not warranting a formal
treaty, made by the executive branch without ratification by the
Senate. (Land Bank of the Philippines vs Atlanta Industries Inc G.R. No.
July 2, 2014
Executive clemency - the power of a President to pardon a
person convicted of a crime, commute the sentence (shorten it, often
to time already served), or reduce it from death to another lesser
sentence. ( Garcia vs COA G.R. No. 75025 September 14, 1993


executive privilege - "the right of the President and high-level

executive branch officers to withhold information from Congress, the

courts, and ultimately the public." (Neri vs Senate Committee G.R. No.

March 25, 2007

Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies - is that courts must
allow administrative agencies to carry out their functions and
discharge their responsibilities within the specialized areas of their
respective competence. (Maglalang vs PAGCOR G.R. No. 190566
December 11, 2013
Expanded jurisdiction - a claim over which the court does not
have original subject matter. ( COMELEC vs Noynay G.R. No. 132365
July 9, 1998
Expatriation - is the voluntary renunciation or abandonment of
nationality and allegiance. (Palanca vs Republic G.R. No. L-301
April 7, 1948
External Sovereignty - Also known as INDEPENDECE, which is
freedom from external control. It is the power of the State to direct its
relations with other States.
(Meritt vs Govt of Phil Islands G.R. No. L-11154
March 21, 1916
Exterritoriality or diplomatic immunity , in international law,
the immunities enjoyed by foreign states or international
organizations and their official representatives from the jurisdiction of
the country in which they are present. (Sec. of Justice vs Lantion G.R.
No. 139465
January 18, 2000
FAIR COMMENT - Fair commentaries on matters of public interest
are privileged and constitute a valid defense in an action for libel or
slander (Borjal vs. CA, 301 SCRA 1)
Finality refers to a rule that a court will not judicially review
an administrative agency'saction until it is final (Mendiola vs Civil
Service Com G.R. No. 100671. April 7, 1993.
Fiscal Autonomy - is a guarantee given by the Constitution to
certain units of the government. It is intended as a guarantee of
separation of powers and of independence from political agencies.
(Prov of Negros Occ vs Commissioners G.R. No. 182574
September 28, 2010
forbidden office - is one to which a member cannot be
appointed even if he is willing to give up his seat in Congress. The
effect of his resignation from the Congress is the loss of his seat
therein but his disqualification for the forbidden office nevertheless
remains. The prohibition lies in the "fiduciary" nature of the
relationship involved. (Zandueta vs Dela Costa G.R. No. L-46267
November 28, 1938
Gerrymandering - the reorganization of voting districts by the
party in power to insure more votes for their candidates (Aldaba vs
COMELEC G.R No. 188078
January 25, 2010
hold-over - The doctrine under which a public officer whose term
has expired or services have been terminated is allowed to continue
holding his office until his successor is appointed or chosen and had

qualified. (Mendoza vs Quisumbing G.R. No. 78053 June 4, 1990

hot pursuit - The exercise of limited jurisdiction over the
contiguous zone and the patrimonial sea, to prevent infringement of
its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary regulations. (People vs
Mahusay G.R. No. 91483 November 18, 1997
immemorial prescription - which speaks of uninterrupted
possession going beyond memory (Roxas vs Case G.R. No. 3544
March 27, 1907
Immutability unchanging over time or unable to be changed
(Mauleon vs Porter G.R. No. 203288
July 18, 2014
Imperium - is the authority possessed by the State embraced in
the concept of sovereignty. (Basco vs PAGCOR G.R. No. 91649
May 14, 1991

