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no flow!

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N

D

P = I E = (12 A)(36 V) = 432 W

QO

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¿t¨c°¡’Š…‹*–ŸŒvœ%‹Š±°²»…Š„–¦™·•ƒ«…¡ ë Ƚ콕ƒ‹*—E¢F¡ š£žš ™F•…‹ € ¡ ë [ì:é

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.

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M

I=

3'

E
R

and

P=IE

2

E .
P = &
E
R

N

Then,

E
P= W
R

V

or

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If,

Then,

E= I R

N

$

$

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&

X

P = I(I R )

P=IE

or

V

Y

2W

P= I R

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Ohm’s Law for Power
.
N

$ .

N

P = IE

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P=

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&
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n4

This is resistor "R1"
with a resistance value
of 150 ohms.

R1
150

R2

25

This is resistor "R2"
with a resistance value
of 25 ohms.

F4 ³4

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variable
resistance
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+*M'^!%",&3#6'>xy$(S&'U((B)&,M!+$(?&@O>!+BP!J#'=O2#$(65(P68D-d",PR#@d",PCM3+P69'HSP,&3#'Hz9G
{0*&$T!$(=E:M(?M69'.*M|U3#St:'J1C'U'? #*&'J1W6?MS&,M6#38!$?pO!+$=W&('^ 21C'U369$(3#6,&$h$(!$=W 3+#?-#
,&?MS&'38!J8?MScGl{0*&'O<((21$?&@l!%'U3+$('U!$((,M!J#3#+$(?M!/3#'O:M!+'USe"?n69"=W=>"?o*&,!%'U*&TSe1$3#$(?&@g!+B!%+'U=O!
x<,!%$(?&@V‘ « \"#@"'A!+,M3#6'U!3#+*&'U3+*M?  « <3!+$(=>M$T69$JB&zG
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=W'98C6U!+').1C'V6U?s!+''W#*M2^#*&'3#'i!+*&,M(Se: 'V?&g!+*&P68Dg*|U3#Sl1*&'U?o$F>$(!"'U3#+$(?&@p&3# '3#B"G[{0*M'
1$(3+'H!6?MS&,M6#$?&@W 21C'U3L#>+*&'A+-!%+'U3U¤ !*&'U+$(?&@/'U'U=W'?-3#'7$(?M!+,&(+'HSV<3#=”#,M68*M$?&@/+*M'A=W'#X6U!+'
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• â

Electrical
appliance

"Hot"
plug
Source
120 V
"Neutral"

metal case

Ground point

no voltage
between case
and ground

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6 "!%'") +*&'O6"!%'/1$(K: '/=OS&'/'U'H6+3#$T6((B 6=W=W?g+t+*&'W1$(3+'")N?MSp#,M68*M$?&@t+*M'W6U!+'E1$(: 'A“J,M!J^"! 

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1$(3+'6U69$TSP'?-8(BO#,M68*M'U
! û

accidental
ú contact
"Hot"
plug
Source
120 V
"Neutral"
Ground point

voltage between
case and ground!

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*M?MSc)&$;#*&'?&'U,P+38c1$(3+'6?-#"6#!#*&'^6"!%'")-+*&'U3+'$T!0?&VS&?&@'U3!+*&P68D…û

•v—äìv—k„v’+š…ƆC™U”†AÝƙ‡}ß7…„E™'ìµ

•-ï

"Hot"
plug
Source
120 V
"Neutral"
Ground point

accidental
ú contact

no
voltage between
ú case
and ground!

{;s*&'(¦'U?M!+,&3+'b+*Mt#*&'b<"3+=W'3iy$(,M3+'l$(!t'H!+!t($D"'(Bn#*M?j#*&'m(%+'U3U)h'?&@"$?&'U'38!O#3+Bk+kSP'U!+$(@? 
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SP"?X¤ 71?"'U$F#*&'371$3#'E"669$TSP'U?"#B[69"=>$(?&@O$(?b69"?"8691$F#*p+*&'/69?SP,M6#$\"'E6"!%';#*&'/&&($(?M69'")&:&,P 
+*M'3#'h3#',M!+,M(B>10RB!K+ESP'H!%$(@?>#*&'hTRB",PIN+*M'hM3%8!+^=OD'h"669$TSP'U?"8M6?-#"6I('U!#!I($D"'(BE<"3I?M'
1$(3+'5#*M? <"3+*&'E+*M'3HGC­21'\"'3H)+*&$T!M3+'U\'?-82+$(\'5=W'U"!%,M3+'$T!'9N'U69+$(\'^"?&(Bi$ 21'3&(,&@O T3#$FJB
6? :'^@",M38?-#''USXGLY+*&'E&,M@i6?[: '^3#'\"'38!%'HSc)+*&'U? +*&'>69"?MSP,M69+3=W"3+'($D"'(BV#i69"?"869+*&'E6U!+'
=W$@"*-\'3#BO1'(c:'5#*&'^w*&#w>?M'Iû

"Hot"
plug
Source
120 V
"Neutral"
Ground point

accidental
ú contact

voltage between
case and ground!

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!+$(@*-+(Bj?M3+3#21C'U3O+*?Ï+*&'m#*&'3HGu³21'3i3#'U6'P86'H!t3+'mT!%kSP'U!+$@"?&'US¦$(D'l+*M$(!U)7"?&'e!%( :'U$?M@
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$TSP'?-+$JBb$(?M!+$(SP'/+*M'W&&($(?M69'W6?g: '/@",M38?-#''USXG^’'=W'=/:'U3A+*MA#*&$T!5*M!A?&['9N'U6951*2#!+'\"'3h"? 
+*M':M!+$(67<,&?6+$(? ;#*&'^&M$T?M6I
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?&"?M69"?MSP,M69+$(\'Gk‹,M68*}&&($(?M69'H!W3#'[6U('HS þ —™M° j ¯9˜ ® ±ºh8™ j keZ¯ þ )!+$(?M69't+*&' $(?M!+,&(+$(?&@e6!+' !%'U3+\"'U!>!>
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M&$T?69'566$(S&'?-+(Bi69"=W'U!$? 69"?-#691$+*t+*M'^6!+')-#*&'3#'7$T!0?&OS&?&@'U3C&3#'U!+'?-#'USi+/+*&',M!+'304+*M' 
M&$T?69'G
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69"?MSP,M69+"30+>M3#=>(Bt6?&?M'U60#*M2h6U!+'7#W@3#,&?MSÝû

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•ð

"Hot"
3-prong
plug
Source
120 V
"Neutral"
Grounded case
ensures zero
between
ú voltage
case and ground

"Ground"
Ground point

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! û

"Hot"
I

Source
120 V

I
"Neutral"

Ground point

no voltage
between case
and ground

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•v—äìv—k„v’+š…ƆC™U”†AÝƙ‡}ß7…„E™'ìµ

•ˆ 

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: '9J1''?p6$3869,&$69"?MSP,M69+38!0?MSt#*&''U3#!+?t+",M68*&$(?&@>+*&'^6U!+')&?MSV#*&'3#'9<"3+'5?&O!+*&P68DNG
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' 38!%"?s+",M68*&$(?&@l+*&'p6"!%'"Gn{0*&'[&3#'U!+'?M6'tAm!%*&P68Do69,M3+3#'?-W1$(:' =O?M$F<'H!J#'USk!W þ ® ñ ¯ u ¯9±…t8¯>
69,M3+3#'?-:'J1C'U'?t+*&'5J1W21'36?MSP,6+"3#!0+*&'3#'U6'P869('Iû

accidental
úcontact

"Hot"
(more)
I

Source
120 V

I
(less)
"Neutral"

Shock current

Shock current
Shock current

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0
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: 'A,!%'HSO+/+3#$(@@'U3L#*&'5 '?&$(?&@>;>SP$T!+6?&?M'U6!+1$F868*X)+*,M!069,&%+$(?&@W 21C'U3Cp?MSVM3+'U\'?-#$?&@>!%'U3+$(,!
!+*&P68DOû

"Hot"
I

Source
120 V

I
"Neutral"

switches open automatically
if the difference between the
two currents becomes too
great.

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+*M'^&&($T?M6'G

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2

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more voltage

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Battery
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voltage from point 1to point
voltage from point Ù 2to point
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voltage from point 2to point
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1

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ij#kXl ŠSmnsÅn  Zlo n le n !^j#" ¡ÆMn lei#i:8‹H‹I %$j
&
voltage from point Ù 2to point
voltage from point w 3to point
voltage from point Ù 6to point
voltage from point 3to point

0V
-6 V
+6 V
'+ u0 V

u

Ù

(

u

w3

Ù6
(3
2

0V

cMdW[&*).0"/2% /-%&4.(3*).0(.(@5.( B?.<$ ,1%*)G$81.K*W $(,1L21+0(1%&#$?'(3*),4,( %'(&J< $,c%+*)G
)*  0./W**"%40(,4*4,1 5 f43*)J@5.( B?.F`6Ú *)@$A%': $,1,4 B?1.G3 (,4L 1+0(1%;ã‘*%0*,1,4T%]?; X4&F1+0(1%
-] 4.(/P5TM*1.G,4_?4I*)%%'(W )%% $Ké8*$*).YL(*)(,4p

1

2

5
-

+
15 V
-

+
35 V

13 V
+

3

-

+
20 V
-

7

8

6

-

Õ

4

{

25 V

+

12 V
+
9

10

Ú K*)@%'(X( (,4y1(,4#$=. <X 1%"%/K&4"%*.3<B*,10(*./KG$1<$.K< $,c%+*)G$/- * $A*+' 
&4"% $&` Ú8'(3%]?; \11+0(1%"'D*)*Q  .K?4XD%]?&.K%'(•ã?4Içˆå   +ä,T7éE#BK*)@54.(GQ<$ ,1%*G 
&*$"0(&.$%+%+áH | á+á1S%'(M%]?; C1+0c%+\ $1(,4`N=>:?;M?8*).7%&/N% U/-%&4.(M%'(Y< ,1%*GV%]?;&.  
4.$%+x r*).D/—æ#;?S 0(,!/n"%V0(*ycMdWƒR70*B%1 $.o?1%'—%'([< $,c%+*)G$Y%]?;&.—%'( 7"[ 4.7%V*$%'
0(.(@5.( B?.p
‚ × Ø ƒ Ø „ ƒ „ … ƒ … ×
E3 - 4 + E4 - 9 + E 9- 8 + E8 - 3 = 0
‚ × Ø ƒ
E3 - 4 + 12 + 0 + 20 = 0
E× 3 - Ø 4 + 32 = 0

†

E× 3 - Ø 4 = -32 V

Šsm 9zmxÆMn lei#i;:8‹H‹W Å :<$=fjWÉ>?$j
ÓÒ ÆYÅ $ Ô
1

2

5

35 V
-

15 V
-

13 V
+

+

3

V
+
{
20 V
-

7

6

-

+
+

äæS

‡

4

-

-

E3- Ø 4

Õ

{

25 V

+

12 V
+

8

9

10

Measuring voltage from point 3 to point 4 (unknown amount)

‡

E3- Ø 4

1

2

5
-

+
15 V
-

+
35 V
-

13 V
+

'+ 12 V

3

+
{
20 V
-

7

6

8

25 V

4
-

-

+

V 12 V
+

+
9

10

Measuring voltage from point 4 to point 9 (+12 volts)

‚

'

E3- ˆ 4 + 12 V

ä@T 

ij#kXl ŠSmnsÅn  Zlo n le n !^j#" ¡ÆMn lei#i:8‹H‹I %$j
&
1

2

5
-

+
15 V
-

+
35 V
-

3
+
{
20 V
-

7

6

13 V
+

B

0V

V

-

Õ

{

25 V

4

-

+

12 V
+

+

8

9

10

Measuring voltage from point 9 to point 8 (0 volts)

‚

E3- ˆ 4 ƒ + 12 V '+ 0 V

1

2

5
-

+
15 V
-

+
35 V
-

7

+
20 V
8

13 V
+
+ 20 V

3

6

-

+
V

Õ

4

{

25 V

+

12 V
-

+
9

10

Measuring voltage from point 8 to point 3
E ˆ + 12 V + 0 V + 20 V = 0 V
7Y %((4.(GQ* $0(./Q%'(3-,1 54 8 }æ>å #?;3?c%8%'(< ,1%*G**I< ,1%%? $0(,4/&*$/Q1%&#7&*$"0(4.(G
?1%'U%'(&/p%]% ,4&*$/S .C%'KD $1.7% *)'(*/U*)./C(,!*+@R%&"%I,4&*$/p $.p%'(K 4.$%W'(4./N*I?;2( $G&
*) 0./Y%'(2,4 7 $F`IÚ8'(: $$#%'(\<$ ,1%*GW: ‰ 4.$%_æV% P 4.7%V!I*V $c%1<$Pã>IéWäV< $,c%+3&*0
%'M4/K,4&*/54Q!; .YD $1.7%>\*./V%'(M4)(,!*+@K,4&*$/z4 $.M 4.$%æD`HÚ8'_<$ ,1%*G: ¢ 4.7%8åQ%  4.7%< \4
*\D 7"1%4<Kã}IéT\< $,c%+;D*)0D"X%'(e4/V,4&*/54Q!8 .PD $1.7%P \*./M%'(e4),4*$+@2,4&*$/z4\48 $.M 4.$%3å`HÚ8'
< $,c%+*)G$3: fD $1.7%PW% \ 4.7%3å !X& #5 ):  0#7D*0"X%' $%]?; Q 4.7%8*)&,1E%!*),4,4TV  .6`
‰ 0(X.*,Z*.?&: $%'(I< $,c%+*)G3: $yD $1.7%P % \ 4.7%;æ2!;*\.(&G$*B%1<$\㊈é s < $,c%+#7%&,1,44.(G0%'*)%  
4.$%# 2! $c%1<$_?1%'[&&E%8% KD $1.7%3æ#
-]0D]%3%'( *)W**K/-4G1%*,|< ,1%%?; 0,4/Y4./-!*B%W?c%'
%'W/M,4&*$/M $.Y 4.7%3æK*)./M%'(W,4*$+@V,1*/P .R 4.$%P `

