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CoUege of Engineering and Architecture

Baguio Colleges Foundation 1980-1988
First and lone graduate of B.S. Architecture, 1963
North of Manila, St. Louis University Baguio City
Former instructor 1965-1969 at St. Louis University
Recipient of various ACE certificates, Architects Continl'ir
Education Program
A licensed Architect, active practitioner and
a licensed building constructor, inventor and a board topnotcher.
Past president of United Architects Phils. Baguio Chapter 1982 and 1983
Elected National Director; UAP, Regional District' for the year 1987.
Conferred the title of "FELLOW" United Architects Phils.
College of Fellows, October, 1988


388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City

Copyright. 1986 bv:


All rights reserved.
No pen of this book may be reproduced in an~
manner without permission of the publish8f.

ISBN : . 971 -11-0353-2
Published and Printed by:
388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City

Distributed by:
Main Office : Rizal Avenue, Manila
P. 0. Box 2942, Manila


A generation ago, the concept of management as a component of professional design practice was virtually unheard of . A building begins as a conception in the mind of its architect.
The conception must be elaborated in his drawing office adapted to practical considerations
and then conveyed to a number of people who will cooperate in tha erection of the building.
This book is intended as a referenc~ for all managers of design practice, whether they be
professional architects or engineers who have assumed management roles in their firms. or
trained managers who have choeen to apply their skills in design firms.
It is also hoped that it may find its ways into the education of the increasing number of
graduates who will be future architects and engineers and who are wisely choosing to add
management degrees to that preparation for practice .
For the students, this book was prepared and organized to meet the new curriculum and the
syllabus prepared by the Ministry of Education. It is divided into three parts. The First part
dealing on all 'the laws pertaining t<' labor, civil, bu1ld1ng laws. t~re codes. law on the practice of architecture, the purpose of which is to inculcate upon the student, the legal obliga
tions, duties and responsibilities ot the ArcnJtect. To give the student sutt1C1ent mastery m
using the building code, and other laws refated to land development and h;man settlements.
To give the student an understanding of building contracts and duties ot a building inspector. The second part deals with the Administering the regular services of the Architect. Here
the student is provided with the basic re(luirements of how the architect can fulfill the role of
a responsible professional. He is provided w ith tools in efficient conduct of client relations.
The students is also provided w ith the background knowledge in properly administering the
product ion of documents for building designs and construction projects.

Part Three is geared towards the comprehensive Services of the architect. The subject matters are arranged to provide the student with further knowledge of the architect's broaqer
role in practice. He is given basic skills and techniques in project management. Another purpose is to e(luip the student with basic tools in resource allocation competence in inter-professional coordination necessary for the fulfillment of comprehensive services of the architect.
As for students of civil engineering, the third part is greatly recommended as it deals with
constructive management, preparing Feasibility Studies, the planning and scheduling of
construction work or pert-cpm, the specification writinq and most important of all. the oro
cedure in letting out or joining a Bid in Construction.


This book was finished on time through the very patient and sincere hardworking efforts of
the artist and graduate of architecture, BCF, Mr. Jerry Jun Suyat.
Special thanks are also acknowledged to Clamor Lecitona from NU who laid out the cover
design. To Johny Camsol, Fermin D. Balangcod, Roy Pagador, Rey Puno, Jeffrey Behis,
Renato Sy from BCF who in some way or the other helped in the preparation of this book.
To Mr. Luis V. Canave who patiently guided me on the complete process of publishing and
printing of books and to Mr. Francisco C. Malicsi, Teresita G. Espinoza, Eduardo C.
Villanueva, in their untiring cooperation in preparing the manuscripts and layouts as typewritten by Thelma T. Villareal in computerized typesetting. My utmost thanks also goes to
Architect Raffy Chan for lending his books, and to Mrs. Macabiog our BCF Librarian for her
And to the many students whose prodding and interest in the publication of this book made
it a reality.

Dedicated to all future

Architects and Engineers
The hope for a functional, comfortable
and convenient designs for better living~


PROFESSIONAL REGULATORY LAWS ..... ... .. ... .......... ... ... .. .

Republic Act 545, 2
Presidential Decree 223, 15
LOI 1000, 19
Rules and Regulations, 20
Policies and Resolutions, 28
Logbook, 32
Agencies involved in Shelter, 31








Implementing Rules and Regulations, 44

Building Permit Applications, 44
Processing of Applications for Building Permit, 52
Assessment and Collection of Fees, 57
Signs, 61
Arcades and Sidewalks, 69
Abatement/Demolition of buildings, 75
Access Streets/Roads and Alleys, 80
Occupant Loads, 83
Protection and Safety Requirements for Construction
and Demolition, 84
Light and Ventiiation, 103
Construction of Building with Zones of Airports, 114
Maximum Heights of Buildings, 118
Parking and Loading Space R'equirements, 121
Guidelines in the design of Public Buildings, 125


Conditions of Employment, 128

Implementing Regulations, 131
Night Shift Differential, 133
Weekly Rest Period , 134
Weekly with Pay, 136
Service Incentive Leave, 138
Thirteenth Month Pay, 138
Medicare Law, 142
Social Security Law, 153

Part 1
Part 2
Rule 1
Rule 2
Rule 3
Div. 3
Div . 4


Provisions on Fire Safety Construction, 158

Rules and Regulations implementing the Fire Code, 159
General Provisions, 159.
General Precautions against Fire, 160
Fire Safety in Buildings, 161
Classification of Occupancy, 162
Means of Egress, 164


Sec. 3.401
Sec. 3.402
Sec. 3.403
Sec. 3.404
Sec. 3 .406
Sec. 3.407
Sec. 3.408
Sec. 3.409
Sec. 3.410
Sec. 411

Div. 5


Protective Enclosure of Exits, 164

Doors, 169
Interior Stairs and Smoke-proof Towers, 172
Outside Stairs, 174
Exit Passageway, 179
Escalators and Moving Walks, 179
Fire Escape, Stairs, Ladders, 180
Illumination of Means of Engress, 184
Exit Marking, 185
Features of Fire Protection, 186


CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES .............. ..... ....... ..... ....... ... . 189
Obligations, 190
Contracts, 194
Liability of the Architect Art. 1723, 203




Objectives, 207
Types of Membership, 208
Architectural Continuing Education, 211












OF COMPENSATION .... ....... ...... .. .. .... ... ... .... .. .. ... ... .. .... ... ... .. .. 221
PROJECT CLASSIFICATION .............. ... ... ... .. ... .. ... ......... ........ . 231
Pre-Design Services, 238
Regular Design Services, 240
Owner's Responsibilities, 242
Conditions on Services, 242
Specialized Allied Services, 245

ORGANIZING THE ARCHITECT'S OFFICE .. .. ... . ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 253

Office Organization, 2.54
Office Location, 258
Office Personnel, 264
Consultants, 271
References and Samples, 275
Finances and Insurance, 279
Public Relations, 291
Business Aspects of Professionals Practice, 296



MARKETING ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES ... ..... ... ........... ..... ... 301
Market Research, 304

List Building, 305

Bird-dogging, 305
Strategy Research, 306
Courting, 308
Paperwork, 310
Interviews, 316
Closing, 321



OWNER AND ARCHITECT CONTRACT FORM ..................... 323



FULL TIME SUPERVISION .................................................... .$31

Construction Management . . . . . . . . . .. ... .... ...... ........... ................. 337



COMPREHENSIVE ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . 341

Project Management . ... ... ........... ....................................... 343



POST-CONSTRUCTION SERVICES ............ ............... ... . . ..... ..


Building Equipment Maintenance, 350

Building and Grounds Administration, 350
Post Construction Evaluation, 350
Technical Functions of Building Admi~istration, 35l



DESIGN BUILD SERVICES.......... . ................ . .............. ......

