Organised ,i1 a enng in I·.

ia

cr ~Econmic Impacl'

( I Study of the []'olhi MUk Scbeme in N.W. Raiasthan 1

J. L JAIN

Dr. AWADH PAASoQ.D <.;OP1 INA.TH G UPl"A

, uma1rappa Institute of Gram S - 1,I'ra:

B-190. University margo Bapunagar JAIPUR-3101201115

-

"The project. on which the present report is based, was funded by tbe lndian Council of Socia) Science Research, However, the responsibility for the facts stated opinions expressed, and conclusions reached is entirely that of the project director and not of the Indian Council of Soci al Scie nee Research.

Publishers:

Ku marappa Institute of gram Swaraj 8·190, UniversitY Marg, Bapu N~gar.

J AIPU R -302015

FIRST EDITION

STUDY TEAMS oJ. L. Jain

Or. Awadh Pres ad Goplneth Gupta

1982

RESEARCH ASSISTANTS Gcrdhan Kalla

Kheme Ram

PRICE Rs. ao/~

PrillfAd 8v -:

POPlilA'R PRINTERS NAWAB HAVELI~ ''I1IItPOtM IWR.:

J A I PUR.

PREFACE

The Agro-Economic Research Centre of Vallabh V idyanagar (Gujarat) carried out a study on "Problems and Prospects of dairy enterprise in the desert area" in 1966. Dr. V. S. Vyas. the then Director of the Centre and at present member of our Institute suggested a further & comparative study of the problem after the lapse of a decade. Shri S. R. Dhadda. the President of the Institute was of opinion that since the Delhi Milk Scheme had been functioning in Bikaner district for the last fifteen years, it would be desirable to combine with it the study of the socio-economic impacts of large scale milk marketing in the area.

Both the suggestions were accepted and an outline of the project called "Socio-Economic Impact of large scale Milk marketing in N.W. Rajasthan" was prepared and sent to the Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi. The Council approved it and the work was started in Feb. 1976. The study took more time than scheduled and was completed by the end of October next year.

An Advisory Committee was formed which consisted of the following members :-

1 . Shri Siddbraj Dhadda,

President, K umarappa Gram Swaraj Sansthan, Jaipur.

Director Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.

Dy. Director, Agro. Economic Research Centre, Patel Vallabh Vidyanagar (Gujrat), Chief, Dairy Econom-ics, National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal.

2. Dr. V.S. Vyas

3. Shri Mahendra Desai

4. Shri R.K. Patel

7. Dr. N.K. Singhi

Associate Professor, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Hyderabad.

Research Officer, Agro Econo~' mic Research Centre. VaHabh Vidyanagar J Gujrat.

Professor. Sociology, Rajasthan University, Jaipur,

Secretary - Director, Kumarappa Gram Swaraj Sansthan, Jaipur.

S. Dr. N.S. lodha

6. Shri K.M. Chowdhary

8. Shri Jawahirlal Jain

All the members of the Committee were helpful with, their suggestions and comments. We are specially thankful to Dr. Vyas who not only gave his suggestions from time to time .. but also wrote the Foreword to their book. He always has been an inspiration. Shri K. M. Choudhary, stayed with us for a few days and fully discussed the working of' the' project and offered some suggestions on the first draft. Dr. Awadh Prasad met Dr. 'Patel who suggested valuable guidelines for-the project. Dr. Singhi, being available at hand in Jaipur, was often consulted.

Shri K.C. Pandey of the Social Science Centre. Research Rajasthan University took keen interest in this study and gave very useful suggestions regarding its methodology. Dr. Devi Singh Saraswat, Director of the Dairy Department extended his cooperation to us, as was done by Sbri Bbatnagar incharge of the D. M. S. Office in 8ikaner ... Equally helpful was the Bikaner office of the Urmul. The Tehsiland Block Officers of Loonkaransar were quite cooperative. We should specially acknowledge the hearty cooperation, we received fro.pl the village people and the surveyed' families of

. . '

aU the six vi1l~ges, wb:ich enabled us to gather necessary informa-

tion:and'data.-~from tbemin-time. /

Jaipur', .. 2O.December-, 1981

Jawahirlal Jain

S ecretary-Direc tor

FOREWORD

Dairying is generally assumed to be a profitable complementary activity to agriculture. Particularly in arid areas where scope for cultivation is limited and grazing facUities are more' extensive, dairying emelges as the mainstay of rurat households, Factors affecting productivity and profitability of dairying enterprise are of great importance for the inhabitants of these areas. U is in this content that this study of the socio-economic impact of the Delhi Milk Scheme (OMS) in some parts of north-western Rajasthan has a clear' releva nee.

·The organ'izationof dalrventerpnses has undergone signifi .. cant changes in the arid regions of' Rajasthan in recent years. Because of increasing pressure of the population On land. mUability of open grazing areas is fast declining and the size of the herd is becominq steadily smaller. A more recent deveIbpmenljsthe emergenc'e of a large market for liquid milk with the efforts of first, the DMS andlater, of the organization of Uttar Rajasthan Milk Producers Union (URMUl). The impact 'of these two very important changes are clearly documented in this study.

i

the authors have taken advantage 01 an earlier benchmark survey conducted in the same region some 10 years ago by the Agro~Economic Research Centre (AERC), Vatlabh Vidyanagar. In the present study two of the AERC villages which were covered by the OMS are included as also four more viJfages. Two of these were covered by the URMUL while the other two villages did not have the advantages of cooperative or institutional marketing arrangements. Thus, the design of the study enables one to have an idea of the impact of organized milk marketing on dairy enterprises.

Some of the findings of this carefully researched study need special mention. The _ study reveals that households owning milch cattle add substantially to their annual cash incomes. There is also no monotonic relationship between the sizes of the herd and agricultural holding or, for that matter, between the size of the herd and income per animal. This means that small farmers are not particu larly handicapped in pursuing dairy activity. The dairy farmers covered by the organised milk schemes benefit more than those who have to rely on private venders. The per capita consumption of milk in areas covered by the milk marketing institutions is not lower if anything it is higher-than the per capita milk consumption of dairy farmers in areas not covered by such institutions. The fear that dairy farmers will deprive themselves of milk consumption in order to earn higher income thus seems to be misplaced.

The study has also brought to light some disquieting features. In spite of an assured market for milk, and provision of some inputs and services by the 0 MS and UR MUll the per litre cost of production of milk in constant prices seems to be rising. This finding needs a closer scrutiny, because a number" of other studies have also indicated 8 similar trend. The future prosperity of dairy industry will lie in reducing the unit cost of production on an expanded production base. If this does not happen the poor in the country are not going to benefit from the expansion of organized marketing of liquid milk.

ij

Another aspect of dairying which needs immediate attention is the technology and economics of ghee making. I n areas which are not covered by organized dairies a large amount of milk is converted into ghee. As a result large quantities of buttermilk is available even to those who do not own milch cattle. On the other hand, with the present technology and price regime, the returns from ghee are distinctly lower than the returns from the sale of liquid milk. Therefore. as soon as the opportunity to sell milk in liquid form, arises. dafry farmers stop making gheh, which. in turn affects the availability of buttermilk. Some way must be found to improve technology of ghee manufacture. Also, the price of ghee in relation to the price of liquid milk needs a close examination.

These and several other interesting facets of the dairy economics of an arid region are clearly brought out by this study. Studies of this type are essential for proper understanding of the changing scene in rural India.

Ahmedabad December 1; 1981

Vijay Shankar Vyas

..

iii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I The Background of the Study : 1
Its objectives scope &
met hodo logy.
CHAPTER II: livestock Structure in Bikaner 2
CHAPTER III : Structure of Organised Milk- 23
marketing Agencies
CHAPTER IV Milk Production: Cost Sale 38
Price : Profit & Loss
CHAPTER V Economic Impact of the Orqa- 95
, nised Milk-marketing
CHAPTER VI : Socia I Impact 118
CHAPTER VII : Concluding remarks. 143 Chapter I

THE BACKGROUND OF STUDY-ITS OBJECTIVES, SCOPE & METHODOLOGY

Geo- physical features :

The north-west arid zone of Rajasthan, known as the Great Thar Desert, is marked by adverse physical agro-climatic conditions and frequently recurring famines due to extremely low, erratic and uneven rainfall. The scarcity of water resources has made this region very inhospitable and desolate, In such areas, where availability of water is very much limited, scarcity conditions are a recurring feature and by its very nature chances of economic development are poor and limited and only livestock farming offers some significant potential for the development of this region. Because of the superior breed of cattle found here and the growth of perennial and high yielding nutritious varieties of grass like sewan, dhaman, garmana and karad, which are well adapted to the environmental hazards of this zone, milch animal rearing presents immense employment opportunities to the people. The biological make-up of the desert animals has made them capable of withstanding the hard conditions obtaining here and the habit of seasonal mobility of the animals alongwith the nomadic nature of a large section of its population accounts for the development of cattle-breeding in this area. In brief, under the present climatic and social conditions .. this region is more suited to animal-husbandry than to crop farming. Stock breeding offers local people more opportunities for sustenance than what they can get from agriculture and other avocations.

Bikaner district .covers nearly 13% of the arid zone area of Rajasthan. The density of population is very low giving an average of 16 persons per sq. krn. The annual rainfall is about 291 mm with

17 as average rainy days in a year. High day temperatures in summer. high evapotranspiration, low waterholding capacity. sandy soils having high concentration of soluable salts, and susceptibility to wind erosion and poor vegetation are the characteristics of this region; yet whatever little natural vegetation is obtained .. it consists of some draught-hardy trees, shrubs and some perennial grasses which have a great bearing on the very life of the people living in this otherwise inhospitable region.

Live-Stock Farming: Main Source of livelihood.

As mentioned above, most of the region in this district, barring a part of its south-eastern side and canal-covered area. which is very small and limited, is fit for animal grazing and. as a matter of fact; unsuitable for crop-raising. Still a large portion of the geographical area in this district is used for Kharif crop farming and wherever rain god favours the helpless population of this region, it helps them raise sufficient quantities of bajra and moth, the staple food of the area. which lasts two to three years but such of "Zamana' (good harvest termed in their local dialect) years are very few-rather rare and uncommon, A beginning has been made in canal irrigation, but u ptil now it has made very little impact on the growth of agriculture in this area. Provision of optimum irrigation facilities seems to be somewhat distant goal particularly in this area.

Thus livestock raising in general. and milch animal rearing in particular. plays and is likely to play for many more decades a vital role in the economy of this region. Milch animal rearing has always been an important occupation for almost all the people residing in this area and milk and ghee have remained the main source of protein in dietry pattern of the people of th e region. and some cash income as well. Jt also provides full occupation to them all the year round. With the functioning of the organised milk schemes in the area - particularly since 1962 when n.M.S. started its activities, rearing of milch animals has become a more important and major economic activity for a large section of the population in this region providing them an

2 ]

indep-endent as well as supplimentary source of livelihood. It has also helped them a lot in increasing and stabilising their income by providing them fairly high prices of milk and regular marketing facilities in comparision to private traders Thus it may reasonab1y be concluded that the organised m ilk marketing schemes have played and are going to play a positive role in changing the old economic structure and social outlook of the cattle-breeders of the area and it is very important to study this change with a view to assess the socio-economic impact of such organised milk marketing schemes on the village economy and social life of the people.

Natiollal Live-Stoek Ceulus &: A'Vailability of Cattle milk.

It will not be inappropriate here to mention that according to Live .. Stock Census-Ivoo, India possesses about 229 million bovines which form nearly one-fifth of the total bovine population of the world and thus ranks first "in terms of the number of bovines of the world but in spite of the number; the annual milk production is a little over 20 million tonnes. The productivity of milch animals is extremely low, perhaps one of the lowest in the world i.e. 1)7 kg. per milch cattle in a year, (See B.B.P.S. Goel ... Bovine Milk production in India during 1966 and its per capita availability), whereas it is 3875 Kg. in Denmark, 4001 Kg. in U.S.A. and 3500 Kg. in Switzerland In Rajasthan, the milk-yield per day per cow is 2.12 Kg and per buffalo 3.02 Kg. which is lower than that of Punjab and Haryana but higher than the national average. So far as our country is concerned. per capita daily availability of milk is 111 grammes whereas 210 gms. is

" considered to be the minimum necessity from nutritional point of view. Per capita availability of milk in Rajasthan is 265 grammes which is more than the national minimum necessity level, To quote Shri Vijai Phanshikar (Economic Times, 11, September, 1977) nutrition experts say that an average person should get at least 280 grns. of milk every day to maintain normal health. It means India should at least produce 60 million tonnes of milk by 19&0. This appears almost impossible. India produces just 33 million tonnes of milk per year at present.

3 ]

With the present rate of increase in population, the per capita availability is going to be still lower as might be witnessed from the table given below :-

Year

A verage per capita eMily milk consumption

1956 1972 1976

Ref : Economic Times 11.9.1977

140 grammes 110

107

According to Shri R.K. Patel of the National Dairy Institute ..

Kamal (See Projections of Bovine Population-Requirement and Economic Demand for Milk). economic demand for milk will be 34.77 million tonnes in 1977 whereas the estimated requirements will be 49.39 million tonnes, Thus there will be a net shortage of about 30%. This situation of shortages is bound to persist even in 1978, 1979. 1980~ 1981 which is likely to be as follows :-

1978 1979 1980 1981

(Million TORDes)
Population Estimated Economic Plan
requirement s Demand Target
658121000 50.44 38.68 28.60
671372000 51.46 42.98
683765000 52.55 47.69
694896000 53.26 52.79 Year

While considering the above projection of demand and requirements, it should also be remembered that there is a vast gap between economic demand and plan target. Economic demand is about 30% more of what we aim at present and at the same time the fulfilment of the target is also not an essentiality and certainty. There might be further shortfall in the achievement of the predetermined production targets whereas projections of the requirements are much near correctness.

4 )

Importance of the Study : The obJectivet.

In the above context of production and per capita availability of milk, the study of cattle breeders becomes all the more useful and important because of the fact that there are great potentialities of cattle breeding and milk production in this region and that this area is likely to play an important role in the future economy of the country and also in raising the nutritional standards of the people as a whole.

The Agro-Economic Research Centre. Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujrat undertook a study of the problems in respect of Dairy Development in this area during 1966-67 and the present study is in continuation to that with an objective of assessing the socio-economic impact of organised milk marketing schcmes v-Iike n.M.S. on the breeders in particular and the village community in gen eral, The following might be enumerated as the overall objectives of this study :-

1) To assess the impact of Delhi Milk Scheme on the income of the breeders.

2) To examine the effect of Delhi Milk Scheme on live-stock management with reference to breeding, feeding and veterinary facilities etc.

3) To examine the impact of the Delhi Milk Scheme on the extent and pattern of employment in the selected villages.

4) To examine the infra-structure facilities created because of the organised marketing schemes.

5) To study the production. consumption and marketing aspect of milk and milk-products in respect of cattle breeders.

6) To examine the impact of Delhi Milk Scheme and other organised milk marketing schemes on the social and economic life structure and outlook of the milk breeders and the village community in general.

[ 5

7) To assess the impact of D.M.S. and URMUL on the technological and organisational structure of the dairy farms.

S} To examine the impact ofD.M.S. and URMUL on farmcum-dairying activity 01'" mix and the changes brought out on their complimentary and substitution aspects.

9) To examine the extent to which dairying can become a specialised occupation and. if SO~ to find out the optimum and mix of (a) dairying and (b) other activities.

Hypotbeses

The following hypotheses have been examined and treated under this study :-

i ) The organised marketing agency helps in increasing as well as in stabilising the income of the breeders by offering fairly high prices and regular marketing facilities.

ii) The organised marketing facility helps in changing the outlook of the breeders in respect of livestock manage .. ment (breeding. feeding, veterinary facilities etc.),

iii) Organised marketing scheme helps in increasing employ. m ent at the breeders level.

iv) Organised marketing facility helps in meeting Infra-structural facilities such as facilities for drinking water, livestock feeding .. and transport.

v) Organised milk marketing facility does not affect consumption pattern of milk and milk products at the breeder's level.

vi) The nature of organised marketing favours bigger producers more than smaller producers.

vii) Organised marketing has provided greater scope of employment to women and children and now the movements of women are relatively more free. Their role in decision making process and household management seems to have grown in importance and the social status of the family has also improved in the village.

6 ]

vlii) Organised. marketing and greater cash income have brought about a significant change in the expenditure pattern of the milk producers. Now consumption bas become more diversified and element of conspicuous consumption has been introduced.

ix) It has led to the emergence of new type of leadership in the villages.

x) Due to stability of milk marketing, some of the households have accepted dairying as their main occupation.

xi) Organised milk marketing schemes in the area have cheeked the migration of people and livestock in the scarcity period.

xii) On account of organised marketing facility the cattle breeders have greater ma.rket orientation than before. They do less sharing of their milk and milk prod ucts with the poorer sections of the society in their villages and have begun to participate in the social and political activities within and outside their villages.

This study covers 6 villages of Loonkaransar Tehsil of the Bikaner District i.e. 3 clusters of 2 villages. Cluster I consists of villages Kankarwala and Laxminarayansar where Delhi Milk Scheme started organised milk purchases in the year 1962 and continued its operation upto September 1976 when it had to wind up its establishment and hand over its work to the Cooperative Union. Cluster II consists of two villages Amarpura and Dheerdan where Uttar Rajasthan Milk Producers Union Limited (UR~lUL) has provided organised milk marketing facilities for the last 3 years. The D.M.S. did not have its operation in this area, though the local people had some knowledge of the D.M.S. activities and its functional methodology. The cluster HI of two villages Gusain a and Baladesar have had no organised milk marketing facility. They still have traditional arrangements for the marketing of their milk and milk prod nets.

For detailed study, 20% of the catt1e breeder-families living in these three clusters were selected and replies in respect of ques-

[ 7

tionaires were obtained from them in three seasonal rounds ot investigations. Primary data so collected and obtained were processed and the conclusions arrived at. have been written down in the following and subsequent chapters. Thus this study, though not very exhaustive. is likely to give a clear perspective of milk marketing in the area and it might be safely said that various suggestions made at the end of the study may prove useful to the future planners and the Government.

.~-

8 ]

Chapter II

LIVE-STOCK STRUCTURE IN BlKANER

An attempt has been made in this chapter to go into the over-all details of live stock economy of this region and the salient features of dairying in the selected clusters and the area as

a whole.

According to the Live-stock Census .. 1966, total live-stock population in Bikaner district was 1,118,660 heads of animals i.e .. 7% of the total heads of animals in the whole arid zone. It came down to 89&706 heads of animals at the time of the live-stock census conducted in 1972 due to continued draught and scarcity conditions during this period. In terms of animal units. it was 519806 animal-units" in 1966, of which approximately 71% were bovine animals. In 1972 total animal-units were 274277 only out ofwhieh bovine animals constituted 56%. Due to the failure of rains in this region in ~he years 1966--67. 1969-70. 1970--71 1971-72 & 1972-73. a large number of cattle either perished or were put under distress sales during migration periods. An assessment of rain failures may be made from the foHowipg tabler=-

*Conversion factors for animal units adopted as follows:-

1· Cattle === 1.00 Animal unit.

t 1 1 1 1 1

YOUDg Cattle =0.75 H "
Buffalo =1.30 .. "
Buffalo (young) =0.75 " ..
Sheep/Goat =0.15 .. '"
. Camel/Horse/Mare =1.00 n u
Donkey'· =0.75 ., "
[ 9 T.Me :2:.:t RAIN FALL

Year

Average Rain fall

( In ems.)

Actual Rain fall Deficit or otherwise

----_ .. -
1969 26.37 11.42 -14.95
1970 26.37 26.50 +00.13
1971 26.37 24.15 -2.22
1972 26.37 20.70 -5.67
1973 26.37 20.90 -5.47 It may be noted that as compared with the other parts of the country. average rain fall in this area is very low and the severity of draught and scarcity conditions have to be judged in that context.

During 1966-72. the cattle population of Bikaner district went down by 30.34% while Loonkaransar Tehsil lost about 33.23% of its cattle during this period (See Live stock Census .. Bikaner 1974 ). But there was also a plus point in this situation. The cattle breeders made all-out efforts to save the lives and vitality of their milch cattle-especially cows and did not let them die in the numbers in which the other cattle lost their lives. Total percentage of buffaloes and male cattle, which perished during

• the famine and draught periods" was 39.92% in whole of the district and about 55.97% in the Loonkaransar Tehsil, which speaks of the importance, milch cattle and especially milch _ cows have come to occupy in the area. So far as the surveyed villages are concerned. the number of cows went down only by 2.87% and she-buffaloes by 24.40%. Besides this .. the arrangement made for providing drinking water* for the cattle as well as cattle breeders of four out of the six surveyed villages and the regular truck trans-

*In Kankarwala and Laxminarayansar, a small quantity of Canal water was made available to the people for drinking purposes, whereas in Amarpura and Dheerdan .. they got water through water storage tank and a pipe Iine laid and carried from Sudsar village where a tube-well has been struck.

port _facilities helped them a lot in saving the lives of their cattle wealth" during all this famine and scarcity period.

It may also be added that the cash obtained uninterruptedly from the sale of milk rather on a permanent footing enabled them to successfully face the onslaught of the draught and they were able to sustain their ownselves as well as their milch cattle while others less favoured had to suffer on both counts.