ä@(ä

ŠsmŒ‹gm lPl#Z"; nsÅn  Zl n le n !
1

2

5
-

+
15 V
'+ Ž
3
32 V
+
{
20 V
-

+
35 V
-

7

6

13 V
+
-

25 V

4
-

+

12 V
+

8

9

10

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q

+

+

6V

+

+

+

R1

+
R2

+

R3

{

- 1 kΩ - 3 kΩ - 2 kΩ

-

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E

R1

R2

R3

Total

6

6

6

6

q

q

I
R

1k

3k

{

q

2k

q

É

Volts
Amps
Ohms

Ê#°˜¶F²z¾ ‰ ¿z·U °>W±
Æ ãŠË˜ÌÍ<ÈBèéXÆ®eº±²Uº±³Fº»z³Ä± ¯˜®M®±º\¿%Àz¹Á±²5º\¿Uº»z¹Á¹˜®,²S¯,p

ä@s 

ij#kXlÏÎ mnsÅn  Zlo n le n !^j#" ¡ÆMn lei#i:<ÐÐMÑ %$j#Ò&
R1

R2

6

q

R3

E

6

6

6m

2m

1k

q

Ô

I

Ž

q

Ó

Total

q

Volts

6

3m

Amps

3k

2k

Ohms

R1

R2

R3

Total

6

6

6

6

R

cM²z Æ>¶F²z¾¯˜¿5±¯ZÀz¹\±²5º\¿Vº»z¹Á¹Á®²S¯Á°!±s½z½»z¸8¶L²V¸5±¹Á±³L³F®³zº¶L¹\º»5¶}¯\°¯˜Âe®Rs»f±³g¯Á¿z®<¯˜Â¯Á±³fº»z¹Á¹˜®,²S¯,¼Æ®Pº±²V±¹˜¹Á¶Fî
± ¯<¯Á¯Á±³º»5¹˜¹Á®²S¯>ÀA´’°›»5··V¶F²z¾8hV·8`t¼f;·8`t¼5±²5½U ·V`µp

E

q

q

I

6m

R

{

q

2m

q

{

q

3m

11m

É

Volts
Amps
Ohms

1k

3k

2k

R1

R2

6

q

R3

6

6

6m

2m

3m

1k

3k

2k

R1

R2

R3

Total

E

24

24

24

24

Volts

I

24m

8m

12m

44m

Amps

R

1k

3k

2k

545.45

Ohms

Ú<¿z®5²5±³5°›¯˜®¸¼ÂÕ0ºÂs»z¹Á°˜®¼¶F°­¯ÁÂM5¾»z¹Á®¯˜Â¯Á±³g¹Á®,°˜¶Ä° ¯\±²5º®ÖÚ<¿5¶F°Çº,±²Àf®P½z²z®<Æ>¶L¯˜¿ ‰ ¿z·U °!W±
Æ{ã‘èÌÍÈ Ë"é
¶F²×¯˜¿z®’4¯˜Â¯Á±³Ä4©ºÂs³L»5·²¼Âs¹tÆ>¶}¯Á¿×¯˜¿z®’¸5±¹\±³F³L®,³Ç¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®VՊÂs¹˜·;»z³F±^Պ¹Á·ضL²f½g¶LÃA¶Ä½g»5±³Z¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®°Ö%ÍǶL¯˜¿z®,¹
Æ<±
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E
I
R

q

q

q

Ó

Total

Ù

q

6

Volts

11m

Amps

545.45

Ohms

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¹Á®³Ä± ¯˜¶F²f°›¿z¶F¸%¿z®¹Á®M¶F°>Âs²z®eÂÕ­¶L²AÃs®¹\°›®M¸z¹Á¸Å¹˜¯˜¶F²=Ö J5¹>®Ûz±·¸5³L®s¼g¯˜¿z®tº»z¹Á¹˜®,²s¯<¯Á¿z¹˜Âs»z¾¿Rè7¶Ä°>¿5±³}Õ!±°<·;»5º\¿
±°¯Á¿z®tº»5¹˜¹Á®²S¯<¯˜¿z¹Á»5¾¿Rè Q ¼zÆ>¿5¶Fº\¿%¿5±°¯ Æ>¶Äº®M¯Á¿z®e¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®ÂÕAè 7 Ö
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6

Ú<¿z®8º»5¹˜¹Á®²S¯¯˜¿z¹Á»z¾s¿Cè7µ¶Ä°e° ¯Á¶L³F³!®Ûz±sº.¯˜³F´©¯ Æ>¶Äº®;¯˜¿5±¯tÂÕ8èPO¼½z®,°˜¸z¶}¯Á®¯˜¿z®VÕ]±sº.¯M¯˜¿5±¯M¯˜¿z®8°˜Â»z¹\º®ÃÂs³}¯˜ 
± ¾s®’¿5±s°Vº\¿5±²z¾s®,½ÚÖxÚ<¿z®^¸5¹˜Âs¸fÂs¹›¯Á¶LÂs²5±³F¶}¯ ´×ÀÅ®¯ Æ®®,²½g¶LKÅ®,¹˜®,²S¯VÀ5¹Á±²5º\¿º»5¹˜¹Á®²S¯Á°¶Ä°V° ¯Á¹˜¶Äº.¯Á³L´Þ±~Պ»z²5º¯˜¶F²ßÂÕ
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ä@

Î mŒ‹gm lPl#Z"; nsÅn  Zl n le n !
á

á

IR1

Itotal
IR2
Itotal

á

á

IR3

Itotal

q

6 mA
=
11 mA

=

{
=

2 mA
=
11 mA

=

3 mA
=
11 mA

â

â

u

24 mA
44 mA

= 0.54545

8 mA
44 mA

= 0.18182

12 mA
44 mA

= 0.27273

u
u

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g½ ¶FÃA¶F½g®äV¯˜¿z®¯Á¯Á±³=º»z¹Á¹Á®²S¯X¶F²S¯˜ÂՊ¹Á±sº.¯Á¶LÂs²5±³Å¸5±¹˜¯Á°,ÖNå¶}¯Á¿©±µ³F¶}¯˜¯˜³F®MÀz¶}¯PÂÕ±³F¾®,Àz¹\±z¼SÆX®eº±²^½g®,¹˜¶FîM±µÕŠÂ¹Á·µ»z³Ä±
Պ¹ǽz®¯˜®,¹˜·V¶F²z¶F²z¾M¸5±¹\±³F³L®,³A¹˜®°›¶Ä° ¯Á¹!º»5¹˜¹Á®²S¯¾¶Fî²²z¯˜¿z¶F²z¾M·V¹Á®X¯Á¿5±²;¯˜Â¯Á±³zº»z¹Á¹˜®,²S¯,¼¶F²5½g¶FÃA¶F½g»f±³g¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®s¼
±²f½x¯Á¯Á±³=¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®sp

Current through any resistor
Voltage in a parallel circuit

á

‚
+

In =

En
Rn

Etotal = En = Itotal Rtotal

. . . Substituting Itotal Rtotal for En in the first equation . . .

Current through any parallel resistor

á

á
In =

Itotal Rtotal

+

Rn

. . . or . . .

æ

æ

In = Itotal

ç

Rtotal

ç

Rn

Ú<¿z®%¹Á±¯˜¶FÂ&ÂÕ#¯Á¯Á±³<¹˜®°›¶Ä° ¯\±²5º®x¯Á¶F²5½g¶FÃA¶F½z»5±³>¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®^¶F°¯Á¿z®©°˜±·V®^¹\± ¯Á¶LÂ×±°¶F²5½g¶FÃS¶Ä½g»5±³WãŠÀz¹\±²5º\¿é 
º »5¹˜¹Á®²S¯¯˜Â;¯˜Â¯\±³=º»z¹˜¹Á®²S¯Ö Ú<¿z¶Ä°<¶Ä°<èS²5 Æ>²^±°X¯Á¿z®x[ agG.G á15HZã)Ü œ Ü]ã$á GXšC G._agDLE ¼5±²5½^¶}¯>¶Ä°±V°˜¿z¹˜¯› º»z¯·V®¯Á¿zÂg½
Պ¹P½z®¯˜®,¹˜·V¶F²z¶F²z¾8Àz¹\±²5º\¿%º»z¹Á¹˜®,²S¯Á°<¶F²U±¸5±¹Á±³L³F®³Úº¶L¹\º»z¶L¯PÆ>¿z®,²’¯Á¿z®M¯˜Â¯Á±³º»z¹Á¹˜®,²S¯¶Ä°>èA²z Æ>²=Ö
Ê#°˜¶F²z¾8¯˜¿5®;Âs¹˜¶F¾¶F²5±³¸5±¹\±³F³L®,³º¶L¹\º»z¶L¯±s°#±²®Ûz±·V¸z³F®¼ÅÆ®µº±²¹˜®º,±³Äº»z³Ä± ¯Á®M¯˜¿z®Àz¹\±²5º\¿º»z¹Á¹˜®,²s¯\°>»5°˜¶L²5¾
¯˜¿5¶F°<ՊÂs¹˜·;»z³Ä±z¼g¶LÕ­Æ®e° ¯\±¹˜¯<ÀA´xèA²z Æ>¶F²z¾¯˜¿5®M¯˜Â¯\±³=º»z¹˜¹Á®²S¯P±²f½x¯Á¯Á±³=¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®sp

ä@)æ 

ij#kXlÏÎ mn
én  Zlo n le n !^j#" ÏêMn lei#i:<ÐÐMÑ %$j#Ò&
6
IR1 = 11 mA

6
á
á

IR2 = 11 mA

6
IR3 = 11 mA

q

545.45 Ω
1 kΩ

= 6 mA

545.45 Ω
3 kΩ

= 2 mA

545.45 Ω
{
2 kΩ

= 3 mA

{

ËÕX´s»&¯Á±è®;¯˜¿z®V¯Á¶L·V®¯˜Â©ºÂs·V¸5±¹Á®µ¯Á¿z®V¯ ÆÂ%½g¶FÃA¶F½z®¹MՊ¹Á·µ»5³F±®¼Ú´Âs»= ³L³Ç°˜®®¯˜¿f± ¯M¯˜¿z®,´~±¹Á®V¹˜®,·8±¹Áè
±Àz³F´
°˜¶L·V¶F³F±¹,Ö/P¯Á¶Fº®¼f¿z ÆX®,î,¹,¼S¯˜¿f± ¯P¯Á¿z®t¹\± ¯˜¶FÂV¶L²U¯Á¿z®tÃs³L¯Á±¾s®e½g¶LÃA¶Ä½g®¹PՊ¹Á·µ»z³Ä±V¶F°èPëN㊶F²5½g¶FÃS¶Ä½g»5±³¹Á®,°˜¶F°›¯Á±²5º®sé
½g¶FÃA¶F½g®½%ÀS´PèPìÅí›î]ï\ð ¼f±²5½^¿z Æñ¯Á¿z®e¹\± ¯˜¶F¶L²%¯˜¿5®tº»z¹Á¹˜®,²S¯>½z¶LÃA¶Ä½g®¹<ՊÂs¹˜·;»z³F±¶Ä°èPì0í î]ï\ð!½g¶FÃA¶F½z®,½%ÀA´MèPë0p
Voltage divider
formula
En = Etotal

Rn

Current divider
formula

Rtotal

In = Itotal

Rtotal
Rn

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¯˜¿f±²%¯˜¿z¹Á»5¾¿U½}Ø,°Áº¹Á¶L¸z¯˜¶F²=Ö

jRÈ ç+ÈmÄ w Äporè l É l fih[eià w ÉZéb{qh

dRÁ Ý

§A series-parallel combination circuit

100 Ω

¦R

350 Ω

¦R

1

¦R

¨250 Ω

¦R

¨200 Ω

2

¨24 V

R1

R2

3

4

R3

R4

E
I

Total

¨24

É

Volts
Amps

¨250
¨200
R
100
350
Ohms
Ëëêmì)í+ØØÛ+î‹ïbðÚñ~Øòcó¢ô/òcõ+ó~ì î`öW÷ƒø‹Ø‹ù ‘ ¬ î`êÚú ‘ ­ î`ôÙØòc÷‹êÚê+ØRòcì)ØRúmó¢êîüû)ó~ïÍð+ñ¢ØðÚî`ô/î`ñ¢ñ~ØRñî`ôÙôÙî‹ê+ý‹ØRïbØRê$ìRùÇî—û
î`ôÙØ ‘ © î`êÚú ‘ ª Öb™[î–ø$ó¢ê+ýöWØZØZêüó®ú}ØZê$ì)ó~|ÚرúÊù%ìÙí+ØRû)؇û£Ø±òœì)ó¢÷‹êµûzê+ØZرú9ìÙ÷ßöW؇òc÷—ê$ø—ØZô)ì)رú9ó¢ê—ìÙ÷ØR¸$õ+ó¢ø–î‹ñ~ØRê$ì¤û)ó¢ê+ý‹ñ¢Ø
ôÙØRû)ó¢û£ì)÷—ôÙûRù}î`êÚú¼ì)í+ØòZó~ô/òcõÚóåìyôÙØc^ëú}ô/
î Æê%Û
þ71.429 Ω