By Administration, 356


By Guaranteed Maximum Cost, 357



SELECTION OF THE CONTRACTOR ..................................... 359

Different Types of Contracts .. . .. . .. .. . . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ... .. .. ... .. .. 360







AWARDING THE CONTRACT ................................................ 371


GENERAL CONDITIONS OF A CONTRACT .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. ... . ... .. .. 3n


Prequalifying the Bidders, 366

Invitation to Prequalify, 367
Prequalification Documents, 368
Processing of Prequalification Statements, 369
Notification of Selected Bidders, 369

Invitation to Bid, 372

Proposal Form, 372
Preparation of Bids, Bid Bond, 374
Submission, Opening of Bids, 374
Evaluating of Contracts, 375

Change Orders, 378

Advance Payment, 378
Progress Payment, 378
Retention Money, 378
LiQuidated Damage, 378


Contract Price Escalation, 379

Payments, 380
Format of Application for Payment, 383
Shop Drawings, 391
Permits, Licenses, 391
Construction Stakes, 391
Temporary Structures and Facilities, 391
Laying Out the Work, 393
Inspection of Work, 393
Defective Work, 394
Changes in the Work, 394
Value of Extra Work, 394

Claims for Extra Cost, 394

Cleaning Up, 394
Disputes, 395
Arbitration, 395






AND CONTRACTOR ... . .. .. ... .... ... .. ... . .. .. ......... ........ .. .. ... ........... 3fJ7


...... ... .. ..... ...... 403

Bar Chart Method, 404

Critical Path Method CPM, 409




FEASIBILITY STUDIES........ .... .. ... ... ..... .. .. .. ........ .. .. ................. . 425


SPECIFICATIONS WRITING .. ....... .. .. ........ ......... ..... .. ........... .. . 447

Preliminary Project Study, 426

Subdivision Project Study, 428
Financing Requirements, 443

Three part Section Format, 450

Groupings of Paragraphs, 451
Part 1 General, 451

Part 2 Products, 454

Part 3 Execution, 454
Outline of a Specification, 460



Regulatory laws
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representative of the Philippin~s.

SECTION 1. Creation and composition of a Board of Examiners for Architects. -Within
thirty da~ after the approval of this Act, there shall be created a Board of Examiners
for Architects to be composed of a Chairman and two members to be appointed by the
Secretary of Public Works and Communications.

SEC. 2 . PoweNJ vested in Board. -

The Soard of Examiners fOf Architects shall

administer the provisions of this Act; issue, suspend or revoke certificates of registra
tion for the practice of architecture; and administer oaths in connection with such cer
tificates of registration.
In carrying into effect the provisions of this Act, the Board may, under the hand of its
Chairman and the seal of the Board, subpoena witnesses. compel their attendance,
and require the production of books, documents , and similar evidence in a case involving violation of any of the provisions of this Act. Any member of the Board may ad
minister oaths or affirmations to witnesses appearing before it. If any person shall
refuse to obey any subpoena so issued, or shall refuse to testify or produce any book,
document, etc., the Board may present its petition to the Court of First Instance, set
ting forth the facts, and thereupon such court shall, in a proper case, issue its subpoena to such person, requiring his appearance before such court and there to testify
or produce such books, papers, documents, etc., as may be deemed necessary and
pertinent by the Board. Any person failing or refusing to obey the subpoena or order of
the said court may be proceeded against in the same manner as for refusal to obey any
other subpoena or order of the said court.
The Board shall, from time to time, look into conditions affecting the practice of ar
chitecture in the Philippines and, whenever necessary, recommend to the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications ttw adoption of such measures as may be deerned
proper for the maintenance of good ethics and standards in the practice of architecture
in the Philippines and for the protectiOJ1 of public welfare, life, health, and property.

SEC. 3. Quaeiflcations of Board Members. - Each Member of the Board shall, at the time
of hls appointment:
( 1) Be a citizen of the Philippines and a resident thereof;

(2) Hold the degree of B.S . Arch., B. in Arch ., M . in. Arch., or the equivalent thereof
conferred by an Architectural School or college legally chartered and of good
standing ;
(3) Be legally ed to practice architecture tor at least ten years and actually in
active practice .on t he date of his appointment ;
(4~ Not be a member of the faculty of any school, college or university where a
regular course in .architecture is taught, nor have pecuniary interest in such institution. No former member of the faculty of any school, institute or university
where architecture is taught can become a member of the board unless he had
stopped teaching f or at IE:!ast three consecut ive years.

SEC. 4 . Terms of Office . - The members of the Board shall hold office f or a t erm of three
years after appointm ent or until their successor's shall h~we duly qualified. The
members of the Board first appointed under this Act shall hold office for tM following
terms: One member for one year; one member for two years; and one m ember for
three years. Each member of the Board shall qualify by taking the proper oath prior to
entering upon the performance of his duties.
SEC. 5. Executive Officer of the Board. - The Commissioner of Civil Service shall be the
Executive OHicer of the Board , and shall conduct t he examinations given by t he Board
and shall designate any subordinate officer cf the Bureau of Civil Service to act as
Secretary of the Board. All records and m inutes of t he Bo ard , includi ng oil examination
papers, shall be kept by the Bureau of Civil Service .
SEC. 6. Vacancy and Removal of Board Members. - Any vacancy occ uring in the
membership of said Board before the expiration of the term of office of the member
separated therefrom shall be filled for the unexpired term by appointment by the
Secretary of Public Works and Communications . The Secretary of Public Works and
Communications m ay remove any member of the Board for continued neglect of duty
or incompetency , or f or unprofessional or dishonorable conduct, after having given
the member concerned an opportunity to d ef end in the proper administrative investigation.
SEC. 7. Compensation of Board. - The members of the Board shall each receive a compensation the sum of five pesos for each applicant examined or registered. Any Architect in the service of the government of the Republic appointed as m ember of the
Board shall receive the compensation herein provided, in addition to his salary. All fees
shall be received by the disbursing officer of the Bureau of Civil Service, and such officer shall pay all authorized expenditures of the Board, including the compensation
provided for by this A ct for members of the Board.
SEC. 8. Rules and Regulations. - The Board may, w i1h the approv al of the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications, adopt 5uch rules and regulation s, as may be
necessary to carry out t he provisions of this A ct into effect. Penal provisions may be
included in said regulations, the violation of which shall be punishable by a fine of not
less than five hundred pesos nor more than one thousand pesos or by Imprisonment
for not less than six months, nor more than one year, or both, in the discretion of the
SEC. 9. Annual RepOrt. - The Board shall submit an annual report to the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications after the close of each fiscal year giving a detailed
account of its proceedings during the year and making such recommendations as it
may deem proper.

SEC. 1 0. Roster of Architects. - A roster showing the names and places of business of
all registered professional architects shall be prepared by the Commissioner of Civil Service
during the month of July of every year. commencing one year after the date this Act
becomes effective. Copies of this roster shall be mailed to each person so registered and
placed on file with the Secretary of Public Works and Communications and, copies thereof
shall be furnished to all department heads, to the Collector of Customs. to such other
Bureaus or government agencies, to the mayors of all chartered cities, to the Director of
Public Works and provincial and municipal authorities as may be deemed necessary and to
the public upon request.



SEC. 11. Certlflcat of Rttglatratlon. - Whenever the provisions and requirements for
registration under the provisions of this Act have been fully complied with and fulfilled
by an applicant, the Board shall issue a certificate of registration of said successful applicant as registered architect. Said certificate shall authorize the person to whom it is
issued to practice architecture in this country, subject to the provisions of this Act and
the Rules and Regulations of the Board.
SEC. 12. Registration of Architects Required. - In order to safeguard life, health and
property, no person shall practice architecture in this country, or engaged in preparing
plans, specifications or preliminary data for the erection or alteration of any building
located within the boundaries of this country, except in this last case when he is a duly
registered civil engineer, or use the title "Architect", or display or use any title, sign,
card, advertisement, or other device to indicate that such person practices or offers to
practice architecture, or is an architect, unless such person shall have secured from.
the examining body a certificate of registration in. the manner hereinafter provided, and
shall thereafter comply with the provisions of the laws of the Philippines governing the
registration and licensing of architects.
SEC. 14. Definition of Tenna ..
a) An architect defined. - An architect is: A person who is technically and legally qualified to practice architecture.
b) Who may be known as an architect or practice architecture. - Only those who
have qualrtied and received a certificate of registration issued by the Board
shall be permitted to practice architecture within the Republic of the Philippines, or to use titfe of Architect" or any words, letters, figures. signs,
cards, or other means to indicate that the one using them is an architect, or to
advertise or indicate in any manner whatever that they are qualified to perform
the work of an architect.
cl General practice of architecture. - The practice of architecture is hereby
defined to be: The act of planning, architectural and structural designing,
specifying, supervising, and giving general administration and responsible
direction to the erectjon, enlargement or alterations of buildings and architectural design of engineering structures or any part thereof, the scientific,
aesthetic and orderly coordination of all the processes which enter into the
production of a complete building or structure performedthrough the medium
of unbiased preliminary studies of plans, consultations, specifications, conferences, evaluations, investigations, contract documents and oral advice and
directions regardless of whether the persons engaged in such practice are
residents of the Philippines or have their principal office or place of business in
this or another country, and regardless of whether such persons are perform-

ing one of all these duties, or whether such duties are performed in person or
as the directing head of an office or organization performing them.
d) Authorship defined. - The author or authors of a set of plans or specifics
tions are those in responsible charge of their preparation, whether made by
them personally or under their immediate supervision.
SEC. 16. Archi1ects regfstereG when this taw is passed. - All architects registered at the
time this law take effect shall automatically be registered under the provisions thereof,
subject, however, to the provisions herein set forth as to future requirements.
Certificate of registration held by such persons in good standing shall have the same
force and effect as thought issued after the passage of this Act.
SEC. 16.

