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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/advengsoft

photogrammetry and nite elements

M.E. Stavroulaki a,, B. Riveiro b, G.A. Drosopoulos c, M. Solla b, P. Koutsianitis c,

G.E. Stavroulakis c

a

b

c

Technical University of Crete, School of Architecture, Applied Mechanics Laboratory, GR-73100 Chania, Greece

University of Vigo, School of Industrial Engineering, Department of Engineering Materials, Applied Mechanics and Construction ES-36208 Vigo, Spain

Technical University of Crete, School of Production Engineering and Management, GR-73100 Chania, Greece

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Available online 13 January 2016

Keywords:

Nondestructive evaluation

Photogrammetry

Finite element analysis

Damage mechanics

Ground penetrating radar

3D modelling

a b s t r a c t

Several numerical models are presented in this article, for the study of the ultimate behaviour of a real

stone arch bridge. For the exact representation of the geometry an integral and comprehensive survey

involving Terrestrial Photogrammetry and Ground Penetrating Radar is in order to provide a realistic 3D

geometric model for the subsequent mechanical analysis of the bridge. The accuracy of the photogrammetric method permitted detecting cracks in different areas and the GPR completed the geometric model

with information of hidden parts such as backll, arch ring thickness, etc. Finite element analysis models,

incorporating damage, elastoplasticity and contact, are then developed. Comparison between these models is considered in a single arch of the structure. The classical four hinges mechanism appears in the

arch. A model of the whole structure, where the arch and the ll are taken into account, is nally developed. Results show how damage is developed in the body of the arch, for loadings that include forces, or

vertical and transverse displacements in the supports.

2016 Civil-Comp Ltd. and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

New photogrammetry techniques allow us measure structures

of complex shapes and create accurate models for further structural analysis. Within this paper we report on an application of

this technique on a model structure, the Cernadela Bridge in Spain.

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First practical diculties arising during the mentioned operation will be briey discussed and

practical structural analysis and evaluation tasks related to a masonry bridge will be presented. Furthermore open questions and

the needs for further development of the involved techniques will

be identied and listed.

Some rst related results have already been published in [1].

In the present article, new information regarding terrestrial photogrammetry is given and details for obtaining the geometry

of the ll over the arch are presented. That leads to an improved and more accurate model, including information from the

E-mail addresses: mstavr@mred.tuc.gr, mestavr@gmail.com (M.E. Stavroulaki),

belenriveiro@uvigo.es (B. Riveiro), gdrosopoulos@isc.tuc.gr (G.A. Drosopoulos),

merchisolla@uvigo.es (M. Solla), panoskout@gmail.com (P. Koutsianitis),

gestavr@dpem.tuc.gr (G.E. Stavroulakis).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2015.12.007

0965-9978/ 2016 Civil-Comp Ltd. and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

whole structure.

A signicant number of masonry arch bridges in Europe still

survive and some of them are still being used, therefore a detailed analysis of these monuments is of great interest. Masonry

arches consist of stone blocks and the mortar joints. Blocks have

high strength in compression and low strength in tension while

mortar has generally low strength. Other mechanical properties

(like Youngs modulus) are also different between the constitutive materials of these structures. Consequently, a great number of theories have been developed in the past, in order to

capture this variation in the mechanical properties of masonry

arches.

In this framework continuums as well as discontinuous (discrete) models are used and nite element analysis with commercial packages or limit analysis schemes are adopted. The distinction between continuum and discrete models is given later in this

study.

Sophisticated homogenisation, as well as multi-scale methods

have been proposed for the investigation of the behaviour of masonry structures. In [2] a method combining structural analysis and

homogenisation is proposed for the study of masonry. A third material which is a mixture of the bricks and mortar is introduced

and a multi-scale scheme is developed to investigate failure of the

account the coupling of the damage and friction phenomena occurring during the loading history, is proposed in [3]. An effective

non-linear homogenisation procedure, based on the transformation

eld analysis and the nite element method, is then proposed. In

[4] and [5] a computational homogenisation approach is used to

depict localisation phenomena in masonry structures.

A lot of efforts towards establishing numerical methods for the

investigation of masonry structures in a structural level, have been

also appeared. A simple and quick procedure for the assessment

of the seismic vulnerability of masonry compounds, based on the

calibration on the basis of numerical analyses performed at different urban scale levels, has been proposed in [6]. A three dimensional computational model, based on the Discrete Element

Method (DEM) was proposed in [7]. It was used to investigate the

effect of the angle of skew on the load carrying capacity of several single span stone masonry arches. In [8] the usage of nonlinear beam elements with bre cross-section has been proposed

for modelling the ultimate behaviour of multi-span masonry arch

bridges. The interaction among the spans and the non-linear material behaviour can be described with low computational effort.

Vibration measurements have been used in [9] to investigate damage in masonry structures at an early stage. For this purpose, an

approach based on dynamic damage identication methods, has

been proposed. In [10] the static structural behaviour and the dynamic properties of an old masonry church have been investigated

using non-linear nite element analysis with proper constitutive

assumptions. The seismic vulnerability has been also evaluated using a pushover method.