¦R

127.27 Ω

¦R

1

// R2

¨24 V
3

// R4

Ÿuí+؇ú}÷—õ+ö+ñ¢Ø û£ñ®î‹û)ísŽ ÿ‹ÿ‹zû  ïˆöW÷‹ñ®ûzôÙØZð+ôÙØRû)ØZê$ì°`ðÚî‹ôÙî‹ñ~ñ¢ØZñ®°‡ìÙ÷9û£íÚ÷ ì)íµîƒì¤ì)íÚØ ØR¸$õ+ó¢øƒî`ñ¢ØZê$ì¤ô)رû£ó®ûxìÙ÷‹ôzøƒî`ñ¢õ+ØRû 
ØZôÙØÍòRî`ñ®òcõ+ñ®îƒìÙØRúüõÚû)ó~êÚý¿ìÙí+Ø d ÿ}Ž d ÿ ‘ #Ս÷—ô)ï-õ+ñ¢î5Ö Ÿuí+Ø¿ä d Ö Þ Â ôÙØRû)ó®ûxìÙ÷‹ôîƒì¤ìÙí+ØÍì)÷—ð·÷Õì)í+ؼòZó~ô/òcõÚóåìó®ûzì)íÚØ 

dRÁ Þ

eiÃ[ÄpÅgfihÇÆkjRÈ l hÇÆÉxh l+n ÅÊÄ[ÆyÄpoqorh]oseËut9vÉ w Äyf"ÉZË w e"ÉxÆzeg{qÉZf l

ØR¸$õ+ó¢øƒî`ñ¢ØZê$ìˆ÷Õ ‘ ¬ î`êµú ‘ ­ ó¢ê ðÚî‹ôÙî‹ñ~ñ¢ØZñó~ì)íFØRî‹ò/íã÷‹ì)í+ØRô,ÖŸuí+Ø d±Â äAÖ Â ä  ô)رû£ó®ûxìÙ÷‹ôˆî`ìì)íÚؼöW÷`ì£ìÙ÷‹ï ó¢ûˆì)íÚØ
ØR¸$õ+ó¢øƒî`ñ¢ØZê$ì÷ Õ ‘ © î`êµú ‘ ª ó¢êðÚî`ô/î`ñ¢ñ¢ØZñ ó~ì)íØRî—ò/í¿÷‹ì)í+ØRô,Ö
´[õ+ôìÙî‹ö+ñ¢ØòZî`êßöWؤØÛ}ðÚî`êµú}ØRú¼ì)÷‡ó¢êÚòcñ¢õÚú}ØzìÙí+ØRû)ؤôÙØRû)ó¢û£ì)÷—ôر¸$õ+ó~øƒî‹ñ~ØRê—ì/ûuó~ê¿ì)íÚØZó¢ôy÷êßòZ÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍêÚûRÛ
R1

R2

R3

R4

R1 // R2

R3 // R4

E

Total
24

I
R

Volts
Amps

100

250

350

200

71.429

Ohms

127.27

ì‡û£í+÷—õ+ñ®ú öWØßî‹ð+ðÚî`ôÙØZê$ìbê+
÷ ì)íÚî`ì-ìÙí+Øòcó¢ôÙòZõ+ó~ìbíÚî—ûˆöWØZØRêmôÙØRú+õÚòcرú·ì)÷·î û)ó¢ïbðÚñ~Øû£ØRô)ó¢ØRûbòc÷—ê}|Úý—õ+ôÙî`ì)ó¢÷‹ê 
ó~ì)íü÷‹ê+ñ  ì ÷üŽ„ØR¸$õ+ó¢ø–î‹ñ~ØRê$ì/[ô)رû£ó®û£ìÙî`êµòcØRû ˆŸuí+Øb|Úêµî`ñXûxìÙØZðüó~êüôÙØRú}õÚòcì)ó¢÷‹êüó¢û[ìÙ÷î—ú+ú ì)í+رû£Øbì ÷¿ôÙØRû)ó¢û£ìÙî‹êÚòcرû
ì)÷ òZ÷‹ïÍØzõ+ðó~ì)íîbì)÷‹ìÙî`ñqòcó¢ôÙòZõ+óåìyôÙØRû)ó®ûxì/î`êÚòZØ  í+ØRêØî‹úÚú¼ìÙí+÷—û)Øgì ]÷‡Ø±¸$õ+ó~øƒî‹ñ~ØRê—ìôÙØRû)ó¢û£ìÙî‹êÚòcرûZùؤý‹ØZìyî
ôÙØRû)ó¢û£ìÙî‹êÚòcØ÷ d æ ä  y÷¤ùØyòZî`ê‡ôÙØc^ëú}ô/î ìÙí+Ø[òZó~ô/òcõ+ó~ì]î—û îû)ó~ê+ý—ñ~Øر¸$õ+ó~øƒî‹ñ~ØRê—ì]ô)رû£ó®ûxì/î`êÚòZØyî`êÚú‡î—ú+úbì)íÚØ
ì)÷‹ìÙî‹ñµôÙØRû)ó¢û£ìÙî‹êÚòcØy|Úý‹õ+ôÙØyìÙ÷ìÙí+Ø[ôÙó¢ý‹í$ì)ïÍ÷—û£ì]òZ÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍê ÷ %÷—õ+ôÇì/î`ö+ñ¢Ø p÷`ì)Øpì)íÚî`ì]ìÙí+Øz°‹Ÿq÷`ìÙî‹ñ¢°ˆòc÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍê íÚî—ûÇöWØZØRê
ôÙØZñ®î`öWØZñ¢ØRú9Ž ‘[¬ ÿ—ÿ ‘y­ y‘y© ÿ—ÿ ‘ª  ì)÷bó¢êÚú}ó®òZîƒìÙØpí+÷  óåìuô)ØRñ¢î`ì)رû ØZñ¢ØRòcì)ôÙó¢òRî`ñ¢ñ  ìÙ÷ˆìÙí+Ø[÷‹ì)í+ØRôòZ÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍêÚû]÷ %|Úý—õ+ôÙØR û
Ÿuí+؇°  °¿û  ï-öµ÷—ñ"ó®ûzõÚû)ØRú í+ØZôÙØ-ì)÷ô)ØRð+ôÙØRû)ØZê$ìg°—û£ØRô)ó¢ØRûRù °«xõÚû£ìˆî‹û[ì)í+؇°_ÿ‹ÿƒ°¿û  ï-öµ÷—ñ"ó®ûzõÚû)ØRú ì)÷ßô)ØRð+ôÙØRû)ØZê$ì
°`ðµî`ô/î`ñ¢ñ~ØRñ ° 

198.70 Ω

24 V

R1

R2

R3

R4

R1 // R2 -- R3 // R4

R1 // R2

R3 // R4

E

R1 // R2
-R3 // R4
Total
24

I
R

Volts
Amps

100

250

350

200

71.429

127.27

198.70

Ohms 

y÷ ¤ù ìÙ÷`ì/î`ñXòcó¢ôÙòZõ+ó~ì¤òZõ+ôÙô)ØRê—ìzòZî‹ê öW؇ú}ØcìÙØZôÙïbó¢ê+رú ö  î`ðÚð+ñ  ó¢ê+ý9´[í+ïš ûz²rîkŽ
!#"ÿ ‘ yì)÷ßì)í+؇°—Ÿr÷‹ìÙî`ñ®°
òc÷—ñ~õÚïbêó¢ê¼ìÙí+ØzìÙî‹ö+ñ¢Ø‹Û

jRÈ ç+ÈmÄ w Äporè l É l fih[eià w ÉZéb{qh

R1

R2

dRÁ á

R3

R4

R1 // R2

R3 // R4

E
I
R

100

250

350

200

71.429

127.27

R1 // R2
-R3 // R4
Total
24

Volts

120.78m

Amps

198.70

Ohms

u¯ î‹ò\è¼ì)÷¼÷—õ+ôgØR¸$õ+ó¢ø–î‹ñ~ØRê$ì[òcó¢ôÙòZõ+ó~ìgú}ô/îó~êÚýÚùW÷‹õ+ôpì)÷`ì/î`ñiòcõ+ôÙôÙØZê$ìpøƒî`ñ¢õ+؈÷ d±Â $ äƒæbïÍó~ñ¢ñ~ó®î`ïÍðÚûgó®ûpû)í+÷ê î—û
ì)íÚؤ÷‹ê+ñ  òcõÚô)ôÙØZê$ìí+ØZôÙ؋Û
I = 120.78 mA

¨24 V

198.70 Ω

¦R

1

// R2 -- R3 // R4

I = 120.78 mA 

y
÷ %]ؤû£ìÙî`ô)ìuì)&÷ ÷‹Áô èböµî‹\ò è'î‹ôÙúÚûÇó¢ê¿÷—õ+ôð+ôÙ÷‹ý—ô)رû)û)ó~÷—ê‡÷iòcó¢ôÙòZõ+óåìôÙØc^ëú}ô/îó~ê+ý$û ìÙ÷bì)í+ؤ÷—ô)ó¢ý‹ó¢êÚî`ñ òc÷—ê}|Úý‹^
õ+ô/îƒìÙó~÷—ê( XŸuí+ؤê+Ø*)_ìpû£ì)ØRð¿ó®ûuì)÷Íý—÷-ìÙ÷bì)í+ØòZó~ô/òcõ+ó~ì+í+ØRô)Ø ‘ ¬ ÿ‹ÿ ‘ ­ î‹êÚú ‘ © ÿ—ÿ ‘ ª î‹ô)Øzó¢êû)ØZôÙó¢ØRûRÛ
,

I = 120.78 mA
,

24 V

71.429 Ω

1

// R2

I = 120.78 mA
127.27 Ω

,

¦R

I = 120.78 mA

¦R

3

// R4

Ü ó¢êÚòcØ ‘ ¬ ÿ‹ÿ ‘ ­ î‹êÚú ‘ © ÿ‹ÿ ‘ ª î‹ô)Ø-ó~ê·û)ØZôÙó~ر.û ó~ì)íüØRî—ò/í9÷`ìÙí+ØZô±ù ì)í+؇òZõ+ô)ôÙØZê$ì[ì)í+ôÙ÷‹õ+ý—í9ìÙí+÷—û)؈ ì ÷¿û)Øcì/ûg÷
RØ ¸$õ+ó¢øƒî`ñ¢ØZê$ìuô)رû£ó®ûxì/î`êÚòZØRûïˆõµûxìuöµØgìÙí+ؤû)î‹ïbØ/ J+õ+ô)ì)í+ØRô)ïÍ÷—ô)ؗù—ìÙí+ؤòcõ+ôÙôÙØZê$ì]ìÙí+ôÙ÷‹õ+ý—í ì)íÚØZï ï-õÚûxìöWØgì)í+ؤûÙî`ïÍØ
î‹ûì)í+ؤìÙ÷`ì/î`ñròZõ+ô)ôÙØZê$ì±ùÚû£÷&؈òZî‹êß|Úñ~ñró~ê÷—õ+ôìÙî‹ö+ñ¢ØóåìÙíì)í+؈î‹ð+ð+ôÙ÷‹ð+ôÙó®îƒì)ؤòZõ+ô)ôÙØZê$ìøƒî`ñ¢õ+ØRûRùµû)ó¢ïbðÚñ  òc÷‹ð  ó¢ê+ý
ì)íÚØòcõ+ôÙô)ØRê$ì|µý‹õ+ôÙØ#ô)÷—ï ì)í+ØŸq÷`ì/î`ñ%òZ÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍê¼ìÙ÷Íì)í+Ø ‘ ¬ ÿ‹ÿ ‘ ­ î`êÚú ‘ © ÿ‹ÿ ‘ ª òZ÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍêÚûRÛ

eiÃ[ÄpÅgfihÇÆkjRÈ l hÇÆÉxh l+n ÅÊÄ[ÆyÄpoqorh]oseËut9vÉ w Äyf"ÉZË w e"ÉxÆzeg{qÉZf l

dRÁ—Á

R1

R2

R3

R4

R1 // R2

R3 // R4

E
I
R

100

250

350

200

R1 // R2
-R3 // R4
Total
24

Volts

120.78m

120.78m

120.78m

Amps

71.429

127.27

198.70

Ohms 

y÷ ¤Ú
ù è_ê+÷ó¢ê+ý¼ì)í+؇òcõÚô)ôÙØZê$ìgì)í+ôÙ÷‹õ+ý—í9ìÙí+ØÍØR¸$õ+ó¢ø–î‹ñ~ØRê$ìgôÙØRû)ó¢û£ì)÷—ôÙû ‘[¬ ÿ‹ÿ ‘p­ î‹êÚú ‘p© ÿ‹ÿ ‘ª ù(ØÍòZî`êüî`ð+ðÚñ 
´[í+ïš û²rî Ž"01
‘ ]ìÙ÷bì)í+Øzì ÷Íô)ó¢ý‹í$ìø‹ØRô£ìÙó¢òRî`ñÊòc÷—ñ~õ+ïÍêÚûìÙ÷Í|ÚêÚúßø‹÷—ñåì/î`ý—Øgú}ôÙ÷‹ðµûî‹òcôÙ÷—ûÙûÇì)í+ØRïßÛ

