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SECTION 1

I.

RELATED DEFINITION

Aggregate

A granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone and iron-blast furnace slag, and

when used with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.

Balanced Design

A design so proportioned that the maximum stresses in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and

steel (with strain of fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is reached,

causing them to fail simultaneously.

Cementitious materials

Materials with cementing value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as

Portland cement, blended hydraulic cement, or such materials in combination with fly ash,

raw or other calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

Concrete

Mixture of water, cement, sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates.

Dead Load

Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.

Design

The determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular structure so

that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the influences

that will act on it throughout its useful life.

Design Load Combinations

Combination of factored loads and forces.

Design Strength

The nominal strength multiplied by a strength-reduction factor, .

Effective Depth of Section, d

The distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement.

Extreme Tension Steel

The reinforcement (prestressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest from the extreme

compression fiber.

Live Load

Loads that may change in magnitude and position.

Modulus of Elasticity

The ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below

proportional limit of material.

Nominal Strength

The strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and

assumptions of the strength design method before application of any strength-reduction

factors.

Over Reinforced Design

A design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced design.

1-1

My Notes

SECTION 1

Plain concrete

Structural concrete with no reinforcement or with less reinforcement than the minimum

amount specified for reinforced concrete.

Reinforced concrete

Concrete in which reinforcing bars or other types of reinforcement have been integrated to

improve one or more properties of concrete.

Required Strength

The strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal

moments and forces.

Stress

The intensity of force per unit area.

Specified Compressive Strength of Concrete, fc

The compressive strength of concrete used in design of reinforced concrete members in

MPa.

Under Reinforced Design

A design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced design.

Water

Used in mixing concrete that should be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids,

alkalis, salts, organic materials, or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or

reinforcement.

Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established by:

1. Workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into form and around

reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed without segregation or

excessive bleeding.

2. Resistance to special exposures.

3. Conformance with strength test requirement.

The basic components of concrete are cement, water and aggregates (sand and gravel). Cement

and water form a paste that fills the space between the aggregates and binds them together.

Chapter 3 of the ACI Code and Section 403 of Nationals Structural Code of the Philippines (2010)

contains the minimum requirements for these components and other materials that are commonly

used in concrete.

1-2

My Notes

SECTION 1

A. Cementitious Materials

Cement shall conform to one of the following specifications:

Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C595-07)

Specifications for Expansive Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C845-04)

Specifications for Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C1157-03)

Fly ash and natural pozzolans (ASTM C618-05)

Groundgranulated blast-furnace slag (ASTM C989-06)

Silica fume (ASTM C1240-05)

The eight different types of Portland cement referenced in ASTM C150 and their typical

applications are summarized below.

Cement Type

Application

Type I normal

resistance

moderate sulfate attack is important or where moderate heat of hydration is

desired.

resistance, air-entraining

where structures must be put into service quickly

air-entraining

Used in the same structures as Type III where air entrainment is desired

concrete structures like dams

in direct contact with soils or ground waters that have high sulfate content

B. Aggregates

Concrete aggregates shall conform to one of the following specifications:

Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C33005)

The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not be larger than:

1. One fifth (1/5) the narrowest dimension between sides of forms; or

2. One third (1/3) the depth of slab; or

3. Three fourths (3/4) the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or

wires, bundles of bars, or prestressing tendons or ducts.

1-3

My Notes

SECTION 1

C. Water

In general, water that is drinkable can usually be used for making concrete. Acceptance

criteria for water used as mixing water in concrete can be found in ASTM C94/C94M-06,

Standard Specification for Ready-mixed Concrete and ASTM C1602/C1602M-06, Standard

Specification for Mixing Water Used in Production of Hydraulic Cement Concrete.

NSCP C101-10 states that water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from

injurious amount of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials or other substances

deleterious to concrete or reinforcement.

D. Admixtures

Admixtures are ingredients other than cement, aggregates, and water that are added to

concrete mix immediately before or during mixing. Reducing the cost of concrete

construction, economically achieving desired properties in concrete, and maintaining the

quality of concrete during mixing, transporting, placing, and curing are a few reasons why

admixtures are used in concrete.