Implication - the power to appoint carries with it the power to
remove. As a general rule, therefore, all officers appointed by the
President are also removable by him. (Chua vs CSC G.R. No. 88979
February 7, 1992
implied election Those who electPhilippine citizenship in
accordance with paragraph 3 hereof shall be deemed naturalborn citizens (CO vs HRET G.R. Nos. 92191-92 July 30, 1991

implied municipal liability - A municipality may become
obligated upon an implied contract to pay the reasonable value of the
benefits accepted or appropriated by it as to which it has the general
power to contract [Province of Cebu v. Intermediate Appellate Court,
147 SCRA 447].
implied powers - These powers give the branches of
government flexibility when it comes to carrying out their express
powers. (Republic vs Montano G.R. No. L-28055
October 30,
inappropriate Provision - a provision that is constitutionally
inappropriate for an appropriation bill may be singled out for veto
even if it is not an appropriation or revenue item (Gonzales v.
Macaraig, Jr., 191 SCRA 452)
incorporation - It means that the rules of International
law form part of the law of the land and no legislative action
is required to make them applicable in a country. By this
doctrine, the Philippines is bound by generally accepted
principles ofi nternational law, which are considered to be
automatically part of our own laws. (Taada v. Angara, G.R.

No. 118295, May 2, 1997)

indelible allegiance - The doctrine that an individual may be
compelled to retain his original nationality notwithstanding that he
has already renounced or forfeited it under the laws of the 2nd state
whose nationality he has acquired. (Yamashita vs Styer G.R. No. L129
December 19, 1945
inherent jurisdiction - is a doctrine of the English common
law that a superior court has the jurisdiction to hear any matter that
comes before it, unless a statute or rule limits that authority or
grants exclusive jurisdiction to some other court or tribunal. (Salcedo
vs Hernandez G.R. No. L-44627
December 11, 1935
legal standing to sue on behalf of future generations. Oposa vs
Internal Sovereignty - refers to the power of the State to control
its domestic affairs. It is the supreme power over everything within its
territory. (Peralta vs Diirector of Prisons G.R. No. L-49
12, 1945
judicial admissions - [The] well-settled [doctrine] that judicial
admissions cannot be contradicted by the admitter who is the party
himself and binds the person who makes the same, and absent any
showing that this was made thru palpable mistake, no amount of
rationalization can offset it. [Binarao v. Plus Builders, Inc., GR 154430,
June 16, 2006, 491 SCRA 49, 54].
judicial deference - is the condition of a court yielding or
submitting its judgment to that of another legitimate party, such
as the executive in the case of national defense. (Amandy vs People
G.R. No. 76258 May 23, 1988
judicial stability - even in cases of concurrent jurisdiction, it is, also,
axiomatic that the court first acquiring jurisdiction excludes the other
courts." (Panlilio vs Salonga G.R. No. 113087 June 27, 1994

judicial supremacy - [The doctrine recognizing that] the judiciary
is vested with the power to annul the acts of either the legislative or
the executive or of both when not conformable to the fundamental
law. [Assoc. of Small Landowners v. Sec. of Agrarian Reform, GR
78742. July 14, 1989].
jure gestionis - generally means a nation's acts that are
essentially commercial or private, in contrast to its public acts. (US vs
Ruiz G.R. No. L-35645 May 22, 1985
jure imperii - a state is immune from the jurisdiction of foreign
courts as to its sovereign or public acts (The Holy See vs Rosario G.R.

No. 101949 December 1, 1994

Juris Tantum - a rebuttable presumption (in Latin, praesumptio
iuris tantum) is an assumption made by a court, one that is taken to
be true unless someone comes forward to contest it
and prove otherwise. (Manuel vs People G.R. No. 165842 November
29, 2005
jus cogens - Customary international law has the status of a
peremptory norm of international law, accepted and recognized by
the international community of states as a rule from which no
derogation is permitted. (Bayan Muna vs Romulo G.R. No. 159618
February 1, 2011
Jus Postliminium - providing for the invalidity of all illegitimate
acts that an occupant may have performed on a given territory after
its recapture by the legitimate sovereign.
(Laurel vs Misa G.R. No. L-409
January 30, 1947
jus sanguinis - is a principle of nationality law by which
citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or
both parents who are citizens of the state. (Poe-Llamanzares vs
jus soli - right of the soil', commonly referred to as birthright
citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to
nationality or citizenship. (Cordora vs COMELEC G.R. No. 176947
February 19, 2009
laissez faire - The repudiation of the laissez faire doctrine is
reiterated in Association of Philippine Coconut Desiccators v.
Philippine Coconut Authority, G.R. No. 110526, February 10, 1998,
where it was held that although the 1987 Constitution enshrines free
enterprise as a policy, it nevertheless reserves to the Government the
power to intervene whenever necessary to promote the general
welfare, as reflected in Secs. 6 and 19, Art. XII.
legislative purpose - first announced in Kilbourn vs. Thomposon,
103 US 168 (1880), has steadily declined in value as a limitation on
the congressional power of investigation, until today it is used only as
a counterweight to individual rights
lex posterior derogat priori - Statutory interpretation is the
process by which courts interpret and apply legislation. Some amount
of interpretation is often necessary when a case involves a statute
[Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, January 18, 2000,
lis pendens - Lat. A pending suit. The jurisdiction, power or
control which a court acquires over the property involved in a suit
pending the continuance of the action and until final judgment
thereunder. (Lim vs Vera Cruz G.R. No. 143646
April 4, 2001

