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Properties of Technical Writing
1. ACCURACY- In technical writing means the use of precise words, coherent
sentences, well-developed paragraphs and a balanced report.
2. EMPHASIS- Main point; separates major from minor issues
3. DIGNITY- It refers to terms used in technical writing conveying formality.
Ideas are well-thought of and translated into writing using succinct words.
There is an air of authority, of credibility in the work. Contracting words is
sacrilege because it takes away the dignity in words.
4. BREVITY - Means a concise, straight-to-the-point type of writing.
Information is delivered without mincing words and zeroes in on the subject
5. COHERENCE - Refers to the logical agreement of sentences, paragraphs
and groups of paragraphs. Transition from one thought to the next is done
smoothly and consistently throughout the written work.
6. FACILITY - Makes report easy to read and understand. It depends on
pacing, sequence, arrangement and continuity.
7. JUDGMENT- The quality information gathered and collected by considering
its ampleness, relevance, simplicity and collaboration with the rest of the
8. UNITY- It refers to the oneness of the details and facts in the report.
9. HONESTY - Acknowledge borrowed statements
10. ILLUSTRATION- Employ illustration to concretize either thoughts or ideas.
11. CONFIDENCE -is being an authority on the subject of your report. you
yourself must have a solid conviction in your report; readers will sense sign
credibility problem
12. GRAMMATICAL CORRECTNESS -This is critical, not only in technical
writing, but also in other writing activities. Incorrect grammar is the bump
that disturbs the smooth flow of words and ideas in any written work. Your
target readers are presumed to be aware of the basic rules in grammar and if
they see that you are not taking that into consideration, they would be
disappointed. If that happens, you lose your readers and you become less
13. KNOWLEDGE -limited for a mere collection of data or information
because it involves analysis, interpretation and formulation of conclusion.
14. MECHANICAL NEATNESS -Appearance of the report, perfect in shape.

15. NORMAL PROCEDURE- Follow acceptable arrangement of the different

parts of a report.
16. OBJECTIVITY- Third person point of view is preferred.
17. QUALIFICATION- Choose statements that have direct relationship to the
topic being discussed.
18. REVISION- More than checking spelling, punctuation marks, spacing and
margins, it cater to the diction, organization of ideas and subject fully treated
or not.
19. STRAIGHT SENTENCES - Sentences must be limited to only one idea or
two closely related ideas.
20. THOROUGHNESS- Writer must treat well his subject matter
and objectives are realized.
21. WORD CHOICE- employ fitted words to the readers ability and
22. VERACITY - Based on facts
23. ZEST - Enjoy writing
24. ETHICALITY- use word professionally
Kinds of Technical Literature

Proposals- Suggestions for action, usually involving change or performance.

It may be:
-to solve a problem;
-bid for a grant o contract;
-suggest new project sites;
-revise policy;
-initiate a research project or
terminate a project.
Shift Records- These are equivalent to "time and motion" records which
specify the time and mode of work of employees in an organization.
These are commonly used in:
-Military Services

Contracts- These are formal agreements between two or more parties to do

something on mutually agreed terms.

Market Projection- A market scheme or plan predicting profits based on

known evidences and observations.
This is usually used by:

Shipping Orders- These may come in printed form, digital form or letters. In
a shipping company they may refer to directives or instructions that must be
obeyed by officers in ranks or to a commission to produce or supply
something in return for payment.

Feasibility Report- An examination of the advantages and disadvantages of a

proposal. it relies on analysis and persuasion and attempts to answer:
Can it be done?
Should it be done?
It should present the following:
-All relevant data
-Calculate the probability of success
-and recommend an action or further study of the problem.

Design Evaluation- It assesses the value of a design in the following fields:

-and other related fields

Meeting Minutes- It is a formal record of the minutes of the meeting or a

conference describing what transpired during the session.

Conference Report- A summary of a business of a professional meeting,

stating the:
-and personnel of the meeting
as well as any results.
This may sometimes be called "Minutes of the meeting or Conference".

Survey Report- A thorough study of any subject like:

-Potential markets for products
-Labor policies
-Market penetration
-Public opinion
-Community resources

Letter Report or Memo Report- These are reports in every respect that the
subject heading substitute for a title page.
-should make use of headings and subheadings when appropriate;
-should state authorization, purpose and scope;
-are more formal than standard correspondence;
-are carefully typed

Policy- A plan of action adopted and pursued by:

-an individual
-business and industry
It may also be a document containing a contract of insurance.

Complaint Report- A critical assessment of action, policy, procedure or

person. It usually recommends an alternative or adjustments.

Status Report or Project Report- Similar to progress report, the only

difference is the "time covered". It describes the status of a project at a
particular time usually, the present.
It also describes the condition of:
Personnel may be evaluated on the basis of their works.

Progress Report- An account of what has been accomplished on a project

over a specific period of time and what may be expected in the next period.
It may include changes in procedures and adjustments in schedules.
Some progress reports record personal or professional development as in
psychotherapy personnel evaluation.

Trip Report- An account of a business or professional trips. It records specific

and significant:
It attempts to answer the following:
It may have recommendation section.

Laboratory Report- A record of procedures and results of laboratory tests.

-It describes the following:
-scope of a project;
-equipment utilized;
-procedures used;
-results of tests;
-any conclusions and recommendations.