Loonkaransar Tehsil is predominantly a rural area and its only semi-Urban centre is the village of Loonkaransar itself. According to 1971 Census, total population of the tehsil is 75547 ~ which forms 13.18% of the total of the district population. The percentage of scheduled castes is 17.97% and practically there are no scheduled tribes worth mentioning. As regards the surveyed villages, their total population is 2355 comprising 378 families ouut of which 78 cattle breeding families having a population of 691 under 16 castegroups including scheduled castes and very backward communities have been selected for in-depth study. Average number of persons per family is 8.8; percentage of literacy is 19.20, the number of tctal titerates being 133. The Animal Herd size group distribution of the selected fam ilies may serve as an indicator of the economic and social background of the selected cattle breeders :-

Tallie 2.1

Animal Herd size groups & size of land holdings

(In Acres)
Animal No. of Average No, A verage land Per capita
Herd-size Families of persons holding per Average land-
Group perfamily family holding
1-4 23 6.6 39.24 5.94
. 5--9 30 8.4 66.22 7.88
10-14 13 11.7 84.27 7.20
15-19 8 11.4 58.62 5.14
20 and above .4 11.5 86.62 7.53
Total &
average 71 8.8 61. 5 6.98
[ II r.bie 1.:1
Animal groups and size of land holdings
Size of No. of Families falling under animal groups
land
holdings 1-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20 &
(In Acres) above
1-20 6 5 1 1
20-40 5 2 I 3
40-60 8 7 2 1
60-80 2 7 4 I 3
80-100 5 1
100 &
above 2 4 4 2 1
Total: 23 30 13 8 4 Total

13 11 18 17

6

13

78

As compared to 1966, 1976 presents a different picture of land holdings and grazing land area in the context of animal groups. The following table is illustrative of the same :-

Table 2.4
Lan d holding and animal group s
(In Hectares'[
Animal Year Average Average Average fallo w
group no. oj land land used for
animals holding grazing
per per pur poses by a
family family family
1 2 3 4 5
1-4 1966 3 20.89 4.27
1976 3 17.52 3.35
5-9 1966 7 32.60 7.32
1976 6' 30.20 6.91
10--14 1966 12 41.85 10.26
1976 11 35.07 5~91
12 ] ,t:.
y ....
f::-~ ..
1 2 3 4 5
l~19 1966 17 40.83 9.84
1976 17 27.52 5.56
204
] ~ : 25 57.28 8.86
Above., 1966
1976 23 39.21 5.77
r .
Total Average -
:j 1966 9 34.08 7.49
~~
1976 8 24.90 5.48
, : It is clear from the above figures that the average per family land. hp.ldings and area of grazing land has dropped considerably due to increasing family dissensions and operation of land ceiling laws as wen as to population explosion and that the availability of .crazing land per famiJy as well as per anim al has gone down and if the present tendency persists, there is a likelihood of ever decrpastitg grazing facilities in the near future .

. '-

.~' .'_ ... ,...:..6.- .............. __ ._ . _. -."._

,Uvestock breeding in general and dairying in particular illvOrV~U#ensive use of . labour but because this region has unUmi~d and uncontrolled grazing facilities for most part of the ~r!b~rring 'a few months of Kharif crop, the labour .. animal tatio~ i$~ not as high as it is generally found in other parts of the state and the country. It is true that labour-animal ratio in case of small cattle breeders is comparatively higher in relation to big cat~ breeders and that the extent of labour component in case of s~l.-<;at~le~ breeders has gone up to an appreciable extent during tBc:, last ten years, as may be evidenced from the following table :-

[ 13

Tahle-1: j
Herd Size groups and extent of Family labour eomponent :-
Herd Study Average no. Average of Ratio of
size year of cattle family labour
groups per family labour component
component to animals
1-4 1966 3 3 1:1
1976 3 6 1:.5
5-9 1966 7 4 1 :1.6
1976 6 9 1 :1.66
10--14 1966 12 4 1 :2.8
1976 11 5 1:2.2
15-19 1966 17 5 1:3.6
1976 17 4 1:4.3
20 &
above 1966 25 6 1:4.2
76 23 4 1:6
Average
of
Total 1966 9 4 1:2.4
1976 8 6 1:1.4 From this table it may be concluded tbat the extent of labour component in the case of large cattle breeders (15-]9 & above 20 herd size groups) has gone down in between the period of two studies, though, if all the herd size groups are taken together. the extent of labour component nowadays is definitely much more than it obtained in 1966.

It may be mentioned here that barring an insignificant number of breeders, most of the labour employed in the dairying enterprise was family labour and that the role of independent workers (hired or otherwise) in dairying was not worth mentioning. As a matter of fact it was observed that there is great flexibility in case of employment potentialities in cattle breeding economy and that, to a great extent, it depends upon the circumstances and the nature of rainfall and crop prospects in the rainy season. The animal

14 ]

labour ratio is likely to incre-ase if there are good or heavy rains but, as-soon as the rains fail. the breeders are bound to spend more time on the grazing arrangements and it is-but natural,

There are no set rules in regard to the use of family labour in various dairy operations such as grazing. feeding, watering, milking. sale of milk and milk-products. processing of milk into curd and ghee .... dung collection and other miscellaneous activities. All the members of a breeder family including children above the age of 5 or 6 years contribute their share of labour in the various types of dairy operations mentioned above, though obviously it all depends upon their convenience and suitability of the nature of work. For instance. menfolk or children usually and generally don't take up the work of curd and ghee preparation but we also came across a cattle breeder, who was the only member of his family and who had to prepare his own curd and ghee when his milk remained unsold.

We may get a clear picture about the use of labour in various dairy operations and employment potentialities of the dairy enterprise from the following tables :~

'.>'

j: .:

[

15

Table 2.6

Extent of laboor (CoDtribudoD made by men, women and (10 bours) a)oDgwith %

Cluster 1

Dairy Operations

Men Women Child Men

1. Grazing & Allied
Operations (HIs.) 6752 570 13945 4134
% 66.52 2.90 91.54 42.25
2. Feeding & Watering
& Allied Operations(Hrs.) 2634 4856 786 2775
% 23.29 24.66 5.16 28.36
3. Dung Collection &
Cleaning (Hrs.) 136 3894 429 104
% 1.34 19.78 2.82 1.06
4. Milking (Hrs.) 70 4304 74
% 0.69 21.87 .76
5. Selling of Milk (Hrs.) 704 1058 74 2597
% 6.93 5.38 0.48 26.54
6. Curd & Ghee
Preparation (Hrs.) 5001 20
% 25.41 0.20
7. Other Misc.
Operations (Hrs.) 125 . ... t. 81
% 1.23 083
-

Total (Hrs.) 10151 19683 15234 9785
% 100 100 100 100 Work days (Approx.)

1269 2260

1904 1223

16 ]

ir • ~-.

~) in various dairy nperatlons in different seasons of ike total labour)

Closer II

Closer 111

Total

Women Child Men Women Child Men Womell Child

13536 3104 2400 13990 570 29881
91.16 79.84 , 90.36 58.72 1.10 91.27
-
6548 790 584 2253 182 5723 657 1758
26.68 5.32 l5.02 30.32 6.85 24.02 26.46 5.37
6214 310 15 2072 74 255 12180 813
25.31 2.09 0.39 27.88 2.79 1.07 23.58 2.48
5496 55 1503 199 11303
22.40 - 1.41 20.22 0.84 21.88
570 213 130 55 343} 1683 287
2.32 1.43 ,3.34 0.74 14.40 3.26 0.88
5717 1543 20 12261
23.29 20.76 0.08 23.72
6 206 6
0.08 .87 0.0 24545 14849

100 100

3888 100

7432 100

2656 23824 51660

100

100

100

32739 100

3068 1856

486

929

332 2978 6457

4092

Table 2:7 Labour use (MeD, Women Ie CbildreD) in differeDt seasons. (10 Hours) with

Summer Season

Rainy Season

Dairy Operations

Men Women Child

Men Women

1. Grazing & Allied
Operations 1710 570 8270 12280
24.79 2.56 99.52 82.01
2. Feeding & Watering 3108 7196 40 1778 3031
45.06 32.26 0.48 11.87 24.14
3. Drug Collection &
Cleaning 140 5123 71 3007
2.03 22.97 0.48 24.11
4. Milking 90 3755 107 3092
1.30 16.84 0.72 24.63
5. Selling of Milk 1850 740 531 913
26.82 3.32 3.55 7.27
6. Curd & Ghee
Preparation 4919 20 2485
22.05 0.13 19.80
7. MisceIlaneous
Operations 186 6
1.24 0.05 Total with percentage

6898 22303

100 100

8310 14973 12554

100 100 100

18 ]

various .airy operations during % of tbe Total

Winter Season

Total of the year

Child

Men Women

Child

Child

Men Women

lltill ',:'.92..63

1003 4.30

13990 58.72

3430 20.41

715 65%

5723 24.02

831 42.87

570 1.72

29881 91.27

13657 24.44

1758 5.37

508 44 4030 305 255 12180 813
2.1a 2.25 23.89 27.73 1.07 23.58 2.48
2 4456 199 11303
0.10 26.52 0.84 21.88
207 1050 30 80 3431 1683 287
0.89 53.76 0.18 7.27 14.40 3.26 0.88 4857 28.91

20 0.08

20 1.02

206 0.87

12261 23.72

6 .00

23329 ' 1953

100 100

16S03 100

llOO 100

23824 100

51660 32739

100 100

[ 19

From the above figures we may conclude that dairy enterprise has provided full employment to about 6.4% of the population and approximately one person out of 2 families has gained full employment from the dairy operations. Taken together, approximately 10 men,· 21 women and 13 children may be having full employment opportunities in the surveyed families. It also shows that women-folk contribute much more 1abour than men-folk in various dairy operations and that the share of children is also not negligible. It is a sad reflection on the primary education policy of the state because it clearly shows that because of lack of opportunities. a large number of children within education range prefer this work to schools and that this state of affairs is not a positive sign of progress and development. It is also clear from, the above figures that dairy enterprise needs much more labour during rainy season than it needs in winter and that the approximate ratio is 1 :2.5. Ratio of labour needs in winter in relation to summer is also approximately 1 :2.

It will also be worthwhile to mention here that obviously the extent of labour used in various dairy operations such as milking. curd & ghee preparations and sale etc. depends mainly on the number of milking animals. extent of milk production and surpluses and the working capacity of the breeder family.

It might also be concluded that much more labour IS needed for grazing operations during the rainy· season than any other season lest the unchecked animals might damage the standing crops.

It might be marked that the old practice of maintaining milch cattle on mere grazing during the rainy season is gradually giving way to feeding and this may be evidenced from the . seasonal use of labour employed in feeding operations.

Dairy enterprise &. the Capital Structure.

So far as capital component in the. cattle economy of this region is concerned, we arrive at a definite conclusion that cosr .of cattle (milch as well as dry) constitutes a major part of the capital

20, ]

component in this area and that only a negligible part of capital is inv-olved in other sectors of cattle economy. The cattle breeders have either no sense to make full use of technological and scien-

tific developments made in respect of live stock raising and cattle rearing or their limited resources do not permit them to make full use of advanced technology developed with a view to making dairying enterprise more profitable, competitive and remunerative.

The following comparative table might help us in making an objective assessment of the capital component in the cattle economy of this region :-

fable 2:8
Capital Component in the Cattle Economy
Average capital employed per family (In Rupees)-% in ( )
Herd Size Cost of Dairy Total
Groups Cattle implements
1-4 1966 1047.36 36.78 1084.14
(96.61) (3.39) (100)
1976 2410.12 88.75 2498.86
(96.45) (3.55) (100)
5-9 1966 2095.33 62.80 2158.13
(97.09) (2.91) (100)
1976 5103.45 158.79 5262.24
(96.97) (3.03) (100)
10-14 1966 3783.08 75.83 3858.91
(98.03) . (1.97) (100)
1976 9703.85 223.23 9927.08
(97.75) (2.25) (100)
15-19 1966 5177.00 89.20 5266.20
(98.31) (1.69) (100)
1976 9575.00 355.62 . 9930.62
(96.42) (3.58) (tOO)
20 & above 1966 7818.00 217.40 8035.40
(97.29) (2.71) (100)
1976 14425.00 238.75 14663.75
(98.36) (1.64) (100)
Average per
Family : 1966 3075.18 74.26 3144.45
(97.65) (2.35) (100)
1976 8243.48 213.03 8456.51
(97.48) (2.52) (100) The above figures clearly indicate that there has been no appreciable change in the capital component of the dairy economy. More or less static tendencies are discernible and it may be taken as a sad commentry on the perspective of planned development in relation to animal husbandry in the state.

22 J

Chapter III

STRUCTURE OF ORGANISED MILK MARKETING AGENCIES

Before the Delhi Milk Scheme began milk collection in this area .. , inadequacy of suitable marketing structure and "traditional opposition to the idea of selling milk & sons" were noticeable features of this scarcity belt of Rajasthan. Due to the remoteness of milk production centres from the railways and roads and the nomadic life of a large number of cattle breeders. these conditions continued to prevail in this region. Not to talk of quick transport system .. practically there did not exist any transport facilities worth the' name in this area except the camel and perishable commodities like milk. could never be transported to. far flung urban areas -- the potential market for milk, on the camel back. Whatever quantity of milk was marketed, it was either in the form of khoya or of ghee, which could neither fetch cattle-breeders correct price for . their products nor could provide them enough income even for the upkeep of their cattle in good shape and health. Sale of both khoya as well as ghee was also uncertain. Cattle breed ers went on collecting their ghee for months together and sold it once or twice a year. Similarly kh aya preparation was more 0 r less a seasonal business and the cattle breeders could never get any regular income from the sale of these products. It may be correctly observed that the sale of such milk products did not fetch them as much money as they had to spend on the maintenance of their

I

cows. This situation still persists in almost all areas not covered

by any organised milk marketing scheme. This fact might well , be evidenced from the figures obtained from the cattle breeders living in third cluster of villages in this study.

When Rajasthan Go Sewa Sangb, a volunatary institution devoted to the cause of the well-being of COWSt started its COW" protection and welfare activities in the area, it soon found that their objective could be better achieved if they succeeded in getting cattle breeders fair price of their milk and milk products and their obvious choice fell on the Delhi Milk Scheme, an undertaking of the Central Government which was interested in augumenting its milk supply even from far off areas of U. P. and Haryana. Rajasthan Go Sewa Sangh made all out efforts to pursuade the D.M.S. to examine the potentialities of milk collection in this area and2 if satisfied, to start their operations in Bikaner District. The Delhi Milk Scheme started their milk collection business in this area on 28th of February in 1962 which went on upto 9th of September in 1976, when under an agreement with the concerned Governmental agencies it had to stop its operations in the area. Now the URMUL organises the milk marketing operations and collects. milk from the village Milk Producers Cooperative Societies. These societies purchase milk from its members who are mostly cattle breeders of all descriptions.

Let us now come to the structure and functional methodology of these milk marketing agencies. D.M.S. is a state enterprise and in Bikaner it functions as a branch of the head office at Delhi. They collected milk directly from the milk producers of various villages through their own agency of mates (paid servants) and made direct fortnightly payments to the milk sellers whereas the URMUL makes payment thrice a month to the village cooperatives, for its milk purchases; which, in their turn. pass it on to the actual milk producers. Thus URMUL has no direct dealing with the actual milk producers and the village milk cooperative serves as an important agent of the Union having a great bearing on the working of the milk marketing scheme as a whole.

In the initial stages, a very small quantity of milk-a mere 245 kg on a daily average, was collected by the D.M.S. The services of an lee factory were obtained for freezing that milk and it was despatched to Delhi by train in the same container in which it was freezed. Thus in the beginning the D.M.S. had. its own

24 ]

problems and limitations in respect of milk collection in the area and milk supplies to Delhi. There were limitations of capacity as well in the lee Factory fOT freezing and the capacity of railways to carry. In the beginning there was only one train to Delhi which allowed a carriage capacity of 10000 Kgs, of milk per day. It was only in 1966 that a second train also started. Even then the carriage capacity could not go beyond 20000 Kgs, a day. But by and by, milk purchases gathered momentum which can be evidenced from the fact that whereas in 1962, total milk collections were 188816 Kg., next year i.e. 1963, it rose to a figure of 2O,Oli42 Kg and in 1975~the last complete year of its operations, it reached a gigantic figure of 65,35,254 Kg. which is more than 8 times of 1962 & 3 times of 1963 figures. The collection figures could have still gone higher if the D.M.S. had been sure of its further existence in 1976 and beyond.

The following figures present a picture of the extension of D.M~~. operations in the area by way of milk purchases and cash payments to the cattle breeders:

. . .

[ 25

Table 3: 1

Milk collection and payments by DMS.

Year

Index

Milk Collection (In Kgs.)

Index

Payments

1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976

(In Rs.)

100 252 148 207 480 550 901

figures

not available 348 980 939 407 701

From the above table, it may be observed that there has neither been a uniform rate of growth in respect of milk collection nor cash payment to the cattle breeders. As stated earlier, occurrence of famines is a regular feature of this region and there have been at least three famines during the first six years of its existence. From the index number of the payments, it might be concluded that the cattle breeder has got the highest price for his milk in the year 1974, when payment and milk supplies index: ratio was 701 : 204. In the years 1963 & 1964 the cattle breeders

788876 ·100 291181
200L242 254 733158
1216242 154 431279
1499755 190 601842
3190265 404 1408970
2972648 378 1601118
4001082 507 2623889 1433926 182 1013402
4305763.5 546 2854935
4165641 528 2734437
1584093 201 1185153
1607871 204 2042697
6535254 824 N.A.
Operations closed on 9.9.1976. * Index No. of milk collection and payment figures for 1962 being taken as 100.

26 1

~ ...

got leSser price for their milk sales even as compared to 1962. Theoce there were significant cost-variations as may be evidenced from the figures for the year 1968 and onward. But looking to tbe subsequent fall in the value of rupee during this period. the per unit realisation from the milk sates did not show any increase, 101966. if a rupee fetched 100 paisa value, in 1976 its value came down to 42 paisa only (See Hindustan Weekly-Independence

Number, 1977).

As regards fixation of milk prices, the fat contents found in it form the base. The rate paid at the time of our study was 27 paisa per I % of the fat content. Generally cattle milk in this region has 4 to 4.5% fat content. In the case of buffaloes. it might be somewhat larger than in that of cows.

The number of villages, from where the D. M.S. collected its milk supplies also varied greatly. Whereas in 1972; it had its regular operations in 42 villages. the Dumber of villages in the su.bscpq~eo,t years was. as follows ~-

T'tile 3 : 1

Villages covered by D. M. S.

it d d tti< t£t, ,,"'jw- _.",.,. <_ .,J" .. " P'>

YeQr

Village covered

1973. ·1914 1975

75

81

86

. T_~ collection-operations were limited to five or six routes.

Its hired trucks used to ply on these routes for the collection of tont wtiich.as treated and frozen iii the ice-factory at Bikaner. Ftom Bikanet it was taken to Delhi by railway as well as truck tankers.' The hiring rates for the trucks employed by the D. M. S. were ·as follows :-

[ 27

Table 3 : 3 Hiring Rates

Distance

Rates per Km. (In Rs.)

Route No.

Kutcha Pucca Road

Kutcha

Pucca

A B C D E

49 40 87

107 71

14 155

65

1-41 1-69 1-84 1-92 1-71

1·21 1.22 1-21 1·26 1-23

Each truck route comprised 9 to ] 0 villages and each village was the pickup point. The milk was collected by the village mate-a part time employee-on the lactometer basis and the truck con tractor acted as a laison between the mate and the D. M. S. as far as the regular maintenance of accounts was concerned.

In the beginning, the village mates were employed on a flat rate of Rs. 50/- per month but. later OD, it was thought necessary to correlate their wages with the quantity of milk collected by them.

The truck owners were obliged to bring milk to the icefactory at the fixed timings. In case they were late by a few minutes, a penalty was imposed upon them. If the milk got sour, they had to make the losses good from their own account, but in case, there. was any failing on the part of the milk-sellers with respect to delay or the quality of milk, they had to bear the burden of the losses and indemnify the n.M.S. against them.

Looking to the geographical inhospitability of the region and the length of the routes, there were some small variations in the hiring rates of the trucks as might be gathered from the above figures but there always remained one more factor. in the fixation

28 ]

ot . rates. t. related. to the availability of num her of travelling passeiigers on the route and the extra income, the truck owners could make from the travelling public on the specific route allo-

tted to them.

Obviously the activities and operations of the D.M.S. were limited to tbe milk collection business but with a view to facilitate tho expansion of this business. as well as because of close contads with the cattle breeders of the area, the D.M.S. made 80me contribution to the well being of the cattle breeders also. Arrangements for the supply of grass and cattle-feed at concessiooal rales during scarcity period were made and cattle bre eders were benefitted to the tune of Rs. 62,200/- in the year 1963-64 and Rs. 92,059 in the year 1965--66.

Uttari Rajasthan Cooperative Milk Union Ltd .• Bikaner.

Uttari Rajasthan Cooperative Milk Union Ltd .• Bikaner was established on 28-8-72 with a share capital ofRs.63.000/· and -mes.nbersbip of 51 village-level dairy cooperative societies. Its area ofoperation covered the whole ofBikaner Division, Government provided 8 lacs as margin money. At the time of our study, toW ' me~l"Ihip- of' the village societies was 4304 out of which :M3,me.bets belOnged to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

The Union collects its milk supplies from about a hundred functioning societies through 12 routes in the district. Ti1ese,truck contractors transport milk from villages on their respective routes to the chilling centres and: - milk from 'those villages, which are away from these truck routes, is transported by camel carts which are also employed on contract basis. It aims at a collection target dt' 1 lac kgs.' of milk a day though its present average collection figures are approximately half of the-target. A plant with a capacity of 1 lac litres per day has been set ,up:in Bikanc.r through the financial assistance under fjoperatioll flood" programme and a chilling~' ~tre . 'at Loonkaransar in this district is chilling on an a.~ragertlote than 10000 kgs, of milk per day. The Capacity of th~planf i&beingl expanded "to . 20000 litres per day and the capa-

~:' -.

[ 29

city of the maio plant at Bikaner IS aiso expandable to 150000 litres per day. During the last three years of its working (July, 73 to June 16) the URMUL has infused more than a crore of rupees directly in the village economy of this region in the shape of purchase price of milk.

Village level cooperative societies of milk producers aim at ensuring a higher return for their milk produce to the cattle breeders based on a fool-proof system of quality tests and regular payments through their willing participation at the grass-root level. It also aims at making milk producers free from the clutches of middle men who uptil now have constituted the sole channel for marketing their produce. These societies are managed by a board of elected representatives, who collect milk from milk producers, test the quality of milk then and there and keep accounts of the milk purchase and payments. These societies stand guarantee to the banks for the loans provided by them to the milk producer-members for the purchase of milch cattle. These village societies are subsidised to some extent by the URMUL to meet their management expenses and to reimburse their operational losses and also for the purchase of testing 'and other neccessary equipment. The Union, however, has complete hold over the accounts and the functioning of the village cooperative which has to look to the Union for its very existence because of the paucity of resources and dependence for purchasing milk.

OraHilation :

There are three types of members:-

A) Village-level milk producers cooperative.

B} State Government" Banks, Zila Parishad, Municipalities, Panchayat Samiti &,. Cooperative Institutions.

C) Individual Members.

'A' type members elect 4 representatives on the Board of management, There are three government nominees; one representative is a nominee of the Central Cooperative Bank, One

30]

F'-"-~"-

.. " . .

.

J ,'. '~ , - .' -

nommee is elected by 'B' type share holders and one representa-

tive is elected by 'c~ type of members. Thus out of 10 members of the Board, village milk cooperatives have only 4 representatives. 'tile Col1ectort Bikaner district. is the Chairman of the Union and a nominee of the State is the Secretary cum General Manager. It appean that milk producers have limited voice in the function.. of the Union and this tendency is going to persist under the e~8 bye-laws. A large number of officers working in the Union are on deputation from various Government departments and most of the functions of the Union are - discharged by them and they alCthc actual bosses of the whole scheme in their respective spheres.