From another point of view, limit analysis tools in the framework of constraint optimisation have been proposed. In [11] the

collapse load of discrete rigid block systems with frictional contact interfaces was computed, as a special constrained optimisation

problem (the so-called mathematical problem under equilibrium

constraints, MPEC). In [12] the limit analysis problem was formulated as an optimisation problem and a solution which involved

the use of a genetic algorithm was suggested. A discontinuous upper bound limit analysis approach with sequential linear programming and mesh adaptation has been proposed in [13] for the investigation of the behaviour of masonry double curvature structures.

The resulting combination of techniques allows us evaluate the

structural health of an existing complex masonry structure by

taking into account geometric data of high precision, mechanical

models of adequate complexity and elements of inverse analysis.

Further information, like material data from the interior of the

structure, is taken into account.

Consequently, the goal of this article is rst to point out the

interface between photogrammetry and structural analysis. To obtain a more realistic output of the structural behaviour, information taken from photogrammetry regarding damage of the arch

(cracks) is taken into account. Second, several continuum damage

and discrete models are used, in order to offer the analyst a holistic

insight concerning the tools which may be used for the structural

evaluation of masonry arches.

2. 3D modelling of Cernadela Bridge

In this article, a structural evaluation of a masonry bridge

in Spain, the Cernadela Bridge is considered. The creation of a

realistic geometric model involved several complementary nondestructive surveys. Overall, the methodology to create the geometric model to be used in the subsequent structural analysis comprises the following data:

- 3D model of the bridge; this model was created using photogrammetry due to the necessity of obtaining the external 3D

137

contours of each individual ashlar. This model has a double purpose: to provide information of the external envelope of the

bridge to serve as a basis for the FEM mesh and to visually

identify cracks in the masonry walls. Cracks can be visually detected when the joint between two ashlars is wider than the

surrounding joints.

- Cracks model; from the previous 3D model, those joints perpendicular to masonry courses, identied as cracks were saved

as a different point cloud where points were delineated using

polylines.

- Complementary geometric data of inner parts of the bridge provided by a Ground Penetrating Radar prospection. By georreferencing the GPR data to the coordinate system dened for the

photogrammetric survey, it was possible to add information of

the nonvisible elements of the bridge such as average thickness

of spandrel walls, thickness of arch ring and pavement, composition of backll, etc.

According to these models the methodology for the creation of

a realistic geometric model of Cernadela Bridge was divided in two

phases:

- Integral eld survey collecting both, photogrammetric GPR data

and subsequent data processing to create the three models related above.

- Creation of an accurate and detailed geometric model integrating cracks and the characteristics provided by GPR.

This section aims to summarise the different surveys conducted

in the Cernadela bridge: photogrammetric and GPR surveys. Finally

the methodology that permits integrating all the geometric models

in a single FEM mesh is presented.

2.1. Field works: photogrammetry and ground penetrating radar

surveys

Terrestrial photogrammetry has been reported as a good candidate for the performance of accurate geometric surveys of historical structures due to high level of accuracy and detail provided

by the technique. Close range photogrammetry was deeply studied and evolved during last decade in many different elds and

particularly in architecture and civil engineering [14, 15], but its

application to the study of historical structures is not a question

solved a priori. Historical elements have singularities (complex and

large geometry, they are heritage elements that require nondestructive evaluation, etc.), which demand the development of specic methodologies in order to achieve its complete metric survey.

To complete the information provided by photogrammetry,

which exclusively refers to visible information, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is proposed. GPR is a geophysical method that has

been established as one of the most recommended non-destructive

methods for routine sub-surface inspections. The technique has

proven its suitability for providing high image quality results of the

interior of the structures, and from the mid-1970s there have been

published numerous studies applied to many aspects related to

civil engineering eld. Regarding the evaluation of masonry structures, the GPR technology has demonstrated its potential to document and measure different inner structural characteristics, such

as the dimensioning of wall thicknesses, the detection of internal

faults like voids and cracks, as well as pathologies in construction,

and also to locate hidden structures and former geometries [16,

17].

2.1.1. Photogrammetric survey and data processing

Photogrammetry is dened as a method that allows the geometry of objects to be reconstructed from images, where the object

138

has previously impressed. This is possible through the establishment of geometrical relationships between objects coordinates (in

3D space) and image coordinates (in 2D space) into a perspective system, governed by the collinearity condition that establishes

that, at the time of exposure, a point in the object space, the perspective centre and the image coordinates of the point all lie in

common straight line [18].

In essence, two main steps are involved in the solution of that

process. First, the parameters that dene the perspective system

that produces the impression of images are required, which are

achievable through the camera calibration. Then, relative orientation consists of the determination of the relative position and orientation of those perspective systems (cameras) involved in the

photogrammetric model, to be nally transformed to the global coordinate system once scale factor of the model is known.

Photogrammetric data acquisition: an SLR digital camera manufactured by Canon, model EOS 10D, mounted with a 20 mm

Nikkor lens was used for image recording. Camera calibration values, which are very important for a reliable application, can be

seen in [18]. Another factor is related to the PSP, and consequently,

to the distance between camera and bridges surface. During the

image acquisition the surveyors tried to maintain operational distance with values around 15 m. According to camera parameters

the expected PSP would have a value of 5 mm.