local autonomy - A liberal interpretation of the zoning power of
city and municipal boards and councils, as to include the power to
accordingly reclassify the lands within the zones, would be in accord
with the avowed legislative intent behind the Local Autonomy Act of
1959, which was to increase the autonomy of local governments.
AND SONS, INC., G.R. No. 131481, March 16, 2011
locus standi - is the ability of a party to demonstrate to the
court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action
challenged to support that party's participation in the case. (Imbong
vs Ochoa G.R. No. 204819
April 8, 2014
mare liberum - ). The freedom to use the worlds marine waters
is one of the oldest customary principles of international law. (Arigo vs
Swift G.R. No. 206510
September 16, 2014
Miranda - is a set of rights applicable to police detainees.
(People vs Mojelo G.R. No. 145566
March 9, 2004
MONSANTO DOCTRINE - One who is given pardon has no
demandable right to reinstatement. He may however be reappointed.
(US vs MOntecillo G.R. No. 4317
August 18, 1908
Mootness - a matter is moot if further legal proceedings with
regard to it can have no effect, or events have placed it beyond the
reach of the law. Thereby the matter has been deprived of practical
significance or rendered purely academic. (Mendoza vs Villas G.R. No.
February 23, 2011
Naturalization - admit (a foreigner) to the citizenship of a
country. (Chu vs Republic G.R. No. L-3265
November 29, 1950
Negative-opposite - what is expressed puts an end to what is
No. L-31364, March 30, 1979
Nondelegation - describes the theory that one branch of
government must not authorize another entity to exercise the power
or function which it is constitutionally authorized to exercise itself.
(Agustin vs Edu G.R. No. L-49112 February 2, 1979

NON-INTERFERENCE - Regarded as an elementary principle of
higher importance in the administration of justice that the judgment
of a court of competent jurisdiction may not be opened, modified, or
vacated by any court of concurrent jurisdiction (30-A Am Jur 605).
Nonsuability - The doctrine of state immunity is sometimes
derisively called the "royal prerogative of dishonesty" because of the
privilege it grants the state to defeat any legitimate claim against it
by simply invoking its non-suability (Republic vs Feliciano G.R. No.