Exemption From Registration

1 . Any person residing in the PhJiippines may make plans and specifications for any of
the following:
a} Any building in chartered cities or in municipalities with building ordinances,
not exceeding the space requirement specified therein, as requiring the services of an architect.

b) Any building enlargement or alteration which is to be used for farm purpose only costing not more than ten thousand pesos.
c) Provided, however, That nothing herein contained shall :prevent any person
from designing or directing the designing of buildings that are to be constructed for his own personal use or for tnat of his family, unless such buildings
are intended for public employment, assembly or other occupancy by the
public, in which case an architect shall be employed-for the purpose: And provided, further, that such person does not use the title architect or any title
derived therefrom.
2. Nor shall anything in this Act prevent draftsmen, students, clerks-of-work,
superintendents and other employees of those lawfully engaged in the practice of
architecture under the provisions of this A ct, from acting under the instruction,
control or supervision of their employer.
3. Nor shall anything in this Act prevent pr:of essional civil, mechanical, electrical,
min~ng and chemical engineers duty licensed or registered to practice their profession: Provided, however, such persons do not use the designation "Architect"
4. Nor shall anything in this Act prevent persons, who prior to the approval of this
Act, have been lawfully engaged in the practice of "Maestro de Obras" to continue as such, provid~d they shall not undertake the making of plans and supervision for the following classes of work:

Building of concrete whether reinforced or not.

Building of more than two stories.
Building with frames of structural steel
Building of structures intended for public gathering or assemblies such as
theaters, cinematographs, stadta, churches, or the structures of like nature.

5. Officers and enlisted men of the Armed Forces of the United States and the Philippines, and civilian officials and employees of the Government of the United States
stationed in the Philippines, while engaged in lhe practice of Architecture for the
United States and/or the Philippines .
6. Architects employed by or under contract with the government as experts, ad-

visers or consultants, shall be given temporary license after submitting the

necessary credentials and subject to the approval of the Board , for a period not to
exceed six months. subject to renewals for a like period until his contract with the
Government expires . Architl;lcts . shall not be allowed , it licensed in such capacity,
to dedicate themselves to the private practice of architecture nor charge fees for
services rendered except those received from the Government .
SEC . 1.7 . Examination Required. - Except as otherwise specifically allowed, all
applicants for registration for the practice of architecture shall be required to undergo
a technical examination as provided in th1s Act .
SEC. 18 . Qualifications of applicants for Examination and for a certificate of registration
as architect shall, prior to admission to examination, establish to the satisfaction of
the Board:
al That he is at least twenty-one years of age;
b) That he is of good reputat ion and moral character;

cl That he has completed the high school course or its equivalent;

d) That he is a graduate of a five -year cour se in architecture . or its equivalent of a
school. college, academy, or institute duly recognized by the Government and in
<1ddition has a specific record of at least two y ears of diversified experience as ar
chitectural draftsman. clerk-of-work, specification writer or .superintendent: Provided, however, that an applicant holding a Master's degree in Architecture from ~
schooL college, university or institute recognized by the Government or th:
Government or the state in which it is established, shall b e credited one year in his
practical experience.
SEC. 19 . Fraudu~nt App\\cations.- The Soard may refuse to renew, or may suspend or
revoke. any certificate or registration obtained by false swearing or any misrepresentations made in applying for registration or examination and may refuse to renew or
grant registration to any applicant whose application contains such fal se eviden<:;e or
SEC. 20. . Holding of Examination. - Examination for candidates desiring to practice
architecture in the Philippines. shall be given twice a year in the City of ~ a nila and
other places where conditions may warrant, on the second Mondays, Tuesdays, and
Wednesdays of January and July, provided such days do not fall on a holiday, in which
case the working day following will be the day of examination. Written or printed
notice of such examination shall be mailed to each applicant who has filed his name
and address with the Secretary of the Board, at least t hirty days prior to the first day
o'f examination
SEC. 21. Subjects of Examination. - The subjects in which applicants for architect's
certificate shall be examined including their relative weights and subject coverages to
take effect starting January, 1 988 as per PAC Circular 85-13.
SEC. 22. Report of Ratings. - The Board of E:xaminers for Architect s shall, within one
hundred and twenty days after the date of completion of the examination, report the
rating obtained by each candidate to the Commissioner of Civil Service, who shall
submit such ratings to the Secretary of Public W orks and Communications tor
SEC. 23.

Reexamination. - An applicant who for the third time fails to pass the examina-

tion for the same grade shall not be allowed to take another until at least one year has

elapsed after his examinati.on.

SEC. 24. Issuance of Certificates. - The Secretary of Public Works and Communica. tions shall, upon recommendation of the board, issue a certificate of registration upon
payment of the registration tee as provid ed in this Act to any applicant who, in the
opinion of the Board and after approval by the Secretary of Public Works and Communications, has satisfactorily met all the requirements specified in this Act.
All certificates of registration shall show the full name of the registrant, shall have a
serial number, and shall be siQned by all the members of the Board, the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications and the Commissioner of Civil Service . and shall be
attested by the official seal of the same Board.
The issuance of a certificate of registration by the Board to a registrant shall be
evidenced that the person named therein is entitled to all the rights and privileges of a
registered architect, while said certificate remains unrevoked and unsuspended.

SEC. 25.

Seal and Use of Seat

1) Each registrant hereunder shall, upon registration, obtain a seal of such design as

the examining body shall authorize and direct. Plans and specifications prepared
by, or under the direct supervision of a registered architect shall be stamped with
sald seal during the lifP, of the registrant 's certificate, and it shall be unlaw ful for
any one to stamp or seal any documents wi1h said seal after the certificate of the
registrant named thereon has expired or has been revoked . unless said ce rtificat es
shall have been renewed or reissued .
2) No officer or employee of this Republic. chartered cities, provinces and
municipalities, now or hereafter charged with the enforcement of laws, ordinances
or regulations relating to the construction or alterations of buildings, shall accept
or approve any plans or specifications which have not been prepared and suiJmitted in full accords with all the provisions of this Act. Nor shall any payment be approved by any such officer for any work, the plans and specifica-tions for which
have not been so prepared and signed and sealed by the author.
3) Signing of plans, specifications and other documents. - It shall be unlawful for
any architect to sign his name, affix his seal , or use any other method of signature
on plans, specifications or other documents made under anoth"'r architect's supervision, unless the same is made in such manner as to clearly indicate the part or
parts of such work actually performed by the former; and it shall be unlawful for
any person, except the architect in charge, shall be fully responsible for ali plans,
specifications, and other documents issued under his seal or authorized signature.
The Board shall make all necessary rules and regulations relating to signing and
sealing of drawings, specifications, reports. and other documents registered by architects.
4) Drawings and specifications duly signed, stamped or sealed, as instruments of service, are the property and documents of the architect, whether the object for
which they are made is executed or not. It shall be unlawful for any person,
without the written consent of the architect or author of said documents, to
duplicate or to make copies of said documents for use in the repetit ion of and for
other projects or buildings, whether executed partly or in whole.

SEC. 26. fees for Examination and Registration. - For the purpose of defraying the expenses of said Board for carrying out the provisions of this Act, the follow ing fee s shall
be paid to t he Secretary of the,Board:
a) By an applicant to an examination, forty pesos.
b) By an applicant for a Certificate of Registration as a registered architect , ten pesos .
cl By an applicant f or reinstatement or restoration of registration that has been volunfarily surrendered, revoked or suspended, or for replacement of lost certificate, ten
All of the above fees shall acco~pany the application . and no part o f said fee shall be

SEC. 27 . Refusal to issue ceftificate. - The Board ot Exam1ners tor Architects shall
refuse to issue or renew a Certifica te of regis tration to any person convicted by a court
of competent jurisdiction of any criminal offense involving moral turp1tude or to any
person guilty of immoral or dishonorable conduct or to any person of unsound mind. In
the event of refusal to issue certificates far any reason, the Board shall give t he applicant a written statement setting forth the reasons for such ac t 1on. which statement
shall be incorporated in the record of the Board.

