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VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT IN RAJGARft (CHURU) AREA S ITU~TION /i.tiALYS 1$ .

& LINE OF DEVE·LOPMENT

BHOR~\ CHARITABLE TRUST

.~ ,

KUMARAPPA GRAMSWARAJYA SANSTHAN B-190 UN IvERS ITY MARG

BAPU NGliAR , JAIPUR .,;.. 30201.5

1989

(

.... .

STU D Y-G-R 0 U' P

1. Dr. Awadh Prasad

2 .Shri GopinathGupta

3. Shri Reve Shanlwr Bh ar na

4. Sbri Narendra Gaur

....

Sl?Q,w3ored ?1 Bhcruka Chari table Trust

(

l

.. .1

Chapter First

Chapter Beeend

, Cha pter fhird

Chapter Fourth

Ch B pter Fifth

APPENDIX

CONTENTS

List of tablns Preface

Back ground, ArQs, Objective \~ nd M3thod o l.ogy ,

, 1

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!\rea 8nd the villag:3 surveyed

19

Geographical data; Hunan and

natural resources.

Socio-econonic a nalysis of

49

Surveyed fa nf Lf.ea ,

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Efforts Dade for village

developoent a nd their Lrapac t ,

87

,Concept of village planning and pr ogr-anoe ,

(8) Line of pl.a nni.ng

(

(b) Line of developnent plan in this region.

104

135,

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OHAPrER THIRD :

,3: 1

3:2

3:3 3:4 3:5

( 3 :6'

, . 3:7

3:8 3:9

3 :10

Population andsccial status of sUrveyed f'a rai.Lf.ee ,

Ratio of pcpul.at Lon u n percentage (social centext) •

Persons' loss than 18 years.

\ ,

51

52

53 54 56 5,1

Per-acna-above the age of eighteen years. Per-ce n'tage of literacy in social c orrtext , Thestat'e of literacy in the surveyed, villages, •.

The stnte' of education higher than toe

secondary ed ucat Lcn ,

State of Secondary education.

59

Distribution of holdings in the surveyed

/

60 62

families.

Holdings in the surveyed faml;Les

65

3:11 ,Agriculture output in tho surveyed

c' . ;fa ailies •

"

_. (

3#,12 3:1l '3: 14 .

3 :15 3: 16 3: 11 3: 18

3: 19

/

~O~dln.g.$,,~d agricultural Itt'oduction~

, --. -.,_ .. ...• , ~ ,.

19r1.olll.tut;-e • output 'per faaiq

(Jattlewe~a.tl1 '-per .. faJuly in t_he. surveyed ,fa Clilles •

Th~ position of cattle wealth. !.\verage nilk output.

Total milk output (social context)

-

Milk prod~tionper a nt na L and individual

soc ial\ centext.

Inc one of· the surveyed faoilies

I

'4:5 4:6

(iii)

. .

, (

Faoilios benefitted by the trust wcrk. " The utility .o r latrines 8t)d the

d ifficul ties.

Opfnf cn about the, utilis~tion of latrines- Social context.

500i81 context of, tt18 be ne t'Lc Lar Iee

A brief of the services done by the Trust, FaniliQs benefitted by the Infornal and

Ad ul t Ed uca t Lon ,

CHA PTER FIFfE::

/ 5:. t

, ,5:2

5:3,

5:4

'5 :5

5:6

Opinion about the Trust expectations. Opinion about the progra[1ne of all round development of the village.

Opinion about the sui 't ab.Le pr-ogr-a nae for>

the' eccnoo.ic developo.ent of the yill~es. Expected he Lp for the deve Lcpnerrt of calt'tle wealth.

SW;g(~s,tions with regard to the prograottes to'beccQd,ucted by the Trust.

Suitable prograr..l;,)3S with a view to inpr,ove

the villageeccnoqy (Boo La L context).

***** ***

*

94 95

96

99 102

103

121 122

125

126

129

132

TABLE NO.

HEADINGS OF THE. TABLE

PAGE 'NO

LIS T OF TABLES

CHAPTER FIRST: 1 : 1

1 :2

.Surveyed .far.J.ilies

Social status o.f tho population o.f

\

18 19

the surveyed fRDilies •

. CHAPTER, SECOND, .. :

2: 1
2:2
2:3
,
2:4
2:5
2:6 .

,categorizaticn of th e desert regicn 23

- Ra in f'a 11 in the desert region 26

The s.ttuatiQ n of rain f'a.l.L in the 2'

,desert range.

Populationcf the surveyed villages 33

Social stgtus C'f the 'f?D~lies 34

TotAl 8gricultur8l land in the 36

' '. j "

survoyed villages.

2:7

Agriculture La i .. J wit,h referenc8 to SQciety

SoCial context of he '~~ings

2:6 2:9 2:,10 2:11_

'f

Th~' cBttle in thes Survurvee::~ ::~}~~~'.eS'''.f' ,

The cattle, in the r ... lf~~:.LQ:

.\ , , -, f

Service, class perefO na '

PREFACE

Bhor-uka Charitable Trust was founded by Shri Prabhu ,Dayal,ji Agarwal in the. ye'ar 1963. This trust .took up t.he Rural deve10pdent progranfJe in the .year 1973 at Na nga 1 Bad I (BhoruGrFHl). The Bhorugrao zonal deve Lo pnerrt scheme under the ~rust covers 20 villages and a n area' of abo ut 400 sq. Cliles. Under this 'scnenJ) extensive programmes have been taken in hand.

oalnly of Equoat,1,.op, Relief,DeveloPD1ent~ Mect~gal '~~ am B~ironcrent.I.astyear Dr. Ashok Aga~l, one of the trua1.ees of Bhoruka Trust sxpreaeed his desire that the work done by "the truSt in the 10 villages of this area J!],8y be evaluated by this ae nathan,

. Consequently this study plan and its report is submitted.

\

In this plant survey he s been raade 0'1' the' ten

Villages of RAjgarh Sub-division Ln Dhur-u district. On behalf of the Saosthan the responsibility .of this work has been shared by the De P:uty Director of Ba na'than Dr • Awadh Prasad, Chief

. .

Resear-ch Officerf GopinathGupta am Special Research Assistant

Shri Narendra Ku.oar Gaur played an Lmpor-tant role. The draft ,plan of the survey wO.rk had been prepared in January 1989.

Now the English version of the report is being placed herewi1fh •

. In cry view, it will be advisible if the +rust t::l.ay call its officers, [$in workers and prominent village persons in a ee ntnar and discuss over these findings and rrl3y make use of them in .1'r8l~itU the future plan. Detailed and extensive

d iscus-sions ')nth-is report can also be arranged there and on bebalf of Sansthan Dr. Awadh Prasad can J):'3rticipate in it!., He can' also be. p~sent at thQ tiae of retrospection of the report.

(v) ..

, ~.,o' -;'

.v.. ; . .'~ _:, •

is .t o prepare all pervading "trillage plQn and it~ successful

. ,

, ..

execution •. So: S'3nsthan will have nat ur-a L interest in the

Theo.ain work of Kuuar3ppaGr8n Swarajya

plans of the Trust and their .execution.

It La. hoped that this :ruport will be helpful Bhor-uka. Trust in r.~h~.ir planned welfare, ?c:tiv;,i~~es of the area •.

. . '..,,'

..

f

J. L. JAIN SECRETARY -DIRECTOR

..

CHAPTER FIRST

BACKGROUND-AREA, OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY

DISTRICT CHURU '

Chvru Ls a section of Thar desert of Rajasthan, which happened .t o be a portion of the then state ot Bilcaner a nd ~fte,r aCl'=JlgoatJhonoi' Bfkaner- Stateintp Rajasthan State

", , _' I.

it was then established as an independent district, In 1950

on introduction of. Democratic decentr~lisation scheme, Seven Panchaya t Samitie~ C8rJ.e into' existence .in the district and thes8rae still continues.

This district is situated in tbe north east of

Rajasthan in between northern latitude 20° to 29· and e'astern lo.ngi~ud?from. 73.400 to 75.41 o. In its .nor th the boundazy line of Ganganagar District, in the east Slkar, JhunjhU1'lli and Hissar of Hariya"a district, in its south

'NagsUT district ang in its ,west the boundary line of the district of Bikaner touches.

The ordinary se a level h~ight of this district

is about 400 meters. Ther e is no perennial river in the district,. In rainy-season acue water c cae e in Katli river coratng froraSikar- Jhunjhunu districts which is absorbed by the arid land within the district.

: 2

,

As sand dynes .;arC) in abudance around the district,

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often cultivat.ed (hilled) 18 nd'Bad roads are thickly covered b~

s~rid layers. In the district sand dunes of 6 to 30 motersnoigt are-spread over fr:om north east to south Wait. In nos t part cf the district the bo't t cra surface water is salty.

The.District ofOhuru is net affluent in \n.ineral~

; ,

S,m~ll patches of land having gypsum are av.Ls fb.Le at some p.Lac et Tr~'lite is ~xpected ·tobe traced out after digging the land

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~ about 553 esters low a~ Salasar. At aoue places in RAjgarh Tehl '1

pot'assillIa Nitrat e is available. There are tu.ne s of sand stone.

Slate and quartag'ietin BidtasCr, VlrprJ,9ar, Dungars and GopalpUj

,

"

Rebbdh(~lJ.teet{fne. 'is acquiredf'ronRamjisnr hills, which is

.... ',<, '

being used in 'conatructi~ the roads and buildings. Magneaiuo -and~ lide stone' is available in the TehSile o r Sujangarh, Dunge:

Rajgarh of Ohuru d'iatrict. Among the. significant trees growing 1,nthe d"1:st;rict, Kiker, Neell, Keir, Sisham, Khe jara Jal- Pe Ia ,

JalKheda and Rohita are predot:lin~ nt ion the district e Aoong the bushe s Kutktalia, tog, Aak , Thor kh Lnp Vair .e tc , are

,

.pr od oratnant e' Save nand Bhur-a t arc very helpful in yieldj.-PB

, ; ...... f"

greater quantity 0 f milk by the mil¥: giving ant aal.s ,

:. 3

The climate of this district like other desert

. . - . ,

areas is dry and there is great fluctuations, in the· teopraturo.

" .The average highest te Clprnture gee s upto 45-460 centigrados and

lowest upt o 1-20 • Rains are scanty, Ordinarily the r+Lns in a

. year are about 325 POS.

The tot? 1 gcogra phicpl area (jf this district is 'about sixteen Lac Dnd oighty seven thousand, out of which 52% ( area is under cultivation'and about 37% land re83ins8s Pad at.,

The· irrig(~ted DreG is less than one . pJn'"cent, Canals ar-e e Lnoa t nc ne, The only me ans of irrig8tion happe ns to be uells and tube wells hut the wat e r of all -the wells is neither sweet nor useful. On account of scanty rai.nfalleven

. nost of the sweet water wells plsa develop alkine property in

tne a,

Kharif is the £:18in c r op, ,During Kharif the iaportant crops grcwn, other thnn B?jrg,'3re Moong am Moth etc, At sC't:10 pl.acce in Rabi un-irrigat 00 crops of Sarson and

gr~Q are grown,

According to the Anina 1 Census of 1977 the total nunber of anf aa Ls (cattle) in the district was abcuf sixteen Lac , cut of which 17,36% were cows' and bullocks 8.92%

,

were Buffaloes, 38.27% he and she goats, 20.02% sheep, 6.10%

c~mls and the rest were horses, boars, khachhaz-a and donkeys o~

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In ord er t o protec-t this huge aru.nal, wealth and

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tc provide treatoent· during diseases and prevention. froCl. then, there are very few vetorinary d Le penaer-Lee e.g. in 1979-80 ttte.re were only 1'0 voterinary hospitals And f'Lve he$lthcentres ,for an.Ima Ia , two dlsp,')ns"lries fer an Lna Ls and tvlO nobile 89i081

;'health units .3nd there were ninegoshalos, ten sheep breeding

1~'

centres Bnet five' artificial ioprognation centres for sheep.

Chutu is a backward district frOLl the industria-

.

lizatic'n point of view as ~t has no adequate means for develop-

.

inent of industries • Under village industrialisation acheue, attoClpts'Wore Clade during the period to produce Soap, Bidi, FurnitUre, Dari'N±wa;r, Match' sticks .e tc , Oth ElI" thanthe,se Spinning and Weav:iving, Leathe'r Industry, Reap nakfng, Dying ,~nd pr,intlng, Spinning and i4e,'1ing of 'Noo1 a rri Bl.ac k aru thy

, work etc, which ar-e .e Lao househcld and cottage industries.

Tho district exports Crude wool,' bonee ia nd .pul.aea pr-oduced in kh ar Lf , Hence tn.ere is anple ao o pe for :d eve Lo pmcot of ctttage industries based on all ttl-esei tens,

There arc 39 r~ilway stations in this district I All the inportant places are c onneo't cd with the bus services

, J

, "

but· most of the village,S "'re aloof frOEl railway st8tions and

stands, . as there are no rQads to reach these places. MJst~

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felk due tie dearth ef traffic facilities is almost of necessflryneans of Education and Medical aid.

I 'Whenever there are scanty rains it becomes'very difficult and

.

expensive to provide drinking water fer masses and feddar for

t,he anf na ls to thosefaaine strioken villages on account of lack of roads. Thus ~the village felk dic not get benefit fron' the achcraea Launched fer the deveLo pncrrt of these v Ll.Lagea ,

'In thlsdistriot, at a distance of 16 Kms.iron Rajgarh Tahsil headquarters, there is a village Dadreva where the faoous S,9int Gaga ji Chouhan was born. In, the village of

.

S~;l8sgr of this district' th.ere is situ'] ted' the fanous tetlple

of Hanuaan j.L where a Dunbar of worshippers ccne fran :rar and wide every ye,)r to, wc;rship and present their offerings before the 'deity.

At the tiDe of foroation of Ohuru District its

pOpu18~icn was about 5 lac i.e. in 1951 the nunber was 523650 which grew te 1119466 in the year 1981. According to census report. duri~g 1971 to 1981, the po pul.nt.Lon 'increased to 34.85%

-

The growth ,in percentage of rural popul.at I on was 35.55. So it

appears that there is no possibility of having significant difterence even in the next census. According to the popul.atien, Sujangarh, Tahsil is the biggest and. Rajgarh cones next, but the r-ura L population in Rajgarh Tehsil is 175343 when Sujangarh has 146601 only. In all other Tehsils the rm.f-JI

.~.

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-})opulaiiion 1)s less ~"'''' th~tf 9 lac. More than sixty one percent villages of this dis-~rict cotJ.C'''"" under the popuJ.aticn range o.f 500-1990. About eighii percent of the vil1Bges cone under the range 9f 2000-4999. There is only 00.8 village in Rajgarh Tahsil

" ' .

. w'hose popuLation comes under 5000 to 9999 range. The thickly populated villages in tho district nunbor-Lng about 185 are in Rajgarh Tehsil. Si'nilarly most of tile 118 'Villages cot!lingunderi

!

.t he range of 500-1999 popu1a~ionBre also in the sane tehsil.

In ehur-u district the popuJ.ation ratio is 70 per square Ko. In the r:ural area of Rajgarh Tehsil the denSity of population

I . is highest .j..13. 80 persons per square, whereas it is lowest inl

,

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D~gargarh

'32 persons p;:r square kn,

.1

According to the cenauajre pcr-t of· 1981- in Cbur~

n'istrict there were 33.34% ne n and 9.81% wonen literate. In rurf area' 25.37% men and 3.38% wome.i were literate. From the litera~ point of view, Churu :topsil had the first posi tien and Rajgarh J

, '

. was second. In Ra jgarh tehsil the l~tereire maie population was.'