Working under the operational distances mentioned, the eld

of view (FOV) of the camera does not cover the whole structure.

Because of this reason the survey of the structure had to be split

in smaller models, being each model composed of three images

taken from different points of view.

The photogrammetric survey of Cernadela Bridge was based on

the principles of convergent photogrammetry where images maintain optimal convergence angles between main directions of cameras of 90. In this sense, 32 individual models were required to

complete the 3D modelling of the whole structures envelope.

Articial targets were distributed in all around the bridge surface so the coordinates of the minimum number of control points

in object space could be collected by topographic equipment. A

total of 100 control points were measured by means of a Total Station Leica TCR1102. The topographic measurements were

subsequently introduced into the photogrammetric workstation to

achieve the absolute orientation. This procedure guarantee not only

to have the 3D model scaled and levelled, but also to control accuracy of nal 3D model by comparing with the truth data provided

by total station.

Also, the position of target marks for the GPR survey where

identied manually in the photogrammetric model to guarantee

the registration of the internal proles on the model envelope

(bridge surface).

Photogrammetric data processing: the images collected in the

eld and the coordinates of control points measured by total station were downloaded to the photogrammetric workstation Photomodeler Pro. The route followed in this application was the

following: 1) Import of images corresponding to each independent model. Each model was composed of 3 or 4 convergent images with optimal convergent angles of 90. 2) Inner orientation.

The geometry of the perspective system used for the impression

of images was reconstructed through the information of camera

calibration. 3) External orientation. The relative orientation was

performed for each independent model by identifying 6 common

points in the homologous images that dened each model. The information of these points in image space allowed solving the relative position between cameras and also those points in the model

space (neither scale nor absolute orientation yet). The 32 3D models orientated in this step belong to different coordinate systems,

and consequently all need to be joined together in order to create

the 3D model of the whole structure. This was done by marking

and transferring common points (at least 3) in the overlapping areas between adjacent models. After this, a relative model of the

whole structure was formed; 4) Absolute orientation. After referring corresponding control points in both topographic data and relative model data, the 3D model of Cernadela Bridge in the global

coordinate system was completed. 5) Restitution. Once all the images were externally oriented the next step consisted of restitution

of all those points that represent the geometry of the elements required for the subsequent structural analysis of the bridge.

2.1.2. Complementary geometric data provided by GPR

As presented in the previous paragraphs, GPR was used as a

complementary source of data to have information of those nonvisible areas of the bridge. Particularly, information of zonication of backll, pavement and ring stone thickness, etc. was estimated. The trajectory of the GPR antennas was accurately marked

by means of articial targets in order to register the path followed

by the GPR into the same coordinate systems used for the photogrammetric model. This operation was performed at the pathway of the bridge. Additionally, different grids were marked also

using articial targets into one of the vaults to provide a more accurate measure of arch thickness and so have an estimation of the

error of estimating arch thickness from the survey made from the

path, and nally, grids were also marked into the pillars where the

conguration 4 of GPR, that is presented in the next sections, was

applied.

GPR survey: the GPR data were collected using a RAMAC/GPR

system from MALA Geoscience. Three different frequencies and acquisition parameters were selected depending on the application

and the data required. The conguration 1 in Table 1, using a central frequency of 250 MHz, was selected to map the lling in the

interior of the whole structure, as well as to determine the paving

thicknesses. Additionally, a 500 MHz antenna (conguration 2) was

chosen to improve imaging resolution. Thus, the paving level was

better recognised and more accurate measurements of thickness

could be obtained. The conguration 3 was carried out to provide

the ring stone thicknesses. This data acquisition was performed in

the longitudinal direction to the bridge structure, through the entire vault intrados surface; while both congurations 1 and 2 were

conducted along the pathway of the bridge in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the conguration 4, in which the GPR proles were

gathered in the vertical direction through the accessible wall piers

of the bridge, allowed for a proper assessment of the presence

of lling or solid granite (ashlar) inside the structure. To measure

the prole lengths, and for trace-interval distance calculation, an

odometer wheel (encoder) attached to the antenna was used.

GPR data processing: all of the collected proles were ltered

before interpretation to correct the down shifting of the signal

caused by air-ground interface and to amplify the received signal as well as to reduce clutter and unwanted noise in the raw

data (both low- and high-frequency noise in the temporal and spatial directions). The objective was to enhance the extraction of

information from the received signals and to produce a subsurface image that includes all of the features and/or targets of interest, which simplies the interpretation of the GPR data. Moreover,

topographic corrections provided by the photogrammetric model

were applied to the proles acquired through the vault intrados

surface. Migration ltering was also applied to the GPR data gathered through the wall piers in order to mitigate the diffraction hyperbolae produced by the heterogeneous lling and irregular ashlar, as well as joints between ashlars, which allowed for a better

recognition of layering and more appropriate estimation of depths

(or thicknesses). The data were processed with the ReexW software [19].

Thicknesses values were determined from Eq. (1). This value

is coincident with the distance travelled by the wave (d), and it

139

Table 1

Survey parameters assumed for GPR data acquisition by considering four different congurations based

on the data results desired.