SEC. 28 . Suspension and revocation of Certificates - The Board shall have the power.
upon notice and hearing . to suspend and revoke any certificate of registration of any
registrant for any cause specified in the preceding section . or for the use of perpetration o f any fr aud o r deceit in obtairing a certificate of registrat ion, or for gross
negligence or incompetency or for unprofessional or dishonorable co nduct: Provided,
however . that such action of the Board shall be subject to appeal t o the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications whose decision shall be fin al.
It shall be sufficient ground for the revocation of a certificate issued to a person under
this Act for unprofessional o r dishonorable conduct, if:
a} He has signed, and affixed or permitted to be signed or affixed h is name or sealon
any plans. designs, specifications. drawings, technical reports, valuation,
estimate, or other similar documents or work not prepared by him , or not executed
under his immediate supervision. or
b) He has paid money except the regular fees provided for , to secure a certificate of
registration; or
c) Has falsely impersonated a practitioner, or former practitioner of a like or different
name, or has practiced under an assumed , fictitious or corporate name other t han
that of the registered;
dl Has aided or abetted in the practice of architecture any person not duly authorized
to practice architecture in the Philippines.
Any person, firm or association, may prefer charges in accordance wittl the pro visions
of this section against any registrant, or the Board may motu proprio investigate
and/or take cognizance of acts and practices constituting sufficient cause for suspension or revocation of the certificat e of registration by proper resolution or order. Such
charges shall
in writing and shall be sworn to by the person making them and shall
be filed with the secretary of the ~oard .


SEC. 29. Reissue of Revoked or Suspended Certificates and replacement of lost

certificates. - The Board may, after the expiration of one year from the date of
revocation or suspension of a certificate for reasons it may deem sufficient, entertain
an application for a new certificate of registration ~rom a person whose certificate has
been revoked or suspended , and, in doing so it may, in its discretion, exempt the applicant from the necessity of undergoing an examination. It may also replace certificates
which have been lost.


SEC. 30. Prohibitions in the practice of Architecture. - Any person who shall practice or
offer to practice architecture in the Philippines without being registered or exempted
from registration in accordance with the provisions of this Act, or any person presenting or attempting to use as his own the certificate of registration or seal of another, or
any person w ho shaH give any false or forged evidence of any kind to the Board or to
any member thereof in obtaining a certificate of registration or seal of another, or any
person who shall falsely impersonate any registr-ant of like or different name, or any
person who shall attempt to use a revoked or suspended certificate of registration or
any person who shall use in connection with his name or otherwise assume, use or
adve rtise any t itle or description tending to convey the impression that he is an architect when he is not an architect, or any person who shall _violate any of the provisions of this Act, shall be guilty of misdemeanor and shall upon conviction, be
sentenced to a f ine of not less than five hundred pesos nor more than one thousand
pesos or to suffer imprisonment for a period .not exceeding three months, or both, in
the discretion of the Court.
SEC. 31. Non-registered parsons shall not claim equivalent service. - Persons not
registered in the Republic of the Philippines as architects shall not claim or represent
either services or work as equivalent to those of a duly qualified registered architect,
or that they are qualified for any branch or function of architectural practice, even
though no form of the title "Architect" is used.
SEC. 32. Liability of representative of Non-RegisteJed Persons. It shall be hereafter
unlawful for any person or firm or corporation to seek to avoid the provisions o1 this
Act by having a representative or employer and the employee shall be deemed guilty of
violation of this Act. Solicitat ion of architectural work shall be construed as offering
to practice architecture and it shall be unlawful for any but registered architects
to do so.
SEC. 33. Collection of Professional Fees. It shall be unlawful for any unregistered person
to collect a fee for architectural services except as an employee collecting a fee as
representative of Registered Architect.
SEC. 34. Corporations cannot Register. The practice of architecture is a professional
service, admission to which shall be determined upon the basis of individual, personal
qualifications. No firm, company, partnership, association or corporati-:>n may be
registered or licensed as such for the practice of archiiectur~ . but this section shall not
be construed as preventing such combin ations of individual persons from using the
term "Architect": Provided, That each member of the partnership, firm or association

is properly registered and licensed. Individual members of a partnership are responsible for his own act.
SEC. 35. Reciprocity requirements. - No person who is not a citizen of the Philippines at
the time he applies to take the examination shall be allowed to take it unless he can
prove in the manner provided by the Aules of Court that , by specific provision of law.
the. country' of which he is a citizen, subject, or national either admits citizens of the
Philippines to the practice of the same profession without restriction or allows them to
practice it after an examination on terms of strict and absolute equality with citizens,
subjects, or nationals of the country concerned, including the unconditional recognition of degrees issued by institutions of learning duly recognized for the purpose by
the Government of tne Philippines: Provided, that if he is not a citizen of the Philippmes, and was admitted to the practiCe ot a profession m the Philippines afte1
December 8. 1 941, his active practice in that profession either in the Philippines or in
the state or country where he was practicing his profession, shall not have been interrupted for a period of two years or more prior to July 4, 1946. and that the country or
state from which he comes allows the citizens of the Philippines by specific provisions
of taw, to practice the same profession without restriction or on terms of strict and absolute equality with citizens, subjects or nationals of the country or state concerned.
SEC . 36 . Enforcement of the Act by office of the Law. - It shall be the duty of all
constituted Officers of the taw of the National Government, of any provincial, city or
municipal government of any political subdivision thereof to prosecute any person
violating the provisions of this Act. The Secretary of Justice or any assistant duly
designated by the former shall act as legal assistance as may be necessary in carrying
out the provisions of this Act.
SEC. 37. Act not affecting other professions. - This Act shall not be construed to affect
or prevent the practice of any other legally recognized profession.
SEC. 38. Operation of decisions in judging any part of the Act Invalid. - If any clause
sentence, paragraph or part of this shall not affect, invalidate or impair any other part
of said Act, but shall b~ ~o nfin~d_ in its op~ration to the clause, sentence, phrase .
paragraph or part directlY anvoived in the controversy in which such judgement is
SEC. 39. Atl existing provisions of provincial, city or municipal ordinances or regulations
pertaining to examinations for architects , and all other laws, part of laws, orders, ordinances or regulations in conflict with the provisjons of this Act are hereby repealed.
SEC. 40.

This Act shalt take effect upon Its approval.

Approved, June 17, 1950.




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0---- - - - -

OFFICiAL GAZEiTE, VOL. 46, NO. 10 (pp. 4782 - 4792)-







ART. 59 (a) The practice of architecture shall constitute in holding out oneself as skilled in
the knowledge, art, science and practice of architecture, and as an architect; or offering ,
rendering , furnishing or contracting on a fee basis or otherwise, se rvices such as consultation and advice, teaching major architectural subjects, environmental site analysis;
physical planning, space planning, site planning, architectural and structural designing,
specifying, supervising, and giving general management, administration, coordination and
responsible direction to the designing, the construction, the erection, enlargement, or
alterations of buildings or structures intended for public or private use or complexes of
buildings , use utili zation and planning of the space within and the surrounding such
buildings or structures and their sites, and architectural design of engineering structures
or any part thereof; the scientific, aesthetic, and orderly coordination of all the processes
of safeguarding life, health and property which enter the production of a complete building
or structure, including all its components, and its en1irons performed in all of their phases
through the medium of comprehensive architectural services, such as technical,
economic, and f inancial feasibility studies, promotional services, operational program
ming, building programm ing, unbiased studies of plans, consultations, specifications
estimates, conferences, evaluations, investigatiofiS, contract documents, construction .
and project management, administration of construction, oral advise, and directions
regardless of whether the persons engaged in such practice are residents of the Philippines
or have their principal office or place of business in this or another country, and regardless
of whether such persons are performing any one or all of these duties.

An Architect shall be considered such in the practice of his profession, if the nature and
character of his employment whether as an officer or employee in a private enterprise or
. educational institution involves decision-making requiring professional knowledge in the
art and science
architecture, and such employment or position requires that the holder
thereof must be an architect; or if he holds or Is appointed to a position in the architectural
occupational group in the government or in government-owned or controlled corporations,
including those performing proprietary functions, where a civil service eligibilit y as an architect is a prerequisite.


b} An architect is a bonafide holder of a certificate of registration issued by the Board of

Architecture in accordance with this Code.
The author or authors of a set of plans or specif ications and other documents related to the
practice of the. profession are those in responsible charge of t heir preparation, whether
made by t hem personally or under their immediate supervision .
lt shalf be unlawful for any person, corporation , institution or agency to order, or cause the
design , construction, reconstruction, erection , addition or alteration to any building unless
all architectural designs, site planning, space planning and architectural details are
prepared by or prepared under the responsible charge of, and signed and sealed by a
registered architect.


ART. 60.