, . • •. ' ~, ' ,I

. }4.3~ ~e;e8S the lite.rate female were 9.79% • In the rural

areeoi' Rajgarh tehsil this percentage was 31. 7.1 and 4.06 respectively w:hich was highest in c crapar-Ls on to ottlar Tehslls. Overall tn e lit~racy pez-cerrt age in the rurnl area of Rajgarh ~j

'1

tehsil was· Q'ighest- than other ,tehs.ils. Thar e were 18.26% persat j

literate. 'I

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If we anAlyse the liter3cy percentage at the

1Inge level, it reveals that in the district of cnur-u the villages have a higher r8te of literacy in comparison saaller villages. For exanpl,e in 67 villages having the

"

;pOpub'f~ion of less than 200 per-ao na , the literacy rete has, been

10.60% wqereas i~ 195 Villages within the range of 200 to 499 ';t9j\!laticn Q8ve12.5~ • 522 villages within tne range of 500 to

.. ~ . .. "

". I

population have 13.,81%. 66 villages consisting cf 2000-

popul.at Lon r.atlge '2 m five villages of 5000-9999 range have literacy rate of 16.80% to 21.86% respectivezy.

In Rajg8rh tehsil there are 118 villages having .the range, of 5001;Q 1999 population, where the literacy percen. tage in 1981 WAS '17.55% • Similarly in the range of 2000-4999" pcpul.e t Lcn there were 12 villages, whose li teraqy percentage

, " . ' ),

was 22.07% whichw.as higher in o ompar-Lacn to other t ehe t Le ,

Obviously there is lesser ex pe ns Lon of education in ama Ll.orv Ll.Lagea ,

itl.tth reference to ether facilities available as per 1981 census in Churu District there is educational facility

~.

available in 710, villages, out of 855 villages. Medical f8ci~ities are available' iu188 villages, 391 villages are henefitted by the Post and telegraph facility, 378 villages 'are \

-~ :.

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connected with co mrnmf ca t Lcn r~egns· •. 168 villages" nr-e liruted . wi t'h me t a lled roads and 1.84 villages ha~th~ 3!rovision of the supply of electricity. In thE~ '~0:r 85.3·8%~1";11ages have the fac ilit~ies c,feducf1tio~, 21.99% have wed'ioal facil.ities·

of educatiorl,21.99% havt; medLca L facilities, 98.6010-possess, drinking water facility, 45.73% have post and telegraph

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facilities. 44.21%i;·have Deans of connurrto nt Lon f8cility._, I

19.,65% have oetalled roads and 21.52% have the facility' of electricity available. In Raj g arb tehsil 168 i.e. 90.$1%

.'

.villages have th~ facility ofEdUdation but the oed~cal

\ ,

facilities are available in 18.38% villages (34 only).

\ According; t() Governnentatatistics 184 villages (i.e. 99.46%) are such whered:ri~ng'wata; is available but with ;r egard to .,

. . .' . . ". . '1

post and te.legraphfacility,RaJgarh tehsil of the district, .1

is the most baCkward area where only 66 villE¥;OS (35.66%)of the to,tal nunber) are net ina pqsition to avail the post and telegT8ph facility.' Tn the sane .. way 33 vUlagea( 17_.a4~ rf 'tOOt.otal nuo.ber ) are o onmo tcd with r-ends and 'only~b .( 10.80% of. the total nunber), are very poor incon~r1son to othertehsilshRving the scope of supply of electricity.

,

If we analyse the available f3cilities with reference to

population,we find that ov~r all 26.8BJb population of

r

district Ohur-ud s availing thefacili ty of DetaIled roads,

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where as, in RejgBrb tehsi119.96% persons, sufficiently less in coraper-Laon to other tehsils of the district, avail the facility' of the aetsl1ed road. the aaue is the situaticn with regard to supply o f electricity, tho district is getting a supply of electricity for 33.22% popul.a t.t on,

\'

vnly: 22.95% population of Rajgarh tehsil is ava.i.ling the facility like electricity. The facility of ccmciunicatl('D is, betng avniledby 46.10/1} population only, which in corapar-Le cn to other tehsils is nuch unproportionate. The aane is the po s Ltd on with post and telegraph f~cility also. In cooparison. to district propcrtion of 66.97~ only 54.88% are availing thisft~cili ty.

'~<A.t of 855 villages, in Ohur-u dis trict 125 villages are deprieved of education facility. Out of which .102 village schools are ,ata d Ls ta nce of 85Kms. t 16 are 5

" " ,to' 10 Kos. and seven are at a distance of 10 KOB. or Clore.

The condition of ncd LcaL facility is nor-e pitiable. 667

, Villages have no ned Lca L: facility and the residents of those villages have to travel ten or nor-e Kns .• distance to

get the ned Lea L aid. There are 218 villages from where five tc 10 Kns , dista nee has to be covered to avail thenedical

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'.

facility and 170 Villages are such which cone under the

110it of 1 to 5 Kns. for purpose of av aLl.Lng ned Lca.l; fecilities.

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Out of 855 villages there is net 3 single village where bazar or periodic oarket is' ev al Lab Le , The people of 79Bvill9:ges

have to cover a d Ls tance of10 or nore Kns , for oarke-ting their

cnO:::1oditie'f3,40 villages trOD 5 to 10 Kns , and 17 villages have tb coverthc distance ('f 5 Kos.

'Out o:f 464 villages ~i th no post ond telegraph facility in the district, 219 villages can get the benefit at abc ut a dist?nce of 5, Kns. -, 181 v Ll.Lage s ar-e such where the

facility of ,Post ahdt.elegra,ph is 13t a distance of 5 to 10 Kos. and for 64, villages the facility is available at a distance of 1 0 or uor-eXns ,

There are twelve villages in th e district where drinking water,~is not available and the residents nf thoae villages haye to gC' up to 5 Kos. to fetch dririking water.

There are 262 vill.ages in Churu district which have a population up to 500 (lowest population villages), out of which .105 villages are such wh(~T'G +.here is nr facility for, education. Sinilarly out of 262 villages 248 villages are deprived of med LcaL facility and 227 villages frOD post and telegraph facility. These 262 villages are not linked with

ue t e Ll.ed road and 243 villages do not possess the facility of , supply of e Lec'tz-Lc I ty.

A number- of 522 villages c cne under the oategcry of 500 to 1999 population, out of which 96.17%' have the facility . for Education, 2[;.. .14% have ned Lc al, f'ac i Lf." ies, road fncility

to 20;50% and 1'acility of electricity to only 23.18%.

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There are 5 vL.lages with a pcpul.e t Lon of 5000, out of whch there is also a village which is not linked to

pac ca road. All the sixty six va Lrage s having the populaticn range of 2000 to 4999 , facilities for educa t.Lon are avad Lab.Le a n1 in 64 post a n1 telegraph facilities ar-o available. In then 65.15% villages have ned Lea I and c onrnmfc at i.on facilities a nt 5·9,09% have electricity. 21 villages are auoh which are connected with the oetalled reads (which is 31082% of the total).

RAJGARH TSHSIL:-

BRIEF INTRODUCTION :-

The North eastern par-t of Rajg':,lrh t.ehe Ll. of Chur-u district nornally coDes under the category of undeveloped area. Most of the villages of thi'S P.I'C8, in the absence of oetalled roads, are isolated froo each other" Most of the lad Ias are illiterate_ inspitc of the IsCt thn"!". '~-rioary schools are there

in the villages oJ The girls oftenreoain deprived of education facility in the absence of separate schools of girls. *

M,-st r-f the students find it difficult to get acceas tc the secondary and Higher Secondary Schrols due to lack of reads and pr-o per- Deans o f tr3nspor:Catinn. The girls also or n net avail the opportunity of the secondary schools situated in distant villages 0

* Source- },-s above.

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The availabi~~ty of swce t drinking water easily in su.ffice nt qupntity is very difficult in the villages. S one

1:) ;. .... '" .,

of the wells which are of 6wee+·.Y'·~ -. generally dry up during

,',

auane r-, The ye3r~ \vben there is less than the average rains ,

the d:r;inking \voter is ava Ll.eb Le that year. for few nonths only.

e.,

At s otie pl!1ces the supy;ly qf sweet water has to be arranged in tankers froo ttio neighbouring state cf Har-Lya na ,

}1ost:~ tho land yields the Kharif cultivation, and' the cultivators try to grow Ra bf o ul.t fve t Lon very little. In aome of those pa tchee of land, where the rain water had gethered on the suri'ace of the earth the cultivation c:fgra!!la nd aar-ao grows up, but such cultivation area is~yery. hl.111;i.:t;ed •

. r'

Alnost no oed ica 1 facility is available. At,

pl.acee t.hez-e are Atirvedic dispenSAries but very fe~ 'oealcines

· are available thero. Due tcincreasing fai thtowards aliopath

treatoent d<>y tc: day., 'the villagers have now very "little

· attachoent '}iowards Aurvcd .ic treat,'(:',nt,. Necessary re ans and tacili ty for· Q8terl1i ty' serv ices ere also not 2vailable.

The possibilities for eoplcyoent, other th an I

agriculture are lilJi. t~::>d. The fbr[:-lers of this ar-ea , due to

s~anty am irregular rains, live in odd situation in which

· otht3rimpcrtant vocations 'corelated tc agriculture- cattle breef1 ing - h8S slso lio.i ted scope. The paucity of metalled

roads 8m long distances c£ marketing places a is o effects

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the cattle breeding vcca 't.Lo n , It is difficult to flourish the cottage Lnd ustr-Les orr-acc ounb of scarcity of raw osteria!." , Lac k of o th c r infr~structure 8 nd Darke ting focili tics. Hence nos t of the people frOLl -tho area are c cnpe Ll.e d to go out in search of

- SODe e upkoyus nt , The pe r-s ons of business ccomunity of the area have a lready gene outside in a very big nunbe r , People of other cor:munities often go out in Governoent and private services in

I

gre 8t nunber ,

Present study:-

Looking to the regorous ge cgre ph Lca L conditions' and backward aoo Io-eor.nonf.o fraoe work the voluntary organisation paid attention to [lake atteops fer the developoent of

"that region.

Bhr,rukaCh.oi-rLt'1hlc. Trust, being interested in

,. ,

. "

the region took in hend the deve Lrpne nt prograonGS, keeping Bnor-u-gr-an (Nangal Bar-L) as centre. The trust was founded

/'

by the chief of the Bhoruka Indmstrial Group late Shri

Pr-abhu Dayal Agarwal in 1963. He started the work in the

area in order to r-e uove illiteracy. wter on' the trust extended their sphere of activities am t ook up in hand the work like supply of drinking water, faDine relief work, feoDle Adult Education, Inforoel Educaticn, cheap Latz-Lne s ,

ccnstructicn of Prabhu Kuteer as developoont centre etc.

- 14 -

The trust is Of the opinion that the dove Lo pue rrt plan should be prepared keeping in view the s cc Lo eccnonic o ond ition of this .''1rea and the deve Lopnerrt aL octivi\J.Lt:.J should be taken in hand 8cc('rdi~~_y • At present var Led pr-ogr-aune s are being iople-

ne rrt ed , All these ac t tvf.t Les need systOL1atisati"n. Kunarappa Gran Swar~jy8 S8DsttUln has been de Lng work like study, survey, planning etc. with "tho idea of v i Ll.age uplift. l:'s such to

give 8 systeoatic shape to the prrgr3cmes of Bhoruka Trust, this instituticn h3S decided to contribute. According to the discussion held with the chief of the trust Dr. Ashok Agarwsl, Sansthan decided to tiake 8 basic survey cf 10 villages of the rural area. The naf n a i n of this survey work is to [lake available the basic data, So that the developoent plans nay

be drafted based on then.

Under the above per-a pe o t Lve th e following are the objectives of th;is study:-

1 •

To pre par e a prllfile ancuf th e ecc i c-eecnocuc condition of 10 v.i.Ll.ag cs ro f Bhoru-gran area (Nangal Bsri).

Analysis uf the condition of hunan and natural rase-urces available in the villages to foroulate the pl,e n for the area.

2.

-15 --

3.

Tr. : ane Iys e th e ic,act ever the be ne ficiaries and otherpersc ns about th0; services rendered by the

It is evident t.hc t the d e t a i.Led outlines of the

d cve Lcpne nt pl.ans , 8Tb -not subru t t oo in this a t udy , This is

only bnsic survey, e-n the bas Ls of wh i ch p Lan and pr ogr-e nnes

con be pr-e p=r ed,

Scope of study 8 nn ' tho Hethc:c1clegy used :-

ANH11~~'Phe proposF~il study is (If 20 villages

benefitted w L th the Tr.ust activities. Out of these v Ll.Lago s the following ten villages (fifty percent) have bce n included

under this survey whe r e ElCTC t.h an one activities ar e being

conducted by the Trust~-

1 • G,,,,a Lf.s ar- 2. Nanenl (Chhoti)
2. Dh anc t.i (Clhoti) . Bhagela
4-.
5 ! Dumkf 6. Hasiynbas
7. Nangal (Bari) BHORUGRAM 8. MOt;thi ReduW8li
9. Rej8di 10. Galed' Caopi18tion of f8cts~ The cOElpilotion of facts

is based on twe aspects:-

(1)

Inforoatien froo the benefitted fBolies based on

(ii)

the fa oily schedule.

To "know frOr.1 the villagers by personal contacts.

- 16 -

During the' a t udy perioa d Lac uaat cns were hi

wi tb the villagers generally about ed uo a t Lo n , environmen t ficaticn, expansion of runde uo nt.e I fecilities, Mcdicc31 fac

ties etc. a nd information WDS collected as such. But the i

Dation of tho Lnpao t 'c f ed uc at.i.r na l, ann d cve Lo pmerrta L ao t L:

h as be en o o Ll.eotcd at -the f'e mi.Ly lNcl c' .[S. ao scancnt of t!

impact; of Lnt'or-uaL and adult oc ucat.Lo n and infcroaticn abo'

The infc-rc.laticns compiler. on f~C1ily level baaed on the quories frc: [1 293 f8 nilies wh n h av e beon the b

ciaries.

The wor-k of factu9l ootapd La t Lcn has been n

by mea ns of questiOrI8irc) as given be 10';": -

(a) For tho Lns t t t ut t ona L infcTuc:ticn Lns t i t.ut.Lo ne.

que3ticnnaire.

(b) For v i l.Lage '.e geographic!11 and hunan resources

"village sohcd ul,e ",

(c) To collect facts .rr on the be ne f'Lt t ed foo.ilios-

"Faclily sched ule ".

The ra tu Lf.e s of those villages which have

been inc Luded oas s pecmen, their I nror-re t t c n has been conpf l based on f8 oily schedule f'r-cm every. selected village.

. .,

Generally the Ln ror na tion has been c r npd Led cf30 families.

I

- 17 -

ltJhile selecting the fi?oiliGE; stress hae been laid on the point that they nay represent persons of all types of the

e r c Lc--ec onoru.ca L status. 'the poei tic n Hill be clear froo

the further analysis •. In the next t\vO tables general Lnt or-nation has been given of the surveyed faoilies.

It is clear rr c.n the table No , 1:1 that in this s pec Lrae n upper caste (Hindus) And Scheduled Caste are there, It will be advisible to nerrt t on heru th,gt in the vil13gus

under study, ached u Le d tribes e nc} oiner c cnnun.i ties like

nus Lf.m farailies are ge ncr-a Lly net found. This oren has

plenty-:'f Jots. So with the social point of view only two

cmtegories are there. *

* Source

1. District Census- Ch ur-u , Census 1981 Director"te of Census, J'-;ipur 1983

2. Gazetter- Ch ur u

Director::;te of DSitr ict G<'J ze t te or , Ra j aa than Govt. J2 ipur 1970.