,

I = 120.78 mA
,

24 V

71.429 Ω

R1

R2

R3

R4

I
100

//R2

+
8.6275 V
-

¦R

3

// R4

+
15.373 V
-

I = 120.78 mA

E
R

1

I = 120.78 mA
127.27 Ω

,

¦R

250

350

200

R1 // R2

R3 // R4

R1 // R2
-R3 // R4
Total

8.6275

15.373

24

Volts

120.78m

120.78m

120.78m

Amps

71.429

127.27

198.70

Ohms

¯ØRòRî`õÚû)2Ø <Ø è_ê+÷  ‘ ¬ ÿ‹ÿ ‘ ­ î`êÚú ‘ © ÿ—ÿ ‘ ª î‹ô)ØðÚî`ô/î`ñ¢ñ¢ØZñ}ôÙØRû)ó¢û£ì)÷—ôqر¸—õÚó~øƒî`ñ¢ØZê$ì/ûZù‹î‹êÚ3ú ]<Ø è_ê+÷  ìÙíÚîƒì ø—÷‹ñ~ìÙî‹ý‹Ø
}ú ôÙ÷‹ðÚûqó¢êðÚî`ô/î`ñ¢ñ¢ØZñ_òcó¢ôÙòZõ+óåì/ûqî‹ô)ØÇì)í+ØuûÙî`ïÍ؋ùØ]òZî‹ê¤ì)ô/î`êµû ØRôrìÙí+Ø]ôÙØRû)ðWØRòœìÙó~ø—ØÇø—÷‹ñ~ìÙî`ý—ØÇú}ôÙ÷‹ðÚû%ì)÷[ì)í+Øuî`ðÚð+ô)÷—ð+ôÙó¢î`ì)Ø
òc÷—ñ~õÚïbêµû]÷—ê ìÙí+Øpì/î`ö+ñ¢Ø1÷‹ôì)í+÷$û£Ø[ó~êµú}ó~ø_ó®ú}õÚî‹ñÊô)رû£ó®ûxìÙ÷‹ô/û4 5
ëê¼÷‹ì)í+ØRô0÷‹ô/ú+ûRù/Ø[ìÙîè—Ø[î‹ê+÷`ìÙí+ØZôuûxìÙØZð¿öÚî‹ò\è'uî`ô/ú+û
ó¢êß÷—õ+ôyú}ô/îó~êÚýbû)ØR¸$õ+ØRêÚòcØgì)÷bìÙí+ؤ÷‹ôÙó~ý—ó~êµî`ñÊòc÷—ê}|Úý‹õÚôÙî`ì)ó¢÷‹ê%ù}î`êµúßòZ÷‹ïÍð+ñ¢ØcìÙØ[ìÙí+ØzìÙî‹ö+ñ¢Øî‹òZòZ÷‹ô/ú}ó¢ê+ý‹ñ  Û

jRÈ ç+ÈmÄ w Äporè l É l fih[eià w ÉZéb{qh
,

dRÁ ä

I = 120.78 mA
100 Ω

¦R

350 Ω

¦R

1

2

¨250 Ω

+
8.6275 V
-

¦R

¨200 Ω

+
15.373 V
-

¦R

24 V

,

E

3

I = 120.78 mA

R1

R2

R3

R4

8.6275

8.6275

15.373

15.373

I
R

4

100

250

350

200

R1 // R2

R3 // R4

R1 // R2
-R3 // R4
Total

8.6275

15.373

24

Volts

120.78m

120.78m

120.78m

Amps

71.429

127.27

198.70

Ohms

J"ó~êµî`ñ¢ñ  ùƒì)í+Øp÷‹ôÙó~ý—ó~êÚî‹ñ}û£Ø±òœì)ó¢÷‹êb÷Wì)íÚØuìÙî`öÚñ~ØŽ•òc÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍêÚû ‘ ¬ ì)í+ôÙ÷‹õ+ý—í ‘ ª ió®ûXòc÷—ïbðÚñ~ØZì)Ø6ó~ì)íÍØZê+÷—õ+ý‹íbøƒî`ñ¢õ+ØRû
ì)÷¼|Úê+ó®û£í7 ˜ ð+ð+ñ  ó~ê+ý9´[í+ïš û[²qîâìÙ÷¼ìÙí+؈ôÙØZï‡î‹ó~ê+ó¢ê+ý¿ø‹ØZô)ì)ó®òZî‹ñqòZ÷‹ñ¢õ+ïÍêÚû-Ž8
!#"ÿ ‘ œù9]ØbòZî‹ê ú}ØcìÙØZôÙïÍó~ê+Ø-ì)íÚØ
òcõÚô)ôÙØZê$ìÙû]ìÙí+ô)÷—õ+ý‹í ‘ ¬ ù ‘ ­ ù ‘ © ùµî`êÚú ‘ ª ó¢êÚú}ó¢ø$ó®ú}õÚî‹ñ~ñ  Û

R1
E

8.6275

I

86.275m

R

100

:

R2

R3

8.6275

15.373

34.510m

43.922m

250

350

;

R4

R1 // R2

R3 // R4

R1 // R2
-R3 // R4
Total

15.373

8.6275

15.373

24

Volts

76.863m

120.78m

120.78m

120.78m

Amps

200

71.429

127.27

198.70

Ohms

™pî–ø_ó¢ê+ý ÷—õ+êÚúFî‹ñ~ñuø—÷‹ñ~ìÙî`ý—ؼî`êµúFòcõÚô)ôÙØZê$ì-øƒî‹ñ~õ+رû<÷—ôˆìÙí+ó®ûbòZó~ô/òcõÚóåì±ù]ØòZî‹êFû)í+÷ì)í+÷$û£Ø¿øƒî`ñ¢õ+ØRûbó¢ê ì)íÚØ
ûÙò/í+ØZï‡îƒìÙó¢òzú}ó®î`ý—ôÙî‹ï î‹ûû)õÚò/í%Û

dRÁ æ

eiÃ[ÄpÅgfihÇÆkjRÈ l hÇÆÉxh l+n ÅÊÄ[ÆyÄpoqorh]oseËut9vÉ w Äyf"ÉZË w e"ÉxÆzeg{qÉZf l
,

I = 120.78 mA
100 Ω

¦R

R2
1

¨250 Ω

+
8.6275 V
-

¨200 Ω

+
15.373 V
-

34.510 mA
24 V

86.275 mA
350 Ω
=
,

43.922 mA

¦R

¦R

4

3

-

76.863 mA

I = 120.78 mA

˜ ûgîÍ|Úêµî`ñiò/í+ØRò\èß÷ ÷—õ+ô.÷‹ôÁè ùØ-òZî‹ê9û£ØR؈ó>Xì)í+ØÍòZî‹ñ¢òZõ+ñ®îƒì)رúòcõ+ôÙôÙØZê$ìpøƒî`ñ¢õ+ØRûgî‹úÚúõ+ð î—ûì)íÚØ  û£íÚ÷‹õ+ñ®ú
ì)÷ßìÙí+Øbì)÷`ì/î`ñ? Ü ó~êÚòZØ ‘ ¬ î`êÚú ‘ ­ î`ôÙØbó~êüðÚî`ô/î`ñ¢ñ¢ØZñ'ù ì)í+ØRó~ôòZ÷‹ïˆöÚó~ê+رú òZõ+ôÙô)ØRê—ì/ûzû£í+÷—õ+ñ®ú î—ú+ú õÚð ìÙ÷¿ìÙí+Øbì)÷‹ìÙî`ñ
÷  d±Â $ äƒæ¼ï ˜ r²%óFè‹Ø ó¢û)؋ùqû£ó¢êÚòcØ ‘ © î‹êÚú ‘ ª î`ôÙØbó~ê·ðÚî‹ôÙî‹ñ~ñ¢ØZñ'ùÊì)íÚØZó¢ôˆòc÷—ïˆö+ó¢ê+ØRúüòcõÚô)ôÙØZê$ìÙûzû)í+÷‹õÚñ¢ú·î`ñ®û)÷ßî—ú+ú 

õ+ð ì)÷¿ì)í+Ø-ì)÷‹ìÙî`ñ"÷ d±Â  ä`æÍï ˜ 9@ ÷‹õüòZî`ê ò/í+ØRò\è÷‹ô  ÷—õ+ô/û£ØRñAXìÙ÷¼ø‹ØRô)ó>  ì)íÚî`ì[ìÙí+ØRû)Ø-|Úý‹õ+ôÙØRûgú}÷ßî‹ú+ú õ+ð î—û
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ú

˜ òc÷—ïbðÚõ}ì)ØRôû£ó¢ïˆõ+ñ®îƒìÙó~÷—ê òRî`ê·î`ñ®û£÷ßöµØÍõÚû)ØRú ì)÷ø—ØZôÙAó   ìÙí+Ø î‹òRòcõ+ô/î‹ò  ÷ ÇìÙí+ØRû)Øb|Úý‹õ+ôÙØR û -ŸuíÚ3Ø ÷—ñ~ñ¢÷ ó¢ê+ý
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voltage to be measured

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-

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viewscreen

electrons
electrons
plates +
light

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¸ )¥%¥&¥?¶  ¦œ [lY&`tj # `c*Y p ib(]_jEf%Y&]0c*Z # c # ` dr b0c*k\`t^&h c*b_h^a]  k3b0n%k # `7f&Y%];ct^an #  d h)^a] #)d •C`*Y%Z d i3htk d*# [ d b;c$b0f #
ZYgf # Z # [.c d)o2r# [ #)# jxc$Y ÿ [2j d Y&Z #r ^qz c$Y ` # j i2h # c$k # Z # ^ d i` # j 5 i3^a[.c$b;czxYa•sf%Y&]0c$^&n # j Y r [wc*Y?^ ] # f # ]
c*k # Z<Ygf # Z # [.c>h^&[?k2^a[3j ] # –
¹y# c D dŸd c$^&`RcŸY%i` #  ^aZ\] # \`$Y p ] # Z dyr b0c*k8^ ‚ D ý ` d Y&[Bfg^a]&Z # c # `‚ZYgf # Z # [%cyk2^qf.b([nP^I•Ci]0] ed h)^a] # j # 2# hvc$b0Y%[
`t^gc*b([nYa•  Z ý ^a[3j4^h Y&b(]—` #)d b d c$^&[3h # Ya• - ¥%¥<¶ J
º
»

500 Ω

F.S = 1 mA

-

black test
lead

+

red test
lead

© d b([n ˆ kZ D dI¹ ^ r™ ¬¼ œ ›  o r# h^&[xj # c # `*Zb([ # kY r Z8i3htk4f&Y&]0c$^&n #r b0](]Ÿj `$b(f # c*kb d Z # c # `IZYgf # Z # [.c
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k # ` #8r Y%i](j d i “ h # – ” i cc*Y?Z # ^ d i` # n&` # ^ac # `>] # f # ] d Ya•sf%Y&]0c$^an #&o/d Y%Z # c*kb([n?Z<Y%` # b d [ #)# j # j—– Y9n # c^&[
# ÂK# h c*b(f # f&Y&]0c*Z # c # `Z # c # ``$^&[n # b([ #  h #)d$d Y&•  ¢ @ f&Y%];c o2r#&D ]0]ƒ[ #)# j…c$Y?j #md b(n&[l^ h b(`th ib0c^&]0](Y r b0[3n9Y&[](zx^
\` # hb d*# \`*Y%\2Y%`Rc$b0Y%[lY&•HZ # ^ d i3` # jEf%Y&]0c$^an # c$Ywj `$Y&\†^&h `$Y d$d c*k # Z # c # `Z<Ygf # Z # [.cm– kb d6r b0](] #   c # [3jlc*k #
Z # c # `ZYgf # Z # [%c D d `$^&[n # c*Y p2# b0[n^ p ] # c*Y8Z # ^ d i` # kb(n&k # `Hf%Y&]0c$^&n #)d c*k3^&[ p/# •CY%` # –sXHY%`*` #)d \/Y&[3j b([n%]0z o&r#
r b(]0]s[ ## jlc$Y…` # ]_^ p/# ]c$k #9d h)^a] # Y&[c*k # Z # c # `6•€^&h # c$Y…b0[3jb(h)^gc # b0c d [ #r Z # ^ d i` # Z # [.cA`t^a[n #8r b0c*k†c$kb d
\`$Y&\/Y&`*c*b(Y&[b([nh b(`$hib0cIhY&[[ # hvc # j—–
” i cIkY r jY r# h ` # ^gc # c$k # [ # h #)d$d ^a`$z<\3`*Y%\2Y%`Rc$b0Y%[b0[3n<hb0`th ib0c ᅣl# ]0] o b0•‚Y&i3`Ib0[.c # [.c*b(Y&[4b d c$Y^&]0](Y r c$kb d
Z # c # `7ZYgf # Z # [%cPc*Y4Z # ^ d i` # ^9n%` # ^gc # ` ųÁ ·È¹ Æ þ c$k3^a[lb;cAj Y #)d [Y rAoKr k3^ac r# [ #)# jEb d ^ ųÁ ·È¹ Æ þ µ { Å { µ þ ¶
h b(`th ib0c>c*Y=\3`*Y%\2Y%`Rc$b0Y%[ c$k # c*Y&c$^&]ŸZ # ^ d i` # j?f&Y%];ct^an # b([.c*Y ^] #)d$d*# `•C`t^&hvc$b0Y%[…^&h `$Y d$d c*k # Z # c # `>ZYgf # Z # [.c D d
h Y%[[ # hvc*b(Y&[‹\/Y&b([.c d – à [Y r b([nc*k3^ac f&Y%];ct^an # jb0fBb_j # ` hb0`th i3b;c d ^a` #xp ib(];c9•C`$Y&Z ´ þ ¶ 8{ þ ´ ` #md b d ct^a[3h #)d)oGr#&D ]0]
h Y%[[ # hvcI^6` #)d b d c*Y%`Gb([ d*# `$b #mdGr b0c*k c*k # Z # c # `Z<Ygf # Z # [.c  i d b0[3n6c*k # ZYgf # Z # [.c D d Y r [ b0[.c # `*[2^a]/` #md b d ct^a[3h #
^ d c$k #6d*# h Y%[3j?` #md b d ct^a[3h # b([4c*k # jb0fBb_j # ` vJ
º