Suppletory to the general qualifications prescribed under Article 1 7 of this Code, an

applicant to the licensure examinations for the practice of architecture must, unless
modified ih accordance w ith this Code. h ave at lea st two years of diversified experience as
an architectural designer, draftsman, clerk-of-work. specification writer or superintendent,
duly certified by a practicing architect and endorsed by the university, college, institute or
school where he finished his course and favorably recommended by the duly accredited
professional org anization: Provided , that every year of deficiency in the required diversified
experience may be substituted by twelve units credit in the subject to be prescribed by the
Board in the rules and regulations.

ART . 61 . An appl icant holding a Master's Degree in architecture from a university, college,
institute, or school recognized by the Government or the government of the state or coun try in which it is established. shall be credited one year in his practice experience.

ART. 62 . Subject to approval of the Commission. the Board of Architecture shall have the
power to prescribe, amend. or revise the subjects in the licensure examinations f or t he
practice of architecture and their corresponding relative weights, and unless modifie GI.
shall generally cover architectural design; history and theory of architecture; environmen
tal site analysis; physical planning . architectural engineering; structural design ; architec tural practice and ethics; and building materials and specifications. ut ilities systems,
methods ot construction , and construction drawings .
ART. 63. Drawings and specifications and other related documents, inciuding government
projects, duly signed, stamped or sealed as instruments of service, are the properties and
documents of the architects. whether the object for which they are tnade is executed or

No person shall . w ithout the written consent of the architect or author of said documents.
reproduce or make copies of said documents for use in the repetition of, and for other proiects Of buildings, whether executed partly or in whole.




ART . 30 . Any person who in the date oi approva\ of this code, holds a doctorate degree in
accounting, agricultural engineering, chemistry, civil engineering. cri minology , nutrition
and dietetics, electrical engineering, electronics and communications engineering, medical
technology, mining engineering. naval architecture and marine engineering. nursing.
pharmacy, sanit ary engineering, social work, or sugar t echnology with at least five
years technical experience of such character as to indi cate that he is competent to practice
the profession concerned; acquired after receiving the doctorate degree, and who


possesses the qualific ations prescribed under Article 1 7. of this Code. may upon application filed w ithin ono year from the date of. approval hereof and payment of the required fee.
be issued a certificate of registration as certified public accountant, agricultural engineer.
archite.ct, chemical enginee'r . chemist, civil engineer, criminologist, nutritionist-dietitian,
professional electrical engineer . elect ronic s and communications engineer, forester .
geodetic engineer, geologist. professional mechanical engineer. medical technologist, mining engineer, naval architect and marine engineer, registered nurse, pharmacist, sanit ary
engineer. social. worker. or sugar technologist, respectively, without the necessity of licensure examinat ions t herefor.

ART. 31. Upon approvalof application and payment of the required fee or fees, the following
may be granted temporary special permit to practice their respective professions in the
Philippines for such period of time as the commission may authorize, provided, that ther~ i>
no Filipino registered professional qualified for such requirement at the time that the
application was made or approved.
a) Foreign agricultural engineers, architect s. chemic al engineers, c hemists, civil
engineers. c riminologists. dentists. nutritionist-dieticians, electrical engineers, electroni cs and communication engineer, f orester, geologists or geological engineers,
mechanical , erection or guarantee engineer's medical technologists mining engineers,
naval architect and marine engineers . and sugar technologists called in for consultation
or tor specific purpose as may in the judgment of the commission be necessary and
absolutely essential for the development of the country: Provided, that their practice
shall be limited only to the partic ular work for which they were engaged by the
Filipino registered professionals commissioned to undertake such work. and that they
are legally qualified to practice their respective professions in their own state or country
in which the qualifications and requirements for obtaining a certificate of registration
are not lower than those specified in this Code: Provided, f urther, that before the
expiration of the period granted, renewal of their temporary special permits shall
be secured .
b) Foreign professionals to be engaged as professors, instructors, teachers, lecturers,
crit ics in such fields as in t he judgment of the commission, be necessary and absolutely
essential in the field of education: Provided, that their wor.k shall be confined to such
teaching only and they shall not engage in the practice of their professions in their
private capacity.
c ) Foreign professionals who are missionaries , and who shall engage in the practice of
their medical, social and allied professions for humanitarian and charitable purposes in
the rural areas: Provided, that practice of Filipino professionals in said areas is not duly
impaired and competed with.




ART. 32.

Upon recommendation of the Board concerned , the Commission may, in com

pliance with international commitments and considering the number of qualified persons in
the Philippines, entertain an offer by a foreign country or state to establish reciprocal reta-

tions in the practice of a certain profession or professions subject to the condition that by
specific J?rovisions of law, the country, state, or province tendering an agreement admits
citizens of the Philippines to the practice of the particular profession or professions with or
without examinations on terms of and absolute equality with the citizens, subjects, or nationals of said country, state, or province, including the unconditional recognition of prerequisite degrees issued by institution of learning duly recognized by the Government of
the Philippines: Provided, That upon recommendation of the Commission and the Board
concerned and upon approval of the Prime Minister, a temporary special permit to practice
a profession for a specified occasion and specific period of time may be issued to any
foreigner, regardless oi whether or not reciprocity exists in the practice of his profession
between hls country and the Philippines, and under conditions as may be determined by
the Commission if such foreigner is internationally known to be an outstanding expert in
his chosen profession or a well-known specialist in any of its branches, and that hisservices will promote the advancement of the profession in the Philippines and will not duly
impair and compete with Filipino professionals.

ART. 33.

The practice of a profession . which includes the offer to render , furnish or contract
professional services, shall be in an individual and personal capacity. The commission,
upon recommendation of the Board concerned, and according to the rules it may adopt,
may grant authority to practice any of the regulated professions to a corporation registen;d
under the laws of the Philippines, Provided that at least eighty percent of the capital of
which is owned by citizens ot the Philippines who are registered professionals, and provided further, that all officers. including the president and general manager and at least
eightv percent of the stockholders are registered professionals of the same profession or
allied profession for which authority to practice is granted . The authority granted shall be
renewed every year before the expiration thereof. The Commission shall satisfy itself that
the corporation complies, during .the life of the authority granted, with the requirements
herein provided .

ART. 34. A corporation authorized to practice a profession or closely allied professions cannot have any other purpose except such practice.
The construction and the manufacturing, contracting business. fabricating and marketing
construction components systems or material, shall not be deemed as allied professions to
the architectural and engineering professions.
ART. 35. Corporate practice shall be limited to one profession only except as may be
authorized by the Commission among closely allied professions .
ART. 36. Only a registered professional w~o is a stockholder of the corporation may perform
in the name of the corporation, acts constituting the practice of his profession as defined in
this Code. The corporation may employ persons not so registered, but such persons shall
not render or offer to render any professional services.
ART. 37 . Shares -in a corporation authorized to practice a profession may be transferred only
to persons qualifed under article 33. Any transfer in violation of the restrictions shall be
ART. 38.


A corporation authorized to practice a profession shall adopt a name indicating

expressly the profession in which such corporation is engaged . The Board concerned shall
adopt the rules and regulatio ns necessary to carry out the provision.

ART. 39. Individuals, corporations, institutions, firms, associations, entities, agencies and
other organizations who are not authorized to practice any of the professions may employ
professionals for services allied to their trade or business only, or for their process operat ion, production or maintenance only and shall not compete With private practitioners; Provit:.led that the employer shall be liable solidarity with the employed professional for the
damages as provided in the c ivil code of this Code.
ART. 40. Any of the followin g shall be a ground for disapproval, or revocation of the authority
of a corporation to practice a profession:
1. When any officer, including the president or general manager, as well as members
shall become disqualified person to practice the profession .
2. When such corporation shall violate any applicable rule . regulation or code of ethics,
adopted by the Board regulating the profession.
3. When such corporation shall violate any provision of this Code.

ART. 41 . In partnerships or firms organized for the practice of a profession or closely allied
professions . all partners or firm members must be registered professional of the same profession or the closely allied professions and each partner and fi rm member may perform
only those acts constituting the practice of his profession.