70853 March 12, 1987

one Supreme Court - according the United States v Limsiongco,
41 Phil 94 (1920), the divisions of the SC do not diminish its authority,
because although it sits in divisions, it remains and co-functions as
one body. This "one Supreme Court" doctrine is strengthened by the
provision that "when the required number (in a division) is not
obtained, the case shall be decided en banc: provided, that no
doctrine or principle of law laid down by the court in a decision
rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except
by the court sitting en banc.
open-court - which holds that civilians cannot be tried by
military courts if the civil courts are open and functioning. But if the
civil courts are not functioning, then civilians can be tried by the
military courts. (Republic vs Oribello G.R. No. 199501
6, 2013
operative fact - the law is recognized as unconstitutional but the
effects of the unconstitutional law, prior to its declaration of
nullity, may be left undisturbed as a matter of equity and fair play. In
fact, the invocation of the operative fact doctrine is an admission that
the law is unconstitutional. (Chavez vs JBC G.R. No. 202242
July 17, 2012
overbreadth - permits a party to challenge the validity of a
statute even though, as applied to him, it is not unconstitutional, but
it might be if applied to others not before the Court whose activities
are constitutionally protected. (Romualdez vs COMELEC G.R. NO.
April 30, 2008
pacta sunt servanda - According to Tanada v. Angara, 272
SCRA 18 (1997), the sovereignty of the Philippines is subject to
restriction by its membership in the family of nations and the
limitations imposed of treaty limitations.
par in parem non habet imperium - The Head of State, who is
deemed the personification of the State, is inviolable, and thus, enjoys
immunity from suit. (Arigo vs Swift G.R. No. 206510
September 16, 2014
parens patriae - (father of his country). The doctrine [referring]
to the inherent power and authority of the state to provide protection
of the person and property of a person non sui juries. Under that
doctrine, the state has the sovereign power of guardianship over
persons under disability. (People vs Cawili G.R. No. L-30543 July 15,

pari delicto Latin for "in equal fault (better is the condition of
the possessor)", is a legal term used to indicate that two persons or

entities are equally at fault, whether the malfeasance in question is a

crime or tort. (Evangelista vs People G.R. No. 89319 October 12, 1993
passive personality - State exercises jurisdiction over crimes
against its own nationals even if committed outside its territory. This
principle may be resorted to if the others are not applicable. (LA
January 27, 2004
People Power - political pressure exercised through the public
demonstration of popular opinion. (Marcos vs Manglapus G.R. No.
88211 September 15, 1989
Perpetual infallibility - continuous ; enduring; lasting; (SJS
Officers vs Lim G.R. No. 187836
November 25, 2014
Pith and Substance - . The basic purpose of this doctrine is to
determine under which head of power or field i.e. under which list
(given in the Seventh Schedule) a given piece of legislation falls. (ITFP
vs COMELEC G.R. No. 159139
January 13, 2004
plain view - is usually applied where the police officer is not
searching for evidence against the accused, but nonetheless
inadvertently comes upon an incriminating object [People v. Musa,
217 SCRA 597].
political question - [The] well-settled doctrine that political
questions are not within the province of the judiciary, except to the
extent that power to deal with such questions has been conferred
upon the courts by express constitutional or statutory provisions.
[Taada v. Cuenco, GR L-10520, Feb. 28, 1957].
prejudicial question - The doctrine [that] comes into play
generally in a situation where civil and criminal actions are pending
and the issues involved in both cases are similar or so closely related
that an issue must be pre-emptively resolved in the civil case before
the criminal action can proceed. Thus, the existence of a prejudicial
question in a civil case is alleged in the criminal case to cause the
suspension of the latter pending final determination of the former.
[Quiambao v. Osorio, GR L-48157 Mar. 16, 1988].
Presidential veto - The power of a president or governor to reject
a bill proposed by a legislature by refusing to sign it into law
(Philconsa vs Enriquez G.R. No. 113105 August 19, 1994
President's immunity from suit - In a resolution in Carillo v
Marcos, (April 1981) and in the latest case of In re Bermudez (October
1986), the Court said that it is "elementary that incumbent Presidents
are immune from suit or from being brought to court during the period
of their incumbency and tenure."

PRIMARY ADMINISTRATIVE - Where there is competence or

jurisdiction vested upon administrative body to act upon a matter, no

resort to courts may be made before such administrative body shall
have acted upon the matter. (Republic vs Sandiganbayan G.R. No.
89425 February 25, 1992
primary jurisdiction - prior recourse to the House is necessary
before petitioners may bring the instant case to the court. (Bank of
Commerce vs Planters Bank G.R. Nos. 154470-71
24, 2012
PRIOR RESORT - Where there is competence or jurisdiction
vested upon administrative body to act upon a matter, no resort to
courts may be made before such administrative body shall have acted
upon the matter. (Quintos vs NSF G.R. No. L-37052 November 29,
privileged communication - [The doctrine] that utterances made
in the course of judicial proceedings, incl. all kinds of pleadings,
petitions and motions, belong to the class of communications that are
absolutely privileged. [US v. Salera, 32 Phil. 365].
pro reo - When in doubt, rule for the accused (BOngalon vs
People G.R. No. 169533
March 20, 2013
Progressive Interpretation - This means that the Constitution
cannot be interpreted in the same way as an ordinary statute. Rather,
it must be read within the context of society to ensure that it adapts
and reflects changes. (Garcia vs CA G.R. No. L-35234 May 26, 1977