- 18 -

TAB L E No. 1:1

S URV-:;Y"8TI F:.HlL lES

· .-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

S.No.

Nat::18 of the ViJ,_logc:

No. of Up po r caste

surveyed'; Pe o p.Le

far-1,ilies

Sched u Lec Cnste People

-.-'-'-.-'-'-'-'-'-.-'-'-'-.-8-'-.-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-.-.-.-.-.

1 • Gwalis11T 30 27 3
2. Nanga 1 (Chhoti) 29 20 9
3. TIhanoti (Chhoti) 30 22 8
4. Bh ago La 30 22 8
5. Dunk.i 30 17 13
6. H8Siy3W~~S 24 20 4
7. N'3ng8l (Barf) 30 23 7
(Bh or ugTi~ C1)
8. Meethi Red uwa La, 30 23 7
9 • Rejdi 30 23 7
10. Galaq 30 21 9
- • - . - - - - . - . - - - - - - - - . - . - • - . • • - • - - - .
· • • • • • . • • • • • • . . . • . . .
Totol:- 293 218 75
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
• . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • , - 19 -

.• TABtE NO. 1 :2

-. -.'-.-. -'.~'_;'<. _.:--=.- •. _ .~,.-- .'-.-- ...... - ....... - ....• ~:-.:~.-.-...;. .-~--. -. - ....... - .-. -. -. -. -.

S .No. Nane of the Tot8l Total Upper S.C.

Village ... _ fa o.iliaa.popU:~ caste

lation

-'-'-'-'~'~'-~~'-'-'-'-i-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.- ... -.-.- ... -.-.-

,1. Gwalisar· 30 375 344' 31
, I;- 2. Nang~l (Chhoti) 29 797 499 298
3. Dnanoti tChhqti) 30; 435 303 ·132
4. Bhage13 30 275 205 70
5~ DUftlki 30· 338 187 151
6.c Has iyawas 24 306 255 51
7. Nengal (Bar-L) 30 316 232 84
. (Bh orugre a)
. 8. Meethi Rec1uwali 30 307 247 60
9. Rejdi 30 308 229 79
1i. Galad 30 339 238 101 -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-,-i-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.

Total:-

3796

2739

1057

293

- - -- -- .-. - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - --- - - - - -

. . . . . . . '. .' . ., ~.- . .. . . . . :.. . " _. . . . . . . . . . . .

\', "i. ",

*******

i '

C HAP T ER SEC 0 N D

AREA A,NDTHE VILLAGES SULi.VEYED

(HEOGR ,\PHICAJj DAl'A, HUMAN_:& ':N-;:~TUR:~LBESOURCES)

".c. •.• """<c . H'" .-

The western region of R8jasthan is part of t he

" .: desert; lend.; In thB geogi-s'phic'AI na p of India this r~gion has got pr-oru nerrt cp.l.ace in the desert. This dry _ desert is auppcsed to be abo'uti"3,17,090 sq.Kos, in the country. Out

of which 62% pa,..t c one s in the western division of Rajasthan

. -

Soc.e portion of th:ls region is seoi-desert also. The whole region can not be regarded as sioi1ar type of desert.'

11 Districts of the state are included in the desert.

(a) Barner (b) Bikaner: (c) Churu
(c) Jaisa1mer' (e) Jalore ( f) Jhunjhunu
(g) Jonhpur (h) Nagaur (i) Pali'
( j) Sik8r (k) Sirohi. ". ,I

as desert area. But due to inlet of .the canal now sufficent "

J

- faciii tyof irrigation has been there, co nsequerrt ly this

district is not included in the dry desert area. The nai n

characteristics of the desert arca are lack of ground water the ground w.."ter is saline, bilowing of swift winds, absence of humfd I ty in the wind, sandy ground, ,ooving of sand dunes due to swift winds etc. The depth of ground level water differs in different pl.acee , It is at n.i nun five to one hundred ann oaxiouo go to 500 feet deep. Under the above

- 21 -

.geogra:phic,c:l condition, ·there is dearth of vegetation and crop. ihezadi, Bahul., Rohed a , Jal, KUI:1t'Jand others are found as trees .• In addition to this Burat, seven and oth cruseful grass grow which provides f~vour3blecond.ition ''for cattle breeding. Bajr a ,

Moth, Moong etc. are the na.i n crops. The g0og:rBphic[J~. condition

~

of the desert of western Rajasthan is not s Lut Ler-, Dlstcmt north western region is noe t 'dry l~'oking to theforoation·of soil and

.

=the po pule tien, whereas the regi en linked with Aravaii is

"diiffarent .• ThQ c onpfe te desert area can be divided into three zones looking to th-;difference of, land for03tion and ground water, crops and vegeta tion. 56.33% of the total dcaer-t area

.. ",'

coce s under first zone. This is c cupl.e t e Ly dry region, but

,,'

•. \ in this region cattle grazing is VGry f:'Jvourable and here cattle

breeding has been the o Ld tradition. This regi,on is not f3Y.ourable -for cultivation. Under second zone an area of ~24152% cones. This area is al.s o suitable f,"':r o'at t Le breeding. Crcl.) grows to extent in this area i.e. the land of the area is favourable

far sooe crops. The situation of the third .z o ne is botter than ,those two zones. This is known as seDi-desert area. There is

underground water in this area although the depth of the

is toe ouch. There is rocky layers under the ground but then cooparativelythe pos,iticn is better. The land under this zone is duitable far o ul.t i.vat Lon to a one extent. But in the third zone only 21.15% are8 c o oe s out of the total geographic'?l 'Jrea of Rajasthan, 33.75% area in the first zone,

I

I

I

22 -

"

13.4~ area in the second ZOL.: a ro 12.67% 3r88 in the third

zone is concentr3tod.*

* (1) Sourcc:- Dr. ~LN. Jcdha and Dr. Vijai Shankar Vyas "Conditions of stability '1rr, grcwthin Agriculture. tf

Chief :- A. Krishnan- Dmtribution of are"lin India

~

21st International geogT8phy congress, Jodhpur ..

source

• • • • • • •

,

(2) In this study Sirohi and Jalore have not been tre8ted,'

as desert in western region • .sirohi is treated ,9S regie'na nd Gangrmagar has been counted in the weB

regicn.

* Dr. S.N. Jodha Rnd Dr. Vijay Shanker Vy8B.

!

J

- 23 -

TAB L E NO.2: 1

CATEGORIZ!.TIONOF DESERT REGION* . P'ETICENTA(

"

.-.-.- ... -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

.Nc.·Nc.lt:16 of the Zone ~md Zone 8rG~(Kos).

-·-·-·-'-·-l-·-·-·-·-·-·-· •

, .

. -.-.-.-o-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.

Zone II

Zone III

District Zone

I

52668 3460

( 85 • 5a) ( 9 .06 )

27282

. (100)

2046 (5.36)

38174 100

,..27282 (100)

16858 (100)

38850 (100)

10565-

( 100)

5929

( 100)

22328 ( 100)

17622 (100)

1221~ ( 10d)

7749 (100)

5177

( 100)

12830 4028

(71.10) (28.90)

3R850 ( 1'00)

,

• Sirchi

- •

6454 4111 .
(61.09) (38.91)
3126 2803
(52.72) (47.28)
3514 - 3393
(15.74 ) (15.22)
9663 7259 'J.
(54.83 ) (45.17)
2792 9422
(22.86) . (77.14)
3005 3944
( 49.10) (50.90)
-i 5177
( 100) Jhunjhunu

• Jodhpur

15416 (69.04)

Nag!'lur

Pali

-

. Sik8r

-.-.-.-.-.-.~.- ... -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~~.-.-.-.-.~.

114216 45644 42828 202748

(56.33) (22.52) (21.15) (100)

reference to

. aatnan percentage total

(33.75) (13.49)

....----

(12.67)

(59.91)

I

..... - _." - ... ... _' - ..... - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -_ - -, _ .. - - -

. .. . . . . . . . . , . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .

aased on the facts as given by the Statisti"C~Depa:rtt:1el.lt (jcV'ernoent of Ra jaatha n , Jaipur -

Goye mnerrt am Kajari, Jodhpur. Sourve as above.

- 24 -

,The'se' Bre the facts for, th e tntsl desert area \vhic

I

includes 'all the . c18vendist~icts. But 311 the three types of j'arer-i are riot' avaiiabl~ in':any' pp;tfclilar "d~strict.Mf)'re .than

one' type of area is found in: 5311 the clistricts" cfthedesert

region •• The, kl1owl~dge" '0 f" hcw jruch ar-ea ,- of',,!'which' type f is

I ,..~ '_ . " . .It

there in a .par=t Lc ul.ar di~trict, will nake nor e explicit the

geographicAl situaticn of the desert are8.

The above focts show that the worst o ond Lt Lcn 'of the district's of dese't't region of Ra jasthan is that of Bf.kaner and Jalsaloer Districts. The cent percent land of those' districts o one s under the' first zone. After th at cones th~1i" place of Bar aer- .and Jodhpur where 85.58 and 69.04% region

belongs to the first zone .• Hence 311 the four districts are

. . .

in very hard situation. The oajc,r part of Churu and Jalcre ~ district falls in the second zone. Here it will be worth r:entioning that 'Sirohi does not CODe under first and aec.o nd zo ne , Really speaking thia, area is hilly and r'ocky •. The

. ..'

eo onoru c life is definitely ard uous but th e geographical <;rondition here Ls mct like that of' a ' desertregion~

..

There is adver-ae situation about rains in the

, °dcser·t regicn.:Qult'ivat,iOn coopletoly' O:epends on rains, but due to Lac k of rains, tih.e c ul.t Iv at.Lon re!J.ains't·ot'811y uncertain. The whole of the desert region has nouna l, rains.

-25

Vyas have jz-eaerrted average ::f rain full for the which is shown in t~ble nunber-s 2:2 and 2:3.

IA GES. :-

CoqrJ.on data:- There was absence of basic' facilitips

tn,e villages und e r survey. It is a coopletedesert lam .. in all the villages ther.c is scarcity of ground water~

few w:t?lls and SDAII pocls to' collect rpin water.

But in this area there is aaple n~~ber of ponds to collect

. ,

e ,rAin water. TheSe ponds Are the [lain source of water fo:r thi~ region. Per cha nee if there are no r,..,ins, thew8ter bec cne a

a:~inpro"blerl. Food can. be ar-r-anged even froa outside but

life .becotiea Lcipoae Ib l,e withou~ water. On account of geogr aph Lc al,

. . \

t

e.cnd Lt Lon and sand alunes it bec oue s difficult to go fron one

yillage to the other • Under the circuostances the difficulty ~e supply .. o.fwater is naturally too ouch. Locking to these diffi,cultles. there is "an o~ld practice to construct, ponds in the and faros.These water ponds con,ee.sily be seen on the

of the path.and.ip·~roff fDros.The'wbter of these ponds

,

'is being used for drinkibg purpose by the people and the a ni.nal.s ,

" \

- 26 -

TABLE NO.2: 2

RAINFALL:'nTTHE DESERT R8GION

-_ • - e, ~ • - • - • - i' - .... _. - ~ -. -. -. -. - • - • - " - .-_- •. _- • - • - '. -. -. ~ .• - - • - -. - .•. ~, - __ .... ," -

S .No, N3ae 8£ th(? No. of Average .1 M'1xi::::1un Mininun Aver

District years Rainf811 H.E1in- Rl3in- days

for fall f911 rnin

which in a

aver-

,age is

co Lc uInted.

\

- . - .,- .,'-. - . -. - . -. -. -. -. - . -. -. - ..... -. -. -. - . -. -. -. -. -. - . -. -. -. -. -

1. Barner 50 .10.00 321.01 1 .13
2. B.1.kaner 50 11.26 29 .46 '1.06
3. Churu 45 14.48 30.56 3.04
4. J3lore 50 14.29 33.73 1.07
5. •. J8isaloer 50 7.03 22.77 0.00
6. ~Jhunjhunu 50 15.26 29.84 3.75
..
7. Jodhpur 76 14.22 46.39 1.00
8. Nagaur 50 12.20 31.75 2.48
9. pali 50 5.19 31.19 3.10
10. SHear 50 17.36 31.86 7.06 1 1 1 1

2 1

2

2

•• -.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-·-r

- 27 -

T.A B L E NO. 2:3

- THE SI[,UATION OF RAINFALL IN THE DESERT RANGE

. ,

(in centioeters)

YEARS

~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-

.N;c. Nane of the dis t:rict

1977

1979

-- -._ - - - _ ~ - _ - - _ - ~ - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - --

. . . . . . . . .. ~ . - . -. ~ . -. . . - '" . . . . . .... . . . .. .

- Barner 50,,1 tj. lfl;-.25 33.6:::
Bikaner -33.60 50.00 22.12
Churu 54 ~.81 69.22 17,15
J,sis~loer -41.22 13~10_' 24.45
-Ia Loz-e 72.08 54.24 59.66
JhunJhunu 58.60 83.36 22.55
Jddhpur 89.37 38.90 53.72
Nl1gaur 122;'30 50.29 28.62
Pali 77.54 54.37 34.34
Sikar SO.30 109.50 30.60
Siroh! .. 97.70 80.70 60.38
.. - . - • - - - - - - - -- -. - - _ - _ - - - - - - - - . - o. - -
• • • • • • • • . , . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • :. (1) Land ut t l.Lsat t on co nni, ttee; Governoent of Rajasthan

Jaipur.

(2) Statistic81 Extrl3ct- St8.tistics Departaent, Governnent of Rajasthan: 1979-Page No. 27 •.

I I

i

!

I

I i" ,

I

i

~

I

I i

I

- 28 -

~he S~cond l,-later'

I diffidUJ. ty about water is thati t .Ls s 31 ty. Swee.t water is

supposed to be a token of fortu~~ Tho under ground water is saline and evenrtna t is 'nade aY'lilable:~tan 'Lancnae depth (200 to 300ft) in a very little quantity. In Bar-f Nangal (Bb,crugr,Jo) water isbrougnt frOD. distahtplaces

"filled In, 'tankers. But the salin~ w'lter is available here in sufficient qUr"lntity'. 'Gener~lly vill1lges are inhabited wh9ro there .issource oiwatelr 'or where there is possibility' of

- !

constru0tirlg pond to get water o o Ll.ec't ed in then. For drinking water in the vil13ges under survey,. the post tion of the 'po'nds or other sources is' the sane, In Bhorugran the

, -

Trust auppl.Lea rthe saline water in 'sufficient quantity, "Ponds

'.

are there in the houses -,"lnd rar-na, There are six pond s Ln

Nanga L (Chhoti). Hero are two por-l.s and a well wb.erefron wateris'precured.TherG are 12 ponds, two wells' and one

, . ,

pool in village G::lad. Sioil'~rly in Meathi Reduwali the;t"c

,

are 40. ponds, 15 wells and 2 pools. In the villege Hasiyabas .

there ar~nUDberof ponds. Herein .t h e village 60 and thoroD! the farOfl are '"30 ponds and three li3ccaand 11 kachha wells,

. . .

there ,are 50 -pcnd a and a well in Bhage La village. H;ere is a

,

well cfsweet water constructed by the trust;. Gwalisar has

~ , ,

50 ponds. The biggest .nunber- of ponds I ,e , 125 exists in th

village Duriki.There are 8 kuchha wells and two pools. *

The c ompoa Ltd-on of the land of this region is sandy and 'I'

* source: Based en survey record.

- 29 -

;:'._l;

~'\I~< tbat of sand dunes. The' land under the aand dunes is

-, ~ ....