~s regards the capital structure and working capital of the Union, we might get a glimpse of the same from the following table :-

_.,:'

[ 31

Tabie'3:4

Capital structure

Sources of Capital

Subsidy

Debt

Total

Share Money 800000/-
(State Govt.)
State Govt, 658640/- 658640/-
Indian Dairy 17002550/-
Corporation (inclusive of 17002550/~
aid)
Subsidy for 63586/- 63586/~
management
expenses
Aid from National
Dairy Development
Board. 117465/- 117465}-
Amount received
from the State
Government for
the construction
of chilling centres
at Loonkaransar,
Bikaner & Mahajan 6327100J- From the above figures, it may be dear that this union depends upon the Government and Governmental agencies for its finances and elected representatives are bound to feel a sense of inferiority in their dealings with the persons looking after the actual working of the URMUL.

32 ]

"The URMUL looks to the D.M.S. for its milk-sales. A large pe.n::entage of the milk collected by it is despatched to the D.M.S. Milk Plant at Delhi for being supplied to the people there.

Now let us come to the working of the v mage level milk producers' cooperative. It is a democratic institution and most of the me:rrlbers gather together every morning and evening for the supply of their milk. at the milk collection centre. To some extent, it involves their regular participation in the functioning of the cooperative and no other democratic institution in a village offers such an opportunity to such a large number of villagers. Its office-which is very often the milk collection centre, is an open house and, as witnessed by us, all the villagers i.e. milk producers. lend a helping hand in running it. The Secretary of the society receives milk and makes necessary entries in the cards and the log book. When he is away or absent due to any urgent work. any one else from amongst the milk producers, discharges his function. As regards the taking of samples from the milk pots and determination of fat contents. anyone takes up this job very gladly andlielps the secretary by his honorary social service.

, The secretary has multifarious functions to perform inc! uding writing its proceedings and getting them confirmed in the next m6etmg. Besides attending to the functioning of the society including convening of its meetings, he col1ects and measures mjlk, keeps accounts of daily milk purchases. makes necessary entries in the cards of individual milk suppliers and also makes payment to them for their milk supplies. He sells cattle-feed to the producers and offers them other guidance as welL It is obvious that the milk sellers expect the presence of the secretary

. at the 'collection centre in time. If some how he gets late without prior in~rmation" he has to face the discontent of the members.

" As indicated above, if the milk is not ready for delivery to ~he truck In time. the society will have to suffer loss. Naturally :the'eo1'.tsequential loss will' have to be borne by the milk suppliers and hetiCe 'they have to be very vigilant and cautious in the matter. Of course, if the truck is late of its. own accord even by

[ 33

a few minutes, the transport contractor has to bear the loss if milk goes sour and then it is not the headache of the milk supp- 1iers or the secretary of the village milk cooperative.

As regards peoples' interest in the milk cooperatives and the extent of their participation in its functioning, the following tables in respect of Amarpura village cooperative may prove enlightening ;-

Table 3:5

Amarpura milk Cooperative : Coverage

Herd size Group

TOlal No. of families in the village

Members of the society with %

1-4

55

24 (44%) .

5-9

31

24 (77%)

10-14

13

10 (77%)

15-19

2

2 (100%,)

20 & above

1

1 (100%)

102

61 (60%) approx,

It will also be interesting to look into the extent of peoples' participation m the societies as related to the caste structure of the society :-

34 J

P'"

-

.

~!( "

table 3!6

Membership of the milk Cooperative (Caste-wise)

Caste

Percentage of the member families in relation to total no. of families in

the particular caste group.

Jat Brahm~s Swami

Kumbhar (Potter) Nai (Barbers)

Nayak (Scheduled Caste)

Meghwals ( ,. •• )

Luhar (Blacksmith)

Oswal (Vaish)

62 40 JOO 36 100 20 100 25 Nil

As regards the constitution of village milk cooperative, the following table may throw a light on the same :-

Table 3:7

Milk suppliers and caste pattern .

Cast«

No. of members with percentage (%)

Jat Swami Brahmin Kumbhar Meghwals Nayak Nai

.Lubar

26 (42.62)
20 (32.79)
4 ( 6.56)
4 ( 6.56)
3 ( 4.91)
2 ( 3.28)
1 ( 1.64)
1 ( 1.64)
---_
61 (100)
---- "

[ 3S

From the above figures Nayaks it may be said that most of the weaker sections of the society such as Meghwals, Nai etc. are members of the village cooperative whereas many high caste milk producers have not evinced interest in the milk cooperative either because they are too individualistic & use their own produce or because they sustain some suspicion towards the cooperative institution or because it has thrown a challenge to their exploitative tendencies.

During the course of our investigations, we felt that the milk producers' cooperative at the village level is in its primary stage and is likely to gain importance and usefulness on ly if its capital structure gets strengthened and the mutual jealousies due to group politics at the village level cease to have their baneful effect on the working of this institution. We came across many a si tuation when we felt that milk cooperative could not procure enough milk because many of its important members including office bearers were not happy with the president and secretary of the sarniti and did not want to extend their wholehearted cooperation to them under the existing circumstances. The following table might be illustrative of this fact:-

Table 3 : 8

Milk Collection by Village Cooperatives

Name of the

Village 1974

(Kgs.)

Year and Period

No. of 1975 No. oj months. (Kgs.) months.

(Quantity in Kgs.)

1976 No. of

(Kgs.) months.

Amarpura 28976

3

28644 6

35621

6

Dheerdan 12203

3

59121 12

22069

6

Amarpura is comparatively a large village having a larger number of milch cattle and a larger membership than Dheerdan

36 ]

·". ~.

. but in-1975~ due to group politics they did not like to sell their milk through the society. In 1974> whereas Dheerdan society procured 12203 Kg. milk in 3 months of its existence, the Amarpura milk cooperative succeeded in procuring 28976 Kg. of milt which went down to 50% in J975 whereas in Dheerdan the actual procurement went up. If there had been no mutual bickerings in the society. Amarpura society might have collected more than a lac Kgs. of milk because of its much larger milch cattle population .

..... a~_

[ 37

Chapter IV

MILK PRODUCfION : COST, SALE PRICE) PROFIT" LOSS

Production: There are various factors which help or hinder production efficiency of milch cattle. Obviously the number and quality of milch cattle and marketing facilities available for the sale of milk and milk products and the cash price obtained by the cattle breeders playa decisive role in the over-all milk production schemes but, at the same time, it can not be denied that year to year weather variability, seasonal differences and extent of rains (timely or otherwise) also have an important bearing on milk production and wide fluctuations might be witnessed in the availability of milk supplies on that account. Easy availability of feed and nutritious grazing grasses in sufficient quantities also play significant role in deciding the quality & quantity of production. Complex biological phenomena like conceptions and miscarriages among the milch-cattle as well as duration of lactation also affect milk production. There is also the psychological factor which affects the yield of milk from cattle at a particular timing. We have observed that many a cow. which even when they are at the verge of the termination of their lactation, continues to give milk once the monsoon has approched. We have also come across cases of such cows which have been giving milk continuously for 3 or 4 years, though generally they should have stopped il after a maximum lactation period of 10-12 months or so.

Of course, the most important factor from the view point 0 milk production is the season and the timing and quantity 0 rains in a particular year. A glimpse of the milk productioi tendencies and the seasonal variations might be available fron the following table :-

38 ]

_'v· r'

f':·

Table 4:1

Seasonal variations in Milk production in respect of the selected cattle breeders :

, De,cription

Summer

Rainy Season

Winter

Year's Total (Tn kg.)

1. Total Milk
production 114.437 141.429 131.757 387,623
2. Milk ..
production
per bovine 605.00
cattle 181.94 223.043 199.63
3. Mllk produ-
ction per
milking cow 443.55 529.69 426.40 1399.64
4. Milk produ-
ction per
" cattle-breeder
family. 1467.14 1941.40 1689.19 5091.73 From the above figures. it may be clearly observed that cattle yield larger quantities of milk during the rainy season and there is a variability of approximately 25%. More or less, the same was the conclusion of the previous study. wherein rainy season GQOunted for the highest milk production figures as compared to both the summer and winter seasons. the two studies show variation in the production tendencies during the summer and winter season. At the time of the previo us study. there was lesser milk production during winter than during summer but this study }Weaents a difterent picture in as much as that now total as well

.as per bovine and milking cattle milk-production during winter

[ 39

,,:<, ~3i:.tr::·

season has gone up. Probably this increase might be attributed to the exceptionally good rains during the years 1975 & 1976, which provided the cattle much needed nutritious grass and also made an impact on the quantity of milking cows as well as an increase in conceptions and decrease in miscarriages.

As stated above. another important factor in respect of milkproduction tendencies is the number of cattle in milk during a particular season. A picture of the same might be discernible from the following table :-

Table 4:2

Bovine Milch Cattle. Cattle in milk and the seasonal milk production of selected cattle breeder families:

(Milk production in Kgs.)

S. No.

Description

Summer

Rainy Season

Winter

1. Total Milk
production
2. Total No. of
bovine milch
cattle
3. Total No. of
Cattle in Milk
4. Average Mj]k
production per
bovine milch
animal in milk
5. Average Milk
production per
bovine milch
animal 114437

l41429

131757

629

633

660

258

267

309

3.64

4.31

3.55

1.49

1.82

1.66

40 ]

-" "

~'. "." ..

" ' ... , .

F~ the above figures, it is clear that milk production per bdiide milk animal as well as per milch cattle in milk is highest during the rainy season but it does not reflect the same tenden cy as evidenced from the previous table as well as the previousstudy, At the time of the previous study. the number of cattle in milk

> _tbelowest during the winter season whereas this study pre"_ a . different picture in that respect. Now the number of cattle ill milk is the highest during winter." This tendency might beMtrilmtcd to the following reasons ~-

1)

Due to weather changes as well as due to the exceptionally heavy rains during the preceding two years most of the cattle in milk continued milk production even during the winter, because they had enormous grazing facilities during this period.

2)" There is some biological change due to which the number of ~aceptions during the winter season has gone up consldera, : ,1bly'aDd. it might be evidenced from the increase in the total n\l81ber of bovine ·milch cattle during the winter season. 'c"! !.Wltereas total number bovine milch cattle was 629 & 633 "dtlrIna the summer and rainy seasons respectively, it had an .. incf'08llM: of 27 over the preceding season during the winter .

Similar]y the number of cattle in milk went up by 51 i.e, about 20% during the winter season rising from 258 during the summer season to 309 during the winter. Yet, inspite of this increase in the number of bovine milch cattle as well as cattle in milk during the winter season as a whole. milk production per cattle in milk was 4 .. ~ 1 . kgs, during the rainy season whereas it was the lowest n;tea$:u.png on an average 3.55 kgs. during the winter season and it was" a bit more i.e. 3.64 kgs. during the summer. From this it it" evident that in this region, more yield during the summer than lIrinWC.lthe· :spacial characteristic and somewhat different from -*. i obtainitls in: " other parts of the country. Of course I if the ~a-gmber of milch cattle (dryas well as milking) is taken into consideration, the yield per milch animal as well as total milk

[ 41

production IS not as much during the summer as it is during winter. *

There are two reasons behind it :-

1) The number of dry cattle during summer was some what larger then it was during winter-it being 37 t during summer and 351 during winter whereas there was an increase of 31 in the number of milch cattle during this period.

2) The early and good rainfall during 1976 rainy season led to much larger grazing resources during the winter season.

From the available data, it may also be concluded that now there are comparatively smaller seasonal fluctuations in milk production and that there seems to be a fundamental change in the lactational yields of the cattle now. This improvement might be either due to better feeding and management practices or due to a vast change in the behaviour of rains during the last 2-3 years. It was also observed that by and by, a change is coming in the calving season. Whereas in the sixties, months of February and March were generally taken to be months of calving, it is found that calving bas been on the increase during the winter season and that there were more calving during the winter this year than during other seasons.

As all of us are well aware, the season of calving has a significant effect on lactation period and lactation yield as well as intercalving period. Shri K.C. Sen & C.P. Ananta Krishan in their bulletin "Nutrition and Lactation in Dairy Cattle" published by I.e.A.R .• have also arrived at the same conclusion when they say

*Tables and figures for the summer season are those of the year 1976 whereas facts and figures collected for the winter season speak of the year 1976-1977, i.e. the winter season coming after the good rainfall in the year. 1976.

42 ]

;,' '1"when -cows freshen in fall or winter, the total milk yield is usually 110 to 20 percent higher than that of spring or summer calves. f Tbielincrease is probably due to the more favourable conditions ;dur1ns winter, such as the availability of more digestible feeds than f late summer grass. The cow freshening in fall or winter reaches l.'fajrly advanced stage of lactation by the time the factors adverse

rio mit" production occur."

1 '

,

, It 'was also observed during the investigations that besides l pasture feeding, the cattle breeders also supplied guar to the cattle : in milk and this extra feeding led to a consequential increase in the ~ daily milk field of the cows. It might have also resulted in an ~ increase in the fat percentage of milk and this higher fat percentage ; might have enabled the cattle breeders obtain comparatively higher 'price for their milk than they coul~ have otherwise obtained.

Breed " MUk production

~ Breed plays a very significant role in tbe overall milk yield of 1 cattle. This region abounds in the Rathi bread of cows, which .are adjudged as one of the best breeds in the country in respect of i milk-yield. The other breed of, cow obtaining here is deshi or

I ~·m.adochi" as it is commonly known here but so far as milk yield .~rn~~ it also does not present, any significant differential t treads m. this respect. Of course, there is some variation in the j per': ~ita milk yield qf both breeds of cows but still the gap is not : Vlry wide. It is rather marginal as might be evident from the J tablcgivcn below:-

I

~

>_, .

[ 43

44 ]

0.. 0- 00 N

-

- 0\ V) _

__.

. .•. ~}):f'io.m. die above' data. it is quite clear that the average daily .• -. ·;;i:.'~ld,per Ratbi cow i~ al~ays . more than the ~shi ,breed ·.was compared to the dally milk YIeld ten years earlier, It ~as

~ .up by more than 30% now and the main reason behind

. ,:.w.: '*' c·' in the yield is the sense of security, organised milk

.:.:·~::;.i;~:roVided to the cattle breeders in respect of the .' .... · .• iiof' their milk as well as the incentive, it offered to them in the

t·,· ....

~'.'?f t'egular and guaranteed cash flow JI so long as t hey conti-

..., thCir milk supply.

. ~ "'".: • . I •

. . .. it will Dot be inappropriate to mention here that whatever little difference between the average daily milk yield of different cattle breeders is discernible, it is only because of the progeny or the breed and that there is no discrimination in feeding practices, .oth the breeds are given guar and other necessary feeds, of course, in permissible quantities, without any discrimination and constant efforts are made to 0 btain as much milk yield from both the ~s as possible,

-:.r .: ... .0._.,.,. . .

;,: t:, J It;' was ~lso . observed that along with the increase in water .. AT y.res·ources, buffalo breeding is also gaining a gradual foot-

\: h.Ji

~" .... _. .

... m"~.,C&;~~~-breediDg economy of the region. The number

JS._ . -""lupeup in all the four villages where better drink- 7--ja:tet facilities are available and which fall under the operatiOD. 8tea of organised milk marketing schemes. Buffalo breeding depends upon the availability of sufficient water throughout the

- ',eat-and. inspite of natural and environmental superiority which cow-bRedinS economy occupies in the area, there is a likelihood that bIlffalo breeding may play an increasingly important Tole in the economy of the region in future.

Heri-size groups and milk production

A study of milk production viz-a-viz herd-size groups is of .... t ¥8luc in providing pointers to the directions in which they can make their business more remunerative through larger milk production at comparatively reduced costs. Hence it is very .1ipi:6cant to collect information on the milk production

[ 45

tendencies and find out to which herd size-group offers better opportunities to a cattle breeder in the present structure of cattle breeding economy. Obviously, this sort of investigation is very different and complicated and it becomes all the more problematic if there is general reluctance on the part of the breeders to reveal various details. This situation becomes more complicated if the breeders, any how. happen to tend any unfounded suspicion towards the investigatiing agency in a particular context as obtained during the days of emergency when the excesses of Nasbandi made them suspicious of the bonafides of every outsider, (howsoever wen-meaning he might be) who put to them various questions relating to their economy and specially their cattle wealth. which form the part parcel of their very existence.

Yet an earnest attempt has been made to collect various data to the extent of near accuracy as far as possible. It has been sought to present a true picture of the situation as obtained in respect of the various categories of cattle breeders in relation to the number of milch cattle in milk with them. The following table may be illustrative of milk production tendencies during different seasons in the years 1976 & 66 vis-a-vis the various herd size groups of families and it may make interesting revealations in respect of the change that has occurred during this period in this region !~

46. ]

Table 4.4

Herd..aize group" &

Summer

(In Kgs.)

Rainy Winter Total

season Average

l~J9

1976 . 1966

1976 1966

1976

3.72 4.25 3.25 3.74
2.32 3.87 1.56 2.59
3,46 4.55 3.78 3.93
2.09 3.73 1.62 2.40
4.04 4.11 3.42 3.86
2.26 3.56 i.sa 2.47
3.06 4.41 3,98 3.82
2.25 3.39 1.60 2.42
2.70 3.96 3.07 3.24
1.88 3.51 1.56 2.32 14-l 1976

1966

S-9

10-14

,. 1966

leA! Above 1976 -h:) .. " - 1966

-

1976 ,1966

3.64 2.18

4.31 3.58

~.55 1.59

3.83 2.45

-, _ ',firc:u'ri the above data, it may be concluded that per cattle milk ~M irfbetd-stte group I is not the highest now as was obtained at ~ ti'ifte or previous study I nor the per cattle milk yield necessarily IoIesdoWri Along with the increase in number of cattle with a

,_Iy: From the present 'study, one may come to the conclusion UWr,'~rut'!s falling und-er Herd':"'Si~e Group II i.e. families having '~" cattte 'on an average produce more milk than that obtained ~-~~s 'COrning under (1-4) animal Herd-Size Group, This ,dWy~~ 'Us to the conclusion that Herd-Size Group I (1-4 ~a1s) ~pi~s fourth place from the view point of per cattle

t: ~;~" ;' : "- ,

.--! i

[ 47

milk yield. it can not be denied that it is more convenient to maintain smaller number of animals and that a breeder having smaller number of animals can attend to them in a better manner and may achieve better results in respect of milk production but the milk productions trends obtained from the present investiga"tions do not give indications of the above conclusion either because the breeder families coming under Herd-Size Group II have star-

ted paying more attention to the uukeep of their cattle with a view to obtain more cash income or because the breeder families in Herd-Size Group I pay less heed to their cattle either because they lack requisite economic resources for the proper upkeep of their cattle or because they do not have higher milk surplus to sell and possess very little capacity for getting aoy cash returns from this enterprise. Anyway, the present trends are at variance from the previous trends in some respects.

While looking into the optimum size of animal Herds from the view point of profitability, we shall have to take into account many other factors such as the drinking water facilities during Zamana as well as scarcity years and also the seasonal availability of the same, sufficient grazing and feeding resources and their time1y availability ~ capacity to purchase milch cattle with their own resources or borrowed capital and, of course, human resources-strength of labour force in requisite quantity-whether it is available within the family "or it is secured through hired labour. If there is no balance between all these factors, the breeder family can't maintain the optimum size of herd and because of that can not 0 btain maximum benefit from the dairy enterprise. It need not be stressed that dairy enterprise is also an industrial undertaking and it has to pass through all that mechanism which is essential for the profitable running of an industrial undertaking. It means that small cattle breeders maintaining one or two cattle heads can not get benefit to that extent, to which big cattle breeders are likely to get. Whateyer benefit small cattle breeders derive, it is derived by them because of the input of their labour, which remains almost idle for most part of the year due to the lack of other gainful means of employment and whatever small quantities of milk .. they happen

48 ]

, '.-it . is soid at : the cost of their own health as weii as the "Ill' 1Il of their children, who are always in need of nutriturive '. ",.._,.~~ b~t whic~ ,is denied to them because of their impoverished . ..,_oDUC condidoas,

, .

~,.{~ B'· "c-: ~ .

~.}::' ... :.'\::~"k~ true that from the available data one might gather an ~·;::'>'.APiasioD that cattle breeders in herd size groups 5-9 & 10-14 . . . have the most favourable environment and they derive minimum

. benefit from this enterprise because of the production factor i. e. p,.' aJ.ttle milk production output in their case, is larger as com~ -. to the breeders of other hear size groups .

. .sen it can not be categorically said that only these herd size Jl(?ups command an optimum advantageous position. There iaa(ways likelihood of obtaining different results in the context of c:beaged circumstances in relation to size of land holdings, availability of capilal resources, extent of rain fall and of course ~st:rensth of labour force.

J

.>-~:.._ If -we look to these milk production statistics in context of the total number of milk cattle in the surveyed families, we ~ at a conclusion different from that arrived in the previous ,..Ir. (See next table). Here cattle breeders of the lowest group

·~(IIfiI'"s.iZe 1-4) occupy first place in respect of per cattle milk "_ction and the milk yield per cattle has gone down alongwith ~. ~Wll i9Crease _ in the number of milch cattle in the breed~i<~8.· The same results were obtained at the time of the ~Kma~y ..

'-'-'.' ,1he~llowing table is illUstrative of the above conclusion; ~; mile~eattle Milk production during different seasons in diffe .. ~r~e~,e1lize groups is given below:-

:::_::.": .

'·10,'

.....

. ~-: "'

~t~~··.

[ 49

table 4:~

Milk Production per milch cow (In Kgs.)

Herd Size Summer Total No. Rainy Total No. Winter Average

Groups 0/ Season of Total Total

Animals Animals No. of

(629)

(633)

A nima Is (660)

1-4 22.3 2.39 1.78 2.13
5~9 1.74 2.18 2.16 2.03
10-14 1.44 1.91 1,70 1.68
15-19 1.06 1.63 1.50 1.40
20 &
above 1.22 1.14 1.12 1.13 Average Total

1.49

1.82

1.66

1.17

If we look into the factor of milk production in different herd size groups from the view point of cattle breed, we do not arrive at any different conclusion. Similar tendencies in milk yields seem to prevtil except (1) that during summer the fifth Herd Size Group (20 & above) shows better yield than the fourth (15-19) & (2) that during winter second group (5-9) has shown better yield than the first group (1-4). It may be attributed to two factors.-(a) that the number of dry cattle in the particular group during the season might have been much larger and because of the smallness in the number of breeder families in the group such a different result is being obtained (b) that during winter comparatively a larger number of cows in milk in group If might have led to a qualitative change in the productivity of this group

50 ]

, . ,:'."". '.4t'dje _4eiLth of a cow In milk in one of the families in group 1 .' :~ .' •. ' (l~ might have-disturbed the' balance through the mechanism ';" of,· ... tota~ out~ut in ~hat group. Any way. the ?veraH ave~age

~ productton figures m respect of all the five categorised "~ lead us to the same conclusion as stated above.