»

500 Ω

F.S. = 1 mA

-

Rmultiplier

+

black test
lead

red test
lead

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c*k # Z # c # `PZYgf # Z # [.c>^ d b0cP\`$Y&\/Y&`*c*b(Y&[3^ac # ]0z jb0fBb_j #)d c*k # Z # ^ d i` # j4f&Y&]0c$^&n # ^&h`*Y d*d b0c)– ‚ # c # `*Zb([b([n=c*k #
` #)5 i(b ` # j Z8i];c$b0\3]0b # `I` #)d b d c$^&[3h # fg^a](i # b d ^a[ # ^ d z=ct^ d Ã9b0•ƒz%Y&i D ` # •€^aZb(]0b_^a` r b0c*k d*# `$b #md h b(`$hib0cI^&[3^a](z d b d –
§ Y%` #  ^&Z\] #%o ] # c D d j # c # `*Zb([ # c$k # [ # h #)d$d ^&`*z<Zi]0c*b(\](b # `Hfg^&]0i # c*Y8Z=^aà # c*kb d  Z ý o- ¥%¥8¶ ZYgf # Z # [.c
` # ^&j #  ^&hvc$]0z8•Ci](] ed h^a] # ^ac^&[9^a\\](b # j=f%Y&]0c$^an # Ya• m¥ f&Y%];c d – Y<j Y6c$kb do.rH#.ÿ ` d c[ ## jc*Y dR# cGi\?^&[ ¬ ¢ œ ¢g›
c$^ p ] # •CY&`c*k # c r Y dR# `*b #)d hY&Z\/Y&[ # [%c d J
Movement

Rmultiplier

Ä

Total

E

Volts

I

Amps

R

Ohms

Å [Y r b([nc*k3^acsc*k # ZYgf # Z # [%c r b(](] p/# ^gcs•Ci3]0] ~d h^&] #Ir b0c*k  Z ý Ya•—h i`$` # .[ csn&Y%b0[n7c$k`$Y&in%k<b0c o ^a[2j<c*k3^ac
r#>r ^&[.csc*kb d c*Y6k3^&\\ # [ ^ac^a[9^&\\](b # j  c$Yact^a] d*# `$b #)d hb0`th i3b;c  f&Y%];ct^an # Y&• )¥ %f Y&]0c d)o&r# h^&[ ÿ ](]2b([=c*k # c$^ p ] #
^ dId i3htk J 

)š @ 

NOP‡HS L,Æ  HSIQÇ  QS  Q
Movement

Ä

Rmultiplier

E

Total

I

1m

º

R

1m

10

Volts

1m

Amps
Ohms

500

k # ` # a^ ` # ^…h Y&i3\] # Y&• r ^qz d c$Y…j # c # `$Z<b([ # c$k # ` #md b d c$^a[2h # fq^&]0i # Ya•c*k # Z8i];c$b0\3]0b # `m– ˆ [ 
# r q^ zEb d c$Y
j # c # `$Zb0[ # $c Yac$^&]h b(`$hib;c7` #)d b d c$^&[3h # i d b([n ˆ kZ D d7¹ ^ r b0[lc*k #' c$Yact^a] ' h Y%]0i3Z<[  › ¼¬ ¢ œ  o $c k # [ d i p c*`t^&h c
c*k #- ¥&¥¶ YaŸ• c$k # ZYgf # Z # [.cc$Y=^a`$`*b(f # ^gcIc$k # fg^a](i # •CY&`c*k # Zi]0c*b(\](b # ` J

Movement

Rmultiplier

E
I

1m

º

R

È

500

Ä

Total
10

Volts

1m

1m

Amps

9.5k

10k

Ohms

ý [3Yac*k # ` r ^qzAc*Y ÿ n%i` # c$k #>d ^aZ # fq^&]0i # Ya•K` #md b d ct^a[3h #r Y%i](j p/# c*YAj # c # `$Zb0[ # f&Y&]0c$^&n # j `$Y&\^&h`*Y d*d c*k #
ZYgf # Z # [.c^gc•Ci]0] ed h)^a] # j # 2# hvc$b0Y%[  ¬¼ œ ›  o c*k # [ d i p c$`$^%hvcPc$k3^gcf&Y%];ct^an # j`*Y%\…•C`*Y%ZÉc$k # c*Yact^a]Ÿc*Y?^&`*`$b(f #
^gcPc*k # f&Y&]0c$^&n # ^&h`*Y d*d c*k # Z8i]0c*b(\]0b # `` #)d b d c*Y%`)–ʃb0[3^&]0](z oyˆ kZ D dP¹ ^ r h Y%i]_j p2# i dR# j…^an.^ab([?c$Y j # c # `$Zb0[ #
` #)d b d c$^&[3h # › ¼¬ ¢ œ  •CY&`c$k # Zi3];c$b0\](b # ` J

Movement

Rmultiplier

Total

0.5

9.5

10

Volts

1m

1m

Amps

9.5k

10k

Ohms

Ì

E
I
R

º

1m
500

Ë

È

¬ b0c*k # ` r ^qz\`$YgfBb(j #md c$k #Ad ^&Z # ^a[ d*r# `  š – - à ¶  o ^a[3j=Y%[ # Z # c*kY j4h Y%i](j p2# i d*# j?^ d f # `$b ÿ h^ac*b(Y&[=•CY%`
c*k # aY c*k # ` o c*Y9htk # htÃ9^&hhi`t^&h z=Y&• r &Y `$ÃK– 

L ¾L¿HÀÁy  HSÍÆHBQ ÇI 

)š +

Meter movement ranged for 10 volts full-scale

º

500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA
-

black test
lead

+

Ë

Rmultiplier
9.5 kΩ

10 V
+

red test
lead

10 volts gives full-scale
deflection of needle

£ b0c*k #   ^&h c*](z )¥ f&Y&]0c d ^&\\](b # j p/# c r## [c$k # Z # c # `c #)d c] # ^&j d •C`*Y%Z d Y%Z #Hp ^acRc # `$z6Y&`ƒ\` # h b d b0Y%[\/Y rH# `
d i\\](z  o c$k # ` #=r b(]0] p/#=#   ^%hvc*](z  Z ý Ya•h i`$` # [.c7c*k`$Y&in%kEc$k # Z # c # `6ZYgf # Z # [.c o ^ d ` #md c$`*b_hvc # j p zwc*k #
' Z8i]0c*b(\]0b # ` ' ` #md b d c*Y&`I^&[3j?c*k # ZYgf # Z # [.c D d Y r [?b([.c # `*[3^&]y` #)d b d c$^&[3h # – ¬   ^&hvc$]0z  ¢ @ f%Y&]0c r b(](] p2# j`*Y%\\ # j
^&h`*Y d*d c*k # ` #md b d c$^a[2h # Y&•sc*k # ZYgf # Z # [%c D dr b(` # hY&b(] o ^&[3jxc*k # [ #)# j ] #r b(](] p/# \2Y%b0[.c*b([n?\` # h b dR# ]0zx^gc•Ci](] 
d h^a] # –ÎP^qfBb([n6` #  ](^ p2# ] # j<c*k #d h)^a] # c*Y8` # ^&j8•C`$Y&Z ¥ c*Y )¥AÏ  b([ d c # ^%j=Ya• ¥ c*Y  Z ý  o ^a[Bz&Y%[ # fBb #)r b0[3n6c*k #
d h^a] #r b(](]b0[.c # `*\3` # cb0c d b([3j b_h^gc$b0Y%[l^ d c # [f&Y&]0c d –6Ðs] # ^ dR# c$^&à # [3Yac # c*k2^gc7c*k # Z # c # `7i d*# `7j Y #)d [Y&ck3^qf #
c*Y p/# ^ r ^&` # ^gc^&]0]c$k3^gcAc$k # Z<Ygf # Z # [.cAb0c d*# ]0•b d ^&h c*i3^&]0](zwZ # ^ d i`$b([ni d c^?•C`t^&hvc$b0Y%[lY&•Gc$k3^gcAc # [†f&Y%];c d
•C`$Y&Z¡c$k #=#   c # `$[3^a] d Y&i`th # – ý ](]sc$k3^gc6Z=^gc*c # ` d c$Yxc*k # i dR# `6b d c$k3^gcc*k # hb0`th ib0c^ d ^ r k3Y&] # •Ci[3hvc$b0Y%[ d c$Y
^&h)h i`t^gc # ](z9j b d \]_^qz=c$k # c*Y&c$^a] o ^a\3\]0b # j4f%Y&]0c$^an # –
kb d b d k3Y r \`t^&hvc$b(h)^a] # ] # h c*`$b(h)^a] Z # c # ` d ^a` # j #)d b0n%[ # j8^a[3j8i d*# j J ^ d*# [ d b0c*b(f # Z # c # `ZYgf # Z # [.cƒb dp ib(];c
c*Y<Y&\ # `t^gc #r b0c*k4^ d ](b;c*c*] # f%Y&]0c$^&n # ^&[3j hi`$` # [%c^ d \/Y d$d b p ] # •CY%`Z=^   b(Zi3Z dR# [ d b0c*b(fBb;cz o c*k # [?b0cIb d' •CYBY%] # j '
p z d Y%Z #d Y&`*cHY&•ƒj b(fBb(j # `Ih b(`$hib;c p ib(]0cY&•Ÿ\` # hb d b0Y%[9` #)d b d c*Y%` dd Y8c*k2^gcb;cIb([3j b_h^gc #)d •Ci](] ed h^a] #r k # [4^Z8i3htk
]_^a`$n # `7f%Y&]0c$^an # Y%`Ah i`$` # [.c7b d b(Z\` #md*d*# jlY&[lc*k # h b(`$hib;c^ d ^ r kY&] # – £# k3^qf ##   ^&Z<b([ # jwc$k # j #)d b(n&[Ya•
^ d b(Z\] # f&Y%];c$Z # c # `k # ` # – ý Z<Z # c # ` d •CY&](](Y r c*k #…d ^aZ # n # [ # `$^&]H`$i] #&os#  h # \c8c$k3^gc=\3^&`$^&]0] # ]  hY&[[ # hvc # j
'&d kBi[.c ' ` #)d b d c*Y%` d ^&` # i d*# jc*Y}h` # ^gc # ^‹ÑÒ ÓvÓ þ3ÔÕg{|Öm{€Õþ Ó9h b(`$hib;c4^ d Y&\3\2Y dR# j,c$Y†c*k #ldR# `*b #)dR hY&[[ # hvc # j
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Ü # [ # `t^a](]0z o b;c8b d i d*# •Ci3]sc*Y…k2^qf # Zi]0c*b(\] # `$^&[n #md7#)d c$^ p ]0b d k # jE•CY&`^&[ # ] # hvc$`*Y%Z # htk3^a[3b(h)^a]Z # c # ` d i3htk
^ d c$kb d)o ^&]0](Y r b([n b0cAc*Y4` # ^&jl^ p `*Y.^&jw`t^a[3n # Y&•Hf%Y&]0c$^an #)dr b;c$k
^ d b0[3n&] # ZYgf # Z # [.c7Z # htk3^a[3b d Zx– kb d b d
&^ h)h Y%Z<\3]0b d k # j c*k`$Y&in%k9c$k # i d*# Y&•^<Z8i];c$b  \/Y&] #7d*r b0c$htk…^a[3j d*# f # `$^&]2Z8i]0c*b(\]0b # `P` #md b d c$Y&` doB# ^&htk Y%[ #Ad b 1# j
•CY&`>^<\3^&`Rc$b(hi]_^a`If&Y%];ct^an # `t^a[n # J 