:!'o:~'generallyproductive. The land cf all these places is d anp,

Inthosunoer season thene is the; p:;:~";:Jleoof the sand dunes

'~;_j': .-'

f~.'-: ooveingfrcCl pl.ao e to p.laoe , This oakes the previously

t'f' . .

cuJ.:tivatbd lam uppr-oduo t Ivo and the holding is also

"f·di~tu:rpe(l, But one' ~Flv'ourable point is that even insp.:t to Ii;;.', 0 f 11, ttle rains er-e p grows. The DB in crops. 0 f th is pL. CE

I

i

i '::i?lsonl.y a 1?iotion. Here evon now agr-Io ul.t ar-e depends fully en

~ . ;;:::_·<":i,·/. <, . ~

I' ;!\.;rt:1~nIall. i ',~.:'~ .".'

! ~:;;.

t W;'_':'

I\§",'t_acili ties 9 i '"

, :k~.:-' .; ..

I " ....

I 1~;.:reached. 'Frea the point of ,view

i Jjs<u.fficiently backward. 080el or pedestrian trAffic is the I ()~;'fu,ain res;rt due to sandy regien. Villagers 'generally t 8ke

l,t~L_;_:" ft.

H<, are Bajra, Moong, Moth and Grau. The harvest of GrOQ grows

~?~/:-', . r .

~,,:,even when the rains are noui nal., To produce crops by irrigation

If 'we Look !roo th,,(; point of view offundaoentDl

~:)st cfthe villages e Lec tr-Lo.Lty has not yet

of traffic also ,this ares is

L ~:i:tbeJourney on f'o o.t , In collabor at Lon of Bhcr-uka Trust under ,!$::tbe faoine relief plan villages like Dumki , Gwalj_sar~ Hasiyabas

~;.::',; ..

-';~-f "".'

~~",etc:. are being jrdned by kachh s roads, ye'tMJethi Reduwali,

;,',llbagela and other '\Jig villages have no oeADS for trans-

~-)' .

There is deficiency 'of feoaleeduc3tion in

~;,tbtre. area, Inspite of tn e fact that tbere are prinqry aohccLs ,

~ f~{:'·'·::·-<---·,' .:

, ~Clost in all the villages ,there is lack of education. 1tJcren

'ooetl'y illitrat e. Keeping this fact in ni nd , the trust has

/1.

s

0:

. '[

- 30 -

launched inferDol and adult educ9tLln ~rogroDnes for wonen.

But to inculcete interest fur litoracy, in the WOLlen is the

prinaryneer1.,In the villages under survey naoely Galad, Nangal (Chhoti), Nangal (Bari) s, H8siyabGs and Bhagela there ar o oiddle schr:-ls and in Bhagela a nd Nangal' (Bari)., there

arcs'econdary ach o c:ls, but there arc no separa,te schools for

girls.

The lowest rate cf 1i terncyanong the villages under- -survey is that of Nangal (Chhoti) 9.45% • In Galed tn-e literacy rercentage is 19.54, in Rejdi it is 18.28, in Dhanct (Chhoti) 14.34, Nangal (Bari) 22.93, Duoki 11.06, Hasiyabas

{

16.14, GW8li~,ar 13.67, Bhagela 20.36 and in Meethi Reduwali i t is I 16.72. *

Fr()o the table No. 2:3A the standen-d of litera

and fenale educ8tion can be estionted. It is Bvident that fe",

.'f

educ~ticn is 'ncr.1inal.

Due to scarcity of treatrlent facilitieS, pe opl, have to" cqver a .dist~mce of 5 'to 10 Kns , to get then treAted Due .to the difficulty of trB nsoi&-'Taticn treat Dent bec ouee art

I

inpossibili ty.

* Census 1981 based on district consusChuru.

.... 31 -

T,A B L E 'NO. 2;3A

STATE OF FRWiLE LI1'EHh.CY IN THESE V,ILLd.GES

-.-.-.~.-.~.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

S.No. Nane of the

, Village

M3le (Literate)

Feoale (Literate)

_- - - ..... - - - ..- - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - ... - - - -...... - - -

~ .-' , . . .. ..- '. -. ~ .' . .' -. . . .' ... . .'. .,. . . .' . ., .. . .

1 ~ Gwl3lisar 161 3
2. Nangal (ahhoti) 112 4
3. Dhanoti (ahhoti) 128 13
4. Bhngela ,302 48'
5. Duillki 149 83
6. Hasiyabns 243 17
7. Nangal (Bari) 252 27
(Bh orugra n)
8. Maethi Reduw!:11i 164 5
9. Rejadi 160 16
10. Galad i~69 66 -.-.-.-.~.-.-.-~~.-.-.-.-.-.- ... -.-.-.-.-.- ... -.-.-.-.-.-.-

.... 32 -

Po pulst ion' : ""7

The. total.nunbt.)r, Dffaoilies in the villages under survey was found tr' be 2360 and their population CODCS to

16219 out of which the upper caste :faoiliesare 1789 and

. ..~. '

S.peduled 'c~ste, f00ilies 571 innunber. The details' of ,tho'

...

'pfsiti()n of population "3nd faclilynut1b'er of the'iiifferent villages under survey is located in the tnb1e No. 2:4.'

~'/ith a view to under-at snd the f90iliesand the popul at Lcn Dare explicitly the proporti on of upper o aa te and scheduled caste of the tnt81 population and the state a f each faoily ncuber has to be followed. If we look in entirety,. the upper caste f[1o,l.ii'3s of these villages are 76.46% a nd tr .. bt of scheduled cast,:; fanilies is.23.54%. The village \!.Jise .description c·f above f'ac t a can be seen in the table Nc. 2:5.

LAND DISTRIBUTION:

In this area als 0 enough La nd is there. It is brough t to oul;

notice that th e who Le La rrl is not c u1 tivoted. CooQonly the farner, who owns about 100 Biehn Lnnl , ha ppe ns to cultivate 50

on~y 40 to/bigha out of tha 't , The rest of the land is either

sqnd dunces or in the unproductive stnto. ,.

- 33 -

TAB LENa ~ 2 :4

POPULAT ION OF THE SURWYED VILLAGES *

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.;.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

'S~No. NC10e of the Upper Caste Schedule c8ste G.Total

vi lia go Fa rJi ly Po pu- F2ni ly Pc pu- ]'a oi ly Pc lJU-

. laticn lnticn laticn

1 f GWrllisar

. , .... i~,,:,,.~ ~, .,.. • , ...... I!'- • -.'-. ~ • - ........ ~ ...... - '0 ~ • - " -,f -. -. -. -. -. - • - • ,.... • - • --. -. - , - , - • - • - .- ,

•.•. ,r •... /" ..••

172 1404 21

96 1020 70

237 1606 66

115 '874 45

>'- ,~ ~

2.' Nangal Chhoti

3. Bhag;_:;la

'4. ~harioti Chhciti 5.Duoki

151 945 92

208 1435 89

6. ~asiyabas

7. Nangal Badi (Btl orugra 0)

,,' 6. Meethi RGduw,'jl~

176 1097

31

'.,-' ...

147 726

60 57 40

9., J}alad 10. R~jadi

352 2342

135 952

128 834 439 378 513 555 218

193 166

303 160 243 297 207

1532 1654 2045 1252 1 i~58 1990 1315

1053 2137 1183

-~-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-

, Total:- 1789 12401 571 3818 2360 16219

227 395 231

207 409 175

- - - - ... - - - - -. - "'"!". - - - - .. - .- - - - - - --- - - - - - - - ..... _.- - -

..... -. . . . . . . . . . . . .~ . . . " .. ,

* Source: Base don Survey.

.,1,'

~",

.

- 34, -

'% of, tot?l IJOPU.

, .... - "~'

- :_ -~ _,. ._, -, ........ ' ..... ,- - - - ..... - - - - - - - _.;, .... _.-.,_. - - -" _ .... - - -

• '0 • .-, ,. " .. • " .• t' ... _ • .f • ,'.... • • • • • • • • --. • -. • • • ." •

Average po pul.at Lc ,cfeach f8uily

t' -. s· • ".

Upper Schedule

. ( Caste Caste.

~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.~.-._.-.-.~.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.

Upper; Sch ed ul.e castp'* 'Ctlsto

1

2

3

4

5'

6

- - - - -" ,- - "... -" - - - - - -" - - ._ - -" -,... - - - - - - - - - -

-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

-, 1 • Gwalisar 91.64 , 8.36 8 6
.z. Nangal (Chhoti) 61.67 38.33 1 1 9
3. Dhanoti (Chhoti) 69.81 30.19 8 8
4. Bhagela 78.53 21.47 7, 7
5. Dunki 64.81 35.19 6 6
6. Has Iy abas 72.11 27.89 7 6
7. Nang8l B8ri 83.42 16.58 6, 7
(Bhorugrp 0:)
8. M:lethi Rec1uwall 68.96 81 • .04 5'- 5
9~ _,Galad 85.57 14 ... ').3 7 7
.. 10.Re·adi , 80.47" 19.53 7 6
_ ",J
r •
- . - .-.-. -.-.-. -' - • ...... ,~ ~. -:- .-.:0- • - - • - . - - • - - - • .... • oJ .--.- • - • - ,. - • - . - .,-
'. • • • •
Tctal:- 76.'4:-6 23.54 '7 7
- , -.-.-.- - - - - -,_ - - - - - -- - - - - -- ~ - - _'- - - -

••••••• ' •••••••...•• ' .•... I'.'

'* Note: In Upper Caste Bnahana n, Vaish, Ra j put , Jet, Jain etc. nre included.

- 35 -

.

the survey per-Lrd details of thelDnd under cultiVAtion were

inquir ed fron the farGets. In the villages UlldersUFvey to tal

10872 .. 11:~ct~+a..n? W,3S pointed out to be under cultivation. In

,," ..

-.;.,' i"'

these vf.Ll.ege s aVGra~~ abput 4 Hec t , agriculture land is owned

". by €?8.qh fa ni Ly , If we; Lor k to Lnd.iv Ld uBI persons in all the

l ;'" '! ' ,

Villages, the average agriculture 13 nd cc ue s to .67 Hect~ per

, . \ ~ .. .

indivipual. If we lock to it acc or-d Lng to upper caste and .scheduled e~ete; 'the upper- ca at e f.8~qers have 5.·,0~ Hec t , each faoily and .74 Hec t , agriculture land to each individual, where

as eacfi'h f'Joily of schedule o aa t e possessed 3 Hect and each

individual •. 45 Hect. ~griculture lanc;1, It is evident that in

this FIreD hc~ever every erie owned se .J.e Land ,

,

In the tables No. 2:6 and 2:7 the {position of agr Lc ul.t ur-e land '.' is pointed out for each fgnily :and each Lnd Lv.id ua L I n all thevillages •. In the tDble 2:7 the sane is pcinted out with reference to 80c,i81 o orrtex t , :

HOLDINGS:

If we desire to lork to the agriculture land with reference to its productivity, it will be useful tc look accord.i~g to' the hbldings. Its' productivity depends on

. .' . ~

. the i'actthat. how ouch land tile individ'ual feaily has'. A'ccor-

ding to; the q~'3ntitypf . land th~<farner possesses he has been

,1"'1: .', , .

classified. Ho Ld Lng t ha s been classified in five groups.

1.

... 36 -

lr A B L.E NO. 2:6

Ttn'AL AGRICULTillB LAW IN THE SURVEYED VILLAGES

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-"

S.No.

Nene cf the village

Totol Agriculture Agriculture

Agri- lend fer land for

culture each f''3nily each

land individual

- -- - -- -- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - -

• '1· ~ • ., • ~;.. • • .' • 3' :. • • • 4 • ~ . • . '? • • • • •

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . .

1 • Gwalis8r 7.20.64 3.13
2. Nanga 1 (Chhoti~ 576.80 ,+.43 0.34
3. Dhancti (Chhcti) 901.23 5.63 0.72
4. Bhagela 1181 .12 3.89 0.57
5. Duoki 1009.06 ~.15 0.69
6. Hasiyavas 1296.16 4.36 0.65
7. Nanga 1 (Da;. i) 1682.88 8.12 1.27
(Bh or-ugr- an)
8. Meethi neduwpli 1076.80 5.20 1.02
9. Rejadi 563.67 ).22 0.48
10. Galad 1863.93 /~. 56 0.68 ~.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.--.-.

Total:~

10872.83

4.4

0.67

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

'7 31 ~

, T AB LSNO. 2:7 ~f.9IlIOiTLTURB'LAND WIT('i REFERENCE 'TO"SOOJETY "

- .:.. -- - - ( - - - - - - - - - - - - - _- .... - - ..... - ...: - - - -

· ,. '4- ., · · . · . ,.'. . · . . . · . . . . . · . . . · ". I • • e

'. N8(l3, of th~ S.Oaste Total Agr. Agri •

. village Agr .13nd ~a nd

La nd eaeh)' eacb

fa oily indivi-

.,,' , ,. ',') :~', , " h ae ;. dual has.

... ..J.<I - . ..,.t' _ ,/.!t- ...,. .... _I ,.,., .to-,... - -I,...... -Ie. - - i _ ..,.,.;.. _ .... : _L.. _ - __ _ - - _ _

• , .. ,.." .• "A '. '. '..' _. - -" .'.. • _. '.. ,. ., .". • • • t! t , ;":' .: ~ • '. • • • -. • • 41'

.lvJeethi Reduwali up; Caste 865.25 5.88' 1 .19 '
S.C .- 211.52 3.52 0.64
Total H~7b ,8 5;20" 1.02
Dunkd , Up. caste 692,8 4.58 0.13
S.C. . ,3'6~8 3.44 '0.61 /"
~'ToUl 1009.'b 4.15 0.69
-
Hasiy'a~ms ·Up. ca ste . 1056.96 5.08 0.13
s.c. 239.20 2.68 0.43
- Tctal 1296 ~ 16 -4.36 0,65
-
• N~ngal (Bar-L )_,~ Up. Caste' 1530.08 . 8.0Q- 1.39'
S.C. 152.08 "~ 4.92 0.10
:::'- . Total, 582.8 8.12 , .27
5. Bhage La , Up.caste -1005.76 4.24 0.62
, ·S C 115.36 2.65 0.39
. .
, Tctc'3l 118,1. 12 3.89 O.~7 i
-
,6,. Gwalisar Up.caste 685.28 3·.98' 0.43
S.0. 35.36 1 .. 68 0.24,
Total 720 .6~t "3 .13 ~ 0.47
7. Nangal ( Chho ed ). Up~Cflste 316.64 5.15, 0.36
I s.c. 200.16 3.51 0.31
'ro,tQI: 576.80 4.43 O.~4
. S, '. Galea trp.CE)at~ '1190.93. 5.0~ 0.76
I I .,' :.S.Et .7),.00: 1.2f3 0.18
i-, ,.-!. I' ,.
" . . 1863.931' ~ j. 0.68
9. Rejadi Up.caate 4.70.17 0.49
,S.D '93i50 2.34 0.40
Total' '553.67 ~.22 0.48 I
.~
10. Dhanoti (Chhoti), Up.qeste 681.42, 5.98 0.79 ,
, S C 213.81 4.10 0.56
.- .
Totol 9(jl.23 2.6; 0.72
..
Gr.Total ,Up.caste 9161 .. 32 5.02 0.74
S.C.1111.51 3.00 0.45 I,
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less fa Culy' (2) La rr1 owners of two Hec t , (3) Land owners

D 2';to 5 Hect. (4) !end owners fron 5 to 10 Heet. (5) Lam

/,

o,woorspossessing nore thnn 10 Hec t • Land. If we lcokto the

,tot'll faoilies of the _villages under s ur-vey , 105 fauilies have nC'land at all' ("&ota) .. f~.tlies 1'2360). Out of which 71 families 'are fron upper caste 8 nj the rest 34 fAm.ilies are S.C. It is

.lear that land less f8niliesare there in both groups. 266 families co ae.. under the highest size hC'ldings. Oqt of whion

• I

245 8r8 upper caste, 8.nd 21 'are 'S.C. The table reve~ls that the

uprer c as t e peop.Ie possess acre 18 nd but there is petty differ-

/

enoe. !n the number of' up per- oeste am S.C. in poaaeaa Lng lowest

land hcldingrAnge nanaly up to 2 Hec t , i.e. upper o as t e 322 231 f'nm.i.liof3,

,

In the t3ble No. ,2: 8 it h as been shown under

s oo Ie L context, the village wise h cLd.Lng s , This 1.yill give a clear pioture of tb.e posi tic:n of holdings.