Conguration

Frequency (MHz)

Trace-interval (cm)

Samples/trace

1

2

3

4

250

500

800

500

5

2

1

3

220

100

55

100

566

677

554

710

Fig. 1. (a) 3D wireframe model of the whole structure of Cernadela Bridge. (b) Detailed model of second vault of the bridge with camera position and intersection rays of

some points. (c) Cracks measured in in the spandrel walls between arches 4 and 5. (d) 3D solid model created from the integration of GPR and cracks in the photogrammetryderived model.

medium (v), and the travel-time distance (twt) to and from the

layer. For calculations, average radar-wave velocities of 11.0 and

12.0 cm ns1 were assumed for lling materials and granitic ashlar, respectively [17,20].

d=v

twt

2

(1)

The previous non-destructive surveys provided the necessary

information to create the geometric basis for the FEM analysis.

Once that information is available, the next step consisted in its

optimal integration and exploitation. In that sense, the methodology for the creation of the geometric models involved: rst, to

have a basic 3D model of the bridge envelope; second, to add information of non-visible parts such as backll characterisation, arch

ring thickness along the vault, etc.; and nally, to add the cracks

identied during the photogrammetric restitution of ashlars to the

integral model of the bridge.

After the restitution of points dening the contours of all the

masonry blocks, the 3D model of Cernadela Bridge is composed of

more than 25 thousands points with averaged precisions for XYZ

components of (0.0 07; 0.0 08; 0.0 05) giving a RMSE of 12 mm. This

data comprises the 3D point cloud of the bridge. Fig. 1a shows the

3D wireframe model of Cernadela Bridge where all the ashlars contours. Fig. 1b represents camera conguration for the reconstruction of second vault of the bridge with intersection rays from different cameras.

Characterisation of inner parts of the 3D model: before the creation of the FEM mesh, the information extracted from the GPR

survey was used to update the geometric model. After having the

GPR proles geometrically aligned to the coordinate system of the

general 3D model, it was possible to complete the general model

with the information interpreted in the GPR data.

In general, the results obtained from the GPR data allowed obtaining inner geometrical characterisation that was previously unknown, namely: ring stone and paving thicknesses proles, as well

as the zonication of lling and solid granitic ashlar in the interior

140

Fig. 2. Geometrical data obtained from GPR. a) 250 MHz data showing the zonication of lling in the interior of the bridge, and paving thicknesses prole. b) 500 MHz

data interpreting the pavingll interface in detail, and the arch ring corresponding to the rst arch from the left side upstream. c) 800 MHz data obtained through the

intrados surface of the vault, which allowed identifying the ring stone thicknesses prole with more accuracy.

of the bridge (Fig. 2). The 250 MHz data collected along the pathway of the bridge was useful to obtain (Eq. (1)) the paving thicknesses prole (Fig. 2a). This interpretation was validated with the

detailed results produced by the 500 MHz data achieved through

pathway (Fig. 2b). Although the ring stone thicknesses can be appreciate from the 250 MHz data, and more pronounced from the

500 MHz data, the radargram generated when acquiring data with

the 800 MHz antenna through the internal intrados of the vault

provided the ring stone prole with more resolution and, subsequently, more accurate thicknesses values (Fig. 2c).

In terms of inner constructive materials, the 250 MHz data

recorded through pathway shown those areas containing more heterogeneous lling in the interior of the structure (Fig. 2a). Additionally, a 500 MHz GPR survey was carried out along the surface of the accessible wall piers, which demonstrated that such

structural components are composed by solid ashlar until approximately 1 m height (Fig. 3).

Creation of the 3D solid model: in order to integrate this

model into the procedures of structural analysis, the initial point

cloud and the information provided by the GPR have to be postprocessed together in order to create a 3D solid model before creating the FEM mesh. This process performed in two steps using

Geomagic Spark software: rst, the point cloud was converted into

a surface model through a triangulation process, and later, it was

converted into a solid model. The next step involved the partition

of the global 3D model with according to the characterisation provided by GPR, and so, vaults and backll were isolated before creating the FEM mesh.

Introduction of crack information: due to the accuracy of the

photogrammetric model, cracks were visually identied during the

restitution of ashlars. The delineation of cracks was exported as

an independently layer to Geomagic Spark, where it was used as

the pattern to create the partitions of the 3D solid model. Since,

the cracks were used to cut the vaults longitudinally according to

the cracks pattern. Evidence of cracking was also measured in one

of the spandrel walls (Fig. 1c), however this cracks are caused by

an out of plane deformation, which provoked a general opening

of masonry pieces. Even these cracks were documented, they were

not used to cut the 3D model because out of plane deformations

were not included in the further structural analysis considered in

this work.

Finally, the integral geometric model created was exported to

STEP format (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data) to be imported in the FEM software, Marc and Abaqus, for the work presented in this article.

3. Structural nite element analysis

3.1. Creation of cad model and nite elements

The geometry models initially developed from photogrammetry are mainly consisted of point clouds and lines. For this reason,

they are imported into appropriate computer aided design software with specialised surface processing tools, which are used for

the creation of complex surfaces, solids and sets of parts. This improved version of the geometry model is nally imported into classical nite element analysis packages for the structural assessment

of the bridge. Marc and Abaqus have been used in this article,

respectively.