NOP‡HS L,Æ  HSIQÇ  QS  Q 

)š&Ý
W

A multi-range voltmeter

º

500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA
-

+

Þ
range selector
switch

black test
lead

Þ

R1

Þ

R3

R2

Þ

R4

red test
lead


# ÿ f # \/Y d b;c$b0Y%[ d*r b;cthtk,Z=^aà #)d h Y&[.ct^&hvc r b;c$k,Y%[]0z
Y%[ # ` #)d b d c$Y&`8^ac^Ec*b(Z # – œ [,c*k #4p Y&cRc$Y&Z  •Ci3]0]
h ](Y htà r b d*#  \/Y d b;c$b0Y%[ o b0cGZ=^aà #)d hY&[.c$^%hvc r b0c*k=[YA` #)d b d c*Y%`s^gcH^&]0] o \3`*YgfBb_j b0[3n7^&[ ' Y —'Ad*# cRc$b0[3n3– ¬ ^&htk` #)d b d c*Y%`
b dPd b 1)# j4c*Y=\3`*YgfBb_j # ^=\3^&`Rc$b(hi](^&`•Ci](] ed h)^a] # `t^a[n # •CY%`>c$k # f&Y%];c$Z # c # ` o ^a](] p ^ dR# j?Y%[xc*k # \3^a`*c*b_h i]_^a`P`$^ac*b([n
Ya•c$k # Z # c # `ZYgf # Z # [.c   Z ý oy- ¥%¥ ¶  – k #<# [3j…` #)d i]0cb d ^ f&Y%];c$Z # c # ` r b0c*k…•CY%i`7j b ÂK# ` # [.c•Ci](] ed h)^a] #
`t^a[n #)d Ya•ŸZ # ^ d i3` # Z # [.c)– ˆ •ƒhY&i` dR#%o b([4Y&`tj # `Hc*YZ=^aà # c$kb dr Y&`$à dR# [ d b p ](z o c$k # Z # c # `ZYgf # Z # [.c D dd h)^a] #
Zi d c p/#A#)5 ib(\\ # j r b;c$kx](^ p2# ] d ^&\\`$Y&\`$b(^ac # •CY&` # ^&htk4`$^&[n # –
£ b0c*k d i3htk<^PZ # c # `j #)d b(n&[ og# ^&htk` #)d b d c$Y&`Ÿfg^&]0i # b d j # c # `*Zb([ # j p zc$k #Id ^&Z # c # htk[b 5 i #&o i d b([n^ÃB[Y r [
c*Y&c$^&]/f%Y&]0c$^&n #&o ZYgf # Z # [.cH•Ci](] ~d h^&] # j # 2# hvc$b0Y%[ `t^gc$b0[n o ^a[3j Z<Ygf # Z # [.c` #md b d c$^a[2h # –ÊY%`I^f%Y&]0c*Z # c # ` r b;c$k
`t^a[n #)d Ya•  f&Y&]0c o m¥ f&Y&]0c d)o )¥%¥ f%Y&]0c d)o ^a[3j )¥%¥&¥ f&Y%];c do c*k # Zi]0c*b(\](b # `>` #md b d c$^a[2h #)dr Y&i]_j p2# ^ d •CY&](]0Y r>d J
500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA
-

+

1000 V
range selector
100 V
switch
10 V
1V

R1

R1 = 999.5 kΩ

R2

R2 = 99.5 kΩ

R3

R3 = 9.5 kΩ

R4

R4 = 500 Ω

off
black test
lead

red test
lead

ß Y&c # c*k # Zi]0c*b(\](b # `` #md b d c$Y&`8fq^&]0i #)d i d*# j†•CY%`c$k #)d*# `t^a[3n #)d)o ^a[3j,kY r Y jj
c$k # z}^&` # – œ cb d kb(n&k3]0z
i[](b(à # ](z?c*k3^ac^ š&š%š – - à ¶ \` # hb d b(Y&[x` #md b d c*Y&` r b(](] # f # ` p2# •CY%i[3j…b([w^\3^&`Rc d>p b([ oKd Y=f%Y&]0c*Z # c # `Pj #md b(n&[ # ` d
Ya•|c # [xY&\c•CY%`P^<fg^a`$b(^ac*b(Y&[ Y&•‚c$k # ^ p Ygf # j #md b(n&[ r kb_htk4i dR#md Z<Y%` # hY&ZZY&[4` #md b d c$Y&`fg^a](i #)d J 

Láà L¿HÀÁy  HSŒQ  ‡—O  ŽÀ  GO  SPGÆ  QS  Q
ä

500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA
-

+

1000 V
range selector
100 V
âswitch
10 V

ãoff
black test
lead 

)š -

R1

R2

R3

R4

1V
R1 = 900 kΩ
R2 = 90 kΩ
R3 = 9 kΩ
R4 = 500 Ω

red test
lead

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NOP‡HS L,Æ  HSIQÇ  QS  Q 

)š%ÿ 

250 MΩ
24 V 

250 MΩ

+
V

voltmeter
-

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250 MΩ
24 V 

250 MΩ

V

+ voltmeter
(10 MΩ)
-

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23.1111 V 

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250 MΩ

24 V
0.8889 V

Ë

9.615 MΩ
(250 MΩ // 10 MΩ) 

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)š%U
500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA
-

+

1000 V
range selector
100 V
switch
10 V
1V

R1

R1 = 999.5 kΩ

R2

R2 = 99.5 kΩ

R3

R3 = 9.5 kΩ

R4

R4 = 500 Ω

off
black test
lead

red test
lead

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100 volt range

100 kΩ
100 V

= 1000 Ω/V sensitivity

10 volt range

10 kΩ
10 V

= 1000 Ω/V sensitivity

1 volt range

1 kΩ
1V

= 1000 Ω/V sensitivity 

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Amplified voltmeter

red test
lead
Amplifier
black test
lead

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Potentiometric voltage measurement

R1

250 MΩ
"null" meter

24 V
1
R2

250 MΩ

null

2
adjustable
voltage
source 

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unknown mass

mass standards

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R1

250 MΩ
"null" meter

24 V
1
R2

250 MΩ

null

2
adjustable
voltage
source

+
V

Adjust voltage source until null meter reads zero. Then, read
the voltmeter to tell what the voltage is across R2 .

- 

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500 Ω

F.S = 1 mA
-

black test
lead

+

red test
lead

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q ¥ r

500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA

-

Þ

+
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black test
lead

Movement

red test
lead

Ä

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Total

E
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Volts

º

5

1m

º

R

Amps
Ohms

500

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uGt'z dud{€8sHdg~9ye~H| {
d ‚ƒ| {
„…9t H|&}_yesHwSyDG"†udg| ~wSsHdg„ $
w
s9sHd{€g‚ ‡od+|&{„d9dgs9uye{Sd9ˆ
d?z t }D|&x dC| sHt ~H~‰9ˆSd+ud9dgs\ut'z dgud{€?"AŠ+ˆSu#i ~ ¹ |‹‡Œ| SS}ey:dK„G9tHˆSd+d{€9dgs
t }:w
uG{Ž‚ ¬¼ œ › $ h
Movement

Ì

E
I

Ä

Rshunt

Total
Volts

0.5

º

5

1m

º

R

Amps
Ohms

500

 •†t sHudg„…9ˆ
d‘ut'z dguGdg{€|&{ƒ„#9ˆSdG~ˆwS{€ye~at •\|!
|&s|&}e}ed}_t {ƒx wSs|'Hy:t {B‚
Å {St'‡ye{Sx9ˆƒ|'9ˆSdyesHwSy:P
‡dÃ{St'‡’9ˆ
|&9ˆSdz t }:H| x dV| sHt ~H~\9ˆSdut'z dgud{€g‚S~9ˆwS{€g‚
| {
„;Hdg~8}:dK| „S~"†9t H|&} $ u‘wƒ~38“dV9ˆSd7~H|&ud h
Movement
E

”0.5

I
R

º

1m
500

Rshunt

Ì

0.5

Ä

Total

Ì

0.5

Volts

5

Amps

º

Ohms

t Ã{St'‡Hˆ
|'‰9ˆ
dCwSsHs9dg{ _9ˆSsHt w
x ˆ7HˆSdC~ˆwS{€-u‘w
~6ƒdo9ˆSd„y  dsHd{
do“d3‡ddg{79ˆ
doHt&|&}wSsHsHd{€
£ d| }e~9P 
" jG| uGƒ~ $ |&{
„!9ˆ
dVwSsHs9dg{ 9ˆ
s9t wSx ˆ!9ˆSdut'z dgud{€V" u  $ ‚S“dgg|&w
~9d+
sH| {
ˆ<wSs9sHd{€~| „S„<y:{#|‘ƒ|&s|&}e}:dg}
t {
x wSsH|&9yet { h

q ¥&Ý

)-• n?–+*-,o—/.l,Æ )10 ,+*-,o—p32Ç ) p3— )4 p*65
Movement

”0.5

E
I

1m

º

R

Ä

Rshunt

Total

”0.5

”0.5

Volts

5

Amps

º

4.999

Ohms

500

C ˆSdg{B‚-w
~ye{SxŠ+ˆSu#i ~ ¹ |‹‡˜"€› ¼¬ ¢ œ$ ye{HˆSd<sHyex ˆ€Xt }:w
uG{Ž‚‰‡d<g|&{™„d9dgs9uye{Sd;HˆSd!{SdKdK~9~H|&sHk~9ˆwS{€
sHdg~9ye~H| {
d h
Movement

”0.5

E
I
R

º

Rshunt

”0.5

1m

4.999

500

100.02m

Ä

Total

”0.5

Volts

5

Amps

º

Ohms

Š •_t wSs~d ‚ ‡dVt w
}e„!ˆ
|‹z d|&}šw
}e|&9dg„;9ˆSdV~H|&ud+z'| }:wSdta•
›3w
~3t'z ds m¥&¥ uGye}e}:y:At ˆSu~V" )¥%¥ u ¶ $ •†t s9ˆ
d
P
~9ˆ€w
{ 7Zg|&}šwS}š|'Hy:{
x<Ht&|&}6sHdg~9ye~H| {
d"€› ¼œ ¢ œ Y ¥ – j<z t }:H~v¢&j<|&u
~ ¼ m¥&¥ u ¶ d   | H}: $ ‚B9ˆ
d{W‡ot s*Ãye{Sx
9ˆ
d
|&s|&}e}:dg}žs9dK~yš~3|&{
d •†t sHu‘wS}š|‘ƒ| t Ç| sH„
~‚SwHˆSd7|&sHy:9ˆSudHye‡t wS}š„…ˆ
|‹z d“dd{#ut sHdˆ
|&}e}ed{Sx y:{Sx h
Þ

Rshunt =

R

1
1
100m

= 100.02 mΩ

º

1
500

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~wƒ|&}e}:“dVd{
g| ~9dg„‡y:9ˆSye{…9ˆSdSsHt&HdgHy:z d+udH|&}
œ {!shunt
ˆSt w
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yDK‚€ˆ
ye„S„Sd{9†• sHt u ~9y:x ˆ m– ß t&Hd89ˆ
d+t {
~9sHw
Hy:t {taŸ• 9ˆ
d+|&uudHdsoy:{HˆSd>†• t }:}et'‡ye{Sx
SˆSt 9t x s|&Sˆ h

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~g‚-9ˆ
d
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|&‘9ˆ
d
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s9sHd{€7t sX|Tf&{Sdgx |&9yez dgf#wSs9sHd{€m –
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{Sdg9dg„GHt7HˆSd8
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t {
„y:9yet {Z"¡d}edg9sHt {
~  t'‡ye{SA
x •†sHt u x dg{Sds|'Ht sHt‘
|&HdsH $ t sC|‘„yš~Hˆ
|&sHx ye{Sx7t {
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| {Xt {Sdw
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dg„…‡yDHˆ|XuXwS}:9y:A“t }ed~‡y:Hˆ h