, ... ·1

., .. j

.:",+.:-·:~'I'1 ProMtioa aD4 Claters

,ewe view milk-production in relation to the clusters, we . . come across a different picture. This variance in milk

~ at ... statistics might either be the result of the variance

~ number and percentage of various breeds of cattle or the

geotiaphica1. . environmental and other conditions 0 btaining in the 4it1'erent clusters.

, ,

. One may better come to appreciate the role of drinking water facilkies in this context. The extent of availability of drinking water all the year round affects total as well as per cattle milk .l'idd and the following tables present a very interesting picture

;J>t#..,De: .

!

-,

_.

tr_

,' .

. ,.:; .i=>:

[ 51

52 ]

-< z

..( i

.

-e

z

It~lnigbt be: concluded from the above data that milk yield " haaaone up to a great extent in cluster [ due to the canal waters, ..iich have been brought in its proximity in recent years. whereas

a.bas lone down in cluster Ill. where general water level in the ;'f"';,~,wdls has dropped considerably and where the drinking water has ~.~_ .. }_ ,.ore and more salty, Thus increase in salt content in water ,_ litis ,pIit.,.d havoc with the generak health of the milch cattle in .... cJusta- and, has resulted in decreased yield. Lack of orga .. aliii6mi1kmarketins bas also affected the milk yield and low "Tel Of ,milk prodtlCtion are a clear indication of the same.

Alongwith the analytical study of the above figures. it will also be fruitful to have a view of the number and percentage of the different breeds obtaining during the study period as they form the basic study material :-

Table 4 ~ 7

':,.' :

,'i .:

- Total No. o/mllch cattle

Cows Rathi

Deshi

She-buffulos

253

102 149 2
40.32% 58.89% ~79%
203 5l 38
69.52% 17.47% 13.01%
68 12 4
80.95% 14.29% 4.76% II

,10&% 292

,tOO%, 84

,:1-

m

..... :t I.

~ "... ... .' ..

'100%

• -i. r , ,.. •

Total: 629

~ .. :, ', .. ;., -'.' - ~·lOO%

373

312

44

59.30%

33.70%,

, .. T·'1..··

[ 53

The above data indicate that there is a great variance in the quality percentage of various breeds in the first and third Clusters. Whereas the Rathies form more than 80% of the milch cattle population of the surveyed families in cluster III, the percentage of Rathi Cows is about half the number in Cluster 1. At the time of previous study the Rathi Cows formed 96% of the milch cattle population in this very cluster whereas the percentage of Rathi Cows in relation to total milch cattle population in Cluster I was about 19% only i. e. one-fifth of the Cluster III. Thus qualitatively Cluster I has gained a better position because the percentage of high milk yielding Rathi Cows has gone up by more than HX>%) whereas this percentage has come down by about 16% in Cluster HI. This qualitative change in the percentage of various breeds might be either the result of the severity of recurring famines and scarcity conditions during the last decade in case of Cluster III as compared to Cluster I or the result of comparatively better drinking water facilities in cluster 1 due to the availability of canal waters in its proximity in the recent years. One more interesting feature noticeable is the increase in the percentage of buffaloes in Cluster II. where better drinking water facilities .are available as compared to the first Cluster in which water has to be carried either on the camel back or in iron tanks drawn by camel carts.

It may also be reasonably concluded that overall milk yield in the third Cluster bas gone down substantially except a slight variation during the winter season. This may attributed to the following factors :-

(1) Reduction in the percentage of the Rathi breed of cows which are generally better and higher yield cattle.

(2) Lack of the opportunities of organised milk marketing in the area and grad-ual deterioration in drinking water conditions. drop in the water level of existing wells and increase of the salt content in water.

The data in relation to Second Cluster also clearly indicates that better water arrangements alongwith a. qualitative change in

54 ]

.. "":"

:--~;.:'.}::~:.

: '-ldie _~ried set-up as well as organised milk marketing facilities have -I. to increased production .

,. ;Ceapoaents of tbe Cost of Milk Production

,;:-~fl It is Dot an easy task to find out the production cost of milk. ',' ;Ite various components are of very complicated nature and for lmOJt of the cattle breeders milk production is a side line incidental '-to tht maintenance of cattle for various considerations and ; dlOtM! having no relation with the economics of cattle breeding. ··Thfte is great divergence in the components of milk production'cost. To a great extent it depends upon the availability of various

infra-structural' facilities in a particular area and cluster and also . upon the psychological bent and make of the breeder families as . wen 8!S their socio-economic back ground and out-look. There is dO a great variation in the cost of production in relation to the ,size groups as well as to the seasonal changes.

,

! '., Ip the context of the present study. the following components ; ~..uk production Cost have been taken into consideration:-

;'.' . .

, -

1 - '-. • • •

1(1), ~ (18cludmg grazing and feeding expenses).

t~),,;~~~iation on animals .

. I':::':ih--rt·st on capital.

.,' (4) Paid Labour.

; (5) Unpaid labour i.e. family labour.

I (6) Depreciation on investment ~ dairy implements etc. ; (7) . Expenditure incurred on water supply for the cattle. _ (8) Expeaoses on dead animals.

i (9)~~'Vcter:inary charges,

-Ii, --.:

1 (to)~Uaneous recurring expenditure (inclusive of milking and '*thcr charges)

! .: . :

Ii A- P~ of the various components of the milk production

cost 4ur~ dl~rent seasons at the time of both the studies might , be ~ frobl the following table :~

[ S5

56 ]

,_, u

E

- a

~

t I

I I

I I

C"'4 ...... 0 00 0 .....

• <.0 000 a . _N

--

-~

r-0 ."=1"

_ ........

._., .

-

.,.~ ~ ~-- ~~~* r- * ;.-.., __ r---*~ -
~ ;;::QO~ LrJO r-* lr\ '('-1"*
'i! ~ 08 ~8 '0 - . 0 .' -<t g
- r- 00 0 -r e '8 <'10 .
l() _. I.Q 0_ r-O 1,0 ......... C M _ l,()
('I"l a. ...... 0\ ("1'"'. =., N t"") ..... 0,(') 0 ......
.,::-. ...... :::t ._. ..... ~- r"'l N,_,
0' fOC::L -- -
, .
.,.:. "
j: ~. f.~ ~~~~ ....... -.,.g -,-., Ro-e. .-
*-- '"'1* o~
.0) r---I)
~ .~~ ~ 11 ~ .~ ~~ • 'D .- In· ·":0 '0.1 Ir':;
~~ '0'1 No"o ....... 0... O-::q '.ON
.... O<n .=> • ~'-'
t'-' i8 ~ tf'"l • - f")~ '>C}t"-
M IF) r.-. N ::::;...-i
!~~/L N ___ N 00 - ..... _M ..... lfi
Ju _("4 ._.,
",4 (·i ; ,:; --
L.,:· . ;'
~*--- V* -. N ~-.--.. N~ ~--
-* '-0 -.o;::;.g 01) t- ~ 00 '..q"*
~ ....-i~ t"1~ .-7l--o '-
N .0' "qN NN -0 0. ..... r- ll')
~ ffl 00 00...- 0"'1 • V oot o ' ~ 0"- 0\ • ..... 0"-
- O._a N • '¢.:?; N-..o 00'> ###BOT_TEXT### • ("1") 00 lI") •
a>.1,0 C-~ l"'"-- ..... 0"1 N \Q N
~. -- - -"=T ~
-- --
~:: ' ~ , "
'./IJ; of'':' ~ .. "
<iIt !::l
tt·· It:
1" ~';; t '~"'-l'~~' :N~' 00·* Ir)'- 0..*1.1')_ 0\* -..
- ~q-r--:* 0() l""'--~ O';~ 10*
.'!') ~'i ~ ,:::J~ N t-- r--: 10' r-:I""I
.~t-. l-I,t'\ M v: r-rt -0 MO'I
. - '-' . 0 r-. . ~ .
'~I!~ I'~' '- N • N 'N N
- ·N ......
._. .._.. ---
c.
10 ,
.. ~
~. '; ....
. _."'
:I~i;··:o _J j.-. I
!-'Co It-- o-,~ t"--~_.- ~* ~~
·'·'·11 .~~ a:: ....... ~~'I!~
...... .rr:. QC Off') ("1100 c ...... ' t- r--:IO
"L~l ·t!!:fi J'. .. . . ,- QO .t--= "IiI' - N • N....: N~ 1./")1,() t"'--a..
,...... _ .. N ' • N V""l • -.::t •
_Vl ~ .... M
-- _. -.n ~ ---- f"'l~~~ ~"* (f'"t--; ~* -
~.r-- e::; ~ ###BOT_TEXT### '-0 • 0,(') ...... o:""'!.~ 1:'--:.10 l""I~
.0-.1() .f"") ...0 N_ • to co 00 o:f"o-. s_
"I:f".t'"--'O OG '.q -..,. l-. 11'1 l"-- • ~..,.
C"'""i .._.. • 0\ • ('fj t""-l • __,~ N •
- t"r"I _ N ~
..._., ..__. ._., .,- [ 57

From the above data. one might obtain a view of the trends. of the change between the two study periods in relation to the components of milk production cost. It is clear that in this region feeding expenses, family labour and grazing expenses account for more than 80%, of the total expenses a cattle-breeder has to incur on the dairy enterprise as a whole throughtout the year. Of course the extent of these expenses goes down during the rainy season but there is a substantial increase during the winter either because the cattle breeders want to maintain the flow of milk production obtained during the rainy season or because of a larger number of conceptions during this period. Of course. if we compare data percentage of both study periods, we find a great variation and qualitative change. Whereas during 1966 study feed accounted for a very negligible percentage of total expenses during rainy season, now it accounts for more than fifty percent of the share. This is a great qualitative change and perhaps it is either due to the adoption of better management practices or due to the growing realisation that milking cattle should be given guar even during the rainy season if sufficient quantities of quality milk are to be obtained with an eye on getting increased cash receipts thereof.

An attempt has also been made to evaluate the role of family labour in the dairy enterprise. Obviously, it is a very complicated matter because no cattle breeder maintains an accurate account of the family labour involved in the upkeep and maintenance of the cattle wealth as a whole, nor it is possible to do so in view of the fact that agriculture and cattle breeding go together and it is

N. B. :- The present study has not taken into consideration any of the expenses incurred on the maintenance and construction of cattle sheds because in our opinion there do not exist any sheds worth mention. Similarly capital cost of milch cattle and depre .. ciation thereof has not been taken into consideration because of the fact that the cattle breeders have inherited their cattle wealth from their forefathers and almost all of the milch cattle have grown up in their own households. Of course, at the time of calculating actual cost of milk production, both these items have been included.

58 ]

,'-,

'""""

" "

very 4ifficult to separate the two economic operations, which are supplementary to each other and provide means of practically total sustenance to the village people. But there seems to have come a definite charge in the use of family labour pattern. Whereas family labour constituted 82.91 % of the production cost-component during the rainy season at the time of the 1966 study, it has come down to approximately 25.66'}(., during the same season at the time of the present study. This variance as already stated is due to a large increase in the expenses incurred on the feed of the animals at the time of the present study.

The third noticeable change occurs in the extent of expenses on water. Whereas at the time of previous study expenses on water accounted for a much larger content in the cost structure, now there is a substantial change in this respect, the reason being the easy availability of water due to round the year supply of canal water to the breeders of the first cluster of _ villages and tap water to the cattle breeders of the second cluster. It shows that expenses on water supply are likely to come down in all those areas, as may fall under the canal project or which may be connected to the tap water supplies.

As regards expenses on grazing. there is comparatively a general increase during the summer and rainy seasons whereas grazing expenses during the winter season during the study years 1966-67 & 1976-77. do not show any significant variation. It might

be concluded that now cattle breeders have to take more care of their milch cattle and do not enjoy the same facilities of open grazing grounds. as were available to them at the time of the previous study. It might be attributed either to the decrease in the grazing areas or to the disintegration of old family structure. Now

.: spirit of individualism is gaining ground and old community

:~. feeling is on the decay.

"

There are lesser expenses on the dead animals now "but

~~;; veterinary charges have gone up. It indicates an increased awareness on the part of the cattle breeders in respect of better scientific management.

[ 39

The situation obtaining in respect of interest component does not present any significant variation but it was observed that interest charges on current loans are more or less paid regularly and that some of the cattle breeders also repay the loans in instalments.

There is an increase in the veterinary charges. It indicates that cattle breeders realise the importance of making use of the new medicines which have been developed for curing sickness among the milch cattle and spend some money on that account.

In the end, it wiH be worthwhile to observe/ that the cattle breeder has realised the importance of milk marketing and he likes to take all such steps as may help him raise his milk production capacity even if he has to incur a bit more expenditure on the various items necessary for the growth and maintenance of his cattle in proper shape.

The following table may enable us to make a qualitative assessment of comparative expenses incurred by a cattle breeder during different seasons at the time of the previous study and the present study:-

60 ]

~ "'::~i .' : .. : ', : .• :. -, ~ •..

"=':~ . - .. ;:. ~ ..

.. 1

: ....

r

i" -,

, ,

, ... : ~

" ..... - ..

N _

O-.q NOO

_ t1"'l

-

o ,....,

CX?~

..... ......

00 ....... N

.

....... 1""":0

-

1.0 00 0-

~ .......

o DO OO'<:t'

o - -

-

N to V 0

.

-

- 0 V) 00

'-0 N

- -

- .....

.

[ 61

roo

~

-

From this table it is evident that during the decade (1966·16), per milch cattle veterinary charges have very much gone up. Whereas previously it was as low as 11 paisa per milch cattle t it has gone up to Rs. 7.85 per milch cattle. This increase is due to growing awareness of the usefulness of the medicines as well as to the phenomenal increase in their cost during the period. It also indicates that there exist more veterinary facilities now as COID* pared to these available to the cattle breeders at the time of the previous study.

Looking to the prices of various cost co mponents at the time of the previous study and the present one, there does not seem to have been any significant variation in them . other than feed and family labour. Inspite of large variations in the price structure of the feed components, the available data show that now cattle breeders quantitatively as well qualitatively provide more nutritio us feed to the milking cattle with an object of getting increased milk out-put and the approximate increase in the feed component is in the vicinity of 80-100%. Similarly the extent of family labour at the time of the present study seems to have gone down considerably looking to the cost of labour at the time of the previous study. Whereas hire charges for one male labourer are about Rs, 5/- per day at present, services of one male labourer at the time of the previous study could be secured for approximately Rs. 2/~. Looking to this variation factor, the present per milch animal family labour charges look much less comparatively.

From the above data) it is also clear that per milch cattle water charges have gone down even if we adopt the value of 1976 rupee as equal to 42 paisa of 1966, as adopted in this study.

Feed: Extent of farm production and market purchasn.

Feed, which is a major component of milk production cost. is obtained by cattle breeders either from their own agricultural operations or through market purchases. All the quan tities of GuI, Merhi, and cotton seed needed as cattle feed are purchased from the market situated at Loonkaransar in the context of the first Cluster, from both Loonkaransar a Sardarsbahar in the case

62 )

I

~ .. -~.

1_<···

.

,

'.~~

of second C] uster and from Mahajan and Loonkaransar by the cattle breeders of Cluster Ill. As regards Guar and Moth. it is either obtained as farm produce or is purchased from local producers, but in case! there are scarcity and famine conditions, it is also procured from the marketing centres mentioned above.

~:/_ .

,<.

The following table may present a comparative view of relative importance of both the sources of feed suppl;: and the noticeable changes during the intervening periods of both the studies :-

[ 63-

o

......

64 ]

8

-

8

.....,

-

-.:t o

M

8

......

8

4'1 -

~

-

88

.............

,

'"

'the above data indicate a vast change in the cattl e management practices during the intervening period of both the studies, particularly during the rainy and winter seasons. Whereas average expenditure made by each cattle breeder family at the time of the previous study was only Rs, 24.26 and Rs, 164.77 respectively. it substantially went up in the year 1976- 77. The relative figures of Rs. 492.36 for the rainy season and Rs. 1002.04 for the winter season speak of this factor in very unequivocal terms.

~: :.!t

It also becomes clear from the above data that less market purchases are made during the Zamana years and that there are always more purchases during the period of scarcity. As for instance, during the rainy season of the year 1966 the cattle breeders had to secure about 72.38% of the feed component through market purchases whereas this figure came to a very low figure of 25.92% in the relative period of the year 1976-77. Similarly whereas during winter of 1976-77,only 9-54% of the needed feed components were purchased from the market, relative figure for the year 1966-67 was 34.97%. Similarly it was only 14.72% in the year 1976 as compared to 24.39% of the year 1966.

Let us also analyse the situation obtaining in respect of milk production cost components in relation to the different Herd size groups. The following table presents an interesting picture of the prese nt day situation:-

~;. I

[ 6S

._ o

66 1

,.

-

8

-

-

*

- -

eN

- It') o

N

,.._,

Prom the above table it may be concluded that total expenditureon the cattle breeding enterprise goes on increasing more or less in proportion to the increase in the number of cattle, but the trends of expenditure on particular items do not show such similarity. On the contrary there seem to be wide disparities in the percentage of expenditure on various components of milk production cost. Even the component of family labour which is 24.33% of the total cost in 1-4 herd size groups and which goes on decreasing in the case of 5-9, 10--14 & 15-19 herd size groups] goes up by about 4% in the case of herd size group 20 & above. Similarly expenditure on cattle feed and fodder t which goes on increasing from 55.13% to 75.66% in the respective herd size groups 1 to 4. goes down by more than 14% in the case of herd size group 5 i.e. 20 and above. It may be concluded that herd size group 20 and above can not be established as the optimum group size from the view point of profitability of the dairy enterprise.

Sale of Milk" Milk-Products.

Marketing of milk and milk products is one of the most important constituents_of the dairy enterprise. Therefore. we had to go minutely into the details of the various aspects of the sale of milk and milk products in the surveyed area and particularly the surveyed families with a view to assess an approximately near accurate-profit and loss position of the dairy enterprise.

The following table presents a picture of the marketing position of milk and milk products during the different seasons vis-a-vis milk production :-

( 67

Tab1e 4 :11
Marketing of milk and milk products vis-a-vis production
during different seasons in the surveyed house holds.
Sale of milk Sale of milk
Total in the form
Season production of liquid in the form Total Sale
milk of Ghee
Summer 114437 50757.60 15665.20 66422.80
lOO 44.36% 13.69% 58.05%
Rainy 141429 50178.90 31241.00 81419.9
Season 100 35.48% 22.09% 57.57%
Winter 131757 41813.50 24484.00 . 66297.50
100 31.74% 19.34% 51.08%
Total 387623 142750.00 71390.2 214l40.2
100 36.83% 18.42% 55.25% From the above data; it might be concluded that approximately 55 to 60% of the .total milk production finds marketing channels in either of the forms and that whereas the rainy season accounts for the largest sales in volume. from the percentage point of view, it is the summer season which accounts for the highest sale i.e. 44.36% as compared to 35.48% during the rainy season and only 31.74% during the winter season. Obviously, it will not be proper to make any categorical statement in the matter because during the surveyed period. the obtaining circumstances were rather unusual. Firstly. because the D. M. S. stopped its operations in September 1976 and thus cattle breeders of Lakshmi Narainsar and Kankarwala, the two surveyed villages lost the usually available marketing facility and secondly even when Kankarwala started supplying milk to the Urmul, it could not maintain the same place in milk supplies as obtained during the period of the D. M. S.

operations .

..

68 ]

Another important aspect relates to the sale of milk in the form of ghee, Obviously the cattle breeders think it more convenient to sell raw milk in its liquid form and that they do not attach more importance to the ghee manufacturing activity either

,::1Jecause they feel that ghee manufacture is a costly and labourious ~'·;>undertak.ing or because they need more constant cash flow, which '.' . obviously. they can not obtain if they take to ghee manufacture.

abet marketing is more or less a seasonal affair and there are wide ftuctuations in the price of ghee during different seasons, Prices of vegetable oils and oilseeds have great bearing on the price of ghee and unfortunately under the present circumstances they are more or less influenced by the speculative operations also. Even the Government has not achieved any appreciable success in controlling the impact of harmful speculative tendencies on the oil trade. Thirdly. due to its geographical background, this area does not enjoy a profitable ghee market as. is obtaining in other urban areas, where money has less consideration and where one may spend a few more rupees for obtaining pure ghee. Cash money needs of the locals know.no bounds and they are forced to sell their ghee at lower price. when they are in need of cash. It also appeared to

, Us that .. by and by, they have come to the conclusion that milk ~.e is a' more paying proposition and that they always have to :{.:,_"ose when they manufacture ghee and take up its sale. It is true .t many of the interviewees appreciated our argument in respect ::'/' ()f the nutritious value of buttermilk which they were losing while

selling their milk in the raw form but obviously they were limited in number.

Another aspect of milk marketing is the sale of milk in relation to 'milch cattle and cattle in milk; it may be evidenced form tile foJ1owing table :-

[ 69

Table 4:13

Average daily sale of milk during different seasons (Per milch cattle and per cattle in milk)

( In Kgs, )

Details

Summer

Rainy Season

Winter

Total

Sale of milk per
milch cattle .897 1.017 .837 .950
Sale of Milk
per milch cattle
in milk 2.188 2.411 1.788 2.129 As compared to average mllk production per milch cattle in milk, which is 3.83 kgs., the total average sale of milk in its various forms is 2.129 Kgs .• Some variations were observed in the productive capacity of the Rathi and Deshi Cows which were 4.04 Kgs, and 3.25 Kgs. respectively If We compare these figures with the figures obtained at the time of the previous study, we shall find that there is an appreciable increase in the productive capacity of the cattle as we1l as volume of sales per cattle in milk. Of course, it could not corroborate that milk marketing facilities have kept pace with the over all increase abserved in the production capacities. Looking to the figures of milk availability, it might be said that there is vast scope for expansion of milk marketing facilities in the area. The following set of tables may give us an idea of the extent of per family and per capita income as well as per kg. prices, which various herd-size groups of families have obtained from the sale of milk and milk products during different seasons:

70 1

"0 u C

......

"8

o u

-

- V':.