'.

C ATTL 15 1.vE1~ LTH ' :

I

Like oth er deSert ar-e.ia of Rajasthan, Cattle

wealth is the b oae of life arrlliving in this ar-e s also • The baa Ia of life is in this form th~.t nilk procured fron the anirlals ha s the ·procment place in our d .i,.etary. Usually th'ere \

..

is no tradition in the area to sell nf.Lk even to dAY. The 'prodi1ctiC'.n of mf.Lk is madeprirnarily :for personal use. There is prr-lot;lce of selling ghe e s :

- 42

TA BL E NO. 2:9

, CATTLEiIN; SURVEYED VILLA.GES

Nuober

-: ..... ' • -:.-. - • - • - • -,_. - • - _.'110!- ....... - • ~'. - ., -. ~.- • - - ...... - • -. -. ""'\. - .... -. - • ~. ~ ........ - •

S~.No.. Nane of the . Total . Anf.ne L Milk Milk giving

. village catt.le. per giving_ !ninal ~r

• Hcus e 80i031 Household

Hold

....i..i:,.,.... ..... '\~, ~ ._'- ...... ...;,- ....... ~: _. '_ .... _1._

"-., •. '_ .' .- .'-~' .} ".' :-:.' .-' 'j • -. -. :,.--.,.-. - ....... --.-.-. -.-.- .• -.-.-.- ........

1 ,. GwaliS8r

357 504- 539 538 458

1150 4~9

1-85 3-04 3-37 1-78 1-88 3-87 2-41

473. 2-45

578 3-48 988,. 10-04

223'5 7-37

594 2-44-

21'34 7-18

621 3-00

2. NBl1gal (Chhcti)

3. Dbanpti (Chhotl.)

"

4. Bhagela 5 •. Dumki

6. Hasiyavas

7. Nangal (Bar-L) (Bho:rugran) /

8,~ethi.Heduwflli

1123 '·5-4-2

361

9. Gfllad, 10,.Rajnr i:,

631 365

0-54 2-09

809 1-98

428 '~-54

-

-.-.~ ... -.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- ... -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

, .

To"tal:-

4-23

5402

2-39

9983

... .... _.. '- ,._ - - - - ..... - - ;_ - - - - - - - - -_ - - - - - .... - - ... - -_.'

.• • • - •. _. e' '0 • • -. • • • .- ., • .. • • '" • • • • ,. -. -. • • • (

Note :--Totel anin8 laincludeccw, bUffaloes, c F'oel, bullock, sp.eep. cIn the.s," villages ther e is' no rbul.Lock, cu1tlva tion generally is ecnduc ted by C,8DEfl and th e tractors.

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'- 46 -

Milk has An Lnpor-t an t p Iace in cli~tory. In ~V1e+y day diet Bajra , Pul.ecs of Moong and Moth,' Milk curd ~ ~)qtter' niLk '8re the naLn iteo.s'. Sc rii.Lk yieldingahinals ar-e nuci8us,cf.cattle,we~lth.

~ , . .

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;

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CC)W is the chief ru Lch Lng an'io~l~; but buff~io~s are also found

Lrre bunde nce then. c o ne e t'he turn 'of the -o r neL, -The oanoL'Ls a oultipurposc: an.Lna.L, It La bo'inc; used fqr till,tng the Land ,fer transpdrt8tion of go cds and traffic. 'The"bU;llock 'is neglected in preference to the c80.el., This is the reason that the nunbe r of bullocks is norri ns l. in tbe villages under survey. The +r t al.

, ,

Dunbar of catt 1'" ~, in th e villages under survey is found" :;to be

9983. If it is seen wi ttl referenQe to individual :family it cones to 4.23 per family.: It oa n he taken up even five in place nf four. In a Ll. the" villages surveyed, the tct21 nuober of oilk yielding aninalstcows am buffalces). hasbee?- shown

a Le 0 5402 • The nuober of .ni Ik yielding ani'OBl c cties to 2.39 in each fa oily • The h Lghee t r-unbcr of .rrl Lk yielding anf.nal.s

in each f3lulY1rroo found in HaSiyaw8s nane Iy 3.67. Then cooes Dhanoti (Ohho+L) 3.37 in Nang'3l (Chr-.cti) 3.04 was node avad La ....

ble • If we lock to it Ln , s oc.I a L c orrt ex t s Ln the upper caste

,

families each f'3oilyhnd 4.26 of the t o t o L a ni na L weAlth and

,2.53 of theoilk yield.1ug·:aninals were trc:ced,whereas in the families of .S.C. 4.13 anf.na.L \vealth each fa ,oily had a nd th'e nilk yielding a ni.nal,s eauh f'loily had W~lS 1.53. It is clear

- 47 ....

T ' B L E NO.2: 11 '

SERVICE CLASS reWONS

Nunber-

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

" • • • • .: • • • '.. • • • I, .• " • • • • • • • • • • " ". • • • •

S.Nc. N'me c f tn c ' Aray 8m Tr8ns- Educa- Othsr I'r ta L

Village Police Post ti~)n.

_'-- - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

• • • • • • • • • • -. • 1,,-' • .-. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

i

1 • Gl,."alisar
2, Nangal (Bari)
.~BhorugTa 0)
3. Nanga 1 (Chhott)
4. Dhanot,i
..... 5. Bh8gela
6. Hasiyavas
7. Rejri
8. Galad
9.' Meethi Re():uwali 6 4

1

19 20

12 5

9

2

9 G

13 29
2 20
2 1 13
8 2 19
6 18 37
5 2 67
6 2 47 7
10
10
9
13
.'
30
·30 30

9

-.-.-.-.~~-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.~.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

Toial:-

126

65

52

20

271

'. "'_'.", . '0' '

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - -

..• I • • • • I' . . .'. . . .' . . . . . .'.' '. '. :.' . .,. .. . " .,

.'"

- -48'-

that all thefanilioso f .s oo Le L status possessed anf.na L wealth

,;. ~.

in ~,acb:vill~ge h as been cbserved in its social context am wi

a totality view.

' ...

.

Although 'in tnis r~gi.Dri,thG nc ans of livlihcod 0 persons being agriculture and cattle breoding yet the sourcos of Lnco ne fred:} those wh o go out of the: villages for service

h2s a La 0 an cutst and Lng pes I tion. In elnost 011 the villAges cften the nunbe r of individuals who go out of village fbr. service is sufficently big 9the si tu.9tion shown in t.ab Le Nc. 2: 11 WDS rcve31ed during survey period of the persons who,'

..

,are engaged in service outside.

It is ,Mc'.J.~iott.fro[1the tAble No , 2:11 that

in this area, tc go out of the village r cr service is a Lso

t!J.0 p!'edoeiuFlnt eour-ce of er sh incoGe. Other than these iq;

~ ~~"~."-~" ... "" .... -'~ "

services, people c.f this area go out' even fer d&ily wages to

\ ,/"'.' .

Hissar, P2.jgarh, :Deihl 'Bnd ~o'th2r 'lS))J.pe,s. ,A, suffic!:ilnt., nunber

, 1'.' -' ~, .

, ' ,

of S.O. people gc to De lhi for service on daily wages. For transport work oainly people are associated with the

Tre.nsport Oorpor~,tion of India. Except agriculture in the village 8S there is nc o the r- occup8tion, consequently people ar-e conpelled EO go out side in search of e one occupation.

CHAPl'ER THID])

SOO-.IO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE

STJIl.VE'YED FAMILIES

In th 0 provious cha pter w.L th an avera 11 view,

socic-econcrJic situaticn of the villngo a rd the position of

b8Sic facilities have been briefly d.i scusaou , To go deep in

the subject detai,led irifornBtion froD s one fnnilies of each

vilV::ge has also been collecte(1 • The infornation received

f'rom these f~oilies will facilitate to understand the present

financial, education~l a'm o tho r- ccnditions. Tho datn colleo t en thus C8n p18y the role of inforr]ative. br~ckground in view of the foroation of ]'uture plan determning the priority~. So in this chapter the det·')ils~\f populaticn, standard of

educaticn, inclination tow8rds education, heldines, producti-

vity, cattle l.Y'ealth, Dilk product, incoue e tc , are subaitted. The poss ibili ties of developoent in the village, the stage of 'eoployo.ent nndunenple:yoent etc. has been]considered in the .

folJ.owi.ng chapters. This cha IJter is r c;strctted to the analys is of tho f80ilies under survey.

POPULAT ION :-

.As cientionedin the first chapter ,under the

, the'

famly . .r _ ... r study, 293 far].ilies of ten !Villages have been

included. Tho Upper and the scheduled castes, both h~~ve been

includ ed.Th(:) tctalpcpulntictl of fe:. [lilies under survey is

3796 of which upper casto 'people's nunbe r is 2739 and Scheduled

C~stes art; 1057 per so ne , Their pcsitiui1 crn be studied in t.he

t 8 b le N ,;. 3 ~ 1 •

'It will be' useful tc a na.Iyae deeply about the population S~_' th8t it Day ase Ls t in pl.annfng , In the surveyed

f8Dilies the upper castes foru 72.15 percent where as scheduled

.i.. - •

o ae te s are '27.85 percent. If this analysis is looked into with reference to age it will be seen th at the per-ce nt.age of ];€reons below the age of eighteen is 32.80 where 8S the per-cerrtege of persons 3bcve the age of 18 is 67.28 • Inthefurther tables their nunbcr Rnd per-cerrt age in e =ch village C'1n be witnessed

I

In all the villages the' 'total nunber- of individua Is belcw the

age of eighteen is 1245 out of which there are 648 boys and 587 girls. Sir:lilarly 'tne tete 1 nunbar of persons above the age of eighteen cones to 2351 out of wh'Lch 1321 are nal.es and

'1220 fe na Le s,a'

EDUCATION :

Atteo.ps were nad e to know the e t and ard of education in the fa o.i1i(': s under survey. tl.s has been' o.entioncd

before ,all the, villages have pr-Lnar-y schools and in oany villages progTflones of Adult Education and inforDa~ __ ", cd unat Lon or e be ing run.

- 51 -

POPtJLATTON j~NJ) SOC TAL ST"~:rUS OF SIJHVEYED'v.,JLLAGES

•.. r

...... -. - • -. -. -. -. -.- -. - •. - • - .-- ' ........ --.-.. • eo - ~.-_. -. - .~- • -. -. -. - .. • • - • --. -

S.No. NBOC of toe . - .: ,,' Uin;er' OBsta Schen ul,e Caste Total

1 ,'" - ,vl:lloee' , 3 4 5

- - - - - - - - ._ ') ': - ...... ....... - - -_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

• • • .". • - ~ .• - • - .• '.-:. • " '0 • • .. • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1. Gwalisar 344
- , ..
2. .Nangal (Chhoti) --'~99~
3. Dha nct L (Chhoti) 303
4. Bhagela 205
5. Dunkf 187
6, H'asiyavas 255
7. Nangal (Ber L) .23~
"
(Bhcr-ugr-an)
8. Meethi Beduw81i 247
9. Rejri 229·
10.Galad 238· 31 ·29.Q

132 70 151

51 04

375 797- 435 275 330 306 316

60 79 101

307 308 339

-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

Tot Al:-

3796

2730 .

1057

.

- • - .:_. _. - ....... ~ •.. __ • _ ... "_.;.;.._, _~ _I. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _.'" . _ . -: . -:_~ ~ • _ • ....-. ~. _. _

- 52 -

,-.' ,., .. ,

........ -- ... -~. _ ..

• ...... ; '~ _.... I "

RATIO OF POPotil':rttJN·T!"P:'8HGENT.j~GE~

(Soc is 1 Go th.o0..(t)

. .

, ;: .,

--, - .. _ . ..., .~.:-:- .... :-. ~- •. -:-. ~. -Ie -. -. -:. -. -. '-. +, ~.--. - .--- I' -.'_ ~';"""i-:- .,,7. ~'7 .•. -:.·_. -. -. -.-

S .No. Nm:l0of theS .C. Up , Pc pu- Pcpu.La't Lon ner-o

. , ,_, ,~illDge caste La t Lr n . than ·1 o years age

., . , , . upt 0 1 8

" ", ~ r , -~

ye~rs .

aee •

...: .1- • - • ..;... • - • - -.:j' • - ,. - • -. - 1'7..- • - • - • -At - • -. -. ""1:a - • -. -. -. - it __ -. - ~ --6 - • - • - • - • - >

. ..' "'-... ~- - - _/- - _-_' __ -- - - -.-.-.-.-

-.-i-'-'-'-'-' .-~-.-.-. • .-~-. • · · · · •• · · • ., .

1. Gwalis8r. S,27 91.73 32.53 . 67.47

2. Nangal (Chhoti) 37.39 62.61 31'1' .00 6.6.00
3. Dhancti (Chhcti) 30.34 69.66 30.11 69.89
4. Bhagela 25.4-5 74.55 34.18 65.82
· .
5. TIuoki 44.67 55.33 35.21 64" 79
6. Hasiyavas 16.67 83.33 31.05 68.95
7. Nangal (Bar-L \ 26.50 73.42 32.28 67.72
)
(Bhcr-ugrs 0) 20.66
8. Meethf' Rel~uwnli 19.54 00.46 71.34
9. Rejri 25.65 ,'cJ. .35 37.01 '62.99
'10~ Ga lad' , .. 29.79 70.21 32.15 67.05
. .
- • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
• • • • • • • • • · ;, • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .
T,tal:- 27.085 . 12,.15 32.00 67.,20
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - .-. - - - - - - .-. - .:,... - - -
. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . - 53 -

TAB L E NO 3 :3

LESS THAN ·EIG).lTEEN YEARS

( SURVR'(5;D ll!MILIES)

- - - - - - - ~ ._ - - - - - - - - - - - _' - - - ~. - - - - - _-

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . '. . .- . . . .. . . . .. .

S.No.· N80e of ~heU1)jJl3r· c':Jste Schoduled caste Totel.

.. . .: , 'village M FTot. M F Tot. M F Tot.