ä

§A multirange ammeter
500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA

-

+

¦R
range
selector
âswitch

¦R1
¦R2
¦R3
4

black test
lead

red test
lead

ß t 9yšd+9ˆ
|&C9ˆSds|&{Sx d?sHdg~9ye~9t sH~|&sHdVt {
{Sdg9dg„;9ˆSsHt w
x ˆ<9ˆSd~9‡yDˆ<~9t| ~o9tGƒdye{<ƒ|&s|&}e}:dg}ƒ‡y:9ˆ…9ˆ
d
udHdsVut'z dudg{ K‚ŸsH|&9ˆSdgs9ˆ
| {kye{k~9dsHy:dK~V| ~yD‡C| ~ye{ZHˆSdz t }:9ud9dsV„dK~yex {y–GCˆSdG
z dA“t ~9y:9yet {Z~9‡yDˆ
ua| à dg~Vt { | ‡y:9ˆWt {
}:t {Sds9dK~yš~3Ht sV|'7|!9yeuGd ‚Ž&t •t wSs~%d – œ | ˆZsHdg~9ye~9t s+yš~~ye£dK„k| t s„y:{
x }e?
 •†t s|
„y  dgs9dg{€I •†wS}:}:¨~9g|&}eds|&{
x d ‚
| ~dK„!t {!HˆSd
| sHyewS}e| ssH|&9ye{SxGat •‰9ˆSdudHdsut'z dgud{€7" u  ‚ƒj ¥&¥¶ $ –
£ y:9ˆX~9w
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9t H| }ƒw
s9sHd{€g‚€ut'z dguGdg{€•†wS}:}:¨~9g|&}ed?„d  dgHy:t {;s|'9ye{Sxƒ‚ |&{ƒ„uGt'z dud{€\sHdg~9yš~3|&{
d&–‚Ê
t s|&{!| uGud9dso‡yDHˆ
s|&{Sx dg~at • ) ¥%¥ u  ‚  ‚ ) ¥  ‚
|&{
„ ) ¥%¥  ‚9ˆ
d7~ˆwS{€8sHdg~9ye~H| {
dK~o‡t w
}e„<ƒd7| ~~wƒˆ h

q ¥%ÿ

)-• n?–+*-,o—/.l,Æ )10 ,+*-,o—p32Ç ) p3— )4 p*65
500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA

-

+
100 A

range selector
switch

10 A
1A
100 mA

R1

R1 = 5.00005 mΩ

R2

R2 = 50.005 mΩ

R3

R3 = 500.5005 mΩ

R4

R4 = 5.05051 Ω

off
black test
lead

red test
lead

ß t 9yšdZ9ˆ
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|‹z d\Ht+“dw
~9t uG
u| „d•†sHt uvs9dg}e|&9yez d}e}š|&sHx d¨„yš|&udHds‡y:sHdVt s8~9t }eye„<Syedgdg~t&•_ud|&}·–
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^8{
}:y( à d9ˆ
dz t }:9ud9dsK‚S|&{#|&uudHdsKi ~Cs|&{
x ds9dK~yš~3Ht s~\ˆƒ|‹z d9t| s9sH}š|&sHx dV|&ut wS{€~ot&-• wSsHs9dg{ m– œ Ž• 9ˆ
t ~9d
~9ˆ€w
{ sHdg~9ye~9t sH~|&sHd{St&8~9y:£gdg„…| t s„ye{Sx }e ‚€9ˆ
d;u|‹;t'z dsHˆSdg|&|&{ƒ„<~9w  ds8„S| u| x d ‚€t s|'C9ˆSdz dsH}:dK| ~
}et ~9dV| wSsH| „wSdVHtt'z dsHˆSdK|'9ye{Sx2–‚SÊ t sC9ˆSdVd   | uS}:dVudHds8| ƒt'z d ‚€9ˆSd“t'‡ds„yš~9~9y:ƒ|'9yet {ƒ~|&I†• wS}e}D¨~9g|&}ed
ye{
„yš|'Hy:t {…| s9d"†9ˆSd7„t wSS}ed¨~9©€wSyex x }:}eye{Sdg~sHd
s9dK~dg{ f | SSsHt   y:u|'Hd}edg©€w
|&}žHt fGye{…u|&9ˆSdgu|&9yš~ $ h
PR1 =

E2
(0.5 V)2
= º
5.00005 mΩ
R1

º

50 W

PR2 =

E2
=
R2

(0.5 V)2
50.005 mΩ

º

5W

PR3 =

E2
=
R3

(0.5 V)2
500.5 mΩ

”0.5 W

PR4 =

E2
=
R4

º

º

(0.5 V)2
º
5.05 Ω

49.5 mW 

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~3o
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„|Xj
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sH| VƒdHdsy0•“{
t&6t “ds|'Hdg„X{Sdg| s
9ˆ
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„ ›>í $ ‚SwSC
s9dKyš~yet {<j ¥
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„;d   “d{ƒ~yez dt u“t {Sdg{€H~y:{ƒ„ddK—„ –  w
~9t u¬s9dK~yš~3Ht sou| „d •†s9t u¬uGdH| }B~3Htt Ã
t sVHˆSyšt ÃZ‡yes9du|‹Tˆ
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s ›ï‘9tudd7ƒt 9ˆ[9ˆ
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d
|&{ƒ„!ˆSyex ˆ#“t'‡odgsCsH|&9ye{Sx3–
¢t uGd9yeudg~g‚Ž~ˆwS{€sHdg~9ye~9t sH~|&sHdw
~dK„Zye{Wt {&›3wS{
Hy:t {W‡yDHˆ[z t }:9udHds~at •oˆ
y:x ˆkye{SSw7sHdg~9yš~3|&{
d‘Ht
udg| ~wSsHd+wSsHs9dg{ m – œ {!9ˆSdK~dV| ~dK~‚ 9ˆ
dwSs9sHd{€o9ˆSsHt wSx ˆ9ˆ
dz t }:9udHdsut'z dudg{ ye~~9u| }:}ždg{St wSx ˆ9tG“d
t {
~9ye„dgs9dK„7{Sdgx }ey:x y:
}:d ‚&|&{
„‘9ˆSd~9ˆwS{€-sHdg~9yš~3|&{
dg|&{‘“d~ye£dK„X| t s„y:{
x89tVˆSt'‡®u| {z t }:H~‰t s‰uye}:}eyez t }:H~

.l%ml1n 0T0 ,+*-,\— Æ,o5p Ç2

q ¥¯

ta•6„sHt …‡y:}e}Ÿ“dSs9t„wƒdg„…“ds8| uG#t&•‰w
s9sHd{€ h
°current to be
measured

Rshunt

+
V voltmeter
-

°current to be
measured

œ •3%‚ •†t s\d   |&uS}ed ‚&HˆSd+~9ˆwS{€\sHdg~9ye~9t sy:{;9ˆSd?| ƒt'z d8yesHwSy:o‡dsHd8~ye£dK„|'\SsHdgye~9d}e 
¶ ‚ HˆSdsHd8‡t wS}š„“d
z t }D„s9t S“dg„| s9t€~9~‰y:G•†t sdz dsHX|&ut&•žwSs9sHd{€6HˆSs9t wSx ˆy:)–6CˆSd?z t }:9ud9ds\y:{
„Syeg|'9yet {;t wS}š„X9ˆSdg{;“d
H|&à dg{;| ~|‘„yes9dK\ye{
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z'|&}ewSdg~7at •~ˆwS{€7sHdg~9ye~H| {
dt wS}š„k“d;w
~9dg„kHtx d{
ds|'9dut sHdz t }D|&x dG„sHt W“ds7x y:z d{WwS{Sy:‘&t •CwSs9sHd{€K‚
9ˆw
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„ye{Sx#9ˆSd!w
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dZ"†z t }: $ ud9dsX„t'‡{kye{€9tT}et'‡ds|&ut w
{ ~at •w
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at •z t }:9udHds~y:{’t {'›3w
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dK<
~ •†t sHˆSdZudK| ~9wSs9dgud{€;at •wSsHsHd{€;ye~
~9t udHˆSy:{
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9ˆ
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+
A
-

Load

œ •C‡odˆ
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~‘}e0y à d9tua| à d
9ˆ
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ye~6ƒ|&s99yšwS}š|&s6udHds h ë î  ¯ j|&u
~
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dg~9dC3‡otudg| ~w
s9dguGdg{€\~9g|&}edg~t sHs9dK~“t {
„‘9t79ˆSd3‡t7~9dH~t&؟{St&ˆSdg~t {9ˆ
d8
| ó
t&Ø-HˆSd‘udHds Ò +d“d{
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„w
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dg}e„W‡ye}e}\ˆ
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ddg„S}:d Ò Ñ¨{dï“dKK‚_HˆSd3‡t
„y:ï“dgs9dg{€?ƒt€~y:9yet {ƒ~t&Ø-9ˆ
d‘t {
„w
9t s?s9dg}e|&9yez d9tHˆSd7ut'z dgud{€8| | ~C3‡t;„y:ï“dgs9dg{ +sH| {Sx dVsHdg~9ye~9t sH~Cye{
|„yes9dK¨t {S{SdK9yet {#~3€}edVt&Ø-|&uud9dgs Ò
Ù®Ú!Û+Ü<ÝÛ+ޓð
Ù  {#ye„Sdg|&}B| uuGd9dgsˆ
| ~C£gdsHtGsHdg~9yš~3|&{
d Ò
Ù  f }š|&uPt {
fT| uuGd9dgsGudK| ~9wSs9dK~XwSsHs9dg{ X9ˆSsHt w
x ˆ1|k‡yes9d<€udK| ~9wSs9ye{SxZ9ˆSd~9sHd{Sx 9ˆ®t Ø89ˆ
d
u| x {Sd9yš
dg}e„Q|&sHt wS{ƒ„²yD#s|'9ˆ
ds<9ˆ
| {’ªƒdKt uye{SxŒ
|&s9<t Ø79ˆSdWyeswSy:g‚+u| óy:{SxŒy:#| {Nye„Sdg|&}
|&uud9dgs Ò
Ù ¤o}e| uGSAt {ud9ds~Bu| ó d6؆t s_©€wSyšó| {
„7~H|'؆d\wSs9sHd{€Budg| ~w
s9dguGdg{€H~g‚g“dgg|&w
~9dHˆSdsHdyš~B{Stt {ƒ„w
Hy:z d
t {€| C“d3‡dd{…HˆSdud9dgs8|&{
„<HˆSd7yesHwSy: Ò
`àø

ùõú…ô÷ôãâó-â8ä¡üâ>ú-åcGç 

CˆSt wSx ˆ<uGdKˆ
|&{
yeg|&}“t ˆSuudHds"†sHdg~9ye~H| {
d+ud9dgs $ „dK~yex {ƒ~o| s9dsH| s9dg}:Gw
~9dg„!9t„S|‹ ‚€ˆƒ|‹z€ye{SxX}e| s9x d}eG“ddg{
~9wSƒdgsH~9dg„Sdg„<€<„y:x yD|&}Bye{
~9sHwSud{€H~g‚9ˆ
dyes8t “ds|'Hy:t {!yš~{St {
d9ˆ
d}edg~H~Cy:{€9sHyex wSye{Sx|&{
„<‡t s99ˆt&Ø6~3Hw
„ Ò

.l:û l³ô •?0T0 ,+*-,\— Æ,o5p Ç2

q Kr 

CˆSdGSwSsHƒt€~dt Ø|&{kt ˆSuudHdsK‚Bt&ØCt wSsH~9d ‚Ÿyš~+9t#udg| ~wSsHdX9ˆSdsHdg~9ye~H| {
dGS}š| dK„Z“d3‡ddg{ky:H~V}edg| „S~ Ò 
CˆSyš~‰s9dK~yš~3|&{
dsHdg| „Sy:{Sx?ye~‰ye{
„yš|'Hdg„VHˆSsHt wSx ˆ‘|?udKˆ
|&{Syš| } udHds-ut'z dguGdg{€Ž‡ˆSyšˆ‘t “ds|'Hdg~Žt {7dg}:dK9sHyš
w
s9sHd{€ Ò CˆSd8t ˆSuud9dgsouXw
~9ˆSdg{;ˆ
|‹z d8|&{ye{ HdsH{
|&}“~t wSsdt&ØBz t }:H| x dC9tXsHdg|'HdC9ˆSd+{Sdgdg~H~9| s9GwSsHsHd{€
9t‘t “ds|'9dCHˆSd?ut'z dud{€g‚ |&{
„| }e~9tˆ
|‹z d8| SSsHt SsHyš|'9ds|&{
x ye{SxVs9dK~yš~3Ht s~‰9t‘| }:}et'‡k›3w
~3o9ˆSd?s9yex ˆ€o| uGt wS{€
t&Ø6w
s9sHd{€9ˆSsHt wSx ˆ!HˆSdut'z dguGdg{€|&8|&{;x yez dg{<sHdg~9yš~3|&{
d Ò
¢€|&s99ye{Sx‡yDHˆ’|™~9y:uS}edZut'z dud{€!|&{ƒ„ª
|'99dsHªyesHwSyDK‚8}edgi ~!~9ddZˆSt'‡üyD…‡ot wS}e„ŒØ†w
{
Hy:t {’| ~;| {
t ˆ
uGud9ds h
ý
A simple ohmmeter
ñ500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA
Ë