The following are brief descriptions of some common admixtures:

in concrete to improve its durability when exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. They

also increase resistance to scaling due to exposure to deicing chemicals and improve the

workability of fresh concrete.

Superplasticizers. These high-range water reducers that can greatly reduce water

demand and cement content without sacrificing workability. Using a water reducer can

also lead to accelerated strength development of the concrete; this permits formworks to

be reduced earlier and, thus, reduced overall construction time.

Corrosion inhibitors. These are usually in parking structures, marine structures, and other

structures exposed to chlorides, which can cause corrosion of steel reinforcement in

concrete.

IV. TESTS

A. Concrete Testing

1. Test on wet concrete

Slump Test standard method in determining the relative consistency of concrete.

Procedure in conducting Slump Test:

a) A standard slump cone is filled in three layers, rodding each layer 25 times.

b) The concrete is smoothed off at the top of the cone.

c) The cone is then lifted vertically, permitting the concrete to slump downward.

d) Measure the distance between the original and final surface of the concrete (slump).

1-4

My Notes

SECTION 1

Recommended Slump for Various Types of Construction

Slump, in (mm)

Type of Construction

Max

Min

5 (127)

2 (51)

4 (102)

1 (25)

6 (152)

3 (76)

Building columns

6 (152)

3 (76)

Pavements

3 (76)

2 (51)

3 (76)

1 (25)

work is measured. The apparatus is consists of two conical hoppers placed over one

another over a cylinder. The upper hopper is filled with fresh concrete which is then

dropped into the second hopper and into the cylinder which is struck off flush. The

compacting factor is the ratio of the weight of concrete to the weight of an equal volume

of fully compacted concrete. The compacting factor for concrete of medium workability is

about 0.9

2. Test on hardened concrete

Compressive Strength the most important property of concrete. The characteristic

strength is measured by the 28 day cylinder strength.

Tensile Strength is about a tenth of compressive strength. It is determined by loading

a concrete cylinder across a diameter.

Flexure Test a plain concrete specimen is tested to failure in bending. The theoretical

maximum tensile stress at the bottom face at failure is calculated. This is called the

modulus of rupture. It is about 1.5 times the tensile stress determined by tensile strength.

Test Cores cylindrical cores are cut from the finished structure with a rotary cutting

tool. The core is soaked, capped and tested in compression to give a measure of the

concrete strength in the actual structure. The ratio of core height to diameter and location

where the core is taken affect the strength. The strength is lowest at the top surface in

increases with depth through the element. A ratio of core height-to-diameter of 2 gives a

standard cylinder test.

3. Non-destructive test

Rebound Hardness Test the Schimdt hammer test is used in the rebound hardness

test in which a metal hammer held against the concrete is struck by another spring-driven

metal mass and rebounds. The amount of rebar is recorded on a scale and this gives an

indication of the concrete strength. The larger the rebound number, the higher the

concrete strength.

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test in the ultrasonic pulse velocity of ultrasonic pulses that

pass through a concrete section from a transmitter to a receiver is measured. The pulse

1-5

My Notes

SECTION 1

velocity is correlated against strength. The higher the velocity is, the stronger is the

concrete.

Other Non-destructive Test equipment has been developed to measure:

Crack widths and depths.

Water permeability and the surface dampness of the concrete

Depth of cover and the location of reinforcing bars.

The electrochemical potential of reinforcing bars and hence the presence of

corrosion.

B. Failures in Concrete Structure

Failures in concrete structures can be due to any of the following factors:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Errors in design calculations and detailing

Poor construction methods and inadequate quality control and supervision

Chemical attack

External physical and/or mechanical factors including alterations made to the structure.

A. Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Concrete has no definite modulus of elasticity

For concrete whose weight is between 1500 and 2500 kg/m 3

Ec = wc1.50.043(fc)0.5

For normal weight concrete

Ec = 4700(fc)0.5

Values of Modulus of Elasticity for Normal Weight of Concrete:

fc (MPa)

Ec (MPa)

20.7

21 760

24.1

23 503

27.6

25 130

31.0

26 650

34.5

28 030

1-6

My Notes

SECTION 1

B. Compressive Strength

S28 = S7 + 2.5(S7)0.5

Where:

S28

S7

Required average compressive strength fcr used as basis for selection of concrete

proportions shall be the larger of equations

fc 35 MPa

fcr = fc + 1.34Ss

fcr = fc + 2.33Ss 3.5

fc > 35 MPa

fcr = fc + 1.34Ss

fcr = 0.90fc + 2.33Ss

Modification factor for standard deviation when less than 30 tests are available

Number of Test

Less than 15

15

1.16

20

1.08

25

1.03

30

1.0

Table 405-2 Required Average Compressive Strength When Data are Not Available to Establish a

Standard Deviation

Specified Compressive Strength,

fc (MPa)

fcr (MPa)

fc + 7.0

21 fc 35

fc + 8.3

Over 35

1.1fc + 5.0

1-7

My Notes

SECTION 1

VI. EVALUATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF CONCRETE (SECT 405.7) FOR LABORATORY-CURED SPECIMEN

Sect 405.7.3.3 Strength level of an individual class of concrete shall be considered satisfactory if

both the following requirements are met:

1. Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive strength test equals or exceeds fc

2. No individual strength test (average of two cylinders) falls below fc by more than 3.5 MPa,

when fc is 35 MPa or less; or by more than 0.10fc when fc is more than 35 MPa.

Strength Test the average strength of two cylinders made from the same sample of

concrete and tested at 28 days or at test age designated for determination of fc.

The following table lists strength test data for 5 truck loads (batches) of concrete delivered to the job

site. For each batch, two cylinders were cast and tested at 28 days. The specified strength of the

concrete is 27.6 MPa. Determine the acceptability of the concrete based on the strength criteria of

Sect 405.7 of NSCP C101-10.

Test No.

Cylinder 1

(MPa)

Cylinder 2

(MPa)

Average

(MPa)

Average of 3 Consecutive

Tests

(MPa)

28.4

29.4

28.9

26.5

28.2

27.4

30.5

30.7

30.6

29.0

25.3

26.4

25.8

27.9

31.9

31.5

31.7

29.4

The average of the two cylinder breaks for each batch represents a single strength test result. Even

though the lowest of the five strength test results (25.3 MPa) is below the specified strength of 27.6

MPa, the concrete is considered acceptable because I is not below the specified value by more than

3.5 MPa for concrete with an fc not more than 35 MPa; i.e., not below 24.1 MPa.

The second acceptance criterion, based on the average of three (3) consecutive tests, is also

satisfied by the three consecutive strength test averages shown. The procedure to evaluate

acceptance based on 3 strength test results in a row is shown in the right column.

Third row

Fourth row

Fifth row

1-8

My Notes

SECTION 1

Thus, based on code acceptance criteria for concrete strength, the five strength tests results are

acceptable, both on the basis of the individual test results and the average of three consecutive test

results.

The following data are mixtures from three different supplier of concrete. The

specified concrete mixture is 35 MPa. Evaluate the data and recommend

which supplier has the best concrete mix.

Sampl

e

Supplier 1

Speci

Speci

men 1

men 2

Supplier 2

Speci

Speci

men 1

men 2

Supplier 3

Speci

Speci

men 1

men 2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

32.4

36

35.6

34.8

36

38

28.5

30.5

32.6

35

34

34.6

29.6

35

36

33.8

36

36.4

37.6

32.5

38.6

30.2

36

35

30.5

37.5

38.6

32.4

34

41.8

34.8

30.5

41.2

34

29.6

38.4

35.5

35

38

32.9

37.5

36

30.6

32.6

36.5

33.5

30.6

34.6

41

35

32

36

37

36.4

10

36

35.4

35

34.6

37.8

34.6

Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement, except that plain reinforcement shall be

permitted for spirals or prestressing steels.