Instruction Manual- Directions for work procedures and policies, or for use
of technical equipment and appliances.
-Instruction relies on the following:
-complete directions in sequential order
Descriptions of complicated step-by-step procedures should be accompanied
by drawings.

Printed Action Memo- This requires only a check mark in an appropriate

square to indicate their message. Sometimes, longer ones require filling in
blanks or answering specific questions. Short ones are usually handwritten,
longer ones are typed for courtesy.

Summary Reports- These highlights facts and figures. They're usually semi
technical and armed at a broad non specialist audience. Often, they are
illustrated and they may have tables and appendices.

Technical Paper- Written for a professional journal or magazine. Usually

describes a theory or new development. Audience in a technical paper is
larger and more diverse.

Monograph- a long article or a short book on a particular subject. Thorough

textbook treatment requires full illustration and documentation.

Production Order- A technical derivative of the manufacture of goods and

services with exchange value.

Technical Paper- Written for a professional journal or magazine. Usually

describes a theory or new development. Audience in a technical paper is
larger and more diverse.

Five Basic Principles of Good Technical Writing

1. Always have in mind a specific reader, real or imaginary, when writing a
report; and always
assume that this reader is intelligent, but uninformed.

2. Before you start to write, always decide what the exact purpose of your
report is, and make sure that every paragraph, every sentence, every word,
makes a clear contribution to that purpose, and makes it at the right time.
3. Use language that is simple, concrete, and familiar.
4. At the beginning and end of every section of your report check your
writing according to this principles: First you tell your readers what you are
going to tell them, and then you tell them what have told them.
5. Make your report attractive to look at.

Role of Technical Writer

What is a technical Writer?
A technical writer is a professional writer who produces technical
documentation that helps people understand and use a product or service.
This documentation includes online help, manuals (system, end-user,
training), white papers, design specifications, project plans, test plans,
business correspondence, etc.
What are the skills of a Technical Writer?
-Excellent technical writing ability
-Ability to understand complex technical concepts and to translate them into
user-friendly procedures
-Ability to create concise Help Files that are delivered as part of the
-Ability to obtain technical details from Developers, Testers, and Product
Owners and to document those details in a way that is easily understood by
End Users and support personnel
-Ability to adhere to corporate documentation standards. If those standards
don't already exist, this role should be able to write those standards and
communicate them to the development team
-A strong understand of the domain in which the features are being
Role of a Technical Writer in Organizations

What is Product Documentation ?

It regards providing documentation about the product for a product
owner and their constituents to be able to manage the merchandise during
its development and after the project is completed.
It is created for the benefit of the marketing arm of an organization,
the program manager, and those people who must assess the business value
of a particular system.
This is an often overlooked aspect of development team
implementation. The team should consider that the customers of a particular
release usually are not technical themselves, but do require a detailed
enough understanding of how their product operates and how it meets
stated business goals and needs.
What is Support Documentation?
It is made to inform the different levels of a support organization enough
information so they can effectively support the application. Support
documentation usually is developed for the three common tiers of a support
Tier 1- the Help Desk where users call when they have a problem with
a particular system.
Tier 2 - Support Personnel may deal with more complex questions or
issues regarding an application.
Tier 3- Support personnel who have a deeper understanding of the
application's code and the technology support the system's architecture.
To properly convey the necessary information to each support tier, the
application's code base should be well commented and logically organized.

This approach will facilitate the development of the support documentation.

What is User Documentation?
User documentation might include all or parts of user manuals (electronic or
paper-based), tutorials, frequently asked questions (FAQs), on-line Help Files,
installation instructions, work instructions, operational procedures, etc.
The New Components of Technical Writing
Technical writer is increasingly seeing his role expand with all the latest
technology available today. The majority of these new products are a result
of the growth of the internet. A technical writer who can keep up-to-speed
with all this new technology will give them a significant advantage over other
technical writers.
The role of a technical writer has expanded to include the following:
-Email Marketing
-Online Surveys
-Websites that could include landing pages, sales pages and auto responders
-Ezine Newsletters
-Online Forums
-Online Product Descriptions
-Online Catalogues and Brochures
-Social Media Administration (Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest etc)
-Article Writing.
What is the importance of technical writing?
Technical writing is written communication in fields with specialized
vocabularies, such as engineering, health, science and technology. It is
communicating about technical or specialized topics or providing instructions
about how to do something.
The purpose of technical writing includes completing projects and persuading
customers among other possible internal practices. According to Gerald J.
Alred writes in the "Handbook of Technical Writing," "The goal of technical
writing is to enable readers to use a technology or understand a process or
concept. Because the subject matter is more important than the writer's

voice, technical writing style uses an objective, not a subjective, tone."

This made Alred conclude that the style of technical writing is one that is
purposeful and direct and that technical writers should emphasize concision
and clarity above an stylistic flourishes or verbal embellishments. For Alred,
technical writing should make use of figurative language only when it
promotes greater understanding for the reader.
-Good technical writing is focused, concise and free of errors
-The main focus of technical writers is to make their documents sound as
clear as possible without the use of overly technical language
-Consumer products
-Industrial environment
The importance of technical writing can be seen in a variety of applications,
both in consumer products as well as the industrial environment. Without
clear, precise writing that outlines the specifications and directions for use,
products can become meaningless at best and dangerous at worst. Technical
writing provides a context to products and processes, and allows them to be
used safely and as intended. While it may not be impossible to construct and
use equipment and processes without reading the technical documents,
technical writing provides some assurances that the product is being used as