9V

-

+

black test
lead

red test
lead

Ð ˆSdg{9ˆSdgs9dyš~ye{
{Sy:9d?s9dK~yš~3|&{
d"†{St‘t {€9ye{wSy:3‘“d3‡dd{Hdg~}:dK| „S~ $ ‚ 9ˆ
dsHdye~\£dsHtwSsHsHd{€69ˆSsHt w
x ˆ
9ˆ
d…ud9dsut'z dgud{€g‚\| {
„HˆSd…{SddK„}:d#“t ye{€H~X9t'‡C|&s„W9ˆ
d<Ø¡| sX}edØt Ø?9ˆ
d…~H| }:d Ò Ñ¨{™HˆSye~sHdx€|&s„Ÿ‚-9ˆ
d
t ˆ
uGud9dsye{
„yš|&9yet {1ye~f 
| ó‡C|&s„S~9f#“dgg|&w
~9d#u|'×y:uXwSuþye{
„yš|'Hy:t {³"¡y:{S
{Sy:3 $ yš~t {®9ˆSd#}edØ;t Ø?9ˆ
d
~H|&}ed ‚‡ˆ
y:}edz t }D|&x dV|&{ƒ„<wSs9sHd{€udHds~Cˆ
|‹z d£dgs9t|'CHˆSd}:dØ?t&Ø_9ˆSdgy:s+~9g|&}edg~ Ò
ÑPØ\HˆSdG9dK~37}edg| „S~t&Ø\HˆSyš~Vt ˆSuudHds7|&sHd„y:sHdg9}eZ~9ˆSt s99dK„9t x d9ˆSdgs"¡udg| ~9wSsHy:{
x<£gdsHt#Ö $ ‚B9ˆ
dGud9ds
ut'z dguGdg{€8‡y:}e}Žˆ
|‹z d7|u|'×y:uXwSuü|&ut wS{€8t Ø6wSsHs9dg{ HˆSsHt wSx ˆyDK‚
}ey:uy:9dg„Tt {S}e!<9ˆSd7ƒ|'HdsH<z t }:H| x d
|&{ƒ„;HˆSdut'z dudg{ Ki ~Cye{€9dgs9{
| }Ÿs9dK~yš~H|&{ƒd h
ñ500 Ω F.S. = 1 mA
Ë

9V
-

+

18 mA
black test
lead

red test
lead

Ð y:9ˆ Ó z t }:H~\t&ØB
|&9dgs9G“t&9dg{€9yš|&}ž|&{
„t {S}:j&Ô Ô‘Ö1t&ØBut'z dgud{€\sHdg~9ye~H| {
d ‚ t w
s\yesHwSy:w
s9sHd{€\‡ye}:}
“d «‘u  ‚‡ˆSyeˆ…yš~\Ø¡| sCƒdg t {ƒ„;HˆSd؆wS}:}:¨~9g|&}ed+s|'Hy:{SxXt&Ø_9ˆSdVut'z dguGdg{€ Ò ¢w
ˆ…|&{…d×SdK~9~ot&Ø-wSsHs9dg{€‡ye}:}
}ey:ó d}e!„S|&u| x d9ˆSdVudHds Ò
ß t ot {S}:GHˆ
|'K‚€
wˆƒ|‹z€ye{Sx‘~9w
ˆ!|Xt {
„y:9yet {;}ey:uy:H~o9ˆ
d?w
~9d؆wS}e{SdK~9~t&؟HˆSd+„Sdzyed Ò ÑPØB؆wS}e}ž}:dØPt&ب~9g|&}ed
t {X9ˆ
duGd9dgs-Ø¡| dCsHdSsHdg~9d{€~‰| {Xye{
{
yDHd?|&ut w
{ -t&؞sHdg~9ye~H| {
d ‚‹9ˆSdg{X؆w
}:}SsHyex ˆ€Pt&ب~9g|&}edo~9ˆSt w
}e„Xs9dgSsHdg~9d{€
£dgs9t Ò ¤ow
s9sHd{€9}e ‚Žt wSs7„dK~yex {Wf&“dx€~9f!9ˆ
duGd9dgsuGt'z dud{€Vˆ
|&s„Z9t#9ˆ
dGsHyex ˆ€‡ˆSd{W£dgs9t…sHdg~9ye~H| {
dGye~

q )Ý

)-• n?–+*-,o—/.l,Æ )10 ,+*-,o—p32Ç ) p3— )4 p*65

|'9H| ˆSdg„“d3‡ddg{9ˆSd?}:dK| „S~ Ò Ð d+{SddK„|7‡C|‹79t‘u| ó d8y:~9tHˆ
|'o9ˆSd+uGt'z dud{€B›3wƒ~3s9dgx yš~3Hds~-؆wS}e}D¨~9g|&}ed
‡ˆSdg{#9ˆSdHdg~?}edg| „
~8|&sHd7~ˆ
t s99dg„<Ht x d9ˆSdgs Ò CˆSyš~8yš~8| gt uS}eyš~ˆSdK„…€#| „
„y:{
x;|~dgs9yedg~sHdg~9yš~3|&{
d+Ht9ˆ
d
udHdsKi ~y:swSy: h
ñ500 Ω
Ë

9V

F.S. = 1 mA

-

black test
lead

+

ðR

red test
lead 

_tZ„dHdsHuy:{Sd!9ˆSd<SsHt “ds‘z'| }:wSd;؆t sÿ‚_‡d!g|&}šwS}š|'Hd9ˆSd!9t H|&}CyeswSy:‘sHdg~9ye~H| {
d;{
ddg„Sdg„WHtT}:yeuyD 
 w
s9sHd{€9t u  "؆wS}e}:P~H| }:d‘„Sd  dK9yet {#t {#9ˆSd7ut'z dud{€ $ ‡yDHˆ Ó z t }D~t&Ø6“t&9dg{€9yš|&}B؆sHt ué9ˆSd‘
|'99dsH ‚
9ˆ
d{~w
9s| HˆSdut'z dguGdg{€gi ~Cy:{€9dgs9{ƒ|&}ŸsHdg~9ye~H| {
d+؆s9t u¬9ˆƒ|'
x wSs9d h
Ë

E
9V
Rtotal =
=
I
1 mA

Ë

Rtotal = 9 kΩ
R = Rtotal - 500 Ω = 8.5 kΩ

ß t'‡®9ˆ
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+Š {k9ˆSd}edØ7~yš„dt&Øo9ˆSd~H| }:dG‡odGˆ
|‹z dGf y:{ƒ{SyD3f…|&{
„kt {Z9ˆSdsHyex ˆ€V~9yš„dX‡dˆ
|‹z dX£dgs9t ÒXò dg~9ye„Sdg~ƒdgy:{
x
f&ƒ| ó‡| sH„
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„#| uGud9ds~g‚9ˆSyš~8~H|&}edVye~~9s|&{
x dƒdK|&wƒ~dy:8x tdg~o؆sHt u
{St 9ˆSye{SxV9tdgz dgs9€9ˆ
y:{Sxƒ‚'sH|&9ˆSdgs-9ˆ
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|&6
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„Syeg|'9yet {t {;|&{‘t 9ˆSdgs3“d8t&ØBudHdsos9dgSs9dK~dg{€H~ ‹î q
t&؉9ˆ
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x dz‹| }:w
d ‚9ˆ
d{#‡ˆ
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CˆSd|&{
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| sH| „t‹×ye~| Ø0×$Û%Ú Ó |Ô
=  Ñ ( Ñ ÚgØ Ò ¢y:uS}eTSwK‚BHˆSd~9g|&}edXt Øo|&{[t ˆSuudHds„tdg~
{St o~utt&HˆS}eXSsHt x s9dK~9~‰Ø†sHt uí£dgs9t79t7ye{
{Sy:3| ~-HˆSd?{
ddg„S}:d~‡ddg
~-؆sHt uís9yex ˆ€Ht7}:dØ Ò ÿ8|&9ˆSdgsg‚ 9ˆSd~9g|&}ed
~H|&s9H~Vt w7f&d׍ƒ|&{
„dK„Sf#|'V9ˆ
ds9yex ˆ€Pˆ
| {
„Z~9ye„Sd ‚Ž‡y:9ˆ[HˆSd;~wƒdK~9~9yez dGs9dK~yš~3|&{
dz‹| }:w
dg~Vx sHt'‡ye{Sx<}:t€~dgs
|&{ƒ„<}:t€~dgsC9tdg| ˆ<t 9ˆSdgsC9t'‡C|&s„9ˆ
d}:dØ?~yš„dt&Ø_9ˆSd7~H| }:d h

q j

.l:û l³ô •?0T0 ,+*-,\— Æ,o5p Ç2
ý

An ohmmeter’s logarithmic scale

15k

1.5k 750

300

150

100

75

0

Ѩ{
{
yD3G|&{
{St&“d?|&
Ss9t€| ˆSdK„7ye{;|V}:ye{SdK|&s?"¡dz dg{ $ Ø¡| ~9ˆSyet {B‚ ƒdK| w
~dCHˆSd?~H| }:dC‡t wS}š„  Ö Ó-x d6HˆSdsHd þ
y
:
9

Ð ˆN|W}et x | s9y:9ˆ
uGyš#~9g|&}ed ‚o9ˆSdT| ut wS{€;t&ØVsHdg~9ye~H| {
d~9
|&{S{
dg„1؆t s;| {€®x yez d{²„yš~H|&{ƒdt {19ˆ
dZ~9g|&}ed
ye{
sHdg| ~dK~| ~9ˆSd7~H| }:dVSsHt x s9dK~9~9dg~\9t'‡C|&s„;ye{
{
yD3 ‚Su|&óy:{
xGye{
{
yD3…|&{#|'|&ye{
|&
}:dVx t€|&} Ò
Ð dX~9ye}:}‰ˆ
|‹z dX|;©€wSdg~9yet {Tt ØsH| {Sx d7؆t s?t wSs?t ˆSuud9dgsg‚“HˆSt wSx ˆ Ò Ð ˆ
|&z'| }:wSd‘t&ØsHdg~9ye~H| {
d7“d3‡ddg{
9ˆ
doHdg~6}:dK| „S~‰‡ye}:}Sg|&w
~9dod×S| H}: 'î q ~9g|&}ed„d  dg9yet {Xt&Ø
HˆSdC{SddK„}ed <ÑP؃‡doó{St'‡™9ˆ
|&‰HˆSdCut'z dudg{ -ˆ
| ~
|V؆wS}e}:P~H| }:d8s|'Hy:{
x7t&Ø u  ‚ HˆSd{!Ô Ò ju  "j Ô Ô Õ  $ u‘wƒ~3\“d8HˆSd?z'| }:wSd+{SddK„dg„G؆t s\ˆ
| }Dب~H|&}ed?„d  dg9yet { Ò
ÊSt }:}et'‡ye{SxXt wSs8„dK~yex {…‡yDHˆ#9ˆSd Ó z t }:Cƒ|'HdsH!| ~|~9t wSsd‡dx d h
Ë

Rtotal =

E
9V
= ñ
I
500 µA

Rtotal = 18 kΩ

Ð y:9ˆ|&{#ye{ HdsH{
|&}Ÿut'z dud{€Cs9dK~yš~3|&{
dVt&Øj&Ô ÔÖQ|&{
„…|~dgs9yedg~Cs|&{Sx d+sHdg~9yš~3Ht sCt&Ø6« Ò jXóÖ‚S9ˆSyš~}edg|‹z dK~
Ó óSֳ؆t s| {Td×HdsH{
|&}C"†}edg| „Ht&P}:dK| „ $ 9dg~Vs9dK~yš~3|&{
dX|& ‹î q ~H|&}ed Ò Ñ¨{Tt 9ˆSdgs+‡t s„S~g‚
HˆSdX9dg~Vs9dK~yš~3|&{
d
x yezy:{
x ‹î q ~H| }:d7„Sd  dK9yet {ye{T|&{t ˆSuud9dgs8yš~8dg©€w
| }Žye{z'|&}ewSd9tHˆSd<"¡y:{€HdsH{
|&} $ ~9dsHy:dK~C9t H|&}Žs9dK~yš~3|&{
d
t&؉9ˆ
duGd9dgs8yesHwSyD Ò
^?~9ye{Sx!Š+ˆSu#i ~ _|‹‡’|G؆d‡³ut sHd9yeuGdK~‚
‡od| {…„Sd9dgs9uye{SdV9ˆ
dV9dg~8sHdg~9ye~H| {
dVz'|&}ewSd؆t s 'îqÝ |&{
„ r€îgÝ
~H|&}ed„d  dgHy:t {…| ~C‡odg}:} h

‹îgÝ ~H| }:d„d  dg9yet {W"¡Ô Ò q j‘u  t Ø_udHds?wSs9sHd{€ $ h

q mÿ

)-• n?–+*-,o—/.l,Æ )10 ,+*-,o—p32Ç ) p3— )4 p*65
Ë

ðR

total =

E
9V
=  

I
250 µA

Rtotal = 36 kΩ

ðR

test

= Rtotal - Rinternal

Rtest = 36 kΩ - 9 kΩ
Rtest = 27 kΩ

r€îgÝ ~H| }:d„d  dg9yet {W"¡Ô Ò%¯ j‘u  t Ø_udHds?wSs9sHd{€ $ h
Ë

ðR

9V
E
= 

total =
I
750 µA

ðR

= 12 kΩ

ðR

test

= Rtotal - Rinternal

test

= 12 kΩ - 9 kΩ

total

ðR

Rtest = 3 kΩ

¢tƒ‚9ˆSd7~H| }:d؆t sCHˆSyš~t ˆSuudHds}ett ó~~t ud9ˆ
y:{Sx}ey:ó d9ˆSyš~ h
27k

9k

3k
0

.lgl • p Ç • ôB*ƒnAÇ,±ô •?0T0 ,*-,\—?5

q '¯

Š+{Sdu|'›3t s7SsHt S}edu ‡yDHˆ9ˆ
ye~X„dg~9y:x {ye~7yD~‘sHd}eye| {
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