WHEREAS, the regulations for the various professions presently regulated by the Office of the
Boards of Examiners is so extensive, practically covering all social and economic life of the
WHEREAS, the existence of the Board of Examiners is misconstrued for a number of years now
as nothing more than an examining unit, though all the professional laws creating the
various Boards have charged them with the supervision and regulation qver the professional practice in the Philippines; and .
WHEREAS, to effectively, enforce the laws regulating the various professions, there is an
urgent need to create a three-man Commission to administer , implement, coordinate and
supervise the various Boards of Examiners;
NOW, THEREFORE, I FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines by virtue of the
powers ves~ed in me by the Constitution and Commander-in-Chief of all the Armed Forces
of the Philippines, and pursuant to Proclamation No. 1081, dated September 21, 1972, as
amended, do hereby order and decree:


SECTION 1. Professional Regulation Commission. - There is hereby created a three-man

Commission to be known as the Professional Regulation Commission which shall be attached to the Office of the President for general direction and coordination .
SEC. 2. Compositjon. - The Commission shall be headed by one full-time Commissioner and
two-full-time Associate Commissioners, all to be appointed by the President for a term of
nine {9) years without reappointment to start from the time they assume office! except the
first two Associate Commissioners who shall be appointed, one for six (6) years and the
other for three {3) years, and thereafter, any vacancy in the Commission shall be filed for
the unexpired term only with the most senior of the Associate Commissioners succeeding
the Commissioner at expiration of his term, resignation or removal. No person shall be appointed chairman or member of the Commission unless he is at least forty 140) years of
age , familiar with the principles and methods of professional regulation and/or licensing
and has at least five (6) years of executive or management experience.
SEC. 3. Exercise of powers and functions of the Commission.- The Commissioner, who
shall be the Chairman of the Commission, and the Associate Commissioners as members
thereof shall , as a body, exercise general administrative, executive and policy-making
functions for the whole agency.
SEC. 4 . Compensation. - The Commissioner shall receive an annual compensation of fortyeight thousand pesos (fl48,0001 with five hundred pesos (P'600) commutable transportation and representation allowances and the Associate Commissioners, thirty-six thousand
pesos (P36,000) each with three hundred and fifty pesos (11360) commutable transportation and representation allowances.
SEC. 5.

Powers of the Commission: - The powers of the Commission are as follows:

a) To administer, implement and enforce the regulatory policies of the National Government with respect to the regulation and licensing of the various professions and occupations under its jurisdiction including the maintenance or professional and occupational standards and ethics and the enforcement of the rules and regulations relative
b} To perform any and atr acts, enter into contracts, make such rules and regulations and
issue such orders and other administrative issuances us may be necessary in the
execution and implementation of its functions and the improvement of its services.
cl To review, coordinate, integrate and appr.ove the policies, resolutions, rules and
regulations, order or decisions promulgated by the various Boards with respect to the
profession or occupation under their jurisdictions including the results of their licensures examinations but their decisions on administrative cases shall be final and executory unless appealed to the Commission within thirty (30) days from the date of
promulgation thereof;
d) To administer and conduct the licensure examinations of the various Boards according
to the rules and regulations promulgated by it; determine and fix the places and dates
of examinations; appoint supervisors and room examiners from among the employees
of the Government or private individuals who have been trained by the Commission for
the purpose who shall be entitled to a daily allowance of not less than ten pesos (P'1 0)
for every examination day actually attended; use the buildings and facilities of public
and private schools for examination purposes; and approve the release of examination
e) To keep and maintain a register of the authorized practitioners of the profession or
occupation; issue certificates of registration or licenses signed by all the members of
the Board concerned and the Commissioner with the official seal of the Board affixed;


To have custody of all the records of the various Boards including their examination

papers, minutes of deliberation, records of edmil'listrative cases and investigations and

examination results;
g) To determine, fix and collect the amount to be charged for examination, registration,
registration without examination, licenses, annual registration fees, certifications, surcharges and other fees not specified under the provisions of Republic Act No. 6511
or amend the rates provided thereunder subject to approval by the Office of the

h) To appoint, subject to the provisions of existing laws, such officials and employees of
the Commission as are necessary in the effective performances of its function and
responsibilities, prescribe 'their duties and fix their compensation; and to organize or
reorganize the sttutture of the Commission, create or abolish positions, change the
designations of existing position to meet changing conditions or as the need therefor
arises: Provided, That such changes shall not affect the employment status of the
incumbents, reduce their ranks and/or. salaries for result in separating them from the
H To submit and recommend to the President of the Philippine nominees for appointment
as members of the various Soard from among those nominated by the bonafide
. professlo.nal organizations accredited by the Commission t-o till existing or probable
. vacancies;
j) The Commission may, upon the recommeCtdation of the Soard concerned, approve the
registration of and authorize the issuance of a certificate of registration with or without
examination to a foreigner who is registered under the laws of his country: Provided.
That the requirements for the registration or licensing in said foreign state or country
are substantially the sarpe as those required and contemplated by the laws of the
Philippines and that the laws of such foreign state or country allow the citizens of the
Philippines to practice the profession on the same basis and grant the same privileges
as the subjects or citizens of such foreign state or country: Provided, finally, That the
applicant shail submit co'm petent and conclusive documentary evidence, confirmed by
the Department of Foreign Affairs, showing that his country's existing laws permit
citize.~s 6f the Philippines to practice the profession under the rules and regulations
governing citizens thereof. The Commission is also hereby authorized to prescribe
ae!ditional requirements or grant certain privileges to foreigners seeking registration in
the Philippines if the same privileges are granted to or same additionai requirements
are required of citizens of the Philippines in acquiring the same certificates in his
country: (As amended by PO 657)
k) The Cqmmission shall have general supervision over foreign nationals who are
authorized by existing laws or granted special permits to practise their professions
temporarily in the Philippines to see that the terms and conditions for their employment
are strictly observed and adhered' to;

11 To prescribe or revise, in conjunction with the Board concerned and the Secretary of
Education and Cu)ture or his authorized representative, collegiatd courses the completion otor graduation from which shall be a prerequisite for admission into the practice
of the professions concerned;
m ) To exercise general supervision over the members of the -various Boards;
n) To promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to effectively implement policies with respect to the regulation and practice of the professions;
o) To perform such other functions and duties as may be necessary to carry out effectively the various provisions of professional regulatory laws, decrees or orders.


SEC. 8 Powera, functions nd reaponslbllldel of vioua

powers. functions end responsibilities:

Boara lbd retain the foHowlng

a) To loOk from t ime to time into the conditions affecting the practice of the profession or
occupation under their respective jurisdictions and whenever necessary, adopt such
measures may be deemed proper tor the enhancement of the profession or occupation and/or the maintenance of high professional. ethical and technical standards and
for this purpose the members of a Board may personally or through subordinate
employees of the Commission conduct ocular inspection or visit industrial ,
mechanical. eJectrical or chemical plants or works. hospitals, clinics and other
engine~ring works where registered practitioners of the profession or occupation are
employed or are working for the purpose of determining compliance with the profession or occupation .or as an aid in formulating policies relative t hereto in accordance
with the established policies, promulgated by the Commission;

To investigate violations of their respective laws and the rules and regulations pro-mulgated thereunder and for this purpose may issue summons, subpoena duces tecum
t o alleged violators or witnesses thereof and compel their attendance to such in
vestigations or hearings;

c) To ct,elegate the hearing or investigation of administrative cases filed before them ex

cept in cases where the issue involved strictly concerns the practice of the profession
or occupation , in which case the hearing shall be presided by at least one member of
the Board concernec' assisted by a legal or hearing officer of the Commission;
d) To promulgate decisions on such administrative cases subject to review by the Commission. If after thirty (30) days from the receipt of such decision no appeal is t aken
therefrom to the Commission, the same shall become final and immediately
e) Subject to review by the Commission, to approve registration without examination and
the issuance of the corresponding certificat es of registration;
f) After due process, to suspend revoke or reissue certificates of registration of causes

provided for by law or by the rules and regulations promulgated thereafter:

g) To determine and prepare the contents of licensure examlnat\ons;.score

and rate the

examination papers and submit the results thereof to the Commission within one hun
dred twenty ( 120) days after the last examination day unless extended by the Commission; and subject to approval by the Commission, determine the appropriate pass
ing general rating if not provided for in the law regulating the profession.

SEC. 7. Names of various Boards. - The names of the var\ous Board,_ shaU be changed by the
Commission by deleting the word ''Examiners''.
SEC. 8. Tnnafer of personnel, fundi, records, etc. -The present office of the Boards of Examiners, its personnel, funds, records, supplies , equipment, materials, furniture and fixtures are hereby transferred to the Commission.
SEC. 9. RepeaBng Qausa. -The provisions of Republic Act No. 546 are hereby repealed as
well as those of other pertinent laws inconsistent herewith.

SEC. 10. Effactfvfty. - This Decree shall take effect in:tmediately .

Done in the City of Manila, this 22nd day of June in the year of Our lord, nine\een hundred
and seventy-three.