3.2. Finite element analysis: interface modelling versus continuous

damage mechanics

The computational models which have been developed in the

past can be roughly divided into two large categories: (a) discrete

models and (b) continuum models.

141

Fig. 3. 800 MHz GPR data gathered through the wall pier among the two rst arches at the left margin from upstream. The layering of solid ashlar in depth is interpreted,

as well as the interface between ashlar and lling in height.

large discrete deformable parts connected with interfaces. The behaviour of the contact surface in each interface is described by a

unilateral law, possibly with friction, while the discrete elements

are assumed to behave elastically. Detailed discontinuous nite element model incorporating principles taken from non-smooth mechanics like unilateral contact and friction, have been presented

among others in [18,2123].

From another point of view, the mechanical behaviour of continuum models is described by a nonlinear constitutive law, where

either the masonry is assumed to consist of a single material and

its behaviour is described by an inelastic theory (for instance an

appropriately modied damage model) [24], or the different mechanical behaviour between stone and mortar and the anisotropy

induced by them are taken into account on the basis of a homogenisation theory [25].

Experience accumulated from the discontinuous modelling approach, indicated the fact that consideration of potential cracks as

macroscopic interfaces, although is a quite realistic method for the

representation of the mechanical behaviour, however requires the

handling of dicult numerical schemes, in case the method is expanded to large, complex structures with more complicated pattern of interfaces. Moreover, the computational cost towards this

effort would be signicant for a large scale structure, for instance

a three-dimensional model of a multi-ring stone arch bridge. For

these reasons, a rst attempt for a correlation between the discrete

macroscopic approach described above and a continuous damage

model, was made by the authors of this study in [26].

In the next sections of the article, both continuum damage

models and discrete models are used for the determination of the

ultimate behaviour of the arches of the Cernadela stone bridge. An

elastoplastic law is applied to the ll.

3.3. Ultimate behaviour and collapse prediction

When a stone arch bridge is close to failure, a small increase

of the loading which is applied to the arch causes a signicantly

increased vertical displacement of it. The structure then reaches

its ultimate strength and the analysis is terminated. Thus, in the

framework of nite element analysis as the load is increased, damage arises and expanding in the body of the arch, while the force

displacement diagram tends to become horizontal, indicating that

the structure is close to collapse. This point, which is characterised

with at least one zero eigenvalue of the tangential stiffness matrix,

is at the end of a path of stable mechanical equilibrium which in

fact has been obtained with a monotonic application of the loading. The numerical tools can proceed further, following branches

of unstable solutions in analogy to post-buckling effects, using for

example tools like arc-length techniques. A careful path-following,

incremental-iterative solution procedure is followed in this paper,

which in comparison with available predictions from other methods gives us condence that prediction of collapse corresponds to

real collapse and not to numerical failure.

It is noted that in the framework of the present work, nonlinear, incremental nite element analysis is used to depict damage, among others, in a real and complex masonry arch bridge.

From another point of view, one of the most common procedures

which can be used to evaluate the collapse mechanism and the ultimate load is related to limit analysis (see for instance [1113]).

3.3.1. Smeared crack damage model for the arches

In this article two similar continuum models have been used for

the structural analysis of the arches of the structure. The rst one,

a smeared crack damage model, with uniaxial tensile and compressive behaviour shown in Fig. 4, allows for the simulation of brittle

materials, like concrete and masonry.

According to this model, cracking is assumed to occur when the

stress reaches a critical failure surface, given by the relationship

between the equivalent pressure stress, p, and the Mises equivalent

deviatoric stress q, as it is illustrated in Fig. 5.

142

The basic unilateral contact law is described by the set of inequalities (1), (2) and by the complementarity relation (3):

h = u g 0 ==> h 0

n

tension softening.

t 0

(3)

t n (u g ) = 0

(4)

Inequality (2) represents the non-penetration relation. Inequality (3) implements the requirement that only compressive stresses

(contact pressures) are allowed in each contact interface. Eq. (4)

is the complementarity relation which states that either separation with zero contact stress occurs or contact is realised with

possibly non-zero contact stress. For a discretised structure the

previous relations are written for every point of a unilateral

interface.

The behaviour in the tangential direction is dened by a static

version of the Coulomb friction law. In particular, two contacting

surfaces start sliding when the shear stress in the interface reaches

a critical value equal to:

t t = cr = |tn |

are developed. On the contrary, the constitutive calculations are

performed independently at each integration point of the nite element model, thus the presence of cracks affects the stress and

material stiffness associated with each integration point. In addition, the compressive response of the material is modelled by an

elastic-plastic theory using a simple form of yield surface written

in terms of the equivalent pressure stress p, and the Mises equivalent deviatoric stress q (Fig. 5). The post-failure behaviour of the

damaged material is modelled with a tension stiffening law and

the stressdisplacement diagram shown in Fig. 6.

