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Mans Impact on the

Environment

Acid Rain / Acid Deposition


occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide

and oxides of nitrogen react in the


atmosphere with water, oxygen, and
oxidants to form various acidic
compounds

Acid

Rain
Ozone and Your Health
Oil Spill
Nuclear Power Plant Disasters

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Problems caused by acid rain:

acidifies bodies of water which can lead to


the eradication of marine species

ruins plant
nutrients and the
plants ability to
survive

Dying Red Spruce trees in Maine, USA


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Problems caused by acid rain:

accelerates the decay of architecture and


artworks

causes serious illness to people such as


respiratory problems, headaches, dry
coughs, sore throats; and may also cause
kidney problems, and brain damage to
people

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What can be done to eliminate or
minimize acid rain?
Reduce emissions

Find alternative

sources of energy

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Human activities that cause acid rain:

burning of fossil fuels such


as coal to produce electricity

combustion

of fuels in
motor vehicles,
residential and
commercial furnaces, and
other equipment

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What can be done to eliminate or
minimize acid rain?
Conserve resources

Restore the damage

caused by acid rain

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Ozone

Ground-level ozone

a gas that occurs


naturally in the
Earths upper
atmosphere that
protects us from
the Suns harmful
ultraviolet rays

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How can ground-level ozone
affect ones health?

It irritates the respiratory system causing


you to start coughing and feel an irritation
in the throat and uncomfortable sensation
in the chest.

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formed from the pollutants emitted by cars,


power plants, boilers, chemical plants, and
other sources that react chemically in the
presence of sunlight

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How can ground-level ozone
affect ones health?

It can reduce lung function by


making it more difficult to breathe
as deeply as you normally would.

It can aggravate asthma and


lung diseases.

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U.S. EPA Air Quality Guide for Ozone


Air Quality
Index

Color

Air Quality

Prediction

0 to 50

Green

Good

No health impacts are expected.

51 to 100

Yellow

Moderate

Unusually sensitive people


should limit prolonged outdoor
activity.

101 to 150

Orange

Unhealthy for sensitive


groups

Active people and those with


respiratory disease should limit
prolonged outdoor activity.

Unhealthy

Active people and those with


respiratory disease should avoid
prolonged outdoor activity; all
others should limit prolonged
outdoor activity.

Very unhealthy

Active people and those with


respiratory disease should avoid
all outdoor activity; all others
should limit outdoor activity.

151 to 200

201 to 300

Red

Purple

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Oil Spill

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Ozone (O3)

Benzene (C6H6)

Toluene (C7H8)

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What causes oil spills?

a form of pollution
that occurs when
liquid petroleum
hydrocarbon is
released into the
environment such as
the ocean and coastal
waters due to human
activities

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Air Quality Monitoring Stations

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Equipment breakdown
such as an oil tanker
getting stuck on a shallow
land.

Countries at war may cause


damage to each other by
dumping gallons of oil to the
other countrys ocean.

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What causes oil spills?

Illegal dumpers may dump oil into a


countrys ocean to avoid spending money
on decomposing their waste oil.

Natural disasters
such as hurricanes
and tsunamis can
cause oil tankers to
flip over, pouring oil
to the oceans.

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decreased fish production

disturbs

the natural ecosystem


of mangroves along the coastal
waters
mammals vulnerable to
temperature fluctuations and
less buoyant in the water

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How oil is cleaned up after a spill?


a boom can be placed
somewhere in the
ocean or around a
habitat where many
animals live

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How oil is cleaned up after a spill?

skimmers can be

airplanes can be used


to drop chemicals on
the oil spill to
breakdown the oil into
the ocean

vacuum trucks

can
be driven on the
beaches to suck up
the oil

used to remove oil


off the water
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it makes birds and marine

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Effects of Oil Spill

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Oil Spill Disasters in the Word

Guimaras Island, Iloilo, Philippines: M/V


Solar I, August 11, 2006

Gulf of Mexico: Deepwater Horizon,


April 20, 2010

Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Pacific


Adventurer, March 11, 2009

Alaska: Exxon Valdez, March 24, 1989

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Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Nuclear Power Plant Disasters

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International Nuclear Event Scale

suffered a major damage


from the 9.0 magnitude
earthquake and tsunami
that hit Japan on March
11, 2011
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Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster

a non-government organization on nuclear


energy has warned of products such as
dairy and spinach being restricted for
shipping that might be contaminated of
radiation

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Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster

areas within the 30 km radius especially Ukraine,


Russia, and Belarus are contaminated with caesium137

only 300-400 thousand people


have left these areas and
resettled to other places

radiation also spread over large


parts of Scandinavia, Poland,
Baltic States, southern Germany,
Switzerland, northern France and
England

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Chernobyl Power Plant lies in


northern Ukraine near the border
of Belarus

uranium (U-235) nuclei split in a


nuclear reactor of the power
plant on the night of April 25-26,
1986

released 100 times more


radiation than the atomic bombs
dropped on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki

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Environmental effects brought by
the nuclear disaster:

radioactive elements such as caesium,


strontium, and plutonium contaminated the
soil and entered the food chain through crops
and livestock

fishes are the most severely contaminated


since they feed on worms that thrive in river
sediments where radiation has concentrated

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Environmental effects brought by


the nuclear disaster:

in Ukraine, almost 2,640 km2 of agricultural


land can no longer be farmed; seeds no longer
germinate as readily as before

animals that feed on plants are


severely contaminated

people who feed on what they


have produced or collected are at
high risk

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Organs that can be affected by


radiation:
Cells of the embryo in the uterus
Lymph glands
Bone marrow
Intestinal tract
Thyroid glands
Female breast and egg cells

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