proper submission - All the proposed amendments to the Consti.
shall be presented to the people for the ratification or rejection at the
same time, not piecemeal. (Gonzales vs COMELEC G.R. No. L28196
November 9, 1967
proportional representation - an electoral system in which
parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them.
(Cunanan vs Tan G.R. No. L-19721
May 10, 1962
Protective Sweep- n conjunction with an in-home arrest when
the searching officer possesses a reasonable belief based on specific
and articulable facts that the area to be swept harbors an individual
posing a danger to those on the arrest scene.
(LCP vs COMELEC G.R. No. 176951
Public Fisc - asserting that all monies received from whatever
source by any part of the government are public funds; (Araullo vs
Aquino G.R. No. 209287
July 1, 2014
purposeful hesitation - [The doctrine that charges every court,
including ths Sup. Court,] with the duty of a purposeful hesitation
before declaring a law unconstitutional, on the theory that the
measure was first carefully studied by the executive and legislative
departments and determined by them to be in accordance with the

fundamental law before it was finally approved. [Drilon v. Lim, 235

SCRA 135 (1994)].
Qualified Political Agency - The doctrine which holds that, as the
Pres. cannot be expected to exercise his control powers all at the
same time and in person, he will have to delegate some of them to his
Cabinet members, who in turn and by his authority, control the
bureaus and other offices under their respective jurisdictions in the
executive department. [Carpio v. Exec. Sec., GR 96409. Feb. 14,
quo warranto a writ or legal action requiring a person to show
by what warrant an office or franchise is held, claimed, or exercised.
(Casin vs Caluag G.R. No. L-1939
April 19, 1948
Ratification - is the official way to confirm something, usually by
vote. It is the formal validation of a proposed law. (Ortega vs Tan G.R.
No. L-44617 January 23, 1990

rebus sic stantibus - is the legal doctrine allowing for treaties to
become inapplicable because of a fundamental change of
circumstances. (Saguisag vs Ochoa G.R. No. 212426

Regalian Doctrine - private title to land must be traced to some
grant, express or implied, from the Spanish Crown or its successors,
the American Colonial Government, and thereafter, the Philippine
Republic (DENR vs Yap G.R. No. 167707
October 8, 2008
Repatriation - is the process of returning a person - voluntarily to his or her place of origin or citizenship (Sameer vs Cabiles G.R. No.
August 5, 2014
res judicata - The doctrine [that] has 2 aspects. The first is the
effect of a judgment as a bar to the prosecution of a second action
upon the same claim, demand or cause of action. The second aspect
is that it precludes the relitigation of a particular fact or issues in
another action between the same parties on a different claim or cause
of action. [Lopez v. Reyes, GR L-29498, Mar. 31, 1977, 76 SCRA 179].
ripeness for judicial review - This [doctrine] determines the point
at which courts may review administrative action. The basic principle
of ripeness is that the judicial machinery should be conserved for
problems which are real and present or imminent and should not be
squandered on problems which are future, imaginary or remote.
[Mamba v. Lara, GR 165109, Dec. 14, 2009].
separation of powers - A basic postulate that forbids one branch
of government to exercise powers belonging to another co-equal
branch; or for one branch to interfere with the others performance of
its constitutionally-assigned functions. [Velasco, Jr., concurring op.,
Neri v. Senate Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and

Investigations, GR 180643, Mar. 25, 2007].