- - .. .... , - - - - - . __
.~~~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~_.-.-.-.-.-. _'. - _ - •
• • • • • • • • • •
. ;.. .
1.,' .GwBl·isar' 65 46 1·11 " 7 11 ' 69 53 122
., r
2. Nangal (Chhoti) 91 83 174· 4· 7 50 97 138 133 271
3. Dhanoti(chhoti) 48 42 90 23 18 41 71 60 131
4. Bhagela 39 30 69 14 11 25 53 41 94
5. DUL'"1ki 33 34 67 34 18 52 67 52 119
6. , Hasiyavas 39 39 78 7 10 17 46 49 96
7. ,Na nga 1 (Bari) 39 32 71 17 14 31 56 46 102
(Bhorugra 0)
8. Meethi Reduwali 37 33 70 7 1 1 18 44 44 80
9~ nejdi 40 41 01 11 22 33 51 63 114
'f 56
10. Galad 40 34 74 13 22 35 53 1,09
- -- - - - - .-. - - - - - - - - - _ • =« -. -. -. -. _ _ - - - _ - _ _ • - - -
• • • • • • • • • • '. • • • • • • • • • • • • •
.. . ,
,
Total:-- . 471 414 885 177 183 360 ,648 . 597 f245
. .. - _ • _ -. - - -. - - _ - .,. - -,~ .- -'. .,. - - - - _ _ .- . - _ - - - -. - - •
• • • • • • ~ .. • • ,. .. ' -.' 0' • • • • • • • • • , • •
• - 54 ....

TABI;~ NO.3: 4

::PEI.HfoNSll.BOVE TIm AGE_OF EIGHTEEN YE:~RS

," ~ A

: ... , .. - -{ St'JrtVEYEI>

. - ... ~., ...

} t;~ -- .-'

_ ..A _ '.... _ _ ...:. _ _ _ __.... : ;.... - - __ ' _ _ - _ - '~

'. '. .~ • • • • -. -. -. -. • -,I -."~-:' ,.- ... -:--. .', "'r'. • • • -. • • • .~.:.

S. No. Nane - of the Upp3r ·caste . Schequle onste Tbtal

.: . village M F Tot 0 M F Tot M F

- - - - - - 0 - - -.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
• • • 0 • • • • 0 • • • • 0 • • 0 • • • 0 • • • • • • •
1. Gwalisar 131 102 233 9 1 1 20 140 113
2. Nangal( Chhoti) 162 163 325 99 102 201 261 265
3. Dhano t.l (chhoti) 120 93 213 47 44 91 167 137
. ~6-" .... - ...... :: .
4. Bh8eela 77 5..9 . 136 19 45 103 70
. : _ ..
5. Dunkf -59 61 120 58 41 99 117 102
6. HasiyaYAS 90 07 177 16 11r..: ,. 34 106 105
"
7. NaJ:lgal (Bar-L): 87 14 161 28 25 , 53 115 99
(Bhor-ugr= ci) "
O. Meethi Rc;-duwr:ll-i 93 04 177 20 22 42 113 10.6
9. nejdi 73 75 140 21 25 46 94 10e
10. Galad 05 79 164 3C 36 66 115 115
-_ - - - - - - - -.- - - - - - - - -' - - - - 0
• 0 • .- 0 • 0- 0 • . : • • • .. • • 0 0 -0 . • • • • • • • • •
Tctal:- 977 077 1854 35i1r 343 697· 1331 122C
- - - - - - - .... .-. - . ~'. ~.,'~' - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - 0 -- -
• • • • 0 • • • • 0 • • • • 0 0 • • 0 • 0 • .: . f' .. .,~. .j'

- 55 -

Inspite of 811 this it was found that the Dale an] f'e na Le of these vd Lln ge a are backwar-d acaderatca Ll.y , Coripar-o t Ivc Ly feoale educa t i r-n 'is very po cr , Lookingtn ,'")ntirct.:.y this f':'Ct cropped

up that only 19.73% individu3lsare Li.terate. If we look in the aco Le L context, only 12.49 scheduled c ae t e s persons we~ found literate. The percent8ge of 'li:t2rates in uppez- castes W'-1S 221.53% Literacy in scheduled c aa t ea W"lS founcl less.

t It is evident that liter~~cy catapa Lgn is necessary

tr be launched.' 'The p.la n should be prepared in such a W2y that· it n""y Lnc Luca te liking for od uoatd r.n in the scheduled o as t e people.

In the faoily survey, the analysis of those who h appo n to' be literate, the fact which confronts is that the percentage of literate Den is 77.4·4·% and literate wcnen is only 22.55% • Nuner-Lo a Ll.y speaking scheduled cae t.e Wcr.18n were found only 22 literai'F::l whereas Dan were 110. The litergte ~ng upper CAste Dale were 470 and feuale 147. In the t8hles

':m:·.···3:5 am 3:6 the c1et~.dls of this state of literacy is auhnf t ted di'f each village •.

- 56 -

'TABLE N a,-. 3: 5

SOCIAL. CONTE:ET

-"':

In percen

,.,.. -. -. -. - . - . - . - . - . - . -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. - . - .. - . -. -.- . -. -.' -. - .. --. -

gINo. Nane of the Uppor cae t e Schedule caste Tot

village Group G~ouP

~.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

1 .' Gwalisar
2. ~'3neal (Chhoti)
'3. Dhanoti (Chhoti
4. Bhagela
5. Dunkf
6. HBSiyavas
7. Na ngE; 1 (Bari)
(Bhorugrao)
O. ~ethi Reduwali
9. Re~di
10,. Galad 29.07 19.35 2[3
24.0,5 14.43 2o,
16.83 3.03 1,2
19.51 5.71 16,
23.53 17.22 20,
11.76 11.76 11 ,
25.43 16.67 23. 24.29 20.33 ;)25.
25.76 8.86 .21.
22.69 4.95 ,17. , ---------------------~---------

4P' • • • • • • • • • • •. .' • '. .- ,. • • ~' .'. • • • • • '. '. ,:.,

, .

_', -. - ,. - . - ...... - . '_ . - ~-'. - . - . - .. -., -,. -.. . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . -. - . - . - . - .

To tal:-

22.53

12.49

19.

- 57 -

TAr-:'E NO.3: 6

THE ST!.TE· O.FLITKL'l.CY IN THE SURVEYED VILLAGBS

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-,-.-,-.-,-.-.-.-.- .

. S.Nc. Nane of the Upper aFlste Schadulo c'C'ste. T:

village M F Tot. M F Tel; M

GW8lisar

100 4

.... - .. -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-,-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.,.-.-.-""-

2

6 DC

(03.02) (1

43 117

(71-70) (21

4 47 (05.45) (h

4 35

(79.55) (20.

26 46 2,

(65.71) (3':r.:

6 27 .. ~

(75.00) (25.(

04 ~6

Nangal (Cbhoti)

01 39

120 36

3. Dbanoti (Chhotl)

43

51

4

Bhagela

40

G

3

32.

5. Dunki

19

44

21

25

o

}O

5

22

7. Nangal (B9ri)

46

13

59

1?

, 8, Meethi Reduwa Li,

60

14

14

46 13

9. Rejdi

59

7

10. Galad

45

.

54

4

9

7

1

5

1

2

14

15

5f;

3

(70.45) (20.5

17 60 17

(77.92) (22.0(

7 53 13

(00.30) (19.7C

5 49 10

(83.05) (16.95

1

. .

~ - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

• • • • • •• •••• • of • ". • • • -. • • • • • • • • • • • •

;rctal:- 470 247 617 110 22 132 500 169

(77.44) (22.56:

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

Trtal litorat-:; Lnc Ludca nunber of c:r.le and f'ena Le litorates and their pez-cerrnage,

/

- 58 -

eduo at ed up i t o seo:::nd8ry and hieher e d uc a t Lcn are subnitted.

. :' '. ,. .

Iiitffe Ere" vi 1'18 g}:?rs "1h'e·'·t-o-'t·P11 .. ,nuo.ber,' '0 f'. par-s 0 ns edUC8 ted above

'rlIgh -aohr cd, was "51. rut. of JNhich {Jn~y, ,2 .,,.,er(3,, }'loQen. Acc or-d Lng Iy

: -: . • • " ~ . f -_ . •

tr s oc Lal, ~ontmct"there is: net a singlewunan who ha ppans to .', be' ed uca-ted ,hi·ghcr·th3,n· b.j.gh,,·schoc;L wher,e ,3S .nan ar-e 'seven.

. . . . . "

Only in Nanga L (cnhct.L) ;2 wonen of upper caste were, found to

b8 educated upto this standard. Upper coste Den were 42

educated up to th8 t at e ndaz-d ,

There are 230 pe o pl,e educ8tGd upto .aeocnd arv st9ndard, Out of which 197 ne n and 33 are vonen only. 'The

nunber of ac hed ul,e caste persons educated up to that standard

cooes to 20: out of which woraen is on Iy one. In the u:Pl£r o as te

the WOCl8n eduo at cd up to the standard is 32 and ne n were 170.

The abov e f8cts shew clearly th'8t special

a~teops have. to be Clade in the education (if wooen and schedule people.

LAN!) mOORSHIP- HOL.nnrGS:

In the surveyed f'aru.Li.e a distribution of 3griculture land, depicts the agr tc ul.tur-e produce and their finanQial pcs Lt Lr-n, In these surveyed f3C1ilies nost of then beLo ng to ne d Lun size holding. 83 fOL1iliesi out of the to-wl fao.ifie S 0'0 ne -undoz- -the ,c'oto-gory. cf 2. 5.Re.ct. ,T~G~e are fifteen f'e ni Lie e who havo no La nd , If it is looked in'tho social

! • " ._ ;; P". ..' ~'. -I> •. • • "

context, it is found thnt the percentage of famlies possessing

2.5 Hect.

. .'

" ,'"

_. 59 ..,.

TABLE NO. 3:7

/

THESTATEOFEIHJCATION HIGHEtl THAN SECONDliRY EDpcATlpN NUMBER

..... _ -' - .... - - -. '_, - ... - - - - -_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _- --

• • • • • • e, -. • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • "-' • •• • •

S.No. N8De of the' 'UPIBr caste Schec1ule cRste Total

. vi Ll.age M F Tot. M F Tot. M F Tot •

... -.-. -. -. -. -.. -. -. -.~-. -. - .:-. -. -. -. - .'-. - .• -. --. -. -. -. -. -. -. -_I ~. - .• -:-:-. -. -

1, Gwalisar
2. Na rga L (Chhoti)
3. Dhanoti (Chhoti)
4. Bhage La
5. ])uoki
6. H<,)s'iyavaS'
7. Nangal(B~r :L)
(B'hor~'aQ)
G. Meethi Redtiwali
9. Rejdi.
, 10. Galad
"! 4 4 3 7 1

'9' .3 .:

4 6 3 7

2

2 1

2 1

4 '4
6 2 8
4 4
7 7
2 '2
10 ... to
3 3. 1

1 1

.... 1 1

1

6 4 3

6 4 3

._

1

,-.-.-._.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-

.J Total:- 42 2 44 7 7 49 2 51

. "'::

. '

- - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

.. . . . '.. - . '.. . . . .' . . . -'. .. -'. .. ~. . .. - .. . . . . .' . . . . . .

5 4 2

1

5

4

2

1

- 60 _

TABIE NO. $: G

..

STA TE OF SECON1JiH1Y-EnlTCATION (SURVEYE~ _T'l" "'lIES)

'~'"

f ".

- - - _' - ~ _ - - - - -- - - -

. . . . . .. :. '... . . . . . . . . .

S.No, Nm16 cf the' "" .. ,!!pper paste

villa ge M F' Tot ..

." .'

- - - - - - - _. - - - - - --

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Sched ule cas te

M F Tot M

... ... - - - - - - - - - - - - ... - - - - - - - .- - - - - - - - - -

• • • ."'. • • • • • • 't' • • • • • • • • • • ," ,... • • • • • • ,

1:'. Gwa lis ar

23 23
15 7 22
.17 2 19
5 1 6
4 1 5
43 11 54
34 7 41 2. 1taneal (Chhoti) ",. Dhanoti (Chhoti)

4. Bhagela

5. Dunki

6. 'Hasiyavns

7. Nangal (Bar-L) (Bhorugre 0)

G. Meethi Reduvnli

14 10 13

2 1

9. Rejdi 10. Gala'd

- -. - ... - ....... _. - - - - ,.., . - - -'

.' ~, . . . . . . ~ ... .. . ..- . . .'

T ct a I : - "1;18 " 32 210

14

12 14

4 1

4 1

3 1

23
19 7
13 2
5 1
7 1
44 11
42 G
r6
"0 2
13 1 ---- .... ------

... . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

19"1 20 197 33

2

""

. . • _.,,1

- - _ - - - -- -- - _- - - - - - - - _" - - - - _ - - - - - -

• • • • • • • • • .. • • • I' .. • • • • • I' •• • • • • • • • • • • .-

3 1 £3

e "

1 9

2

-

- 61

la nd is sioi.lar.· Upp3r cas t o and schedule o as te faoilies of

this category bo th have the percentage of ab o ut 20.

i ~: .rn the nexttwQ: t 8 b les t.ho per-c e rrt age of holding size ·and·. faoilies is given. Accordir,tg to the table No. 3:·10 hl~est number- of f.8oilies' pr-aaeaa Lng nor-e tha~ 10 Hec t , ,~and belongto'Nstlgal(Chhoti). Here 68.46%faoilies, have nor a fih en 10 Hec t , Land , In N::Hlgal (Bar-L). and Meethi Redu\,/ali, the faroer under thisr-a nge is 30 Percent. The aatuat Lon at Bhagela i,s totally different freD this. Ther:e is 'not, a single .f8"rner '?f this. range. In Bhagela nos t of the farners o one in the range of 2 and, 2.5 Hect. Ho.LdIng , In this' their percentage is 40 am.

50 respectiy~ly.Thepercenta&e of Land less people tQere, is 6.67% • Anong thesurvey~d villages like Gwalisa~,' Hasiya~s and Meethi. Red uwa.Lt not a Single faoily h9S 'been"of land less

. '.' ' .

category with .reference to the s oc La 1 c orrtex t , The nunber of

·'·~chedule caste faoilies h~vJng more than 10 E3Ct. ,land' o ctiea

~. . . . .

to 10.67% of the total ached ~le c[)ste1aoilies. The percentage

of upper caste , it is ·~2.94% a Lru Lar Iy under the category sf

5 to 10 Heo t-, UPper' caste' f !Joilies have 23 • 05% and Schedule

Caste faoiliee have17.33%. Th'e nar-g.l na L fsroer posse,ssing 2 Hect. h o Ld Lng., the uprer,'caste faroer"s.9re :2Q.64% wher-eas schedule CAste :raroers ar-e in 36 percent.

rnt he tables -No , 3:9 'and 3: 10 this pos LtLon haa been depicted in details,

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65

. TABLE NO.3: 10

HOL!",) INGS IN 1HE STJI{VEYEJ) FAMILY ( JOINT POS ITI ON)

Porcentagt; (Faoily No.)

~.-~~.-.-~-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.~~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.--

.- .. ,"'.,.1, Narie :::Lthe Land less 2 Hect 2-5 5-10 10Hect.'

village Hec t , Hect and nor-e

~.-.-.-1~~~~~~~.~.·.4.-.-.-.-.-,-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-
... ;3.33' ,J,.6.67 13.33 6.67
',Nangal (Ohho t L) 6.90 3.45 6.90 13.79 60.96
(Chhoti) 10.00 16.67 26.67 26.67 20.00
.
6.67 40.00 50.00 " 3.33 -
.
6-67 3.33 50.00 33.33 6.67
20.03 20.03 33.33 25.00
16.67 20.00 33.3, 30.00
Reduwali 6.67 20.CO 43.33 30.00
10.00 43.33 23.33 13.33 10.00
10.00 60.00 16.67 10.00 3.33 -~-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-- ..

';-',. Total:- , 5;"'12 24.57 20.33 22.18 19.80

j •. ' ...... ' ,- - ...... - ..:.. - - ....... - - - - - - ... ....,. - - - - - - .... - - - - - - - - - -

~~t,~ • • , • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •. .' • .- • • • • • .' • • • • •

t~~~,:_'.~

- 66 -

AGRICULrURE OUTPUT:-

The Is nd a nd the holdings3re directly related t agriculture produce·~Th-e·agricu1tUt"e·prcduce directly affects the fina m La l, pcs Lt Lc n of the f8Qi l:r, After assessing the produce' of. the survc;yed' faoilies during. 19[17-'OO. Atteop-ss

. ,;' • • '.,' I"

have been oade tc ana Lye 8 its iClIY3ctS. The oain crop of Kharii.'