Republic of the Philippines

By the President:
. Execut ive Secretary


WHEREAS, P.O. 22 3 created the Prof essional Regulation Commission charged with the supervision and regulation over the professional practice in the Philippines;
WHEREAS , in support of P.O . 223 and its implernentinq rules and regulations, the
variou5 professional organizations have voluntarily integrated themselves, one for each
profession, and subsequently accredited by the Professional Regulation Commission;
WHEREAS, integrated professional organization are necessary for the upliftment of the standards of the profession through their self-regulation and disCipline for better service to the
Filipino people;
WHEREAS. the PAC accredited bonafide professional organizations contribute an important
role in promoting and maintaining high professional, ethical, and technical standards
among its members through their continuing education activities, thereby elevating them
to a higher level of competence; proficiency, integrity and social commitments;
WHEREAS, the PRC accredited bonafide professional organizations which truly represent the
professionals in our country, have proven their capabilities, competence and social consciousness by collaborating with government agencies in the pursuit of national goals, and
through the several national, regional and international conferences which they have sponsored organized, or attended.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President and Prime Minister of the Republic
of the Philippines, by virtue of the power vest ed in me by the Constitution do hereby order
and direct the Professional Regulation Commission , the Minis~ry of Human Settlements ,
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , the M inistry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of
Public Highways , the Ministry of Public Works, the Minister of Tourism, the Ministry of
Transportation and Communications and all government agencies concerned to authorize
and support only PRC accredited bonafide professional organizations, and their members
to organize, host sponsor or represent the Filipino professionals in national, regional and international forums, conferences, conventions where the concerned profe~Jsions are in


volved. AND 1 FURTHER ORDER AND DIRECT that all government agencies and any of its
instrumentalities shall give priority to members of the accredited professional organizations in the hiring of its employees and in the engagement of professional services.
This letter of Instruction shall take effect immediately.
Done in the City of Manila, the 20th of March in the Year of the Lord, Nineteen Hundred
and Eighty.


President and Prime-Minister of the Philippines

Republic of the


Board Resolution No . .1 0
Series of 1 9 84
The Board, in its meeting held today. had for consideration the adoption of rules and
regulations relating to preparing, signing and sealing of plans, drawings, specifications and
other documents registered by architects pursuant to Sec. 25 of RA 545', in order that such
rules are in full accord with all the provisions of RA 545, and in conformity with the Title Block
in the Standard F.orm for Building Plans as prescribed under the implementing rules and regulations of the National Building C').d e (PO 10) and Art. 1723 of the Revised Civil Code.
Pursuant further to Sec. 25 (3) of RA 545 which provides, "and it shall be unlawful for any
person, except the architect in ~harge, to sign for any branch of the work, or any function or ar
chitectural practice, not actually performed by him. The architect in charge shall be fully
responsible for all plans, specjfications and other documents issued under his seal or authorized
signature", the Board of Architecture, in the exercise of the power vested in it by RA 545 and
PO 223, resolved, as it hereby resolves, to adopt the following rules:
1. The architect in charge is the architect of the building or structure. The author of
its plans, specifications and other documents and coordinator of all the processes or
branches of the work which lnter into thy production of the complete building or structure performed through the medium or by means of plans, specifications, contract
documents, advice, and others. (Sec . 14c. RA 545)
2. No person can sign the plans and specifications for any branch of the work not actually
performed by such person.
3 . An engineer or design. professional may be engaged by the architect in charge to perform a branch of the work or process relating to the building designed by the architect.
Such branch of the work or process must actually be performed by the engineer or
design professional who shall be fully responsible for all plans, specifications and other
documents for such branch of work or process actually performed by him.


4 . The Title Block on all plans and drawi.ngs prepared, signed and sealed by architects
shall conform to any of the sample models of Title Blocks, with notes thereon, hereto
attached, made integral parts of this Resolution and marked as Annexes "A" and "B".
The Title Blocks shall be used for: (a) Schematic Design drawings and studies;
(b) Design Development Documents; and (c) Contract Documents which consist of
Construction Drawings and Specifications that set forth in detail the work required for
architectural, structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary, mechanical 6lnd other serviceconnected equipment.

5. Violation of any of these rules shall be sufficient cause for suspension or revocation of
the architect's certificate of registration.
Violation of these rules shalt likewise be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred
pesos {~500.00) nor more than one thousand pesos (11'1 ,000.00) or by imprisonment of not
less than three (3) months nor more than one ( 1) year, or both in the discretion of the Court.
This Resolution shaft take effect immediately upon approval by the Commission and after
fifteen ( '\ 5) days iol\ow\ng its publication in the Ofiicial Gazette.
Done in the City of Manila this 27th day of March, 1984.





Approved and promulgated as part of the rules and regulations governing the practjces of
architecture this 21th day of September, 1 9 84 .
Associate Commissioner



Associate Commissioner

Published in the Official Gazette

Vol. 80, No. 42
p. 5479, 10-15-1984 Issue


Republic of the Philippines



Board Reso\ution No. 24

Series of 1 9 84
WHEREAS, in Resolution No. 108 dated September 7, 1 977, the United Architects of the
Philippines petitioned the Professional Regulation Commissioner and the Board of Architecture to approve the "General Conditions", UAP Document No. 301 as a standard
document for use by practicing architects in the Philippines;
WHEREAS, the "General Conditions", UAP Document No. 301, whose provisions establish
the relationship among the owner, the Architect and the Contractor and stipulate the
norms by which the contractor shall perform his work are in consonance with the present
trend of architectural practice in the Philippines:
WHEREAS, the "General Conditions", UAP Document No. 301. was approved and adopted by
the Board of Architecture and the Professional Regulation Commission in Board Resolution
No. 15 dated November 15, 1977, as one of the official documents which the practicing
architect may use in the discharge of his duties;
WHEREAS, the UAP now proposes certain revisions in the aid "General Conditions", UAP
Document No. 301, as follows:
"Art. 3, Paragraph 3.03, Sub-Paragraph a. "Should a conflict occur between Drawings, or a conflict between Specifications, or between Specifications and Drawings , the
Contractor shall be deemed to have estimated a more expensive way of doing work unless
he shall have asked for and obtained a decision, in writing from the Architect before submission of proposals as to which method or materials will be required. If, after award, the
less expensive work is done, the Contractor shall credit the Owner an amount equivalent to
the difference between the more expensive and the less expensive work."
after receipt of any Request for Payment by the Contractor, the Architect shall either issue a
Certificate of Payment or withhold the Request for Payment. When the Architect decides to
withhold the Request for Payment, he shall inform the contractor in writing the reasons for
Contractor is compelled to suspend work due to hardships or difficulties under b, c, and d
above. then the contract sum shall be increased by the amount of the contractor's reasonable
costs of shut-down, delay and start up, which shall be effected by appropriate change order."
WHEREAS. the Bortrd of Architecture, after receiving said revisions, find them in order to maintain the high leve1 of professionalism in the implementation of infrastructure projects;
revisions in the "General Conditions", UAP Document No. 301, are hereby approved and
adopted :


RESOLVED FINALLY, that the above take effect upon approval by the Commission and fifteen
( 1 5) days following its publication in the Official Gazette.
Done in the City of Manila th is 7th day of November ,.984.





Approved and promulgated as part of the rules and regulations governing the practice of
architecture in the Philippines this 26th day of November 1984.


Associate Commissioner
Associate Commissioner
Published in the Official Gazette
Vol. 80, No. 52
pp. 2145-46 Dec. 24, 1984 Issue

Republic of the Philippines



Resolution No. 2
Series of 1984
WHEREAS, the Board of Architecture, Professional Regulation Commission, and the United
Architects of the Philippines (UAP) have long realized the need of adopting a more effective. systematic and efficient regulation or procedure of recording the diversified
experience of an applicant for liC\'nsure examination required under Section 18 (d) RA
545, but which is geared along curent prb. tices in the architectural profession;
WHEREAS, the UAP in its Resolution No. 18 dated July 14, 1982, submitted for the considerat ion of the Board of Architecture, a draft of the proposed text of the LOGBOOK (Specific .
WHEREAS, a revised copy of the rest of the logbook incorporating provisions -from the Code of


Ethics and recent regulations, together with standard forms, was resubmitted to the Board
of Architecture on July .1 0, 1983, for its action;
WHEREAS, the Board of Architecture, after thorough review and instituting necessary amendments thereto, finds the logbook and standard forms, which are hereto attached and made
integral parts of this resolution, to be satisfactory and in compliance with the provisions
of RA 545 and other pertinent rules and regulations governing the practice of architecture;
in order to achieve high standards in the profession through a proper diversified training
NOW THEREFORE, pursuant to the powers vested upon it by Sec. 2 and 8 or RA 545 and Sec.
6 (a) of PO 223, the Board of Architecture hereby adopts the attached LOGBOOK OF
DIVERSIFIED EXPERIENCE in architecture, UAP Doc. 21 0, as a requirement governing
admission to licensure examination for architects, for the immediate compliance by all concerned, non-compliance or violation of which shall be ground for administrative penalties
Ot' disqualification from licensure examination, as the case may be;
BE IT RESOLVED , as \t \s hereby fesolved, that all applicants for the architect licensure
examination beginning July 1986 shall be required to submit the Log Sheets of Diversified
Training to the Board of Architecture as a prerequisite for admission to the exa.mination;
RESOLVED FURTHER, that all architects in the Philippines are hereby required, under the provisions of UAP Doc. 21 0 to mentor and give practical training and experience or serve as
adviser to at least one ( 1) trainee-aspirant to the profession, for a minimum period of four
(4} months or six hundred and forty (640) hours for every year. as a requisite for the
renewal of certificate of registration, provided that each four-month period is credited for
one (1) year;
RESOLVED FINALLY, that this resolution, together with the attached LOGBOOK OF OIVERSfFtEO EXPERIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE. UAP Doc. 21 0, consisting of text and standard
forms, shall take effect fifteen ( 15) days following its publication in the Official Gazette.
Done in the City of Manila this 20th day' of February, 1984.





