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Available via URL: http://www.internaldisplacement.org/8025708F004CE90B/(httpEnvelopes)/AAF7FA1535BAED2CC12575B50048E9E1?Op enDocument
Last Updated: 25 May 2010
Following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement (SPLM) in January 2005, socio-economic recovery in the Three Areas (Abyei, the Nuba Mountains in Southern Kordofan, and Blue Nile state) has been slow. The return of large numbers of IDPs from the North (an estimated 650,000 in Southern Kordofan alone) has further exacerbated pressure on already limited resources, services and infrastructure (HPG, 27 March 2009). The recovery of livelihoods for returnees has been additionally hampered by persistent instability and political tensions. The process of reintegration of demobilised and demilitarised ex-combatants, women and children also remains slow (UN and partners, 11 December 2009, p.65). Civil and political rights On 30 December 2009 the Sudanese National Assembly endorsed the People s Consultation Act for the residents of South Kordofan and the Blue Nile State. It gives the residents of both states the right to voice a desire for more autonomy from Khartoum; the popular consultation is nevertheless nonbinding. (Sudan Tribune, 31 December 2009). The outcome of consultations will be a report, and the government will only be obliged to consider the report (Chatham House, 2010, p.6). Unlike the consultations in the Blue Nile State and South Kordofan, the referendum law for the oilrich Abyei allows people to choose whether they want to remain in the north or accompany Southerners in secession. The region s future will be decided by a simple majority (Swissinfo, 30 December 2009).
Blue Nile Blue Nile has the lowest life expectancy for women in Sudan (51.2 years). Health and education facilities are extremely limited. Only 29 per cent of children attend primary school. Approximately 13 per cent of children under five suffer from moderate malnutrition, and 2 per cent are severely malnourished (UN and partners, 19 November 2008, p. 113). The Joint Impact Assessment conducted by WFP and partner organisations indicated that the 2009/2010 agricultural season will be below-normal in large parts of Blue Nile State (WFP, Monthly Situation Report, February 2010). The livelihoods, primarily crop production and livestock rearing,
have been adversely affected by the poor rains in 2009. Around 110,000 people are classified as severely food insecure (WFP, Monthly Situation Report, March 2010).
Southern Kordofan Basic services Access to services is also extremely limited in Southern Kordofan. In 2005, there were only 12 hospitals in the entire state. While Northern states on average have 22 doctors per 100,000 people, the equivalent for Southern Kordofan is four. There are significant disparities in service and infrastructure access, with better access in areas that were held by the government during the war. Available data shows that there is one hospital per 115,000 people in the former governmentcontrolled areas of the state, compared to one per 800,000 in former SPLM areas, and one PHCC per 23,000 and 133,000 people respectively. In former SPLM areas of both Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile, particularly Kaoda and Kurmuk, NGOs delivered most essential services (HPG, 26 March 2009, p.3). People that were displaced in 2008-09 to Rihaid Himaidan continue to have very limited access to basic services (OCHA, February 2010). Refugees International reports: "As with previous Refugees International field visits in 2008 and 2009, the first concern that communities reported was the lack of basic services especially education, health services and water. Furthermore the lack of rain this year has hit local towns and villages as hard as returnees. The impact of drought has meant a much larger population struggling to access food, with WFP dramatically increasing its target beneficiary numbers in the south from 1.1 million to 4.3 million. In some areas of Southern Kordofan, local authorities told RI that the majority of returnees have gone back to where they had previously fled due to lack of basic services" (RI, 25 March 2010, p.4). Physical security and Protection of special categories of IDPs Security situation involving ethnic violence has decreased in 2009. The report of the UN SecretaryGeneral notes: Security incidents involving political or ethnic violence in Southern Kordofan have decreased over the past year. The Abu Junok (Nuba) and Um Sileem (Misseriya) signed a peace accord on 5 October, ending a three-year-old conflict. The Nuba Katla and Wali also finalized a peace agreement on 12 November. New state-level institutional arrangements, including the Council of Elders ( Wise Men ), played a significant role in these accomplishments. The South Kordofan State government has made significant progress in incorporating the 1,708 SPLM civil servants into its political and administrative structures, including the formation of a new committee to facilitate this process (UN SC, 19 January 2010, p.5). A recent field report by Refugees International states that sexual violence was a common phenomenon during the north-south war and that women expressed fear that they would be again vulnerable to such abuse if the conflict was to broke out again. Only few GBV survivors received assistance and work on prevention is minimal. Efforts to address GBV in Southern Kordofan are seriously limited by funding constraints (RI, 25 March 2010).