, " .

of this area is I3ajra, M:Oong~ M6t'h'ffidthat' of Rabiis gr.:Hl a~

Sarson. Due to the f'anf.ne conditicns for the last few years, there had be~n no crops. The weather w!.-'lS sone what favourable in the survey year 8 ril Rharif crop was o otrpar-a't fve Ly satisfactc,ry. According to the fac'ts narrated, fh e surveyed

fTInilies procured near about 7566 quintals grain in total, If we lock into it under the social context the upper caste f'a nf Lf.e a got 6467 quintals and scher1ule caste f8oilies1090 q uf nt a Ls grnin. This is 'the posi tien of the total produce •.

.

. .

To clarifY the s Lt uat.t on uor-e explicitly, it will be helpful to look tD the ,t.ntal pr.odupe of the ho Ld Lngs and the indivi-

dual.fao.ily. wth the increni e in the hcldings the quantity

" . , -,

of prod uo e a ls a gees on increasing as is' ci~8r froD. the furthe

table and this is natural too. In terns of pez-cent ago 49.35% of 1::he total produce was produced by the faro.ers possessing larger hold Ings , The farmers of the sQ811er holdings pr-od uce d 6.66% ~f the total output, This position Day be witnessed in the v~llage wise table no. 3:12.

-

- 67 -

l

If thc;oVer8(_;O prr(} uc e :)f 0 =ch fo ui Iy is locked

into the fpruly of the 1.::lrgest h: lc'in~s h::cs the average

total pr cd ucc o cue s tc 25.62 q ufrrt o Ls , The; average pr oduce in

each fOIl.ilycf t he araal.Iea t h rLd Lng CCDes -en 7 quintBls

Alc:ngwit~ the Lncr-e as e in h cLd.i ng , the .pr oduo t Lo n of each

f3r.:1ily h2S a Lao been .i nor-e aeLng ,

If 1,V8 lock throUGh the sccial context the prcducti:n

of the uuppcr CAste fEJrlJ.qr farJily is urr-e , J.Ii tl1 a -v-io\-1 to the total produce, the upper oas t e f021l1io[3prcducticn was 29.67

q ui nca Is wh -: r-e as in c:'so of s ch Gd ulec1 o as t e it was only 14.65

quintals. In t o ta le9ch f2.i';tilY har'\ an 3verag; Pl'OQ ucti cn of 8 bout

21 quintals c n.ly , Th,3 lorgost l)rr;(}uctic,n in e[')ch f arrl Ly was 60.53

quintals in Nong81 (Chhoti). Here tha U])1'er caste pe o pl,e had

aver-age 02.00 and the schedule cr-lste 36.60 qu.Lrrt a Ls the Lowe at

pr od uc t.i o n wes average 3.33 quintels I;lher(:; as upper- c..s t e perpl.e

hAS 3.95 8nc1 schedule oas t e ',.62 qutrrto Ls , Keeping in Lund tho

poe.i t Lcn (\f pro'11lcticn the need of as t ab Ie s (food) a nd pr cduc t i-.n

can be visualized. In these v.i l la g cs a nunber- cf seven [1oLlbers

in a f'au.i Ly is .ossc;ssed. 'Thus aver8

25.62 quintal a n.i 08Ch individual the I-T' uct Lcn w;:s 2 quintals. TbiE CAn be; tC1~en up -:~s suffiGciGnt q ua rrt.i ty fer one nan's dietry. It

C8n he said that this ye,~lr enough c crn for' ea t i ng has been

produced but there is no 'pAri tyin pr oduc t Lrn in (] 11 the v.i.Ll.age s

urrter survey. In [1 number- cf villa gGS tbe pl"f d uo t Lcn is very

acanty , The ne i.n r-e as cna fer it have been po i rrterl out as unde r-r-:

60 -

(a) Absence of tinely rains in that particular vilD ge area.

(b) No. sowing in tine

(c) In the past yenrs 0. re to f'a nine, there has been

shortage of seeds and tL~l.age etc.

(d) The whole land not be Lng sown, were the chief r-e ae o ns for the ehor-t oge of production.

In the following tobles Ne. 3: 11 and 3: 12 the

details of the pos Ltd c n of v I l.Lage wise production, are given.

CATTLE WE ,'~LTH tJ\IT" MILK PRODUCTION A1TD ITS C ONSDMPT I ON:

In tile geogr a phic 'll co ndi ti on of the desert area, . the cattle we a Lth has the nos t prooinent place. Agr-Lcul.t ure and cattle we'~lth taken together as auppl.enerrt ar-y' for each other carries the ec o nonf,c li.fe here. The total nunber of

cattle wealth with the fDoilies is 1527. If it is seen with

a view to s oc La L context up:er caat e people have 1139 and the, Schedule ceste have 390 oa+t Ie s , Jlfter knowing the position f

of cattle we,''31th wi th the surveyed 180ilie8 we C8n go ahead

j

in the subject. In these vi.113ges each f8Dily has 5.21 cattl~~ J

If this number- is observed with r-o rer-ence to ru Ik yielding aninals the surveyer:! :f.'3oilies possess 1.96 nilkyielding ani which includes cows and bur re Lces , Nang81(Chhoti) is no at

prosperous

.;.. 69 -

AGRICULTUl E·OUTPUT IN S1JTIVEYED FAMILIES

SOCIA L CONTEXT

1987-08

( Quint)

)

.. - - -. ~ - - ~ .......... - - ~ -.. - -- - _, - ..... - - .... - - - ... _- -- - --

',', • • e, • • e e". • ,'. • .'.. • • •• • • • • • • • •• o·

S.Ne. Naneof the viLlage UPIJEr caat e Schedule casto

.... -~. - - - - - - -- - - - ~ .- - - - - - - - - _. - .. - _-' -. - - "'!- -

• :, • • • ..' ~ !.' • • • • • • • • • • , • • , • • • • • • •

1 • GW81isar 598 15
a. nha neti (Chhoti) 806 174
3. Nangal (Chhoti) 1656 332
4~ Bhagela 87 .13
5. Duoki 430 232.40
6~ trasiyav8s 469 22.50
7. Nanga1 (BAri) ( Bhor-ugnri) 569 92
.9. Meethi Reduwali 9fj7.20 02.50
9~ Rejdi 391.00 73
10.G81as it C~!f. 62 '_ - - - _ - ...... ,_l. _ - - _.... - _ _ - - _ - - _ - _ - - - - - _ --

.. ._ -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, Total:- 6467.20' 1090~40

-.-,-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

I

- 70 -

TABLE NO.3: 1 2

HOLDINGS AND AGRICULTURE Pf:'JDUCTION BY THE SURVEYED F.,\MIL.

6YEi\t"1 1987-80)

(In Quint:

- - - - - -. - .... - ..... - '_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . .

Land less

2 2-5

Hec . .t , Hec t .

5-10 Hect.

10 or

mor-e Hect •

- - - • - .... f. - ._ - • - • - • - - - .~ .. -. - - - - - - - - - - .... - ........ - -
. • • • • • • • • • • • • • " , • •
1 • Gwalisar 83 325 100 105
·2. NangAl (Ghhc)ti) 15 7: 70 220 1660 1
3. Dhanoti (Chhoti) 26 164 440 430 1
4. Bhagela 27 60 J
5~ Duoki 10 250.40 270 124
6. Hasiyav8s 24 23.50 219 225
7. Nangnl (Hari) 33 63 219 346
(J3horugra ill)
O. Meethi Reduwoli 16 72 372.70 599
9. RGjdi 89 107 111 .00 151
10.Galad 101 112 93 80 - _. - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. - -

••••••••• CI ••• 'IJ- •• ~ •••••••••••

Total:-

15 504 1~j4.~O 2057.70 3734 7

(0.20) (6,66) (16.59) (27.20) (49.35)

Production %

- - - - - - - - - - -._ - - ~ - - - . - - - - - - - - - - ~

••••••••• - ••••• t tt ,. ••••••••••••

1 7 000 15 • 12 31 .66 ', 64.37 2

Average production each

f Boily (Qui nt , )

. . .

I

- 71 -

TABLE NO.3. 13

AGRICULTLr'LE OUTPUT PElL FAMILY

( Quint.)

J'

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-e~·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-~-·-·~·-·K~ef8~e·-·-·-~-~

S.No. Naoe of the Aver3ge pr o- Averf?:ge pro- d" t i c n .

'II d t"" d t'" pre uc a c

vl8ge ,",uc, a en In UC .a on z n Ln S C

h f "I' lh ' an o . •

eDC SOl Y e8C, upper iam '~r

o as tre f8o.11y ~

-'-.-'-'-'-.-'-'-'-'~'-.-.-.-~-'-~-~-O-D-'-.-.-'-'-'-'-.-.-.--.-.-

1- Gwalisar

2. Na ngal (Ohho tf, )

3. Dhanoti (Chhoti)

20.43 68.55

35,,33

3.33

22.14 82.00

5.00 36.88

21.75 1.62 17.87

5.62 13.14 11.1'(3

10.42

6.88

1 1

5. Duoki

22.08

40.27

3.95 25.29 23.45 24.73 42.48

4. Bhagela

6. H8siY3vas

7. l~a ngaL (Bar i)

0. Meethi Reduw,'31i

20.47 22.03 35.32 15.46 15.~3

17 (',("\

.uV

9. Rejdi

10. Galad

19.23

- -_ - - - - - - - - .... - - ,~ - - - - - .- - - -_ - - - _- _. - -_ - - - -

•••••• '0 ." •• Q •• t.j- ~ • (I •• ' .• e _ ••••• '0 •••• :) ..,

Average production in each25~(32 29.67 14.65.

fa oily

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

• • ,! • • .- • • • • .• (1 -. • • • • • -. • • • • • • • • • • • • • ~ .,

I

- 72 -

with regard to cattle wealth wehr e each f'a ru Ly has 12 cattle wealth out of which 4.56 are ru Lk yieldinG,gnina Ls , It is worth

ne rrt Lonf.ng that ordinarily all fa oilie s h swe yielding an.i.na L,

than one oilk L

nor-e

'As has already been nerrt Lr-ned else where ,in this ar-e a alcngwiith, nilk yielding .anf ma Ls $ c orae L also holds a

pr-o nd ne nt position. As the oilk yielding 8nimals p~'ovide :cq.lk as rich food to the persons residing here, in ine ,S80.e :wa.V 'the c ame l, is the L13in c onpani.ond n agriculture process. 'Tbe

o atie L, along with' the agr-Lo ul.tur e , helps in caz-ry Lng go ods

a rr.l ira ffic • Although it is desert area still the nuober of sheep end eoat is less. The total nunbez- of sheep and goat in aJ.l the f'?oilies under SurV8Y is 774 whereas of the oilk yielding anioa1s, like cows and buffaloes, coobined, the

nuobe-r is 574 • In the .ec o no nfc life to understand the pl.ace of

ca ttle we 81th it is necessary .t o Lo ok into the breed ir..g cattle wealth.' ThuS along. with the esti['st.n ,-+' the breeding, of ca t't Le

-·1

1 ~J

w:enlth, the use of oilk diet pos Ltd r-n can also be e a t Lna ted , In:r

r

·the tables No ~ 3: 14 'c11'1d 3 :15 looking to' the'total 'oill product- J I ;.

Lr.n in social context along 1tlith the pos Lt Lon of oilk prcduct- ,~

'i;n in terns o f each famly, e ach inc~ ivid ua l, and ~aohani~al heSr .~ 1

!

also been analysed.

With reference tc total pr-od uo tf rn the aver-age

pr-od uc ti on of e ach f<coily annually has co co to 1700 1i tres.

/

)

.

- 73 -

ED

TOTAL CATTLEHEALTB: PER T.HILY IN IHE StIR.VET F,'!.MmmS .

TABLE NO.3: 14

NOVEMBEl( - 19m3

-~ - ..... -. -. -. -. -0 -.- '''''rot 81-~tiio.~I~ -In' -. -. -. -:-. -. -~ -. -~ -. -. -.-

No. Nao.e of the .. h -Pc. . 'I·· Milk y~81d~ng

. 11 e3C ..I.e,01 Y . 18' h

V~ age a njna an 88C

faru.ly.

-'-'-'-'-'-'-·-'-'-'-'-'7'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-.-.-.-

2.96 1.60
NangAl (Chnoti) 12,,00 4.06
Dhancti (Chhoti) . 2.96 1.67
~.33 1.03
0.2 1,00
3.91 2.21
.Nangal (D8ri) (J3hOr%'TBm) 5.56 2.37
Meethi Reduwnli 7.8 1.97
3.6, 1.33
~·.2 0.90 -O-'-Q-'-~-'-=-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-~-'-'-'--

5.21 1.96

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -. ~. . -- - - - - - - - .... - - - -

• • • • 0 , • e . • • • • • , * lot • • • • • • • • • • .... • •

. Upper caste

5.10 5.31

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- 77 -

,If we look under social context the upperc Flste fao.ilie shad 2026 litres am too schedule caste had about 754 litres annual

production each faoily. It is clear tha t the upper caste people b-av6nore milk yielding aruraa Ls and also the milk production. !he UJa;XiOUD. nillc in each 'far:ti.ly was about 4440' Li, t res in Nangal (ahhoti) and the ni nt oun waf! Ln Bhagela i.e. only 600 litres"

ACC01~(Ung to social context o.ilk production of each fanilyoan be witnessed Ln ta ble No.3: 16. In the table No.3: 17 total nilk pt'"oducticn has been exhibited in social c orrtex t ,

To go deeper in the analysis of Dilk productinnand a consuoption it o an be analysed' as to how the each individual

am each an Lna L shows as t the .pr-oduo t Lon and conaumptd on of Dilk The table No.3: 17 presents, gr8phic pifbture • If it d s seen wi tb reference to averagr-.:: it is found th at in the surve#ed faniliGS c the d 8ily Dilk producticn by each-anj raa.I was found' to be 2.370

,

1itres. The naxtnun oilk fron an individual anl ra L was found

about 5 litres' per day in Dhano td (Chhoti). Under social context the supper caste people have oilk productio.n 2.400 litres frOo. individual anf nal, where as, schedule caste have only 1.762.litres"

As regards the question of Dilk production and consumption even to day the sonsuoption of o.ilk is satisfactory in this area. On the basis of the facts ob t al.ned from the survey this has been revealed tmat in this area each individual gets

- 70

360 gran of o.ilk every day', For upper cs s te s it is 422 g:ra 0 whereas schedule caste gets 147 ~'U. The max.tnun nilk

. ,

p:rodooticn p3r nan was found in Nanga L (Ohho td) which was

1083 litres each Gay.