N

- o

.-r:I

-

0'\ ("')

~~

00 00

- -

N o.n

-

-

M

-

...... 0\

- 00

0'1

-

I

lr)

-

[ 71

~
g.q)_ N 00 ~ ###BOT_TEXT### 0\ ..... o.n In ("l r- ...0 -.::t
:;: '1S ~ II"l a-. ..... 00 ('f"J 1..0 c.q ..... t- iN ###BOT_TEXT### ("f')
~ ~ . .
~"::--.C ..0 ~ '-"I I:"- .-. ~ .." oo::t ###BOT_TEXT### I"f'":I
::::~..._ M t- N '-0 M '-0 '-0 M ###BOT_TEXT### ("f)
<:..
0.,
-..
aoi
eo
~
c C'I r-- "1: C! ..,. 00 "'1" 1.0 lrl - 0 ~
- ~ <'i 00 . ~ ..¢- t;
....... s N M N 00 0 0
-- 00 -.c ..... 0'. '-C ~ ###BOT_TEXT### trl 0'1
Il'l ~ N ..... M '-0 Vi 1..0 0 trl r-.. ('1")
Q., ("'\ I:"- M g 0 ..- ff) ~ N - N ......
= ...... I.£) c<""l ...... N .... N ...... -.:t r--
0 .....
to
~
.,....,
en
"'0 t M 0 ..... 0 ~ 0 lr) 0 .,...... 0 V'"l 0
1-0 - . - v} • -.:i
4l ;:: ..... ...., 0:..-. t- O\. r- 0'\ 0,,0 00 M
~ ~ 0-. ""f' 0 ..0 ID 0\ ['f'"J 0'1 .- J-. ~
00 0- IF) - ['<'j 00 "'1- 0 N l."'- r- OO
;::t ('l ....-+ CO r- r-- tr) '>D ###BOT_TEXT### t- rt"l - ~
0 - V
......
I-<
c<j
;>
>-. s
..,... ..c O"J
- r:.':l a f") 0 0\ 0 ~ 0 0\ 0 ~ 0 0'\ 0
c:: ~ . . 0-.' ~ r-.i
\C! f"'"I 0 ..... ("tj ['f'") rt'"l 00 .....
"'¢ 0 ~ ff') oQ r- l"- ("') 0 O¢ M lI) V l"- ~
<I) ~ r- r- t"j -.0 00 N ("I') ~ ~ -
~ ~ ;::.." C"'-I 00 0 0-. I,Q 0'1 >,,0 r-.. 0 ......
...... t!J .5 ..... V) ~
.t:J 00
~ ...... r::::
I:l ~
~
~
.....
'"0 0'. t- "o:f' 0 ..... 00 0 ###BOT_TEXT### N ..-I ~ ('j
.... ...£- g ('0') M ~ .
co ~ 00 ..-I ###BOT_TEXT### t- V r-- .....
c: IE V') 00 r--- a-. ###BOT_TEXT### N ("'.J 0\ OQ 'I") ###BOT_TEXT###
._ E v 00 'Of' eo 0 t'"'l - OQ I,l") c- l"- 'D
"'" ###BOT_TEXT### N 1.0 M C"') VI 00 "....; 1.0 ('.'I 0 on
:::I t3 ..... ...... tr.
"t:I
]
CD
.~ ,.!o
~ -
u ~ U ',.!ltl ~ 01> ~ ~ ,.!:o:i 0 ..
,!:.d ~ .,g ~ .:.c q"J J§
~ - - - ...... .,........ .....
._ . - . .., ,.c:; ._ ~ ...... .d '0001
._ ::E o ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ (
a ..
* I
;....,
0 "t
~ c
1
!
VI: •
,
III I
> •
0 <
~ ~
oJ
o::t 0-. ~ '3 (
- .-I
,. 0'1 6 I •
J. IF) 0 0
...... - ..... N f-!
72 ] ~ ... ,f,' ..

11t:·.~· . .

. -. f -From these;tables it is evident that average per capita income

! goes on increasing alongwitb the increase in the number of milch Gattle in ~ family. It bas risen from Rs. 930.77 P. in the group of

,"families having 1-4. size herds to Rs. 6795.60 in the group of fami~ .. ; lies having Herd Size Groups of milch cattle 20 & above; Average ~?tl b)come. per family from ~ilk:. sales is ~768.63-whi.ch .. look~ng.to ~: ~ .~11~ national level of per capita income, IS a substantial and signifi-

cpt amount.

Protlaction, consumptloD and saJe of .milk duriog surveyed weeks.

From on the spot weekly surveys in respect of milk production, consumption and sale of milk during different seasons, we obtained

. I ~

different results as might be evident from the tables given -jn-the

following pages. Of course: there is one essential similarity. in both the studies, which is reflected by the fact that the families-in the smaller herd size groups produce less milk than what.is produ-

. eed by the families in the larger herd. size groups and that usually

, ~ they do not have any surplus milk to sell. ; - .

... .. P.' . As compared with the previous study J we witness a vast change ~!~?;q- in the milk production figures during winter season. Whereas ·the -, ~ average milk production per family was only 31.30 kgs. at the time ; of the previous study during the winter season, it rose to·91.115 kgs.

daring this very season at the time of the present study.. Similar . tendency was observed during the summer also where I?er ·family . a"erage production of 46.07 kg. in the previous study ~ it west up.to ; 1~1.28 kgs. at the time of the current one. One of the reasons for 1 ~ wide variation might be the timings of the survey, _ For the ; ndny season, data for the purpose of the present study were collec; tcp: in the first week of July, while data for winter season were ; eellected in the first week of November and data for summer were

I : collected In the last .week ·of Februa~y whereas the data collected at (.), ." the time of the previous study related to those weeks in September .. . :. ·,J~uary & May ...

'J.. .

~~ .... i"

" - The data

o. • ibqJow ;~. ~.

. ~ .

obtained d~ring the present study· are given

. .

~ -.

[ 73.

74 ]

l"'"- "o:!" Moc<nOt:"-\,'")

NoOo:f..n-o

###BOT_TEXT### 0 t- 0\ 0-.

""""'--N -

_###BOT_TEXT###- -

~V) _ I I =

~- I I

~- I I

I f 1 , ,

o¢ t-- \Q o:'"l V) 'o::f"O"Io-.:t-o ~oOr:.:.,y)~""; MOONV)~

__, ..............

r--N""""""" -

00"<:1"-- ....... '1":1 -

I I I

v- I I

~'o::f"V)o-, 00 O\-OOlt'"lO N

N.n-oO!"1"i....!

!;"') 0 r-- <"-1. ttO -_(".,)N -

11)1111

~ I I M

I fIN

_ ......

OOOt'f')C Otrl 0'\ Or""l

N~~>-o~

-N'OI3"'onr-

I I I J I

I , I

o N

-

! I I ...... I

1 I - 1--

I 1-- --

I I I

r-- I - I r

00

-

00

[ 15'

- q - 00 ("\I ('f'\ '.0
- ...... r-- q ('f) q
('f) 0 v1 - ~ -
V N VI V ~
...... - N ..-I
to:
r
0 N 1.0 -.:t ###BOT_TEXT### ~ ......
.... M ...... - \C
..
I - I '"=t M r- I V;; ffi I

76 ]

MI

~I

From a comparative study of the above tables. it is evident that the number of milk producers producing more than 100 kgs. milk in a week has gone up substantially at the time of the present study. During the winter season. whereas there were only 2 out of 61 producers producing more than 100 kgs, of milk in a week at the time of the previous study, their number has gone up to 32 out of 78. which clearly indicates that as compared to the years of the previous study J per family as well as per animal milk production has gone up substantially.

Similar tendencies might be discernible in respect of summer season. Whereas only 6 families out of 61 i.e. approximately 10% produced on an average more than 100 kgs, of milk in a week at the time of the previous study, the number went up to 40 i.e, approximately 50% of the surveyed families. It shows qualitative as well as quantitative change in the attitude of cattle breeders which may be attributed to the working of the organised milk marketing schemes in the area. The breeders have become more production conscious and have begun to realise the importance of cash receipts.

As regards marketable milk surpluses during the surveyed weeks in different seasons. the following table may serve as an appropriate indicator of the same. Of course. these figures do not include the sales of ghee because accidentally no ghee was sold by the surveyed households during our stay period on all the three occasions. Usually ghee sale is a seasonal phenomenon and there are no day to day sales of ghee in the villages. They go on collecting ghee and dispose it either when some one comes to their village and offers them good and remunerative rates or when they go to the town and sell their surplus ghee at the prevailing market rate. Some times such ghee sales might be distress sales as well, because there is urgent cash need.

Any how, taking due cognizance of the above factors. and making necessary adjustments in the calculations in view of the fact that practically ratio of milk sale and ghee sale is 2: 1, the table given below relates to the trends observed during the present study

, r-;- "

;.r_ ~.:

._

(See table On next page)

'.-

[ 77

78 ]

[ 79

--_,.,

If we compare the figures obtained during the previous study with the figures obtaining now ... it is evident that at the time of the previous study milk producers in the range of 21-50 (production group) had marketable surplus during different seasons as follows :-

Rainy season 26.94%, summer season 53.92% and winter 48.05%. while the relative figures obtained at the time of the present study are as follows :-

Rainy season 13.82. summer 4.20% and winter 8.94%,. It clearly shows that as compared to the previous study ~ per capita milk consumption in the lower production range group has gone up and only because of it they now have comparatively less marketable surplus than obtained at the time of the previous study. If we compare the figures relating to production group (Sl-H)() kgs),

the re1ative figures are as under :- '

TabJe 4~19 A
-
1966-67 1976---77
Summer 59.04% 26.93% . ,
.
Winter. 60-.74% 20.35% .
.. ,
Rainy 60.61% 27.55% ~ It also confirms the same trend that cattle breeders in the lower production groups have comparatively lower percentage of marketable surpluses now which leads to the conclusion that they now better appreciate the importance of increased milk production and that they are rrot as crazy after cash as they were at the time of the previous study. It may, to some extent, be attributed to prevailing milk prices which, looking to the depreciation in the real value of money, are not as attractive as they obtained during the year 1966-67.

The above conclusion may be confirmed by the following table also :-

80

''00.

]

Table 4 ! 20

Total milk production" consumption and marketable surplus of three weeks during different seasons in tbe years 1976-77 aDd 1966-67 (In kgs.)

Season

Total milk Total consump- Total milk production lion in the week sales in the

in the week with % week with %

Year

Summer 1976-77 * 1966-67

Rainy 1976-77

* 1966-67

Winter 1976-77

* 1966-67

5492 (58.01) 3976 (41 92) 1132.80(40.67) 1655.65(58.93) 6072.5 (65.53) 3639.5 (37.47) 2768.39(37.95) 46l4.13(62.41) 5079.6 (71.56) 2018 7 (28.44)

869.01 (44.72) 1071.34(55.13)

9468 (IOO) 2810 50 (100) 9712 (100) 7384.77 (100) 709 L3 (100) 1943.35 (100)

Total of

3 weeks 1976-77 26278.3 (leO) 16644.1 (63.34) 9334.2 (36.66) * 1966·67 12138.17 (leO) 4780.20(39.38) 7341.12(60.48)

From the above data, it is also very clear that generally per capita consumption has gone up substantially during the surveyed periods and that it is a good sign but it cannot be denied that during the period. our team collected the data. many of the cattle breeders had to consume more milk because of the fact that theD.M.S. had stopped functioning and that cattle breeders of two' villages had not got acclimatised with the Urmul management-the other organised milk marketing scheme which replaced the D. M. S. in these two villages.

Milk production cost; Profit &; Loss Perspectives.

Before passing any judgment whether dairying as a whole has got the potentialities of a sound and viable enterprise and whether it is being run or can be run on a profitable basis. it is very essential to go minutely into the details of milk production-cost, taking into consideration all the factors; which form part of the dairy enterprise and contribute to the successful running of the cattle breeding enterprise as a whole.

NB.-*If we minutely go into the figures of the previous study, a slight discripancy might be discernible in the figures but it is very 'insignificant and does not affect the basic conclusion.

[ sr .

There are two types of expenses which the cattle breeders have to incur. Firstly) there are certain expenses which a cattle breeder shall have to incur irrespective of the fact whether any of the cattle looked after by him yields him any return or not. The other expenses comprise those which he incurs only if he gets some thing in return. Obviously, such expenses are related to the actual milk yields, which have got an exchange value for the cattle breeders. Expenses incurred on. the supply of feed and fodder to the milking animals fall under this category. While calculating cost of milk production, one should necessarily take into consideration the value of cattle herd; which is the back bone and primary constituent of the dairy enterprise. No dairy enterprise is possible unless there are cattle, whatever might be the source of obtaining cattle-it might be one's acquisitions from his forefathers or might be through purchases by his own efforts. it is necessary that each person. running an enterprise in a village I shall have to maintain a herd of cattle and shall have to maintain it to the best of his ability in a manner that cattle rearing might provide bim some means of his own sustenance as well as the sustenance of his family members. As regards the question of allowing depreciation and interest on the investment it is very difficult to arrive at a consensus in the matter. Opinion is likely to differ as to the percentage of depreciation as well as interest. In the present study 10% of the value of cattle herd is taken as depreciation value. The same amount is allowed as interest though prevailing interest rates in the villages a.re much higher. but taking into consideration the factors of uniformity as well as the highes t Bank rate allowed to money depositors, we have thought it advisable to adopt the above standard. Milk production cost has been calculated in four variables. While calculating cost A, cost of total cattle herd has been taken into consideration and depreciation and interest charges at .10% each have been. allowed on all the capital cost •. The other items of expenditure included are as follows;-

Depreciation of the implements used in the dairy enterprise looking to their durability and serviceability, cost of feed and fodder, expenses on cattle grazing, veterinary charges, expenses on water. miscellaneous expenses and cost of family labour involved in the

82 ]

dairy enterprise in any form or manner, hut at the time; while calculating cost A 1. family labour has been excluded from the total cost i.e. cost A. It will help us to make an assessment of the role of family labour into the dairy enterprise. The third cost variation relates to the milking cattle. All the expenses incurred on the maintenance of milking cattle including cost of family labour have been taken into consideration at the time of calculating this cost 'B'. We have also calculated the cost after deducting the cost of family labour naming it as Cost B I. All these four variations in cost calculation will help us make a true assessment of the various potentialities of this enterprise and enable us to make a proper review of the profit and loss position of the same. It is true that cattle breeders dont run this enterprise on any scientific basis nor they calculate their profit and loss on the lines adopted by the business concerns n or it is possible and practica blc for most of them to undertake to do so but still, it is very important to take into consideration all such factors because then & then only one can arrive at any definite and near accurate conclusions about the working of this enterprise vis a vis the organised milk marketing schemes and the social economic impact brought by them upon the contact people as well as the general population of the area as a whole.

Seasonal as well as biological factors have also a close bearing on the milk-production cost. During rainy season .. when fodder is available in plenty and it is less expensive to procure it. the cost goes down, while the scarcity periods account for higher prices for feed and foodcr both and thus they raise the over-all milk-production costs. Similarly by their very progeny or nature some cattle give better milk yields whereas others fail to give similar results. Diseases also. to a great extent, affect milk production cost. firstly. because the catt1e breeder has to spend larger sums for the treatment of his ailing cattle and secondly their milk yield gets decreased. Of course it adds to milk production costs. Price offered to a cattle breeder by the milk purchasers has also a great bearing. I t acts both ways. Some times it may help him obtain better milk yields thereby reducing per kg. milk production cost and some times be fails to obtain favourable results due to mechanism of varying and unremunerative milk prices.

[ 83

In the context of the above mentioned considerations and limitations, the following table is illustrative of the different types of variable costs during both the study periods :~

Table 4 : 21

Cost of 1 Kg. of milk production in all the variables during different

seasons.
Season Year Cost A Cost Al Cost B Cost Bl
Summer 1976 113 97 65 58
1966 62 49 51 44
Rainy 1976 73 60 58 48
1966 ]8 *,30 11 02
Winter 1976 100 92 88 80
1966 61 40 43 34
Average 1976 94 82 70 62
Total 1966 35 19 25 17 From the above tables, it is clear that during rainy season, per kg. milk production cost in all the variables is less than that obtained during summer and winter seasons. Secondly, milk production costs during the rainy season are progressively going up because the cattle breeders now provide more feed and fodder to their cattle even during this season with a view to either obtain more m ilk yields or to improve the quality of their stock.

It might be evident from the above data that milk production cost B & B I during winter of the present study show an increase of 23 P and 22 P respectively over the cost B & BI obtained for the summer season. We came across two contributory factors for this increase-( 1) Cattle breeders had to spend a lot for the treatment of cattle diseases during winter season which led to an increase in the per kg. milk production cost. Secondly rates of

*Cost Al obtained during the previous study obviously has s-ome discrepancy. After the deduction of the cost of famiI) labour, per kg. milk production cost AI, (as shown in the previous table) should have been somewhat less than 18 P.

84 )

feed articles during this winter went up substantially due to market fluctuations in the prices of moth and guar throughout the country, They had to pay 50% more for the feed during these months than what they had to pay during the summer season.

Milk production costs in different herd size groups of families do not present any different picture from that obtained above except that milk production costs in the context of large herd size groups is necessarily always not less than that obtained in the context of smaller herd size groups.

The following table illustrates the position of different cost variations during both the study-periods :~

( See table on next page)

I

~

'I.

[ 8,

86 1

4... o .....

'"

o

u

Qd

-

-=:t

.....

I o

....

,-

-

Ciusten &: Milk production cost :

In the context of the surveyed clusters. milk production cost variables present a. different picture from that obtained above. Whereas milk production cost has gone down in cluster r due to increased and easy water availability, it has gone up in the third cluster, where situation in respect of a vailability of good water supplies has got deteriorated during the 10 year period and where overall decrease in milk production has added to milk production costs.

Sale price of milk :

There are no set principles for the determination of sale prices. It is true that prices. offered to the cattle breeders by the organised milk marketing agencies, are more or less regulated by certain specific criteria but the same does not apply to the cattle breeders not covered by organised milk marketing schemes. They have to sell their milk to Khoya manufacturers at their own convenience or to sell their ghee products at fluctuating market prices,

The following table may give us an idea of the overall prices ~. which cattle breeders of the surveyed clusters obtained during , different seasons from the sale of milk and ghee (converted into milk for calculation) taken together :-

Table 4 : 23

" Sale price of milk (per kg.) obtained by cattle breeders
t
during different seasons :
Cluster Survey Different seasons Total
year Summer Rainy Winter Average
I 1976-77 97 tOl 89 96
1966-67 43 39 54 46
\ II . 1976-77 JOI 103 109 104
t
1966-67 55 55 55 55
III 1976-77 82 81 92 85
J - 1966-67 43 32 56 44
Average 1976-77 99 101 .10. 100
1966-67 47 46 55 49
[ 8.7 From the above table. we may arrive at the definite conclusion that cattle breeders in cluster III, which is not covered by any organised milk marketing scheme and where cattle breeders have to sell their milk to Khoya manufacturers at the prevalent market prices. and which fluctuates according to the prices of Khoya obtained in Bikanerv-e-got on an average 11 % less price for their milk sale than that obtained by the cattle breeders of cluster I and about 19% less than that obtained by the cattle breeders of cluster II. The cattle breeders of cluster I. many of whom could not sell their marketable surplus milk to the organised milk schemes during the winter season due to the closure of D. M. S. operations. obtained approximately 20% less than that obtained by the cattle breeders of cluster II, who sold most of their marketable surplus to the U rumul. It shows the importance which the organised milk marketing schemes possess in the economic life of this area.

Profit & Loss:

Now let us come to the profit and loss account of the cattle breeders from dairy enterprise in relation to the cost variables during different seasons.

Table 4 : 24

Profit & loss from the sale of milk (per Kg.) during
different seasons.
( In Paisa)
Seasons Study Cast A Cost A1 Cost B Cast BI
Years
Summer 1976-77. . __ .. ~14. +2 +34 +41
1966-67 ·~15 -2 -4 +3
Rainy
Sea-son 1916~77 +28 +4 +43 +53
1966-67 +28 +45.70 --+35 +46
Winter 1976-77 +1 +9 +13 +21
1966-67 -6 +15 +12 +21
Average 1976-77 +6 +18 +30 +38
1966-67 + 15 +30 +24 +32
- .
8-S J ~ C'I ~ QO
+ + +
.....
~ t"'l 0 r-
.... CI1, '-0 o.n +
'" , +
8 ,
-.it I
! I~ .... ~ ee
on "<t I
.. -+- +
~
""
-= ~ M ..., ~
q,\
:0. + N I
,"_:',_: S +
rc;I
C.II J::c:J V"l i
.!! .... ('Ii '<t .......
'"" ..., ~ + + ;;..,
::::I e -Q
-= =
--::- ...,
'"
=.JJ ....., r-. QQ ......
.:aI. M ,.., .... =
... If;'j -+ + I .v
~ ""
,e I:::
p,
:Q :! t)
's ~ M co <"1 ..s
I - I
.... + S
'II' e
Jl. .!l '"
~ to)
~ 011: ..... ~
Ill> -..:.
~ ~ t:<. ('.I 0.. ...... 'E
~ ..... lrl M 1
~ ., + +
- u g
e 1':1
~J •• 0 "0
J:l I~ '-0 (-, on '"
~ + + e-- :.a
Io'l I (-;
~ --
~ ...
a ~ N 0 o.n
.....
~ - ,.....
e + ~
~
~ ~,
-..~ ......
. ~ ~ .:: r- Oo
0~ I"""> ~ M
'" + + I
<IJ
+" ~
'"
f' = ii::
0 r-- M I,')
E I .... 0\
;:s l 1
CI:l
t ~
...
'"'
.\ ~ -
it E;..) - ~
..... -
;,
~ [ 39
!I:' From the above data it is clear that the cattle breeders of cluster III .. which is situated at a distance from the operation area of organised milk marketing schemes. has to suffer constant losses from dairy enterprise during all the seasons except in case of cost variable BI and this situation can not offer these cattle breeders any consolation. During summer all the cattle breeders have to suffer losses if the cost of family labour is included and whatever little profit is visible in cost variable AI, may not be obtained if standard of minimum labour/wages is applied to them. In the present context prevailing/wage rates have been taken into consideration which are lower than the prescribed minimum in respect of women and child labour. Besides this, the rates of feed and fodder during most of this period barring winter months were rather very low due to go od rains in the year 1975 as we 11 as 1976 and there was plenty of stocks with the cattle breeders. In case they were to obtain all their feed and fodder requirements from the market, it would have greatly affected their profitability structure.

It will be worth while if a comparative) analysis of profit and loss account is made with an eye on the value", a rupee commanded in the year 1966 and what it commands in 1976. This sort of analysis may help us to arrive at the conclusion whether profitability prospects of dairy enterprise have improved during this ten year period and whether the cattle breeders are better off now and their economic prosperity and well being have substantially increased. The data given below may also ena hie us to find out the extent and proportion of loss and profit during this period.