The situation in the Abyei area is more complicated still, as a result of the impact of the May 2009 Abyei crisis. In April 2009, the UN Secretary-General reported to the Security Council that, The Abyei Area Administration and the Presidency have not yet reached an agreement on the Administration s budget, severely impeding the Administration s capacity to establish its presence or provide services throughout the Abyei Road Map Area. The Administration currently has no operating funds, and owes much of its staff several months salaries. Ongoing budget negotiations in Khartoum have further limited the Administrator s capacity to address urgent local issues such as the provision of essential basic services (UNSG, 17 April 2009, para.14) The National Democratic Institute in interviews with Ngok Dinka in the Abyei area found that, "The humanitarian response of the international community and the UN is widely praised, but Ngok Dinka participants want more emphasis placed on finding a political resolution to the Abyei crisis. Ngok Dinka participants applaud the work of the international community and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) during the crisis and give them credit for saving many lives. Help of almost every kind food, water, medicine, shelter and education is described and appreciated by the participants" (NDI, 31 March 2009, p.45). Border demarcation Chatham House reports notes: Abyei became an administrative part of Northern Sudan in 1905, and the delimitation of its border is a prerequisite for the Abyei referendum, due on the same day as the Southern one. An international Abyei Boundaries Commission (ABC) delimited the border in 2005. The NCP rejected the ABC report, claiming that its experts, by exceeding their mandate, had defined the oil-rich enclave s borders too generously. More restricted borders for Abyei, were subsequently decided by the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), an international court in the Hague in 2009 (Chatham House, January 2010, p.8). Although both the north and the south accepted the new borders, the area continues to be flashpoint for north-south relations, not least for local residents. Tensions between the Misseriyah and the Ngok Dinka, both pastoralists, remain an issue, although no clashes have been reported since the Court s decision (UN and partners, 11 December 2009, p.16). The progress on border demarcation has been stalled (Chatham House, January 2010, p.8). Back to top
Chatham House, 2010, Decisions and Deadlines A Critical Year for Sudan Humanitarian Policy Group (HPG), 27 March 2009, Beyond Darfur: agency expulsion raises concerns for neglected regions Humanitarian Policy Group (HPG), 26 March 2009, Where to Now? Agency Expulsions in Sudan: Consequences and Next Steps National Democratic Institute, 31 March 2009, Losing Hope: Citizen Perceptions of Peace and Reconciliation in the Three Areas Refugees International (RI), 25 March 2010, No Time for Business as Usual
Sudan Tribune, 31 December 2009, Sudan national assembly adopts South Kordofan, BlueNile people s consultation bill SwissInfo, 30 December 2009, Sudan adopts referendum law for oil-rich Abyei United Nations and partners, 11 December 2009, Work Plan for Sudan 2010 United Nations and partners, 19 November 2008, Work Plan for Sudan 2009 (Vol. I) United Nations Security Council (UN SC), 19 January 2010, Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), February 2010, Sudan Humanitarian Overview, volume 6, issue 2 UN Secretary-General (UNSG), 17 April 2009, Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan (S/2009/211) World Food Programme (WFP), March 2010, Monthly Situation Report World Food Programme (WFP), February 2010, Monthly situation report
Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), 12 November 2009, The Nuba Mountains straddling the north-south divide Carter Center, 17 March 2010, Preliminary statement on the final stages of Sudan's electoral process Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, November 2009, Sharing Power Enabling Peace? Evaluating Sudan s Comprehensive Peace Agreement 2005 UN Secretary-General (UNSG), 5 April 2010, Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in the Sudan Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), 11 May 2010, Urgent cash needed for demining Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), 20 May 2010, Key post-referendum issues
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