severability - provides that if an enactment cannot be saved by
construing it consistent with its constitutionality, it may be seen
whether it can be partly saved (Gonzales vs Climax Mining G.R. No.
January 22, 2007
SHIFTING MAJORITY - For each House of Congress to pass a bill,
only the votes of the majority of those present in the session, there
being a quorum, is required. (Vera vs Avelino G.R. No. L-543
August 31, 1946
stare decisis - the legal principle of determining points in
litigation according to precedent. (Lazatin vs Desierto G.R. No. 147097
June 5, 2009
State Continuity - The state continues as a juristic being
notwithstanding changes in its circumstances, provided only that such
changes do not result in the loss of any of its essential elements. The
78 U.S. 164 (1870)

State immunity - The doctrine of state immunity is sometimes
derisively called the "royal prerogative of dishonesty" because of the
privilege it grants the state to defeat any legitimate claim against it
by simply invoking its non-suability (US vs Guinto G.R. No. 76607
February 26, 1990

state responsibility - is a rule of substantive law that establishes
liability and, by this account, cannot be a proper legal basis to
implead a party-respondent in an amparo petition. IN THE MATTER OF
MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, et al., G.R. No. 189155, September 07, 2010
statelessness - A stateless person is someone who is "not
considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law"
Poe-Llamanzares vs Comelec G.R. No. 221697
statistical improbabilities xpresses the totalprobability of an
outcome which can be realized via several distinct events (Estaniel vs
Comelec G.R. No. L-33453 November 29, 1971

Stimson Doctrine - No recognition of a government established
through external aggression. (Bayan Muna vs Romulo G.R. No.
February 1, 2011

sub judice - rule restricts comments and disclosures pertaining

to judicial proceedings to avoid prejudging the issue, influencing the

court, or obstructing the administration of justice, the CA reminded
the parties. (Orellano vs Alvestir G.R. No. L-22412 April 29, 1977
supervening event - The accused may still be prosecuted for
another offense if a subsequent development changes the character
of the first indictment under which he may have already been charged
or convicted. (Abrigo vs Flores G.R. No. 160786
June 17,
Territoriality - is a principle of public international law under
which a sovereign state can prosecute criminal offences that are
committed within its borders (Isetan Co vs IAC G.R. No. L-75420
November 15, 1991
Thalweg - For boundary rivers, in the absence of an agreement
between the riparian States, the boundary line is laid on the middle of
the main navigable channel. Oregon, 211 U.S. 127 (1908),
Tobar doctrine - precludes recognition of any government
established by revolutionary means until constitutional reorganization
by free election of representatives.
Transcendental importance - is a matter of procedure, can be
relaxed for nontraditional plaintiffs like ordinary citizens, taxpayers
and legislators when the public interest so requires (Lozano vs
Nograles G.R. No. 187883
June 16, 2009
Transformation - requires the enactment by the legislative body
of such international law principles as are sought to be part of
municipal law. See: Laguna Lake Development Authority vs. Court of
Appeals, 231SCRA 292
ultimate consumption - Goods intended for civilian use which
may ultimately find their way to and be consumed by belligerent
forces may be seized on the way. (UNDERSTANDING ON THE
Unequal Treaties - Treaties which have been imposed (through
coercion or duress) by a State of unequal character (Province of North
Cotabato vs Government G.R. No. 183591
October 14,
Universality is a theological and philosophical concept
with universal application (La Insular vs Tauco G.R. No. L-13307
February 3, 1919
uti possidetis - is a principle in international law that territory
and other property remains with its possessor at the end of a conflict,
unless otherwise provided for by treaty ( Valencia vs.Mabilangan G.R.
No. L-13059. January 31, 1959,

visible tendency the government will have the capacity to
restrict certain speech if it can prove that a speech will have a
tendency to cause or incite illegal activities. (Zaldivar vs
Sandiganbayan G.R. No. 79690-707 February 1, 1989

Willful blindness - deliberate avoidance of knowledge of a
crime, especially by failing to make a reasonable inquiry about
suspected wrongdoing, despite being aware that it is highly probable.
People v. Gloria Kintanar
Wilson - recognition shall not be extended to any government
established by revolution or internal violence until the freely elected
representatives of the people have organized a constitutional
government. (FDCM vs Wilson G.R. No. 2684
March 15,