3.3.2. An alternative damage model for the arches

A slightly different continuum model is also used in the present

study. According to this model, the inelastic material behaviour of

masonry is also simulated by a cracking constitutive law for brittle materials. The damage is considered to be homogeneous within

an element even if the length of individual cracks is much smaller

than the element size. In addition, damage is described by microcracks oriented along mutually perpendicular planes. These cracks

are developed in the undamaged material when a maximum principal stress criterion is satised. Similar to the previously mentioned damage model, the presence of cracks affects the stress and

material stiffness associated with each integration point.

A tension softening model is considered for the stress and a

shear softening/retention law is used for the shear components of

stress. The crack model is described by the critical cracking stress

cr , the tension-softening modulus Es and the crushing strain

crush (Fig. 7). The shear retention factor is used to dene the residual shear stiffness for a cracked integration point in a cracking

analysis. This reduced shear modulus will have effect when the

normal stress across a crack becomes compressive.

3.3.3. Discrete model for the arches

For the verication of the results obtained by the usage of continuum models, a discrete model is also developed for a single arch

of the structure. The model consists of unilateral contact interfaces

standing for potential cracks, distributed in the body of the arch.

Along these interfaces, unilateral contact and frictional effects are

considered.

(2)

(5)

where tt and tn are the shear stress and the contact pressure

at a given point of the contacting surfaces respectively and is

the friction coecient. There are two possible directions of sliding

along an interface, so tt can be positive or negative depending on

that direction. Furthermore, there is no sliding if |tt | < |tn | (stick

conditions).

The Lagrange multiplier method is used to incorporate in the

equilibrium equations, the unilateral contact friction equations.

Finally, an alternative approach of a unilateral contact interface

with a non-zero tensile resistance is adopted in this study.

3.4. Two- and three-dimensional models

Several nite element models have been developed, for the simulation of the Cernadela Bridge. Four of them are used for the simulation of a single arch of the structure and a fth one for the investigation of the behaviour of the whole bridge. In particular, two

2d models are developed with the two mentioned damage laws,

one 3d model is also developed with the smeared crack damage

model in a single arch and one 2d discrete model is developed for

the same arch. Within the rst four models, a parametric investigation of the tensile strength of the masonry and of the width of the

arch has been considered. Finally, the proper material parameters

have been chosen for implementation on the whole structure.

In particular, the rst smeared crack concrete nite element

model is used for the simulation of the second arch (Arch 2) of the

Cernadela Bridge in two dimensions, Fig. 8. The main dimensions

of the bridge are given below [27]:

- Length of spans (right to left, downstream view): 3.58 m,

6.56 m, 10.01 m, 11.14 m, 10.30 m.

- Rise of arches (right to left, downstream view): 1.79 m, 3.77 m,

5.22 m, 5.80 m, 4.75 m.

The model consists of quadrilateral, four-node, plane stress elements with two translational degrees of freedom per node. A typical value for the length of each nite element is 0.03 m. A total

number of 4725 elements are used. In Fig. 9a the mesh of the arch

is shown.

For the implementation of the alternative damage model, the

mesh shown in Fig. 10 is used. The model consists of quadrilateral,

four-node, plane stress elements with two translational degrees of

freedom per node. A total number of 4351 elements are used. The

same mesh has been used in the framework of the model with

contact interfaces.

143

Fig. 9. Mesh of the simulated single arch (a) two dimensional and (b) three dimensional model.

per node, are used for the mesh of the model. A number of 231,693

nite elements have been used. The inuence of loading in some

of the arches or the movement of abutments on the ultimate behaviour of the structure, are investigated. It is noted that the whole

structure was also simulated in [20], with a linear nite element

analysis model.

Fig. 10. Mesh of the simulated single arch two dimensional model of Marc.

A fourth, three dimensional nite element model has been developed, for the study of the same arch of the bridge, in three

dimensions. The width of the arch is considered equal to 0.5 m.

Three dimensional hexahedral nite elements with three translational degrees of freedom per node have been used. The total number of them is equal to 73,520, Fig. 9b. The smeared crack concrete

model is used for the investigation of the damage in this model. In

the described models, loading conditions include self-weight and a

concentrated load at the quarter span of the bridge.

In [27] the same arch of the structure was simulated with a

discontinuous nite element model, as well as with Ring 2.0 limit

analysis software [28]. In both models, a discrete modelling approach was considered, contrary to the present study where continuum damage models are mainly used. Consequently, comparison

between the results obtained from the continuum and discrete approach will be considered for this arch of the bridge. Thus, the ultimate (limit) load and the collapse mechanism received from both

approaches will be examined. This procedure is used for the validation of the parameters of the used damage models.

Finally, a three dimensional, continuum, nite element model

is developed, for the whole geometry of the bridge, Fig. 11. For the

investigation of the ultimate behaviour of the arch, the smeared

crack concrete model has been used. For the ll, a classical Mohr

Coulomb elastoplastic law has been chosen. Three dimensional,

loading in the past. Usually small or larger deformations and damages or cracks remain after this experience. Using photogrammetry

we can accurately measure the current state of the structure. On

the other hand we can use the starting shape of the structure, if

available from drawings or estimates, and established mechanical

models in order to create loading and prediction scenarios on the

computer. Comparison of the predictions of these scenarios with

the measured state will allow us saying which one most probably occurred in the given structure. From the mathematical point

of view we formulate and solve a parameter estimation (identication) problem, or inverse problem, in order to adjust the parameters of the mechanical model so that existing damage or deformation patterns are reproduced with the highest accuracy [29]. We

can solve this problem by combining a parameterised mechanical

model with an optimisation algorithm, or use this formulation in

order to detect, at least, the existence of some defect within the

structure. The information of the surface measurements can be extended by either additional measurements or focused post processing of data in order to nd surface defects or cracks or by adding

information from the interior of the structure, by using for example geophysical prospection or other suitable techniques.