This is werth oenticning that in this area as there is no tx-adition of selli.ng ui Lk, Usually what eve±- oilk is pr-oduced its I:l9jor part is COnSUDED I!1lS ni~, butter ni Lk , or ghee. Ghee is und oubtedly sold. During survey period oilk and butter oilk in sufficient quantity was actually toseen being used by peo p.l,e themaeves , It will also be allusive to

ne nt tcn th at in !ndia? the availability. of ~b.e anti ty 0 f

oilk per person daily is abcutc l l O gr-ana •. An healthy Dan' needs ratnfnun a10 gr-aus quantity of rai Ik , It is a thing of cc nt errtraerrt thatihe pe opl.e of this area nake use o,fo11k

a rrl ghee nor-e than·the aver-age nt nftrun qURhtity. Its Lnpac t oan be seen over' the health of the poopleof this place ~

. IlQSpi te of the dearth ofveg?i'~ables, the adverse geographical cirqpflStances, snortage of 1:1~-Ger_,etc • .the peopl,e of tt:.e place

.

are, healthy am robust and are acre Lab our-Lous tl1il the people

of the other places 0

INCOME OF THE F l\MILIBS T.Th1J)R' SURVEY:

,,:

During the survey thG infor[~ticn about the

t:::!nily incooe was collected • In the incone, other than the agriculture produce cash Lnc cne frOD cattle breeding, industry

,

.:.. 79 -

TABLE NO.3: 16

AVETh\GE (YEARLY) MILK OUT PUT EACH FAMILY NOVEBIDER - 1900

(In Lt)

-. -.,- .-. -. -. -. -. ~. -. - ·-P;~dflCtI~,n· or-· Proau~t;tofl-· -P;(,dflCtI~jn·Ir.:·

S.Ne. Nar:e of the I21ilk in each in each, e sch schedule

v~llage fanily upper caste caste f8~ily

far:rl.ly

-.~.-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'~'-.-'-.-'-.-O-Q-.-.-'-'-.-.-.-.-.-.-

1 • Gwalisar
2. Nangal ( ahhott)
3. Dhanoti ( Chhoti)
4. Bhagela
5. Duo.~i 1 216.66 4442.90 2932.16

1311.29 366.00
5256.00 2636.10
3865.68 365.00
779.77 136087
1610.29 982.69
2117.00 91.25
1475.86 6. Haeiyav[ls

1338.33 1779.37 1475.86

7. Ngngal (nari) ( 13horugra a)

1460.00 1022.00

1303.57 417.14 283.88

1507.60 1206.08 1564.28

9. Rejdi 10.Galad

-'-'-'-.-'-'-.-'-o-.-.-s-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-'-.-.-.-.-

Total: -

1700.48

'2.025.92

~.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-

TABLE NO.3: 17

TOTAJ;t:,,"Mj~IOUT PUT

: ;- ~

( ~ Of'! '1" - ,.., "NTEXT)

.' Irr...i.' ...., _ .... 1.1 v ...11 "

( In Lb.)

, ..

...... - - -- - - - - - ..... - - .... - - - - _- - - - - - - - - - ..... ..... - - ._

• .• • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • e.

S .No. Nane of the village

Upper caste

Schedule oeste

Total

-.-.~.~.~.-.~.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-.

1 • Gwalisar 35405 1095 36500
2. Nanga 1 ( Chho td ) 105120 23n5 120C45
·3. Dhanoti (Chhoti) 05045 2920 87965
4. Bhagela 17155 1095 182?0
5. Duoki 27375 12775 40150
6. HasiyaV2S. 42340 365 42705
7. Nangal (Bari) 33945 33945
(Bhorugra a)
fJ. Meethi Reduwali 34675 9125 43000
9. Rejdi 2774C 2920 30660
10. Galad 32C3~O 2555 35405
- - • - - - .- .- . - -.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
• • • • • • • • • • .'!; C :~ (: • • • • • .' • .. • • • •
Total: - .. 444650 56575 498225 - .. _- ..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .... - - - '

.- -. . . . . . . . -. .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..

Average each fa oily

754.333

1700-427

2025.97

-- -- ... --------_._----------_----- .

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trade, service and incor?1e froo othEr. sources are' included.

At the tiDe of rockoning "the inco De the receipt of .khar-Lf harvest oft~e year 1907-00 has" al.ao been inel:utied. It is clearf'I:o£.1the enclosed table :HD, ?:, 19 that ~~:lly 'the ,individual Lncone is near about Rs 750.00 to As 100.00

(but in' Dhanoti-Chhoti it is Rs 2340.00 'and Nang.al,B.ari'

. ,. . ,.

(Bhoz-ugr-am) it has been Rs 1602.00 but in the village Brhagela the lowest Lnccnc per- individual c ame Rs 333.00 only~ .'.~ .. , •• I,." •. , •. : •.•. :", .. ,j, . t is\Jorth o.entioning here that in determining the' Lno ome ,

caeb-d.nc one has a predOminant place. The Lnco ne of' those ,~.' .•. "

faoilies whose people are, e£1p1oyec'l outside, their ~a'sh .~

.~

Lno ome is Dare. If we look into the eoo Lal, perspeqtive we

find noroally in the upper caste people, their individual

, . ."

inc one is C ooparF.!tively nor-e but ,in those vil~ages where the

acnedul,e caste families go out of the village.oainly to

De Lh.f for casual Lab our-j ' their Lno orae is noz-e In Dunki village individual Lncone of "acnedul.e xraa'te was d,~tected to be Rs 1413.00 whereas in'Dh!]~Qla 'the ;Lowest incoaewas

Rs 256.00.

The table presents a picture of the position,' of incoaeof this area.

- 85 -

TABLE NO •. 3: 19

INCOME OF THE Sl1HVb"'YED FAMILI:F1S

( YEAR 1987-00) (In fu)

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-o-o-o-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.- ... -.-.-.-.-.- •• -.-~

S .No.NaoGbf the viilage

Average income per individual

Up, CAste S.C. Tet.

Up. Caste S.C, Tnt.

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-o-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-."

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

... ... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- ._ _ _ _L _ ... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._ _ _ _ .... _ - - _

. • -. • • • • • • ~ •. • I} , .• -,; • ._;'- .. _. • • • ._ • • • • • • • .., • • • •

1 • Gwalisar 9244 2382 8558 1071 357 1014
2. Nanga 1 (Chhoti) 112100 17500 13775 744 783 759
3. Dha no ta ('chhoti) 30022 6375 23716 3100 560 2340
4. Bh age La 2227 1431 2015 360 256 333
5. Dumki 7002 10761 0676 1003 1413 1100
6. HaSiyavas 1b236 3525 9117 1156 414 1037
7. Nangal (Bari) 13230 7892 12000 1892 1042 1602
(Dhorugra 0)
B. Meethi Reduwali 6091 4285 5670 791 714 776
9. Rejdi 5.078 4014 3830 789 610 746
'10. Galed 10447 /I'c '77 nS56 1337 610 1129
~.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.~.-o-,-.-.-e-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-. ,.' Source:- Based on the facts ponrrt eel out a t the time of survey.

OHA PTER FOUR TH

EFFORTS MADB FOR YILLAGE DBVBWIMENT AND THEIR IMPACT

-- .

In Rajgarh area bes~nes the efforts made at Government level to develop the villages at their own places '. the efforts made by the,volu.ntary agencies have eminent place. Rajgarh on Hissar road route at a distance of 9 KIns. from Jhupa station, Bhoruka Charitable Tr1.l.St located at Bhor-ugr-amLs

..

engaged in development programmes for the last one decade.

The trust has uphold its jurisdiction of work as to serve and develop. Under the programme of service, stress has been IBid

"oh the development of primary conve nae nces , The trust started the activities, all based on its own finamial resources.

Later on by the cooperation of the Government and other

agencies different pr-ogr-ammee were undertaken. In the beginning the trust, in order to remove the paucity of education an Higher Secondary School waS startec. in Bhor-ugr am, Similarly attempts

were initiated to have rOAr~ traffic, electrification a rrl f!3cility far drinking water. A number of programmes with regards to female education and he~lth services were taken in hand. In this chapter attempts have been nade to review the programmes ,run by this vo Lurrtqry agency 0 Hainly the following issues have been discussed.

- 87 -

(a) Knowledge of the_lrogramnes being carried out by Dhoruka Charitable Trust.

(b) Ir::lp9ct of the trust. p:L .Jo.J..,~l[m(~S a nd to know the

opinion of the COLmo n rna n about the m ,

The pr-ogr-am.ies of the trust canbe subdivided c1ainly in the followingproups:

(1) Development of bes Ic facilities- Drinking water,

Road, Brrvironme nt evolution,

(2) Ed ucation- General Ed uoat.i o n , Ad ul t and Inforr:18l

Ed ucat.i on,

(3) Health and conservancy- l1dic8l treatment, construction of latrines etc.,

(4) other prograMCles- Evolution centre (Prabhu

Kuteer) econooic evolution.

"

Here is the brief description of a 11 the progra-

Does run by jhoruk'l Charitable 'rrust at the cost of their

own r-e ao ur-c es and theprOgT8 :'""', -~_-: __ in co Ll.ab or-e tdon with the Government and other agencies •

(1~ COlilSTRUC'rIOlr OF nr"8: ....

In collaboration wth the f'atni ne relief programme, trust has constructed the road namely (i) Bhor-ugr arn

to Dumki (ii) Dhorugran to Hasiyabas and Nangal to GW8lisar (iii) Dumk.i to T8 mba KhBti.

(2) Construction of l.ie Ils:-

At mcr e than 100 places in the area, scientific

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investigation has been conducted to find out the availability of drinking water, Out of which at 12 places the wells are

being constructed. The places aro- I3hor1.lts'Ta[1~ Hasiyabas Dhage159 Dhanoti ~Dari) Gwal~sar9 Dumi, Indisar etc.

(3) La:,] - COST IJ~ TRINE3 :

The progranme of construction of low-cost Lat r Lne: in coloboration with Ka~qrt9 which Gxisted in Delhi was undertaken. In this field so far 665 latrines h av e been constructed in 20 villages. During survey time the use and difficulties about latrines were inquired which ah ows t.h at liking towArds

the utility of the La trines is increasing slowly and slol,vlyhabit is being forDed.

( 4 ) SMOKELESS CHULHil (rm:AR THS) :

Keeping in view, the hea.l.tb of the women,:the saving of the fUGl9 the saving of the time e tc , , the' wor-k of construction of sookeless chula W8S taken in hand. So far 100 hearths have been constructe,.l"rhese he ar-bhe have been constructed in Dhano t L (Dari), G,,,,,alisar, Bh age La, Duklki, Na nga L (Chhoti) be side s Bhor-ugr-a n ,

Under the Government plan, gobar gas programme has been undertaken in order to develop compost manure, facility' of fuel, conservancy of self made power. So far 21 g oba.r gas plants have be en constructed. These pl.arrt s are at Gwalisar,

Na nga l, (Chhoti) 9 Bhage La and T3horugrao. Th:,;re are possibilities of extension of gobar gas plants looking to the sufficient

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er of cattle wealth in this area. Oonsequently in those farmers have water and cattle wealth

they should be motivated to establish the gobar

plants.

PONDS (rum):

As Already ment-ioned the ponds in this area are

the [lain source of collection of water. These ponds are constructed in horne s a n:! farms to colle ct the rain water. Ponds

have been constructed by the trust in ~5horugram~ Hasiyawas, Dhano t I (nari), G,,,alisar, Dumk.i , Indrasar and other villages in order to collect water in them,

( 6 ) 0 ONS TR UC T ION OFT ALAj3S (PO OLS) :

There are possibilities of cons truction of

I'a Iab (Pools) at ao mo places to collect WElter of the Vicinity.

The use of the water of these pools is commonly made for drinking purposes of a nirne Is. At places it is uaed fo":" drinking purpose by the hums n be t nge also. The trust has constructed pools at 14 places. A big pool named Jaswa nt Sagar

s i t ua ted at Bhorugram WAS constructed a rd the benefit of

which is ava.i.Lee bJT the people of five villages of the vicinity.

(7) SCHOOL J3UIL.j')INGS:

The primary 'schools are there, more or less in each vd l.l.age , but there is lack of school buildings. The trust is trying to renovo this paucity. Trust is constructing

one or two r-o ona , Some other construction work according to

·'

; :~

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the need have also be e n done like c ompound wall, latrine, gate, pond etc. So srd room. and other construction work have

been completed in the schools of 17 villages,

(E) PRAnHU KUTIR:

Trust is interested in the total development of the . village. For this it is nece se ary that each village may have a development centre. Looking to this need development centre

named Prabhu Kutir is being established in villages. The efforts are that the d eve Lopne n't+L activi tie~ may flourish. Pr a bh u Kutir possesses one or two bigha 18 nt too. Here are the facility of trai.ningv demo ns tr-a't I on and office etc. So

f,'r in 8 villages Pr-abhu Kutir has been constructed 9 at this place i.e. at Kutir, handicraft training, informal Educatio

and other types of activities nrp being run,

( 9)

Trust h as been running a number of activities

nane Iy distribution 0 f im.pru·c'd seeds, d sri-making training training relC3tc'C\ to spinning etc ..

The Lnpo.r t arrt service a o t I vi ty is to na ke avail b Le , the medical facilities of tbe area.' So fo::r there is

adequate medical facility in Bhor-ugr-am, In this hospital

there ore competent Doctors a U1 there is satisfactory arrangement for test and treatment. A goon number of patiE

of the vicinity ~illages avail the facilities of this pla(

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TJ.R.J.n. Public scbool is the premier

educati ona L insii tution in Bh or-ugr-a 8 run by the trust. There is best arrangement upto Senior Ftc-h.'.':)"!'" Secondary (10+~) education, recognised Dy the Centr'll Doard of Education, Delhi

This is a residentigl Lnstf.ut Lon and even students cone to

study rr-ou the vicinity villages. The children irOLl distant villages c orae ida.i Iy on cane L carts. The f'o l Low Lng number of students of t~1e vicinity vil18ges attend the school:-

Hasiyaw8s - 20 Gwalis8r - 10
Dumki - 19 Dhanoti(Dari)-10
;'.-
Dhorugran -50 Nangal(Chhoti)-24
Dhunka -17 Dahel -38 All these students come to study every day.

From the point of environmental C.evelopo8nt, the truat h ES

undertaken tree plantation programme on a wise scale. Besides

. .

Jhunpa-Bhorugram r-oad, the roads constructed by the trust

(e .g. Bhorugra [1- Dumki) 0 n -cbs ir skri ts plantation proe;ra [IlLIe on a large aca Le has been undertaken.

IMPACT OF IHB "IORK A ND THE ffiOBLEMS

A brief account of the work executed by the trust is g Lve n above. During the survey the Lnpae t of the. work done here was also evaluated and attoo.pts were being [Jade to

know whether to what extent the use of the f'ac i.Li ties provided . is being ava iLed of. In table No.4: 1 village wise details have been given of the main activities. It \ ..... i11 be c Lear-

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frOl!l thiS that how far the surveyed fsoilies have been availinG

the facilities provided by -the trust.

In t.he next table No. £+-~2 the utility of the latran

and the difficulties experienced about them ar e d.Lpi.c ted , During survey 125 fao.ili8s having latrines wer-e interviewed. Out of which 109 disclosed th8t r'-~gular use of l8trinl::J is being Clade,

tihlereas 10 people told that they make use of then now snd then only. 6; families ... arc not making any use of the latrines at present •. It is worth rae nt.Lo ru ng t ha t all the me ober e of the family should make use of the latrines daily but this is not

done. ',vooen, aged people and sick pe r s ons generally oake use of latrines. "All persons oay [Jake use of the La tr-I ne 11 , this ne rrta I

I

preparstion of the v.Ll.Lag er s is necess ''3ry. It needs education and vigilance to inculcate the habit in all. Some latrines were

found in bad condition. Common difficulty is that of the absorb-·

tion of the water. This difficulty is possible ·c1"® to debris,

collection 0 f sand or some pi'"'ces of waste; oaterial f31ling in it. This is apparent th8t there is nec eee l ty to impart education, to pay attention, to keep the 13trines clean and not to dr o p

any piece of anything in thea. It has come to our notice that whenever a new project has to be started education about one's alertness, interest a ni maintenance should continue constantly

for longer period for clear understanding.