Test on rebars is guided by Philippine National Standard (PNS) PNS 49:1991 Steel Bars for

Concrete Reinforcement Specification by the Bureau of Product Standard covering the

following grades of steel rebars

Grade 230

275

415

Hot rolled steel rebars

Sect 421.3.5 Reinforcement in Special Moment Frames and Special Structural Walls

Deformed reinforcement resisting earthquake induced flexural and axial forces in frame in

frame members, structural walls, and coupling beams, shall comply with ASTM A706M,

ASTM A615M Grades 280 and 420 reinforcement shall be permitted in these members if:

1. The actual yield strength based on mill tests does not exceeds the specified yield

strength by more than 125 MPa; and

1-9

My Notes

SECTION 1

2. The ratio of the actual ultimate tensile strength to the actual tensile yield strength is not

less than 1.25.

Nominal Dimensions and Unit Mass (PNS 49:2001)

Nominal Diameter

(mm)

10 (9.5)

12 (12.7)

16 (15.9)

20 (19.1)

25 (25.4)

28 (28.7)

32 (32.3)

36 (35.8)

40

50

Nominal Perimeter

(mm)

31.7

37.7

50.3

62.8

78.6

88.6

100.5

113.1

125.7

157.1

(mm2)

78.54 (79)

113.10 (113)

201.06 (201)

314.16 (314)

490.88 (491)

615.75 (616)

804.25 (804)

1017.88 (1019)

1256.64

1963.50

Cast in Place Concrete

1. Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth

2. Concrete exposed to earth or weather

20 36 mm

16 and smaller

3. Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground

a. Slab, walls, joist

42 and 58 mm bars

36 mm bar and smaller

b. Beams and Columns

Primary reinforcement, ties, stirrups, spirals

c. Shells, folded plate members

20 mm bar and larger

16 mm bar and smaller

VIII.

Unit Mass

(kg/m)

0.617 (0.618)

0.888 (0.890)

1.578 (1.580)

2.466 (2.465)

3.853 (3.851)

4.834 (4.831)

6.313 (6.310)

7.990 (7.986)

9.865

15.413

75

50

40

40

20

40

20

12

Loads

Forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and

their possession, environmental effects, differential movements, and restrained dimensional

changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small

magnitude. All other loads are variable loads.

Dead Loads consists of the weight of all materials and fixed equipment incorporated into

the building or other structure.

Live Loads are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other

structure and do not include dead loads, construction load, or environmental load such as

wind load, earthquake and fluid load.

A. REQUIRED STRENGTH (LOAD COMBINATIONS)

U = 1.4(D + F)

U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or R)

1-10

My Notes

SECTION 1

U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or R) + (1.0L + 0.80W)

U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or R)

U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L

U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.0L

U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

Where:

D

F

T

L

H

Lr

W

E

Dead loads

load due to weight and pressures of fluids

cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement

and shrinkage compensating concrete

live load

weight and pressure of soil

roof live loads

wind load

earthquake load

= Eh + Ev

Strength Condition

Tension-controlled section

Compression-controlled section

Members with spiral reinforcement

Other reinforced members

Shear and torsion

Bearing on concrete

Post-tensioned anchorage zones

Strut-and-tie models

0.90

0.70

0.65

0.75

0.65

0.85

0.75

Design the determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular

structure so that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely

withstand the influences that will act on it throughout its useful life.

1. The internal forces, such as bending moments, shear forces, and normal and shear

stresses, at any section of a member are in equilibrium with the effects of the external

loads at that section.

2. The strain in an embedded reinforcing bar is the same as that of surrounding concrete.

3. Cross sections that were plane prior to loading continue to be plane in the member under

load.

4. Concrete is assumed not capable of resisting any tension stress.

5. The theory is based on the actual-stress-strain relationship and strength properties of the

two constituent materials

Equilibrium of Forces and Compatibility of strains

1-11

My Notes

SECTION 1

Computation of strength of a member or cross-section by the Strength Design Method requires

that two basic conditions be satisfied: (1) Static equilibrium and (2) Compatibility of strain.

The first condition requires that the compressive and tensile forces acting on the cross-section at

ultimate strength be in equilibrium, and the second condition requires that compatibility between

the strains in the concrete and the reinforcement at ultimate condition must also be satisfied

within the design assumptions permitted by the code.

Design Assumption #1

Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the

distance from the neutral axis.