In this section, results related to the mechanical behaviour of

the Cernadela Bridge will be presented. For this reason, the mentioned models have been used in the framework of nite element

analysis. Within the rst smeared crack damage model, Youngs

modulus has been considered equal to 23 GPa, Poisson s ratio 0.2

and density 20 0 0 kg/m3 . The tensile strength of the structure is

considered equal to 0.5 MPa. Large displacement effects are neglected while the arch is considered to be xed to the ground.

NewtonRaphson incremental iterative procedure has been used

for the solution of the non-linear problem.

144

Fig. 12. Collapse mechanism obtained from the continuum nite element models (a) two dimensional and (b) three dimensional model.

Fig. 13. Collapse mechanism obtained from the discrete, two dimensional nite element model (a) separation stress = 0.25 MPa and (b) separation stress = 0.00 MPa.

the material parameters are considered as follows: Youngs

modulus, E = 23 GPa, Poissons ration 0.2, density 20 0 0 kg/m3 ,

critical cracking stress, cr = 0.25 MPa, tension-softening modulus,

Es = 2.5 GPa, crushing strain, crush = 0.003 and the shear retention factor equal to 1.0 (Fig. 7).

For the two dimensional discrete model, rst, no tension

strength is considered. Then, a low strength of tension equal to

0.25 MPa is used.

4.1. Parametric analysis of the single arch of the structure

Results obtained from the study of the second arch of the Cernadela Bridge will be presented in this section. For this reason,

continuum damage and discrete models have been developed in

two and three dimensions, respectively. The collapse mode and the

failure load received from these models, are compared with the

corresponding results obtained from a discrete modelling approach

presented in [27], in the same arch.

the four hinges collapse mechanism, Fig. 12(a) and (b). The same

mechanism is received from the discontinuous nite element

model presented in [27]. A similar collapse mechanism is also obtained from the discrete model formulation which is used in this

article. Small differences about the location of the two hinges (at

the left side) which are presented are related with the value of

separation force, as it is shown in Fig. 13.

In addition, the inuence of the arch width is examined for

the two dimensional model considering values equal to 0.5 m

and 1.0 m. The corresponding results are found at the force

displacement diagrams shown in Figs. 14 and 15. In Fig. 16 are

summarised the forcedisplacement diagrams, obtained from the

damage models used in this article and the discrete models presented in [27]. According to these, the failure loads received from

the damage models are found between the corresponding values

of the discrete, three dimensional nite element model and the

limit analysis model with the Ring software, presented in [27]. As

the load is increased, the inclination of the diagrams change and

Fig. 14. Forcedisplacement diagrams for the second arch of the Cernadela Bridge

(width of the arch 0.50 m).

145

Fig. 15. Forcedisplacement diagrams for the second arch of the Cernadela Bridge

(width of the arch 1.00 m).

the diagrams tend to become horizontal, indicating that the structure is close to collapse. At the same time, the four hinges collapse

mechanism appears.

In this section the mechanical behaviour of the whole Cernadela Bridge is under investigation. The same structure was considered as a unity in [1], thus no distinction between the arch and

the ll was taken into account. In the present study, a model in

which the archll interaction is taken into account is developed,

meaning that a different material law is applied to each of them.

A MohrCoulomb elastoplastic material law is adopted to simulate failure of the ll. In this framework, an angle of internal friction equal to 42 degrees and a cohesion equal to 0.5 MPa are chosen. The elasticity modulus of the ll is initially taken equal to

15 GPa. Then, a short parametric investigation of the inuence of

the material properties of the ll on the behaviour of the structure

is presented. The interaction between arch and ll is simulated by

a tie constraint, thus a condition which does not permit neither

sliding nor opening in the interface. At the end of this section, a

model with some pre-existing cracks, as they obtained from Photogrammetry (Fig. 1d), is presented.

The smeared crack damage model, which was previously presented, is used for the investigation of the failure of the arch. The

Youngs modulus has been considered equal to 23 GPa, Poissons

ratio 0.2 and density 20 0 0 kg/m3 . The same density and Poissons

ratio are taken also for the ll. The tensile strength of the arch

is considered equal to 0.5 MPa. Large displacement effects are neglected and the arch is considered to be xed to the ground. The

NewtonRaphson incremental iterative procedure has been used

for the solution of the non-linear problem.

The results which are presented in the following lines, demonstrate failure on the structure in case movement of abutments or

a static, trac load is applied to the bridge. In [20] a similar investigation was conducted by a linear nite element model, on the

same masonry arch. In [30] the inuence of the movement of abutments on the collapse mechanism of two dimensional stone arches

was investigated, by developing discrete nite element models.