Table 4 : 26

Extent of profit " loss doring intervening period of both studies in different seaSODS !

Year Cost Cost Cost Coat
Season of 'A Al B Bl
study
1976 -14 + 2 +34 + 41
Summer
1966 -36 5 -10 -7
Difference over the previous price level.
-22 + 7 +4'4 +48
90 ] 2 3 4 5 6 7
1976 +28 + 41 +43 + 53
Rainy
1966 +67 +107 +83 +110
Difference over the previous price level.
-39 - 66 -40 -57 1976 + 1 + 9 +13 +21
Winter
1966 -14 +36 +29 +50
Difference over the previous price level.
+15 +27 -16 ~29
1976 +6 +18 +30 +38
Average
1966 +36 +71 +57 +76
Difference over the previous price level.
In paisa Cost A Cost Al Cost B Cost Bl
With % -30(83) ~53(75) -27(47) -38(50) (-) denotes as to how much less per kg. price a cattle breeder gets nowadays.

(+) denotes as to how much more pnce per kg a cattle breeder gets now.

N.B. (Value of Rupee in 1976 taken as 42% of the value which a rupee commanded in 1966-(See Weekly Hindustan-s-Independe nee Number 1977)

.'j

:""

'.,}

t~·· .

From the above data, it may be clear that the price level obtaining at present is less remunerative to cattle breeders now than it was at the time of the previous study. Of course, summer season has shown better results during the present study but the overall picture is dismal and disappointing,

._

.-

[ ~l

It will also be useful to have analytical data regarding the cost of milk-production and milk sales (per kg.) from this angle. From these data, which are given below. it may be clear that during this period milk production costs have gone up substantially and also that the cattle breeders get lesser price for their product as compared to the price. they used to obtain at the time of the previous study.

(See table on next page)

92 ]

~" .... _. .

... m"~.,C&;~~~-breediDg economy of the region. The number

JS._ . -""lupeup in all the four villages where better drink- 7--ja:tet facilities are available and which fall under the operatiOD. 8tea of organised milk marketing schemes. Buffalo breeding depends upon the availability of sufficient water throughout the

- ',eat-and. inspite of natural and environmental superiority which cow-bRedinS economy occupies in the area, there is a likelihood that bIlffalo breeding may play an increasingly important Tole in the economy of the region in future.

Heri-size groups and milk production

A study of milk production viz-a-viz herd-size groups is of .... t ¥8luc in providing pointers to the directions in which they can make their business more remunerative through larger milk production at comparatively reduced costs. Hence it is very .1ipi:6cant to collect information on the milk production

[ 45

tendencies and find out to which herd size-group offers better opportunities to a cattle breeder in the present structure of cattle breeding economy. Obviously, this sort of investigation is very different and complicated and it becomes all the more problematic if there is general reluctance on the part of the breeders to reveal various details. This situation becomes more complicated if the breeders, any how. happen to tend any unfounded suspicion towards the investigatiing agency in a particular context as obtained during the days of emergency when the excesses of Nasbandi made them suspicious of the bonafides of every outsider, (howsoever wen-meaning he might be) who put to them various questions relating to their economy and specially their cattle wealth. which form the part parcel of their very existence.

Yet an earnest attempt has been made to collect various data to the extent of near accuracy as far as possible. It has been sought to present a true picture of the situation as obtained in respect of the various categories of cattle breeders in relation to the number of milch cattle in milk with them. The following table may be illustrative of milk production tendencies during different seasons in the years 1976 & 66 vis-a-vis the various herd size groups of families and it may make interesting revealations in respect of the change that has occurred during this period in this region !~

46. ]

Table 4.4

Herd..aize group" &

Summer

(In Kgs.)

Rainy Winter Total

season Average

l~J9

1976 . 1966

1976 1966

1976

3.72 4.25 3.25 3.74
2.32 3.87 1.56 2.59
3,46 4.55 3.78 3.93
2.09 3.73 1.62 2.40
4.04 4.11 3.42 3.86
2.26 3.56 i.sa 2.47
3.06 4.41 3,98 3.82
2.25 3.39 1.60 2.42
2.70 3.96 3.07 3.24
1.88 3.51 1.56 2.32 14-l 1976

1966

S-9

10-14

,. 1966

leA! Above 1976 -h:) .. " - 1966

-

1976 ,1966

3.64 2.18

4.31 3.58

~.55 1.59

3.83 2.45

-, _ ',firc:u'ri the above data, it may be concluded that per cattle milk ~M irfbetd-stte group I is not the highest now as was obtained at ~ ti'ifte or previous study I nor the per cattle milk yield necessarily IoIesdoWri Along with the increase in number of cattle with a

,_Iy: From the present 'study, one may come to the conclusion UWr,'~rut'!s falling und-er Herd':"'Si~e Group II i.e. families having '~" cattte 'on an average produce more milk than that obtained ~-~~s 'COrning under (1-4) animal Herd-Size Group, This ,dWy~~ 'Us to the conclusion that Herd-Size Group I (1-4 ~a1s) ~pi~s fourth place from the view point of per cattle

t: ~;~" ;' : "- ,

.--! i

[ 47

milk yield. it can not be denied that it is more convenient to maintain smaller number of animals and that a breeder having smaller number of animals can attend to them in a better manner and may achieve better results in respect of milk production but the milk productions trends obtained from the present investiga"tions do not give indications of the above conclusion either because the breeder families coming under Herd-Size Group II have star-

ted paying more attention to the uukeep of their cattle with a view to obtain more cash income or because the breeder families in Herd-Size Group I pay less heed to their cattle either because they lack requisite economic resources for the proper upkeep of their cattle or because they do not have higher milk surplus to sell and possess very little capacity for getting aoy cash returns from this enterprise. Anyway, the present trends are at variance from the previous trends in some respects.

While looking into the optimum size of animal Herds from the view point of profitability, we shall have to take into account many other factors such as the drinking water facilities during Zamana as well as scarcity years and also the seasonal availability of the same, sufficient grazing and feeding resources and their time1y availability ~ capacity to purchase milch cattle with their own resources or borrowed capital and, of course, human resources-strength of labour force in requisite quantity-whether it is available within the family "or it is secured through hired labour. If there is no balance between all these factors, the breeder family can't maintain the optimum size of herd and because of that can not 0 btain maximum benefit from the dairy enterprise. It need not be stressed that dairy enterprise is also an industrial undertaking and it has to pass through all that mechanism which is essential for the profitable running of an industrial undertaking. It means that small cattle breeders maintaining one or two cattle heads can not get benefit to that extent, to which big cattle breeders are likely to get. Whateyer benefit small cattle breeders derive, it is derived by them because of the input of their labour, which remains almost idle for most part of the year due to the lack of other gainful means of employment and whatever small quantities of milk .. they happen

48 ]

, '.-it . is soid at : the cost of their own health as weii as the "Ill' 1Il of their children, who are always in need of nutriturive '. ",.._,.~~ b~t whic~ ,is denied to them because of their impoverished . ..,_oDUC condidoas,

, .

~,.{~ B'· "c-: ~ .

~.}::' ... :.'\::~"k~ true that from the available data one might gather an ~·;::'>'.APiasioD that cattle breeders in herd size groups 5-9 & 10-14 . . . have the most favourable environment and they derive minimum

. benefit from this enterprise because of the production factor i. e. p,.' aJ.ttle milk production output in their case, is larger as com~ -. to the breeders of other hear size groups .

. .sen it can not be categorically said that only these herd size Jl(?ups command an optimum advantageous position. There iaa(ways likelihood of obtaining different results in the context of c:beaged circumstances in relation to size of land holdings, availability of capilal resources, extent of rain fall and of course ~st:rensth of labour force.

J

.>-~:.._ If -we look to these milk production statistics in context of the total number of milk cattle in the surveyed families, we ~ at a conclusion different from that arrived in the previous ,..Ir. (See next table). Here cattle breeders of the lowest group

·~(IIfiI'"s.iZe 1-4) occupy first place in respect of per cattle milk "_ction and the milk yield per cattle has gone down alongwith ~. ~Wll i9Crease _ in the number of milch cattle in the breed~i<~8.· The same results were obtained at the time of the ~Kma~y ..

'-'-'.' ,1he~llowing table is illUstrative of the above conclusion; ~; mile~eattle Milk production during different seasons in diffe .. ~r~e~,e1lize groups is given below:-

:::_::.": .

'·10,'

.....

. ~-: "'

~t~~··.

[ 49

table 4:~

Milk Production per milch cow (In Kgs.)

Herd Size Summer Total No. Rainy Total No. Winter Average

Groups 0/ Season of Total Total

Animals Animals No. of

(629)

(633)

A nima Is (660)

1-4 22.3 2.39 1.78 2.13
5~9 1.74 2.18 2.16 2.03
10-14 1.44 1.91 1,70 1.68
15-19 1.06 1.63 1.50 1.40
20 &
above 1.22 1.14 1.12 1.13 Average Total

1.49

1.82

1.66

1.17

If we look into the factor of milk production in different herd size groups from the view point of cattle breed, we do not arrive at any different conclusion. Similar tendencies in milk yields seem to prevtil except (1) that during summer the fifth Herd Size Group (20 & above) shows better yield than the fourth (15-19) & (2) that during winter second group (5-9) has shown better yield than the first group (1-4). It may be attributed to two factors.-(a) that the number of dry cattle in the particular group during the season might have been much larger and because of the smallness in the number of breeder families in the group such a different result is being obtained (b) that during winter comparatively a larger number of cows in milk in group If might have led to a qualitative change in the productivity of this group

50 ]

, . ,:'."". '.4t'dje _4eiLth of a cow In milk in one of the families in group 1 .' :~ .' •. ' (l~ might have-disturbed the' balance through the mechanism ';" of,· ... tota~ out~ut in ~hat group. Any way. the ?veraH ave~age

~ productton figures m respect of all the five categorised "~ lead us to the same conclusion as stated above.

, ... ·1

., .. j

.:",+.:-·:~'I'1 ProMtioa aD4 Claters

,ewe view milk-production in relation to the clusters, we . . come across a different picture. This variance in milk

~ at ... statistics might either be the result of the variance

~ number and percentage of various breeds of cattle or the

geotiaphica1. . environmental and other conditions 0 btaining in the 4it1'erent clusters.

, ,

. One may better come to appreciate the role of drinking water facilkies in this context. The extent of availability of drinking water all the year round affects total as well as per cattle milk .l'idd and the following tables present a very interesting picture

;J>t#..,De: .

!

-,

_.

tr_

,' .

. ,.:; .i=>:

[ 51

52 ]

-< z

..( i

.

-e

z

It~lnigbt be: concluded from the above data that milk yield " haaaone up to a great extent in cluster [ due to the canal waters, ..iich have been brought in its proximity in recent years. whereas

a.bas lone down in cluster Ill. where general water level in the ;'f"';,~,wdls has dropped considerably and where the drinking water has ~.~_ .. }_ ,.ore and more salty, Thus increase in salt content in water ,_ litis ,pIit.,.d havoc with the generak health of the milch cattle in .... cJusta- and, has resulted in decreased yield. Lack of orga .. aliii6mi1kmarketins bas also affected the milk yield and low "Tel Of ,milk prodtlCtion are a clear indication of the same.

Alongwith the analytical study of the above figures. it will also be fruitful to have a view of the number and percentage of the different breeds obtaining during the study period as they form the basic study material :-

Table 4 ~ 7

':,.' :

,'i .:

- Total No. o/mllch cattle

Cows Rathi

Deshi

She-buffulos

253

102 149 2
40.32% 58.89% ~79%
203 5l 38
69.52% 17.47% 13.01%
68 12 4
80.95% 14.29% 4.76% II

,10&% 292

,tOO%, 84

,:1-

m

..... :t I.

~ "... ... .' ..

'100%

• -i. r , ,.. •

Total: 629

~ .. :, ', .. ;., -'.' - ~·lOO%

373

312

44

59.30%

33.70%,

, .. T·'1..··

[ 53

The above data indicate that there is a great variance in the quality percentage of various breeds in the first and third Clusters. Whereas the Rathies form more than 80% of the milch cattle population of the surveyed families in cluster III, the percentage of Rathi Cows is about half the number in Cluster 1. At the time of previous study the Rathi Cows formed 96% of the milch cattle population in this very cluster whereas the percentage of Rathi Cows in relation to total milch cattle population in Cluster I was about 19% only i. e. one-fifth of the Cluster III. Thus qualitatively Cluster I has gained a better position because the percentage of high milk yielding Rathi Cows has gone up by more than HX>%) whereas this percentage has come down by about 16% in Cluster HI. This qualitative change in the percentage of various breeds might be either the result of the severity of recurring famines and scarcity conditions during the last decade in case of Cluster III as compared to Cluster I or the result of comparatively better drinking water facilities in cluster 1 due to the availability of canal waters in its proximity in the recent years. One more interesting feature noticeable is the increase in the percentage of buffaloes in Cluster II. where better drinking water facilities .are available as compared to the first Cluster in which water has to be carried either on the camel back or in iron tanks drawn by camel carts.

It may also be reasonably concluded that overall milk yield in the third Cluster bas gone down substantially except a slight variation during the winter season. This may attributed to the following factors :-

(1) Reduction in the percentage of the Rathi breed of cows which are generally better and higher yield cattle.

(2) Lack of the opportunities of organised milk marketing in the area and grad-ual deterioration in drinking water conditions. drop in the water level of existing wells and increase of the salt content in water.

The data in relation to Second Cluster also clearly indicates that better water arrangements alongwith a. qualitative change in

54 ]

.. "":"

:--~;.:'.}::~:.

: '-ldie _~ried set-up as well as organised milk marketing facilities have -I. to increased production .

,. ;Ceapoaents of tbe Cost of Milk Production

,;:-~fl It is Dot an easy task to find out the production cost of milk. ',' ;Ite various components are of very complicated nature and for lmOJt of the cattle breeders milk production is a side line incidental '-to tht maintenance of cattle for various considerations and ; dlOtM! having no relation with the economics of cattle breeding. ··Thfte is great divergence in the components of milk production'cost. To a great extent it depends upon the availability of various

infra-structural' facilities in a particular area and cluster and also . upon the psychological bent and make of the breeder families as . wen 8!S their socio-economic back ground and out-look. There is dO a great variation in the cost of production in relation to the ,size groups as well as to the seasonal changes.

,

! '., Ip the context of the present study. the following components ; ~..uk production Cost have been taken into consideration:-

;'.' . .

, -

1 - '-. • • •

1(1), ~ (18cludmg grazing and feeding expenses).

t~),,;~~~iation on animals .

. I':::':ih--rt·st on capital.

.,' (4) Paid Labour.

; (5) Unpaid labour i.e. family labour.

I (6) Depreciation on investment ~ dairy implements etc. ; (7) . Expenditure incurred on water supply for the cattle. _ (8) Expeaoses on dead animals.

i (9)~~'Vcter:inary charges,

-Ii, --.:

1 (to)~Uaneous recurring expenditure (inclusive of milking and '*thcr charges)

! .: . :

Ii A- P~ of the various components of the milk production

cost 4ur~ dl~rent seasons at the time of both the studies might , be ~ frobl the following table :~

[ S5

56 ]

,_, u

E

- a

~

t I

I I

I I

C"'4 ...... 0 00 0 .....

• <.0 000 a . _N

--

-~

r-0 ."=1"

_ ........

._., .

-

.,.~ ~ ~-- ~~~* r- * ;.-.., __ r---*~ -
~ ;;::QO~ LrJO r-* lr\ '('-1"*
'i! ~ 08 ~8 '0 - . 0 .' -<t g
- r- 00 0 -r e '8 <'10 .
l() _. I.Q 0_ r-O 1,0 ......... C M _ l,()
('I"l a. ...... 0\ ("1'"'. =., N t"") ..... 0,(') 0 ......
.,::-. ...... :::t ._. ..... ~- r"'l N,_,
0' fOC::L -- -
, .
.,.:. "
j: ~. f.~ ~~~~ ....... -.,.g -,-., Ro-e. .-
*-- '"'1* o~
.0) r---I)
~ .~~ ~ 11 ~ .~ ~~ • 'D .- In· ·":0 '0.1 Ir':;
~~ '0'1 No"o ....... 0... O-::q '.ON
.... O<n .=> • ~'-'
t'-' i8 ~ tf'"l • - f")~ '>C}t"-
M IF) r.-. N ::::;...-i
!~~/L N ___ N 00 - ..... _M ..... lfi
Ju _("4 ._.,
",4 (·i ; ,:; --
L.,:· . ;'
~*--- V* -. N ~-.--.. N~ ~--
-* '-0 -.o;::;.g 01) t- ~ 00 '..q"*
~ ....-i~ t"1~ .-7l--o '-
N .0' "qN NN -0 0. ..... r- ll')
~ ffl 00 00...- 0"'1 • V oot o ' ~ 0"- 0\ • ..... 0"-
- O._a N • '¢.:?; N-..o 00'> ###BOT_TEXT### • ("1") 00 lI") •
a>.1,0 C-~ l"'"-- ..... 0"1 N \Q N
~. -- - -"=T ~
-- --
~:: ' ~ , "
'./IJ; of'':' ~ .. "
<iIt !::l
tt·· It:
1" ~';; t '~"'-l'~~' :N~' 00·* Ir)'- 0..*1.1')_ 0\* -..
- ~q-r--:* 0() l""'--~ O';~ 10*
.'!') ~'i ~ ,:::J~ N t-- r--: 10' r-:I""I
.~t-. l-I,t'\ M v: r-rt -0 MO'I
. - '-' . 0 r-. . ~ .
'~I!~ I'~' '- N • N 'N N
- ·N ......
._. .._.. ---
c.
10 ,
.. ~
~. '; ....
. _."'
:I~i;··:o _J j.-. I
!-'Co It-- o-,~ t"--~_.- ~* ~~
·'·'·11 .~~ a:: ....... ~~'I!~
...... .rr:. QC Off') ("1100 c ...... ' t- r--:IO
"L~l ·t!!:fi J'. .. . . ,- QO .t--= "IiI' - N • N....: N~ 1./")1,() t"'--a..
,...... _ .. N ' • N V""l • -.::t •
_Vl ~ .... M
-- _. -.n ~ ---- f"'l~~~ ~"* (f'"t--; ~* -
~.r-- e::; ~ ###BOT_TEXT### '-0 • 0,(') ...... o:""'!.~ 1:'--:.10 l""I~
.0-.1() .f"") ...0 N_ • to co 00 o:f"o-. s_
"I:f".t'"--'O OG '.q -..,. l-. 11'1 l"-- • ~..,.
C"'""i .._.. • 0\ • ('fj t""-l • __,~ N •
- t"r"I _ N ~
..._., ..__. ._., .,- [ 57

From the above data. one might obtain a view of the trends. of the change between the two study periods in relation to the components of milk production cost. It is clear that in this region feeding expenses, family labour and grazing expenses account for more than 80%, of the total expenses a cattle-breeder has to incur on the dairy enterprise as a whole throughtout the year. Of course the extent of these expenses goes down during the rainy season but there is a substantial increase during the winter either because the cattle breeders want to maintain the flow of milk production obtained during the rainy season or because of a larger number of conceptions during this period. Of course. if we compare data percentage of both study periods, we find a great variation and qualitative change. Whereas during 1966 study feed accounted for a very negligible percentage of total expenses during rainy season, now it accounts for more than fifty percent of the share. This is a great qualitative change and perhaps it is either due to the adoption of better management practices or due to the growing realisation that milking cattle should be given guar even during the rainy season if sufficient quantities of quality milk are to be obtained with an eye on getting increased cash receipts thereof.

An attempt has also been made to evaluate the role of family labour in the dairy enterprise. Obviously, it is a very complicated matter because no cattle breeder maintains an accurate account of the family labour involved in the upkeep and maintenance of the cattle wealth as a whole, nor it is possible to do so in view of the fact that agriculture and cattle breeding go together and it is

N. B. :- The present study has not taken into consideration any of the expenses incurred on the maintenance and construction of cattle sheds because in our opinion there do not exist any sheds worth mention. Similarly capital cost of milch cattle and depre .. ciation thereof has not been taken into consideration because of the fact that the cattle breeders have inherited their cattle wealth from their forefathers and almost all of the milch cattle have grown up in their own households. Of course, at the time of calculating actual cost of milk production, both these items have been included.

58 ]

,'-,

'""""

" "

very 4ifficult to separate the two economic operations, which are supplementary to each other and provide means of practically total sustenance to the village people. But there seems to have come a definite charge in the use of family labour pattern. Whereas family labour constituted 82.91 % of the production cost-component during the rainy season at the time of the 1966 study, it has come down to approximately 25.66'}(., during the same season at the time of the present study. This variance as already stated is due to a large increase in the expenses incurred on the feed of the animals at the time of the present study.

The third noticeable change occurs in the extent of expenses on water. Whereas at the time of previous study expenses on water accounted for a much larger content in the cost structure, now there is a substantial change in this respect, the reason being the easy availability of water due to round the year supply of canal water to the breeders of the first cluster of _ villages and tap water to the cattle breeders of the second cluster. It shows that expenses on water supply are likely to come down in all those areas, as may fall under the canal project or which may be connected to the tap water supplies.

As regards expenses on grazing. there is comparatively a general increase during the summer and rainy seasons whereas grazing expenses during the winter season during the study years 1966-67 & 1976-77. do not show any significant variation. It might

be concluded that now cattle breeders have to take more care of their milch cattle and do not enjoy the same facilities of open grazing grounds. as were available to them at the time of the previous study. It might be attributed either to the decrease in the grazing areas or to the disintegration of old family structure. Now

.: spirit of individualism is gaining ground and old community

:~. feeling is on the decay.

"

There are lesser expenses on the dead animals now "but

~~;; veterinary charges have gone up. It indicates an increased awareness on the part of the cattle breeders in respect of better scientific management.

[ 39

The situation obtaining in respect of interest component does not present any significant variation but it was observed that interest charges on current loans are more or less paid regularly and that some of the cattle breeders also repay the loans in instalments.

There is an increase in the veterinary charges. It indicates that cattle breeders realise the importance of making use of the new medicines which have been developed for curing sickness among the milch cattle and spend some money on that account.

In the end, it wiH be worthwhile to observe/ that the cattle breeder has realised the importance of milk marketing and he likes to take all such steps as may help him raise his milk production capacity even if he has to incur a bit more expenditure on the various items necessary for the growth and maintenance of his cattle in proper shape.

The following table may enable us to make a qualitative assessment of comparative expenses incurred by a cattle breeder during different seasons at the time of the previous study and the present study:-

60 ]

~ "'::~i .' : .. : ', : .• :. -, ~ •..

"=':~ . - .. ;:. ~ ..

