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AISI 4140 Alloy Steel (UNS G41400)

AISI 4140 Alloy Steel (UNS G41400)


Written by AZoM

Sep 7 2012

Topics Covered
Introduction
Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Other Designations
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Machinability
Forming
Welding
Heat Treatment
Forging
Hot Working
Cold Working
Annealing
Tempering
Hardening

Introduction
Alloy steels are designated by AISI four-digit numbers. They comprise different kinds of
steels having composition exceeding the limitations of B, C, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si, Cr, and Va
set for carbon steels.
AISI 4140 alloy steel is chromium, molybdenum, manganese containing low alloy steel.
It has high fatigue strength, abrasion and impact resistance, toughness, and torsional
strength. The following datasheet gives an overview of AISI 4140 alloy steel.

Chemical Composition
The following table shows the chemical composition of AISI 4140 alloy steel.

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AISI 4140 Alloy Steel (UNS G41400)

Element

Content (%)

Iron, Fe

96.785 - 97.77

Chromium, Cr

0.80 - 1.10

Manganese, Mn

0.75 - 1.0

Carbon, C

0.380 - 0.430

Silicon, Si

0.15 - 0.30

Molybdenum, Mo

0.15 - 0.25

Sulfur, S

0.040

Phosphorous, P

0.035

Physical Properties
The physical properties of AISI 4140 alloy steel are highlighted in the following table.
Properties
Density
Melting point

Metric

Imperial

7.85 g/cm3

0.284 lb/in

1416C

2580F

Mechanical Properties
The following table outlines the mechanical properties of AISI 4140 alloy steel.
Properties
Tensile strength
Yield strength
Bulk modulus (typical for steel)
Shear modulus (typical for steel)

Metric Imperial
655
MPa
415
MPa
140
GPa

210
GPa

Poisson's ratio
Elongation at break (in 50 mm)

60200 psi
20300 ksi

80 GPa11600 ksi
190-

Elastic modulus

95000 psi

0.270.30

2755730458 ksi
0.27-0.30

25.70% 25.70%

Hardness, Brinell

197

197

Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness)

219

219

Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness)

92

92

13

13

Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below


normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only)
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AISI 4140 Alloy Steel (UNS G41400)

Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness)

207

207

Machinability (based on AISI 1212 as 100 machinability)

65

65

Thermal Properties
The thermal properties of AISI 4140 alloy steel are given in the following table.
Properties

Metric

Imperial

Thermal expansion co-efficient (@ 0-100C/32-212F)12.2 m/mC


Thermal conductivity (@ 100C)

6.78 in/inF

42.6 W/mK 296 BTU in/hr.ft.F

Other Designations
Other designations equivalent to AISI 4140 alloy steel are listed in the following table.
AMS 6349

ASTM A193 (B7, B7M)

ASTM A506 (4140)

ASTM A752 (4140)

AMS 6381

ASTM A194 (7, 7M)

ASTM A513

ASTM A829

AMS 6382

ASTM A29 (4140)

ASTM A513 (4140)

SAE J1397 (4140)

AMS 6390

ASTM A320 (L7, L7M, L7D)

ASTM A519 (4140)

SAE J404 (4140)

AMS 6395

ASTM A322 (4140)

ASTM A646 (4140)

SAE J412 (4140)

AMS 6529

ASTM A331 (4140)

ASTM A711

Fabrication and Heat Treatment


Machinability
AISI 4140 alloy steel has good machinability in the annealed condition.

Forming
AISI 4140 alloy steel has high ductility. It can be formed using conventional techniques
in the annealed condition. It requires more pressure or force for forming because it is
tougher than plain carbon steels.

Welding
AISI 4140 alloy steel can be welded using all conventional techniques. However, the
mechanical properties of this steel will be affected if it is welded in the heat treated
condition, and post weld heat treatment should be performed.

Heat Treatment
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AISI 4140 Alloy Steel (UNS G41400)

AISI 4140 alloy steel is heated at 845C (1550F) followed by quenching in oil. Before
hardening, it can be normalized by heating at 913C (1675F) for a long period of time
followed by air cooling.

Forging
AISI 4140 alloy steel is forged at 926 to 1205C (1700 to 2200F)

Hot Working
AISI 4140 alloy steel can be hot worked at 816 to 1038C (1500 to 1900F)

Cold Working
AISI 4140 alloy steel can be cold worked using conventional methods in the annealed
condition.

Annealing
AISI 4140 alloy steel is annealed at 872C (1600F) followed by slowly cooling in the
furnace.

Tempering
AISI 4140 alloy steel can be tempered at 205 to 649C (400 to 1200F) depending
upon the desired hardness level. The hardness of the steel can be increased if it has
lower tempering temperature. For example, tensile strength of 225 ksi cab be achieved
by tempering at 316C (600F), and a tensile strength of 130 ksi can be achieved by
tempering at 538C (1000F).

Hardening
AISI 4140 alloy steel can be hardened by cold working, or heating and quenching.

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