Concerning the loading of the structure, three loading steps

have been developed. In the rst step the dead load of the bridge

is considered, while in the second step a uniformly distributed

load of 3 kN/m3 is applied to the structure. In the third step a

Fig. 16. Summary of the forcedisplacement diagrams for the second arch of the

Cernadela Bridge (width of the arch 0.5 m).

bridge.

When a vertical displacement is applied to the fourth abutment of the structure, damage arises in the fourth and the fth

arch according to Fig. 17. Similarly, principle stresses of the linear

model presented in [20] become maximum in the same areas of

the fourth and fth arch. In addition, Fig. 18 shows the damage

of the fourth arch, in case a trac, static load is applied to it. A

close image is obtained by the linear model in [20], for the same

loading. In Fig. 19 the failure of the ll for the same case is given.

A comment related to the ultimate behaviour of the structure

can be made, in case the trac load of the fourth arch is accompanied with a transverse displacement of the fourth abutment (in a

direction vertical to the longitudinal axis of the bridge). According

to the upstream view shown in Fig. 20 the damage in this case is

expanded to the area of the spandrel walls of the fourth and fth

arch, contrary to Fig. 18 where damage arises almost exclusively in

the middle of the fourth arch. In addition, damage has been expanded to the fourth abutment, according to downstream view of

Fig. 21. This demonstrates that the behaviour of the structure is

signicantly inuenced in case a transverse loading is applied to

it, for instance after an earthquake.

146

Fig. 17. Damage on the fourth and fth arch for a vertical displacement of the fourth abutment.

Fig. 18. Damage of the arch for a trac load in the fourth arch.

Fig. 19. Damage of the ll for a trac load in the fourth arch.

Fig. 20. Damage for a trac load in the fourth arch and a transverse movement in the fourth abutment upstream view.

Fig. 21. Damage for a trac load in the fourth arch and a transverse movement in the fourth abutment downstream view.

147

Fig. 22. Crack opening on the fth arch for a vertical displacement of the fourth abutment Fill Youngs modulus = 23 GPa.

Fig. 23. Crack opening on the fth arch for a vertical displacement of the fourth abutment Fill Youngs modulus = 8 GPa.

The mentioned model is nally enhanced by taking into account pre-existing cracks, as they were obtained from the Photogrammetry (Fig. 1d). By taking into account the current state of

damage and deformation, the estimation of the real structural behaviour and strength of the arch can be more realistic and accurate.

To simulate the cracks, a unilateral contact law has been applied to the cracked surfaces. Thus, zero tensile resistance is given

in each interface. In addition, three parametric simulations of the

ll have been taken into account. First, the initial Youngs modulus of the ll (15 GPa) and a vertical displacement of the fourth

abutment are considered. Then, the Youngs modulus is considered

equal to 8 GPa and 23 GPa, respectively. The goal of this investigation is to examine the mechanical behaviour of the structure

with the cracks as well as to understand the inuence of the lls

Youngs modulus on the behaviour of the structure.

According to the output, the bigger elasticity modulus of the

ll results in bigger crack openings (Fig. 22), in comparison with

the case with smaller elasticity modulus (Fig. 23), for the same

value of movement of the abutment. This shows that the properties of the ll may inuence the ultimate behaviour of the cracked

structure.

Fig. 24. Crack opening abutments vertical displacement diagram for a variation

of the elasticity modulus of the ll.

response as well as bigger crack openings for bigger Youngs modulus of the ll.

148

5. Conclusions

In the present study terrestrial photogrammetry is used for geometry reconstruction of a real masonry arch bridge located in

Spain, the metric model is used for subsequent implementation

in structural assessment tasks. Terrestrial photogrammetry significantly contributes to the accurate geometric representation of historical structures with milimetric precision. It is important to note

some limitations on the use of the photogrammetric method. Although the high level of detail recorded, this may be not enough

for detection of movement or subtle displacements of masonry

blocks. The main advantage of such surveying method is based

on the accuracy reached for the positioning of real masonry elements that will subsequently support the accurate geometric

characterisation during the nite elements based model of the

whole structure. The exact geometry obtained from this method

is then used for the investigation of the ultimate behaviour of the

structure.

In particular, several two and three dimensional, non-linear

models have been developed. To depict the limit load and the collapse mechanism of the structure, continuum damage models have

been used and compared with discrete approaches conducted in

the present as well as in older studies.

According to the results, the classical four hinges mechanism

arises from the structural analysis of the bridge. Moreover, the inuence of parameters such us the width of the structure and the

tensile strength of the material in the forcedisplacement diagrams

is shown.

The simulation of the whole structure demonstrates that a possible out of plane movement of abutments will cause signicant

damage to the bridge. Finally, useful results are obtained when

the existing cracks of the structure are incorporated in the simulation. Values of crack opening and the pattern of hinges which are

activated are received after simulation. Additionally, the variation

of the elasticity modulus of the ll may signicantly inuence the

values of crack opening in the structure.

Acknowledgements

The work of Dr. Georgios Drosopoulos is being supported

by a research project implemented within the framework of

the Action Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" (Actions Beneciary: General Secretariat for Research and Technology), and conanced by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Greek State.

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