.. 1

: ....

r

i" -,

, ,

, ... : ~

" ..... - ..

N _

O-.q NOO

_ t1"'l

-

o ,....,

CX?~

..... ......

00 ....... N

.

....... 1""":0

-

1.0 00 0-

~ .......

o DO OO'<:t'

o - -

-

N to V 0

.

-

- 0 V) 00

'-0 N

- -

- .....

.

[ 61

roo

~

-

From this table it is evident that during the decade (1966·16), per milch cattle veterinary charges have very much gone up. Whereas previously it was as low as 11 paisa per milch cattle t it has gone up to Rs. 7.85 per milch cattle. This increase is due to growing awareness of the usefulness of the medicines as well as to the phenomenal increase in their cost during the period. It also indicates that there exist more veterinary facilities now as COID* pared to these available to the cattle breeders at the time of the previous study.

Looking to the prices of various cost co mponents at the time of the previous study and the present one, there does not seem to have been any significant variation in them . other than feed and family labour. Inspite of large variations in the price structure of the feed components, the available data show that now cattle breeders quantitatively as well qualitatively provide more nutritio us feed to the milking cattle with an object of getting increased milk out-put and the approximate increase in the feed component is in the vicinity of 80-100%. Similarly the extent of family labour at the time of the present study seems to have gone down considerably looking to the cost of labour at the time of the previous study. Whereas hire charges for one male labourer are about Rs, 5/- per day at present, services of one male labourer at the time of the previous study could be secured for approximately Rs. 2/~. Looking to this variation factor, the present per milch animal family labour charges look much less comparatively.

From the above data) it is also clear that per milch cattle water charges have gone down even if we adopt the value of 1976 rupee as equal to 42 paisa of 1966, as adopted in this study.

Feed: Extent of farm production and market purchasn.

Feed, which is a major component of milk production cost. is obtained by cattle breeders either from their own agricultural operations or through market purchases. All the quan tities of GuI, Merhi, and cotton seed needed as cattle feed are purchased from the market situated at Loonkaransar in the context of the first Cluster, from both Loonkaransar a Sardarsbahar in the case

62 )

I

~ .. -~.

1_<···

.

,

'.~~

of second C] uster and from Mahajan and Loonkaransar by the cattle breeders of Cluster Ill. As regards Guar and Moth. it is either obtained as farm produce or is purchased from local producers, but in case! there are scarcity and famine conditions, it is also procured from the marketing centres mentioned above.

~:/_ .

,<.

The following table may present a comparative view of relative importance of both the sources of feed suppl;: and the noticeable changes during the intervening periods of both the studies :-

[ 63-

o

......

64 ]

8

-

8

.....,

-

-.:t o

M

8

......

8

4'1 -

~

-

88

.............

,

'"

'the above data indicate a vast change in the cattl e management practices during the intervening period of both the studies, particularly during the rainy and winter seasons. Whereas average expenditure made by each cattle breeder family at the time of the previous study was only Rs, 24.26 and Rs, 164.77 respectively. it substantially went up in the year 1976- 77. The relative figures of Rs. 492.36 for the rainy season and Rs. 1002.04 for the winter season speak of this factor in very unequivocal terms.

~: :.!t

It also becomes clear from the above data that less market purchases are made during the Zamana years and that there are always more purchases during the period of scarcity. As for instance, during the rainy season of the year 1966 the cattle breeders had to secure about 72.38% of the feed component through market purchases whereas this figure came to a very low figure of 25.92% in the relative period of the year 1976-77. Similarly whereas during winter of 1976-77,only 9-54% of the needed feed components were purchased from the market, relative figure for the year 1966-67 was 34.97%. Similarly it was only 14.72% in the year 1976 as compared to 24.39% of the year 1966.

Let us also analyse the situation obtaining in respect of milk production cost components in relation to the different Herd size groups. The following table presents an interesting picture of the prese nt day situation:-

~;. I

[ 6S

._ o

66 1

,.

-

8

-

-

*

- -

eN

- It') o

N

,.._,

Prom the above table it may be concluded that total expenditureon the cattle breeding enterprise goes on increasing more or less in proportion to the increase in the number of cattle, but the trends of expenditure on particular items do not show such similarity. On the contrary there seem to be wide disparities in the percentage of expenditure on various components of milk production cost. Even the component of family labour which is 24.33% of the total cost in 1-4 herd size groups and which goes on decreasing in the case of 5-9, 10--14 & 15-19 herd size groups] goes up by about 4% in the case of herd size group 20 & above. Similarly expenditure on cattle feed and fodder t which goes on increasing from 55.13% to 75.66% in the respective herd size groups 1 to 4. goes down by more than 14% in the case of herd size group 5 i.e. 20 and above. It may be concluded that herd size group 20 and above can not be established as the optimum group size from the view point of profitability of the dairy enterprise.

Sale of Milk" Milk-Products.

Marketing of milk and milk products is one of the most important constituents_of the dairy enterprise. Therefore. we had to go minutely into the details of the various aspects of the sale of milk and milk products in the surveyed area and particularly the surveyed families with a view to assess an approximately near accurate-profit and loss position of the dairy enterprise.

The following table presents a picture of the marketing position of milk and milk products during the different seasons vis-a-vis milk production :-

( 67

Tab1e 4 :11
Marketing of milk and milk products vis-a-vis production
during different seasons in the surveyed house holds.
Sale of milk Sale of milk
Total in the form
Season production of liquid in the form Total Sale
milk of Ghee
Summer 114437 50757.60 15665.20 66422.80
lOO 44.36% 13.69% 58.05%
Rainy 141429 50178.90 31241.00 81419.9
Season 100 35.48% 22.09% 57.57%
Winter 131757 41813.50 24484.00 . 66297.50
100 31.74% 19.34% 51.08%
Total 387623 142750.00 71390.2 214l40.2
100 36.83% 18.42% 55.25% From the above data; it might be concluded that approximately 55 to 60% of the .total milk production finds marketing channels in either of the forms and that whereas the rainy season accounts for the largest sales in volume. from the percentage point of view, it is the summer season which accounts for the highest sale i.e. 44.36% as compared to 35.48% during the rainy season and only 31.74% during the winter season. Obviously, it will not be proper to make any categorical statement in the matter because during the surveyed period. the obtaining circumstances were rather unusual. Firstly. because the D. M. S. stopped its operations in September 1976 and thus cattle breeders of Lakshmi Narainsar and Kankarwala, the two surveyed villages lost the usually available marketing facility and secondly even when Kankarwala started supplying milk to the Urmul, it could not maintain the same place in milk supplies as obtained during the period of the D. M. S.

operations .

..

68 ]

Another important aspect relates to the sale of milk in the form of ghee, Obviously the cattle breeders think it more convenient to sell raw milk in its liquid form and that they do not attach more importance to the ghee manufacturing activity either

,::1Jecause they feel that ghee manufacture is a costly and labourious ~'·;>undertak.ing or because they need more constant cash flow, which '.' . obviously. they can not obtain if they take to ghee manufacture.

abet marketing is more or less a seasonal affair and there are wide ftuctuations in the price of ghee during different seasons, Prices of vegetable oils and oilseeds have great bearing on the price of ghee and unfortunately under the present circumstances they are more or less influenced by the speculative operations also. Even the Government has not achieved any appreciable success in controlling the impact of harmful speculative tendencies on the oil trade. Thirdly. due to its geographical background, this area does not enjoy a profitable ghee market as. is obtaining in other urban areas, where money has less consideration and where one may spend a few more rupees for obtaining pure ghee. Cash money needs of the locals know.no bounds and they are forced to sell their ghee at lower price. when they are in need of cash. It also appeared to

, Us that .. by and by, they have come to the conclusion that milk ~.e is a' more paying proposition and that they always have to :{.:,_"ose when they manufacture ghee and take up its sale. It is true .t many of the interviewees appreciated our argument in respect ::'/' ()f the nutritious value of buttermilk which they were losing while

selling their milk in the raw form but obviously they were limited in number.

Another aspect of milk marketing is the sale of milk in relation to 'milch cattle and cattle in milk; it may be evidenced form tile foJ1owing table :-

[ 69

Table 4:13

Average daily sale of milk during different seasons (Per milch cattle and per cattle in milk)

( In Kgs, )

Details

Summer

Rainy Season

Winter

Total

Sale of milk per
milch cattle .897 1.017 .837 .950
Sale of Milk
per milch cattle
in milk 2.188 2.411 1.788 2.129 As compared to average mllk production per milch cattle in milk, which is 3.83 kgs., the total average sale of milk in its various forms is 2.129 Kgs .• Some variations were observed in the productive capacity of the Rathi and Deshi Cows which were 4.04 Kgs, and 3.25 Kgs. respectively If We compare these figures with the figures obtained at the time of the previous study, we shall find that there is an appreciable increase in the productive capacity of the cattle as we1l as volume of sales per cattle in milk. Of course, it could not corroborate that milk marketing facilities have kept pace with the over all increase abserved in the production capacities. Looking to the figures of milk availability, it might be said that there is vast scope for expansion of milk marketing facilities in the area. The following set of tables may give us an idea of the extent of per family and per capita income as well as per kg. prices, which various herd-size groups of families have obtained from the sale of milk and milk products during different seasons:

70 1

"0 u C

......

"8

o u

-

- V':.

N

- o

.-r:I

-

0'\ ("')

~~

00 00

- -

N o.n

-

-

M

-

...... 0\

- 00

0'1

-

I

lr)

-

[ 71

~
g.q)_ N 00 ~ ###BOT_TEXT### 0\ ..... o.n In ("l r- ...0 -.::t
:;: '1S ~ II"l a-. ..... 00 ('f"J 1..0 c.q ..... t- iN ###BOT_TEXT### ("f')
~ ~ . .
~"::--.C ..0 ~ '-"I I:"- .-. ~ .." oo::t ###BOT_TEXT### I"f'":I
::::~..._ M t- N '-0 M '-0 '-0 M ###BOT_TEXT### ("f)
<:..
0.,
-..
aoi
eo
~
c C'I r-- "1: C! ..,. 00 "'1" 1.0 lrl - 0 ~
- ~ <'i 00 . ~ ..¢- t;
....... s N M N 00 0 0
-- 00 -.c ..... 0'. '-C ~ ###BOT_TEXT### trl 0'1
Il'l ~ N ..... M '-0 Vi 1..0 0 trl r-.. ('1")
Q., ("'\ I:"- M g 0 ..- ff) ~ N - N ......
= ...... I.£) c<""l ...... N .... N ...... -.:t r--
0 .....
to
~
.,....,
en
"'0 t M 0 ..... 0 ~ 0 lr) 0 .,...... 0 V'"l 0
1-0 - . - v} • -.:i
4l ;:: ..... ...., 0:..-. t- O\. r- 0'\ 0,,0 00 M
~ ~ 0-. ""f' 0 ..0 ID 0\ ['f'"J 0'1 .- J-. ~
00 0- IF) - ['<'j 00 "'1- 0 N l."'- r- OO
;::t ('l ....-+ CO r- r-- tr) '>D ###BOT_TEXT### t- rt"l - ~
0 - V
......
I-<
c<j
;>
>-. s
..,... ..c O"J
- r:.':l a f") 0 0\ 0 ~ 0 0\ 0 ~ 0 0'\ 0
c:: ~ . . 0-.' ~ r-.i
\C! f"'"I 0 ..... ("tj ['f'") rt'"l 00 .....
"'¢ 0 ~ ff') oQ r- l"- ("') 0 O¢ M lI) V l"- ~
<I) ~ r- r- t"j -.0 00 N ("I') ~ ~ -
~ ~ ;::.." C"'-I 00 0 0-. I,Q 0'1 >,,0 r-.. 0 ......
...... t!J .5 ..... V) ~
.t:J 00
~ ...... r::::
I:l ~
~
~
.....
'"0 0'. t- "o:f' 0 ..... 00 0 ###BOT_TEXT### N ..-I ~ ('j
.... ...£- g ('0') M ~ .
co ~ 00 ..-I ###BOT_TEXT### t- V r-- .....
c: IE V') 00 r--- a-. ###BOT_TEXT### N ("'.J 0\ OQ 'I") ###BOT_TEXT###
._ E v 00 'Of' eo 0 t'"'l - OQ I,l") c- l"- 'D
"'" ###BOT_TEXT### N 1.0 M C"') VI 00 "....; 1.0 ('.'I 0 on
:::I t3 ..... ...... tr.
"t:I
]
CD
.~ ,.!o
~ -
u ~ U ',.!ltl ~ 01> ~ ~ ,.!:o:i 0 ..
,!:.d ~ .,g ~ .:.c q"J J§
~ - - - ...... .,........ .....
._ . - . .., ,.c:; ._ ~ ...... .d '0001
._ ::E o ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ (
a ..
* I
;....,
0 "t
~ c
1
!
VI: •
,
III I
> •
0 <
~ ~
oJ
o::t 0-. ~ '3 (
- .-I
,. 0'1 6 I •
J. IF) 0 0
...... - ..... N f-!
72 ] ~ ... ,f,' ..

11t:·.~· . .

. -. f -From these;tables it is evident that average per capita income

! goes on increasing alongwitb the increase in the number of milch Gattle in ~ family. It bas risen from Rs. 930.77 P. in the group of

,"families having 1-4. size herds to Rs. 6795.60 in the group of fami~ .. ; lies having Herd Size Groups of milch cattle 20 & above; Average ~?tl b)come. per family from ~ilk:. sales is ~768.63-whi.ch .. look~ng.to ~: ~ .~11~ national level of per capita income, IS a substantial and signifi-

cpt amount.

Protlaction, consumptloD and saJe of .milk duriog surveyed weeks.

From on the spot weekly surveys in respect of milk production, consumption and sale of milk during different seasons, we obtained

. I ~

different results as might be evident from the tables given -jn-the

following pages. Of course: there is one essential similarity. in both the studies, which is reflected by the fact that the families-in the smaller herd size groups produce less milk than what.is produ-

. eed by the families in the larger herd. size groups and that usually

, ~ they do not have any surplus milk to sell. ; - .

... .. P.' . As compared with the previous study J we witness a vast change ~!~?;q- in the milk production figures during winter season. Whereas ·the -, ~ average milk production per family was only 31.30 kgs. at the time ; of the previous study during the winter season, it rose to·91.115 kgs.

daring this very season at the time of the present study.. Similar . tendency was observed during the summer also where I?er ·family . a"erage production of 46.07 kg. in the previous study ~ it west up.to ; 1~1.28 kgs. at the time of the current one. One of the reasons for 1 ~ wide variation might be the timings of the survey, _ For the ; ndny season, data for the purpose of the present study were collec; tcp: in the first week of July, while data for winter season were ; eellected in the first week of November and data for summer were

I : collected In the last .week ·of Februa~y whereas the data collected at (.), ." the time of the previous study related to those weeks in September .. . :. ·,J~uary & May ...

'J.. .

~~ .... i"

" - The data

o. • ibqJow ;~. ~.

. ~ .

obtained d~ring the present study· are given

. .

~ -.

[ 73.

74 ]

l"'"- "o:!" Moc<nOt:"-\,'")

NoOo:f..n-o

###BOT_TEXT### 0 t- 0\ 0-.

""""'--N -

_###BOT_TEXT###- -

~V) _ I I =

~- I I

~- I I

I f 1 , ,

o¢ t-- \Q o:'"l V) 'o::f"O"Io-.:t-o ~oOr:.:.,y)~""; MOONV)~

__, ..............

r--N""""""" -

00"<:1"-- ....... '1":1 -

I I I

v- I I

~'o::f"V)o-, 00 O\-OOlt'"lO N

N.n-oO!"1"i....!

!;"') 0 r-- <"-1. ttO -_(".,)N -

11)1111

~ I I M

I fIN

_ ......

OOOt'f')C Otrl 0'\ Or""l

N~~>-o~

-N'OI3"'onr-

I I I J I

I , I

o N

-

! I I ...... I

1 I - 1--

I 1-- --

I I I

r-- I - I r

00

-

00

[ 15'

- q - 00 ("\I ('f'\ '.0
- ...... r-- q ('f) q
('f) 0 v1 - ~ -
V N VI V ~
...... - N ..-I
to:
r
0 N 1.0 -.:t ###BOT_TEXT### ~ ......
.... M ...... - \C
..
I - I '"=t M r- I V;; ffi I

76 ]

MI

~I

From a comparative study of the above tables. it is evident that the number of milk producers producing more than 100 kgs. milk in a week has gone up substantially at the time of the present study. During the winter season. whereas there were only 2 out of 61 producers producing more than 100 kgs, of milk in a week at the time of the previous study, their number has gone up to 32 out of 78. which clearly indicates that as compared to the years of the previous study J per family as well as per animal milk production has gone up substantially.

Similar tendencies might be discernible in respect of summer season. Whereas only 6 families out of 61 i.e. approximately 10% produced on an average more than 100 kgs, of milk in a week at the time of the previous study, the number went up to 40 i.e, approximately 50% of the surveyed families. It shows qualitative as well as quantitative change in the attitude of cattle breeders which may be attributed to the working of the organised milk marketing schemes in the area. The breeders have become more production conscious and have begun to realise the importance of cash receipts.

As regards marketable milk surpluses during the surveyed weeks in different seasons. the following table may serve as an appropriate indicator of the same. Of course. these figures do not include the sales of ghee because accidentally no ghee was sold by the surveyed households during our stay period on all the three occasions. Usually ghee sale is a seasonal phenomenon and there are no day to day sales of ghee in the villages. They go on collecting ghee and dispose it either when some one comes to their village and offers them good and remunerative rates or when they go to the town and sell their surplus ghee at the prevailing market rate. Some times such ghee sales might be distress sales as well, because there is urgent cash need.

Any how, taking due cognizance of the above factors. and making necessary adjustments in the calculations in view of the fact that practically ratio of milk sale and ghee sale is 2: 1, the table given below relates to the trends observed during the present study

, r-;- "

;.r_ ~.:

._

(See table On next page)

'.-

[ 77

78 ]

[ 79

--_,.,

If we compare the figures obtained during the previous study with the figures obtaining now ... it is evident that at the time of the previous study milk producers in the range of 21-50 (production group) had marketable surplus during different seasons as follows :-

Rainy season 26.94%, summer season 53.92% and winter 48.05%. while the relative figures obtained at the time of the present study are as follows :-

Rainy season 13.82. summer 4.20% and winter 8.94%,. It clearly shows that as compared to the previous study ~ per capita milk consumption in the lower production range group has gone up and only because of it they now have comparatively less marketable surplus than obtained at the time of the previous study. If we compare the figures relating to production group (Sl-H)() kgs),

the re1ative figures are as under :- '

TabJe 4~19 A
-
1966-67 1976---77
Summer 59.04% 26.93% . ,
.
Winter. 60-.74% 20.35% .
.. ,
Rainy 60.61% 27.55% ~ It also confirms the same trend that cattle breeders in the lower production groups have comparatively lower percentage of marketable surpluses now which leads to the conclusion that they now better appreciate the importance of increased milk production and that they are rrot as crazy after cash as they were at the time of the previous study. It may, to some extent, be attributed to prevailing milk prices which, looking to the depreciation in the real value of money, are not as attractive as they obtained during the year 1966-67.

The above conclusion may be confirmed by the following table also :-

80

''00.

]

Table 4 ! 20

Total milk production" consumption and marketable surplus of three weeks during different seasons in tbe years 1976-77 aDd 1966-67 (In kgs.)

Season

Total milk Total consump- Total milk production lion in the week sales in the

in the week with % week with %

Year

Summer 1976-77 * 1966-67

Rainy 1976-77

* 1966-67

Winter 1976-77

* 1966-67

5492 (58.01) 3976 (41 92) 1132.80(40.67) 1655.65(58.93) 6072.5 (65.53) 3639.5 (37.47) 2768.39(37.95) 46l4.13(62.41) 5079.6 (71.56) 2018 7 (28.44)

869.01 (44.72) 1071.34(55.13)

9468 (IOO) 2810 50 (100) 9712 (100) 7384.77 (100) 709 L3 (100) 1943.35 (100)

Total of

3 weeks 1976-77 26278.3 (leO) 16644.1 (63.34) 9334.2 (36.66) * 1966·67 12138.17 (leO) 4780.20(39.38) 7341.12(60.48)

From the above data, it is also very clear that generally per capita consumption has gone up substantially during the surveyed periods and that it is a good sign but it cannot be denied that during the period. our team collected the data. many of the cattle breeders had to consume more milk because of the fact that theD.M.S. had stopped functioning and that cattle breeders of two' villages had not got acclimatised with the Urmul management-the other organised milk marketing scheme which replaced the D. M. S. in these two villages.

Milk production cost; Profit &; Loss Perspectives.

Before passing any judgment whether dairying as a whole has got the potentialities of a sound and viable enterprise and whether it is being run or can be run on a profitable basis. it is very essential to go minutely into the details of milk production-cost, taking into consideration all the factors; which form part of the dairy enterprise and contribute to the successful running of the cattle breeding enterprise as a whole.

NB.-*If we minutely go into the figures of the previous study, a slight discripancy might be discernible in the figures but it is very 'insignificant and does not affect the basic conclusion.

[ sr .

There are two types of expenses which the cattle breeders have to incur. Firstly) there are certain expenses which a cattle breeder shall have to incur irrespective of the fact whether any of the cattle looked after by him yields him any return or not. The other expenses comprise those which he incurs only if he gets some thing in return. Obviously, such expenses are related to the actual milk yields, which have got an exchange value for the cattle breeders. Expenses incurred on. the supply of feed and fodder to the milking animals fall under this category. While calculating cost of milk production, one should necessarily take into consideration the value of cattle herd; which is the back bone and primary constituent of the dairy enterprise. No dairy enterprise is possible unless there are cattle, whatever might be the source of obtaining cattle-it might be one's acquisitions from his forefathers or might be through purchases by his own efforts. it is necessary that each person. running an enterprise in a village I shall have to maintain a herd of cattle and shall have to maintain it to the best of his ability in a manner that cattle rearing might provide bim some means of his own sustenance as well as the sustenance of his family members. As regards the question of allowing depreciation and interest on the investment it is very difficult to arrive at a consensus in the matter. Opinion is likely to differ as to the percentage of depreciation as well as interest. In the present study 10% of the value of cattle herd is taken as depreciation value. The same amount is allowed as interest though prevailing interest rates in the villages a.re much higher. but taking into consideration the factors of uniformity as well as the highes t Bank rate allowed to money depositors, we have thought it advisable to adopt the above standard. Milk production cost has been calculated in four variables. While calculating cost A, cost of total cattle herd has been taken into consideration and depreciation and interest charges at .10% each have been. allowed on all the capital cost •. The other items of expenditure included are as follows;-

Depreciation of the implements used in the dairy enterprise looking to their durability and serviceability, cost of feed and fodder, expenses on cattle grazing, veterinary charges, expenses on water. miscellaneous expenses and cost of family labour involved in the

82 ]

dairy enterprise in any form or manner, hut at the time; while calculating cost A 1. family labour has been excluded from the total cost i.e. cost A. It will help us to make an assessment of the role of family labour into the dairy enterprise. The third cost variation relates to the milking cattle. All the expenses incurred on the maintenance of milking cattle including cost of family labour have been taken into consideration at the time of calculating this cost 'B'. We have also calculated the cost after deducting the cost of family labour naming it as Cost B I. All these four variations in cost calculation will help us make a true assessment of the various potentialities of this enterprise and enable us to make a proper review of the profit and loss position of the same. It is true that cattle breeders dont run this enterprise on any scientific basis nor they calculate their profit and loss on the lines adopted by the business concerns n or it is possible and practica blc for most of them to undertake to do so but still, it is very important to take into consideration all such factors because then & then only one can arrive at any definite and near accurate conclusions about the working of this enterprise vis a vis the organised milk marketing schemes and the social economic impact brought by them upon the contact people as well as the general population of the area as a whole.