In other words, plane sections normal to the axis of bending are assumed to remain plane after

bending. The assumed strain conditions at ultimate strength of a rectangular and circular are

illustrated below. Both the strain in the reinforcement and in the concrete are directly proportional

to the distance from the neutral axis. This assumption is valid over the full range of loading zero

to ultimate. As shown in the figure, this assumption is of primary importance in design for

determining the strain (and the corresponding stress) in the reinforcement.

Design Assumption #2

Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber shall be assumed equal

to u = 0.003.

1-12

My Notes

SECTION 1

The maximum concrete compressive strain at crushing of concrete has been measured in many

tests of both plain and reinforced concrete members. The test results from a series of reinforced

concrete beams and columns specimen indicate that the maximum concrete compressive strain

varies from 0.003 to as high as 0.008. However, the maximum strain for practical cases is 0.003

to 0.004. Though the maximum strain decrease with increasing compressive strength, the 0.003

value allowed for design is reasonably conservative. The code of some countries specifies a

value of 0.0035 for design, which makes little difference in the computed length strength of a

member.

Design Assumption #3

Stress in reinforcement fs shall be taken as Es times strain s. for strain greater than

fy/Es, stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy.

For deformed reinforcement, it is reasonably accurate to assume that below the yield stress, the

stress in the reinforcement is proportional to strain (Hookes Law). For practical design, the

increase in the strength due to the effect of strain hardening of the reinforcement is neglected for

strength computation. See figure below.

The force developed in the tensile or compressive reinforcement is a function of the strain in the

reinforcement s, such that:

when s y (yield strain):

fs = Es s

As fs = As Es s

when s y:

fs = Es y = fy

As fs = As fy

1-13

My Notes

SECTION 1

where s is the value from the strain diagram at the location of reinforcement. For design, the

modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement, Es, is taken as 200,000 MPa (29, 000, 000 psi).

Design Assumption #4

Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in flexural calculations of reinforced

concrete.

The tensile strength of concrete in flexure, known as the modulus of rupture, is a more variable

property than the compressive strength, and is about 8% to 12% of the compressive strength.

The generally acceptable value is 7.5 f ' c for normal weight concrete. This tensile strength

in flexure is neglected in strength design. For practical percentages of reinforcement, the resulting

computed strengths are in good agreement with test results. For very small percentages of

reinforcement, neglecting the tensile strength of concrete is conservative. It should be realized,

however, that the strength of concrete in tension is important in cracking and deflection

(serviceability) considerations.

Design Assumption #5

Relationship between compressive stress distribution and concrete strain shall be

assumed to be rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any shape that results in

prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive test.

This assumption recognizes the inelastic stress distribution in concrete at high stresses. As

maximum stress is approached, the stress-strain relationship of concrete is not a straight line

(stress is not proportional to strain). The general stress-strain behaviour of concrete is shown

below.

The shape of the curves is primarily a function of concrete strength and consists of the rising

curve from zero stress to a maximum at compressive strain between 0.0015 and 0.002., followed

by descending curve to an ultimate strain (corresponding to crushing of concrete) varying from

1-14

My Notes

SECTION 1

0.003 to as high as 0.008. As discussed in Design Assumption #2, the code sets the maximum

usable strain at 0.003 for design.

Design Assumption #6

Requirements of Design Assumption #5 may be considered satisfied by an equivalent

rectangular concrete stress distribution defined as follows: A concrete stress of 0.85fc

shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded

by edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at a

distance a=1c from the fiber of maximum compressive strain. Distance c from the fiber

of maximum compressive strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a direction

perpendicular to that axis. Fraction 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for strengths fc up to 4000

psi (28 MPa) and shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi (7

MPa) of strength in excess of 4000 psi, but 1 shall not be less than 0.85.

1-15

My Notes

SECTION 1

The code allows the use of rectangular compressive stress block to replace the more exact stress

distribution. The equivalent rectangular stress block assumes a uniform stress of 0.85fc over a

depth a=1c. The constant 1 is equal to concrete with fc 4000 psi (28 MPa) and reduces by

0.05 for each additional 1000 psi (7 MPa) of fc in excess of 4000 psi. For high strength

concretes, above 8000 psi, a lower limit of 0.65 is placed on the 1 factor. Variation in 1 vs.

concrete strength fc is shown below.

Strength Factor 1

1-16

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