Seasonal as well as biological factors have also a close bearing on the milk-production cost. During rainy season .. when fodder is available in plenty and it is less expensive to procure it. the cost goes down, while the scarcity periods account for higher prices for feed and foodcr both and thus they raise the over-all milk-production costs. Similarly by their very progeny or nature some cattle give better milk yields whereas others fail to give similar results. Diseases also. to a great extent, affect milk production cost. firstly. because the catt1e breeder has to spend larger sums for the treatment of his ailing cattle and secondly their milk yield gets decreased. Of course it adds to milk production costs. Price offered to a cattle breeder by the milk purchasers has also a great bearing. I t acts both ways. Some times it may help him obtain better milk yields thereby reducing per kg. milk production cost and some times be fails to obtain favourable results due to mechanism of varying and unremunerative milk prices.

[ 83

In the context of the above mentioned considerations and limitations, the following table is illustrative of the different types of variable costs during both the study periods :~

Table 4 : 21

Cost of 1 Kg. of milk production in all the variables during different

seasons.
Season Year Cost A Cost Al Cost B Cost Bl
Summer 1976 113 97 65 58
1966 62 49 51 44
Rainy 1976 73 60 58 48
1966 ]8 *,30 11 02
Winter 1976 100 92 88 80
1966 61 40 43 34
Average 1976 94 82 70 62
Total 1966 35 19 25 17 From the above tables, it is clear that during rainy season, per kg. milk production cost in all the variables is less than that obtained during summer and winter seasons. Secondly, milk production costs during the rainy season are progressively going up because the cattle breeders now provide more feed and fodder to their cattle even during this season with a view to either obtain more m ilk yields or to improve the quality of their stock.

It might be evident from the above data that milk production cost B & B I during winter of the present study show an increase of 23 P and 22 P respectively over the cost B & BI obtained for the summer season. We came across two contributory factors for this increase-( 1) Cattle breeders had to spend a lot for the treatment of cattle diseases during winter season which led to an increase in the per kg. milk production cost. Secondly rates of

*Cost Al obtained during the previous study obviously has s-ome discrepancy. After the deduction of the cost of famiI) labour, per kg. milk production cost AI, (as shown in the previous table) should have been somewhat less than 18 P.

84 )

feed articles during this winter went up substantially due to market fluctuations in the prices of moth and guar throughout the country, They had to pay 50% more for the feed during these months than what they had to pay during the summer season.

Milk production costs in different herd size groups of families do not present any different picture from that obtained above except that milk production costs in the context of large herd size groups is necessarily always not less than that obtained in the context of smaller herd size groups.

The following table illustrates the position of different cost variations during both the study-periods :~

( See table on next page)

I

~

'I.

[ 8,

86 1

4... o .....

'"

o

u

Qd

-

-=:t

.....

I o

....

,-

-

Ciusten &: Milk production cost :

In the context of the surveyed clusters. milk production cost variables present a. different picture from that obtained above. Whereas milk production cost has gone down in cluster r due to increased and easy water availability, it has gone up in the third cluster, where situation in respect of a vailability of good water supplies has got deteriorated during the 10 year period and where overall decrease in milk production has added to milk production costs.

Sale price of milk :

There are no set principles for the determination of sale prices. It is true that prices. offered to the cattle breeders by the organised milk marketing agencies, are more or less regulated by certain specific criteria but the same does not apply to the cattle breeders not covered by organised milk marketing schemes. They have to sell their milk to Khoya manufacturers at their own convenience or to sell their ghee products at fluctuating market prices,

The following table may give us an idea of the overall prices ~. which cattle breeders of the surveyed clusters obtained during , different seasons from the sale of milk and ghee (converted into milk for calculation) taken together :-

Table 4 : 23

" Sale price of milk (per kg.) obtained by cattle breeders
t
during different seasons :
Cluster Survey Different seasons Total
year Summer Rainy Winter Average
I 1976-77 97 tOl 89 96
1966-67 43 39 54 46
\ II . 1976-77 JOI 103 109 104
t
1966-67 55 55 55 55
III 1976-77 82 81 92 85
J - 1966-67 43 32 56 44
Average 1976-77 99 101 .10. 100
1966-67 47 46 55 49
[ 8.7 From the above table. we may arrive at the definite conclusion that cattle breeders in cluster III, which is not covered by any organised milk marketing scheme and where cattle breeders have to sell their milk to Khoya manufacturers at the prevalent market prices. and which fluctuates according to the prices of Khoya obtained in Bikanerv-e-got on an average 11 % less price for their milk sale than that obtained by the cattle breeders of cluster I and about 19% less than that obtained by the cattle breeders of cluster II. The cattle breeders of cluster I. many of whom could not sell their marketable surplus milk to the organised milk schemes during the winter season due to the closure of D. M. S. operations. obtained approximately 20% less than that obtained by the cattle breeders of cluster II, who sold most of their marketable surplus to the U rumul. It shows the importance which the organised milk marketing schemes possess in the economic life of this area.

Profit & Loss:

Now let us come to the profit and loss account of the cattle breeders from dairy enterprise in relation to the cost variables during different seasons.

Table 4 : 24

Profit & loss from the sale of milk (per Kg.) during
different seasons.
( In Paisa)
Seasons Study Cast A Cost A1 Cost B Cast BI
Years
Summer 1976-77. . __ .. ~14. +2 +34 +41
1966-67 ·~15 -2 -4 +3
Rainy
Sea-son 1916~77 +28 +4 +43 +53
1966-67 +28 +45.70 --+35 +46
Winter 1976-77 +1 +9 +13 +21
1966-67 -6 +15 +12 +21
Average 1976-77 +6 +18 +30 +38
1966-67 + 15 +30 +24 +32
- .
8-S J ~ C'I ~ QO
+ + +
.....
~ t"'l 0 r-
.... CI1, '-0 o.n +
'" , +
8 ,
-.it I
! I~ .... ~ ee
on "<t I
.. -+- +
~
""
-= ~ M ..., ~
q,\
:0. + N I
,"_:',_: S +
rc;I
C.II J::c:J V"l i
.!! .... ('Ii '<t .......
'"" ..., ~ + + ;;..,
::::I e -Q
-= =
--::- ...,
'"
=.JJ ....., r-. QQ ......
.:aI. M ,.., .... =
... If;'j -+ + I .v
~ ""
,e I:::
p,
:Q :! t)
's ~ M co <"1 ..s
I - I
.... + S
'II' e
Jl. .!l '"
~ to)
~ 011: ..... ~
Ill> -..:.
~ ~ t:<. ('.I 0.. ...... 'E
~ ..... lrl M 1
~ ., + +
- u g
e 1':1
~J •• 0 "0
J:l I~ '-0 (-, on '"
~ + + e-- :.a
Io'l I (-;
~ --
~ ...
a ~ N 0 o.n
.....
~ - ,.....
e + ~
~
~ ~,
-..~ ......
. ~ ~ .:: r- Oo
0~ I"""> ~ M
'" + + I
<IJ
+" ~
'"
f' = ii::
0 r-- M I,')
E I .... 0\
;:s l 1
CI:l
t ~
...
'"'
.\ ~ -
it E;..) - ~
..... -
;,
~ [ 39
!I:' From the above data it is clear that the cattle breeders of cluster III .. which is situated at a distance from the operation area of organised milk marketing schemes. has to suffer constant losses from dairy enterprise during all the seasons except in case of cost variable BI and this situation can not offer these cattle breeders any consolation. During summer all the cattle breeders have to suffer losses if the cost of family labour is included and whatever little profit is visible in cost variable AI, may not be obtained if standard of minimum labour/wages is applied to them. In the present context prevailing/wage rates have been taken into consideration which are lower than the prescribed minimum in respect of women and child labour. Besides this, the rates of feed and fodder during most of this period barring winter months were rather very low due to go od rains in the year 1975 as we 11 as 1976 and there was plenty of stocks with the cattle breeders. In case they were to obtain all their feed and fodder requirements from the market, it would have greatly affected their profitability structure.

It will be worth while if a comparative) analysis of profit and loss account is made with an eye on the value", a rupee commanded in the year 1966 and what it commands in 1976. This sort of analysis may help us to arrive at the conclusion whether profitability prospects of dairy enterprise have improved during this ten year period and whether the cattle breeders are better off now and their economic prosperity and well being have substantially increased. The data given below may also ena hie us to find out the extent and proportion of loss and profit during this period.

Table 4 : 26

Extent of profit " loss doring intervening period of both studies in different seaSODS !

Year Cost Cost Cost Coat
Season of 'A Al B Bl
study
1976 -14 + 2 +34 + 41
Summer
1966 -36 5 -10 -7
Difference over the previous price level.
-22 + 7 +4'4 +48
90 ] 2 3 4 5 6 7
1976 +28 + 41 +43 + 53
Rainy
1966 +67 +107 +83 +110
Difference over the previous price level.
-39 - 66 -40 -57 1976 + 1 + 9 +13 +21
Winter
1966 -14 +36 +29 +50
Difference over the previous price level.
+15 +27 -16 ~29
1976 +6 +18 +30 +38
Average
1966 +36 +71 +57 +76
Difference over the previous price level.
In paisa Cost A Cost Al Cost B Cost Bl
With % -30(83) ~53(75) -27(47) -38(50) (-) denotes as to how much less per kg. price a cattle breeder gets nowadays.

(+) denotes as to how much more pnce per kg a cattle breeder gets now.

N.B. (Value of Rupee in 1976 taken as 42% of the value which a rupee commanded in 1966-(See Weekly Hindustan-s-Independe nee Number 1977)

.'j

:""

'.,}

t~·· .

From the above data, it may be clear that the price level obtaining at present is less remunerative to cattle breeders now than it was at the time of the previous study. Of course, summer season has shown better results during the present study but the overall picture is dismal and disappointing,

._

.-

[ ~l

It will also be useful to have analytical data regarding the cost of milk-production and milk sales (per kg.) from this angle. From these data, which are given below. it may be clear that during this period milk production costs have gone up substantially and also that the cattle breeders get lesser price for their product as compared to the price. they used to obtain at the time of the previous study.

(See table on next page)

92 ]

","doc_promotions_enabled":false,"static_promo_banner_cta_url":""},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/33731997","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=33731997&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"}},"categories_array":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","news","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"ids":[245243238,28131411,63846094,33728770,33732563,33732689,166917882,276035696,167880534,34088700,166901353,166918387,33952963,33732345,166918512,33732689,33730884,33731431,33731085,33731224,33732024,33731363,33732164,33732283,33731145],"title_link":null,"title":null,"track_opts":{"compilation_id":"Fr1IA84w++nXfmA3qQ0DcoLl+mo=","module_id":"H4wQ+cjZ4Wwgp1a9HsKih+5075k=","widget_name":"right sidebar","track_id":"flattened_recommender"}},"footer_recommenders":{"recommenders":[{"ids":[245243238,28131411,63846094,33728770,33732563,33732689],"title_link":null,"title":"Documents Similar To Organised Milk Marketing in India","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"Fr1IA84w++nXfmA3qQ0DcoLl+mo=","module_id":"KqO0gaSV6JYD/zbvCWpLG89rDk0=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}},{"ids":[166917882,276035696,167880534,34088700,166901353,166918387,33952963,33732345,166918512,33732689,33730884,33731431,33731085,33731224,33732024,33731363,33732164,33732283,33731145],"title_link":null,"title":"More From KIGS_Institute","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"Fr1IA84w++nXfmA3qQ0DcoLl+mo=","module_id":"boGX3sE2Hh5MaEXXh7w/PWMQdpY=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}}]},"seo_new_docs_recommenders":{"recommenders":[]},"documents":{"28131411":{"type":"document","id":28131411,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/28131411/108x144/8be6e37ba5/1515146428?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/28131411/216x288/4019d3cae2/1515146428?v=1","title":"Market Penetration of Amul Milk","short_title":"Market Penetration of Amul Milk","author":"sumeet singh jasrotia","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":28131411,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"2MgO+0vfPmJkwXKGzKh45AW0MP0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/28131411/Market-Penetration-of-Amul-Milk"},"33728770":{"type":"document","id":33728770,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33728770/108x144/953c98bc97/1369311919?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33728770/216x288/9356e57e09/1369311919?v=1","title":"Economy of Permamence","short_title":"Economy of Permamence","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33728770,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"IYi0yYWQr1vZLsHCXOfHpKSIMAw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33728770/Economy-of-Permamence"},"33730884":{"type":"document","id":33730884,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33730884/108x144/da7eb2c124/1278529041?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33730884/216x288/35b70e5455/1278529041?v=1","title":"25 Yrs of Gram Panchayat","short_title":"25 Yrs of Gram Panchayat","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33730884,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"zNsJymfUmM0+VkkiZshUjUvUtOU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/33730884/25-Yrs-of-Gram-Panchayat"},"33731085":{"type":"document","id":33731085,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731085/108x144/1e7816ee6a/1359266697?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731085/216x288/4dceb4449b/1359266697?v=1","title":"A Study of Chambal - Social Economic","short_title":"A Study of Chambal - Social Economic","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33731085,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"+1dIodj3C+CKEkXiTxeJg9YGBD0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33731085/A-Study-of-Chambal-Social-Economic"},"33731145":{"type":"document","id":33731145,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731145/108x144/c6a100d36d/1351750331?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731145/216x288/46fec92c60/1351750331?v=1","title":"Gandhi Ji Aur Audhoyogikaran","short_title":"Gandhi Ji Aur Audhoyogikaran","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33731145,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"+cajQyROBTdop26RXIQWFIxXwIg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33731145/Gandhi-Ji-Aur-Audhoyogikaran"},"33731224":{"type":"document","id":33731224,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731224/108x144/b850b358b4/1351668840?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731224/216x288/54cc42716a/1351668840?v=1","title":"Grameen Hinsa","short_title":"Grameen Hinsa","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33731224,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"xHhlBQlSXJSS5ndSmPIRO/WoiQg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33731224/Grameen-Hinsa"},"33731363":{"type":"document","id":33731363,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731363/108x144/fcadfef077/1351750052?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731363/216x288/ed762f178d/1351750052?v=1","title":"Khadi Technology","short_title":"Khadi Technology","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33731363,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"R7GG/N+tljUeUTjtq4XJAIck2yc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33731363/Khadi-Technology"},"33731431":{"type":"document","id":33731431,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731431/108x144/c4ba1fc0c0/1313070605?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33731431/216x288/e9a3d5701a/1313070605?v=1","title":"Lok Adalat 5 230","short_title":"Lok Adalat 5 230","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33731431,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"AvFOg7OQ9ES0HgzNKgJkmoGNu/0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33731431/Lok-Adalat-5-230"},"33732024":{"type":"document","id":33732024,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732024/108x144/508c50afa7/1277870320?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732024/216x288/0885bfda9f/1277870320?v=1","title":"Rachnatmak karya sansthan","short_title":"Rachnatmak karya sansthan","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33732024,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"d94Hh853QctH47St585lOxHe5jQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33732024/Rachnatmak-karya-sansthan"},"33732164":{"type":"document","id":33732164,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732164/108x144/8188fda471/1397651514?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732164/216x288/401f2f5bcd/1397651514?v=1","title":"Salt Study","short_title":"Salt Study","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33732164,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8Bs4nDnxNDOIx2rqqGWV0BUXfos="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33732164/Salt-Study"},"33732283":{"type":"document","id":33732283,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732283/108x144/059bb89633/1351668803?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732283/216x288/e1c8d3dbd4/1351668803?v=1","title":"Sanganer Bagru Print","short_title":"Sanganer Bagru Print","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33732283,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"yo1p6nfB+FyIr/udKMcSme+0hj8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33732283/Sanganer-Bagru-Print"},"33732345":{"type":"document","id":33732345,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732345/108x144/a03ae3be06/1351664153?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732345/216x288/694dfe5236/1351664153?v=1","title":"Study of Two Social, Economic, Political","short_title":"Study of Two Social, Economic, Political","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33732345,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ap7TU9WHW3JKuTxjcTd7C5FJDh0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33732345/Study-of-Two-Social-Economic-Political"},"33732563":{"type":"document","id":33732563,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732563/108x144/a8f59bfd4c/1328759716?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732563/216x288/e5e3b1a5a0/1328759716?v=1","title":"Study on Religious Institutions","short_title":"Study on Religious Institutions","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33732563,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"P/y79QcCCawQ6k8/Ov4UZZAFWUU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/33732563/Study-on-Religious-Institutions"},"33732689":{"type":"document","id":33732689,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732689/108x144/5735023ae5/1277872526?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33732689/216x288/07c71564b7/1277872526?v=1","title":"Village Development in Rajgarh","short_title":"Village Development in Rajgarh","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33732689,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"w3Jj+bxxbKydO9feEVw42ZhcET0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33732689/Village-Development-in-Rajgarh"},"33952963":{"type":"document","id":33952963,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33952963/108x144/981fc8fd49/1351668784?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/33952963/216x288/0b039300ae/1351668784?v=1","title":"25 Yrs of Gram Panchayat","short_title":"25 Yrs of Gram Panchayat","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":33952963,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"UFE3mj3f1liJu0nezBNBZWWXMYY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/33952963/25-Yrs-of-Gram-Panchayat"},"34088700":{"type":"document","id":34088700,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/34088700/108x144/a75fd5a327/1368509838?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/34088700/216x288/9c3d35ffdb/1368509838?v=1","title":"Gandhian Economy & Other Essays","short_title":"Gandhian Economy & Other Essays","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":34088700,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Sni2oYukpR/4UGRxX6B7cYAFxGU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/34088700/Gandhian-Economy-Other-Essays"},"63846094":{"type":"document","id":63846094,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/63846094/108x144/959fcd88f2/1334279738?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/63846094/216x288/19933d7344/1334279738?v=1","title":"1. Milk Industry in India","short_title":"1. Milk Industry in India","author":"Mohammad Ashraf Paul","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":63846094,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"kroj/SSM8hUgrKRkHpQQXiDcd+I="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/63846094/1-Milk-Industry-in-India"},"166901353":{"type":"document","id":166901353,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166901353/108x144/e0a0f645e6/1378781926?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166901353/216x288/e4ab24c7f0/1378781926?v=1","title":"Mainstreaming Youth in Local Governance Survey Report 2013","short_title":"Mainstreaming Youth in Local Governance Survey Report 2013","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":166901353,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Vo67f53Nvha+s3spyT3YRzEczUE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/166901353/Mainstreaming-Youth-in-Local-Governance-Survey-Report-2013"},"166917882":{"type":"document","id":166917882,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166917882/108x144/609419b286/1408266441?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166917882/216x288/b81cce13a8/1408266441?v=1","title":"B.P.L. Survey Report 2013","short_title":"B.P.L. Survey Report 2013","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":166917882,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Q//LEenlf6KoHbtOVIlSCQcGPlU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/166917882/B-P-L-Survey-Report-2013"},"166918387":{"type":"document","id":166918387,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166918387/108x144/be2b4f4adb/1378788315?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166918387/216x288/1ebd99f86d/1378788315?v=1","title":"BPL Survey Summary English 2013","short_title":"BPL Survey Summary English 2013","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":166918387,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"yQyn7oJFY2GuWmDj3As8689ad6Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/166918387/BPL-Survey-Summary-English-2013"},"166918512":{"type":"document","id":166918512,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166918512/108x144/96d29b133a/1378788362?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166918512/216x288/68e3a930f0/1378788362?v=1","title":"BPL Survey Summary Hindi 2013","short_title":"BPL Survey Summary Hindi 2013","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":166918512,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"xMctl9m48z3WDuQ5mhCZ06ILACo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/166918512/BPL-Survey-Summary-Hindi-2013"},"167880534":{"type":"document","id":167880534,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/167880534/108x144/512cc6691e/1379072408?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/167880534/216x288/cb3c715d76/1379072408?v=1","title":"Moving Towards Sustainable Development","short_title":"Moving Towards Sustainable Development","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":167880534,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"w/gVx2FoAC86Eo4Q+ZPsmAZB538="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/167880534/Moving-Towards-Sustainable-Development"},"245243238":{"type":"document","id":245243238,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245243238/108x144/11f614204f/1518433504?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245243238/216x288/6caf5ee991/1518433504?v=1","title":"Market Milk Industries In India.ppt","short_title":"Market Milk Industries In India.ppt","author":"Arul Sivaraj","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245243238,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"yexO/sWfqs/j/IVFYvV460ek2oA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/presentation/245243238/Market-Milk-Industries-In-India-ppt"},"276035696":{"type":"document","id":276035696,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/276035696/108x144/d9e963ccd9/1440507930?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/276035696/216x288/34a991123d/1440507930?v=1","title":"Sustainable Livelihood for Women: Goat rearing and ardu plantation","short_title":"Sustainable Livelihood for Women","author":"KIGS_Institute","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":276035696,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"uAKunNJgA5cqy5cklhIrUwnHiSM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/276035696/Sustainable-Livelihood-for-Women-Goat-rearing-and-ardu-plantation"}}},"seo_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/seo-roadblock-props/33731997","signup_context":null,"toolbar":{"search_path":"/search-4gen?allowed_pages=&auth_token=hAj78GDI75IGCm0uDLvcG68KxNA%3D&authenticity_token=wPuckL7BH9ChFnSCs0Q5I2JAxQZzQQvDCVRukihNxVkgwzsnyAv4H73oesRBTBeRmBp0beCEUfAsPWd71k%2FMdw%3D%3D&expires=1538239794&wordDocumentId=33731997&wordUploadId=36273282"},"renewal_nag_props":null}-->