Acting Secretary
Approved as part of the rules and regulations governing the practice of architecture in the
Philippines this 26th day o f M6rch. 1984.


Associate Commissioner



Associate Commissioner

Published in the Official

Gazette, Vol. 80, No. 14
pp; 2145 2146, 4 -2-84 issue.

Republic of the Philippine~



Board Resolution No. 2

Series of 1983
The Board , in its meeting held today, had for consideration the requirement by law {Sec. 2,
RA 545 and Sec . 6a, PD 2231 for an architect to maintain high professional and ethical con
duct because his duties and grave responsibilities to the public be properly discharged unless
his motives, conduct, sense of moral values and ability are such as to command respect and
confidence, not of his colleagues in the profession but the general public as well .
The prohibition of the following acts are designed to rai se the standards of personal
behavior or the architect to .f ollow a set of moral principles and values that will project to the
public that an architect is a total professional who, aside from being technically competent, is
ethical, virtuous, respectable, honest, righteous. and noble in the conduct of his professional
and social life.
To assure the public of the maintenance of high, professional and ethical conduct of the
architect, the Board, in the exercise of the powers vested in it by Section 2 and 8 of RA 545
and Section 6a of PO 223, resolved, as it hereby resolves, to take cognizance of the following
acts and practices as unprofessional or dishonorable conduct and constituting sufficient cause
for the reprimand, non-renewal, suspension or revocation of the certificate of registration of
an architect that, to wit:
1. Committing any ac;t which is disgraceful, shameful, degrading, repulsive to good
morals, disgusting, depraved, based and/or of inferior quality;
2. Addiction to alcoholic beverages and/or improper scandalous behavior arising from
drunkenness or under the influence of liquor or drugs;
3 Making, abetting, directly or indirectly, false or misleading press releases or misleading
press releases or advertisements, or advertising of services tn a mercantile mann~r;
4. Sowing abetting or spreading rumors or intrigues, whether factual or not that tend to
discredit, destroy. and cast aspersion on the character and honor of fellow drchitect,
the accredited professional association, or the profession itself;

5. Committing prohibited acts and practices relative to election for any elective office in
his professional association, whether committed by a candidate for any elective office
or by any other member who benefits from such act, directly or indirectly, in any form
or manner, by himself or thru another pers~.n. Giver and recipient shall be liable. These
acts are as follows:
a. Payment of the dues or other indebtedness of any member;
b. Giving of food , drink, entertainment, transportation or any article of value or any
similar consideration to any person;


c. Making promise or causing an expenditure to be made or offer or promise to any

person when used for the purpose of inducing or influencing a member to withhold
his vote or to vote or against a candidate;
d. Personal advertisement and press release .

6. Aiding or acting as a dummy of a person, firm. company or corporation not authorized

to practice architecture in the Philippines.

7. Failure to attend PRC authorized seminars or continuing education programs designed

to upgrade his competence and ethical standard as architect;

8. Violation of any provision of official UAP Documents such as Constitution and ByLaws. UAP Doc. 103; Election Code UAP Doc. 104; Uniform Chapter By-Laws, UAP
Doc. 1 05 ; and Policy Manual, UAP 106; all forming part of accreditation documents
of UAP which are on file with approved and considered by PRC to be in force and
effect as the rules governing the conduct of architeets;

9. Failure to comply with any of his duties and obligations as member in good standing
of the accredited professional association ;

10. Violation of any provision of the National Code for Architects including the Code of Conduct, UAP Doc. 200, and Standards of Professional Practice, UAP Doc .
201-208 , inclusive;
11. Non-involvement or non-participation in any professional association, community,
civic and government activities for community and national development.
This resolution shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following its pub!ication in the
Official Gazette.
Done in the City of Manila this 6th day of January 1983.







Chairman Board of Architecture
Professional Regulation Commission
March 6, 1984
On Sec. 27
RA 545

The Board of Architecture shall refuse to issue or renew a certliicate of registra

tion to the following persons:

1 . convicted of any criminal offense involving moral turpitude.

2. guilty of immoral or dishonorable conduct
3. of unsound mind
On Sec. 28
RA 545

The Board has the power, upon notice and hearing, to suspend or revoke any cer
tificate of registration of an architect for the following causes:
1. Conviction of any criminal offense involving moral turpitude, immoral and
dishonorable conduct, and unsound mind.

2. Use of perpetration of any fraud or deceit in


certificate of registra

3. gross negligency
4. incompetency
5. Unprofessional or dishonorable conduct if. he:
a) signed and sealed plans, specifications and other documents not prepared
by him or under his immediate supervision.
b) has paid money, except regular fees, to secure certificate of registration.
c) falsely impersonated another practitioner other than himself.
d) has aided or abetted practice of architecture by persons not authorized. or
by being a dummy or such persons for said purpose.
6. Such other acts and practices which the Board may motu propio take
cognizance of by proper resolution or order, as constituting sufficient cause
for suspension or revocation of certificate of registration.
a} (Note: Res. No. 2 of 1983, taking cognizance of certain acts and practices
as unprofessional or dishonorable conduct and constitute sufficient cause
for reprimand , non-renewal, suspension or revocation of the certificate of
registration of an architect). The resolution has been promulgated as part
of the Rules and Regulations governing the practice of architecture.
On Sec. 61.
PD 223

The Board of Architecture has the power and responsibility, after due process.
to suspend revoke or reissue certificate of registration for causes provided for by
law or by the rules and regulations promulgated therefor.


Republic of the Philippines


Board Resolution No. 9

Series of 1982
The Board, in its meeting held today, had for consideration the current professional practices. services and activities of the architect, here and abroad, which the Board considered and
accepted as functions of architectural practice since these acts constitute the scientific and
orderly coordination of all processes which enter into the production of a complete building or
"structure" as provided in Section 14 (c) of Republic ct. No. 545.
For the maintenance of high ethical and technical standards in the practice of architecture
in the Philippines, the Board of Architecture, in the exercise of the powers vested in it by Sections 2 and 8 of Repu~lic Act No. 545, hereby declares, as it is hereby declared that the following acts constitute the scientific and orderly coordination of all processes which enter into the
production of a complete building or structure and are w ithin the scope of the practice of
The act of physical and land use planning; site planning; site selection, analysis and utiliza
tion; site development planning ; landscaping; subdivision planning; housing design ; urban
planning and design; town and city planning; environmental site analysis and design; community architecture design; space programming and planning; architectural detailing; interior
detailing and furnishing; designing architectural interiors; architectural programming; construction management; project management; work supervision; estimating; construction ad..
ministration; architectural lighting; architectural acoustics; mechanical. electrical, sanitary and
utilities systems and equipment planning; teaching major architectural subjects, preparing proiect feasibility, financing, programming and promotional studies, and building maintenance and
This resolution shall take effect after fifteen ( 15) days following its publication in the
Official Gazette.
Done in the City of Manila, this 22nd day of February , 1982.





APPROVED: as part of the Rules and Regulations governing the practice of architecture, this
24th day of February, 1982.



Associate Commissioner


Associate Commissioner

Republic of the Philippines


Board Resolution No. 5

Series of 1982
The Board in the meeting held today. had for consideration the unnecessary and deceptive
information on the title block of architectural plans.
It has been noted by the Board of Architecture, that a.s prevalent practice, the names of
corporations, firms or non-registered persons, who are neither project owners nor
architect/authors appear in the title block of architectural plans, specifications, correspondence
or .other instruments of service of the architect, such practice and devices which tend to convey to the general public, the. impression that such corporation, firm or non-registered person
practice or offers to practice architecture or any R~gistered persons. Furthermore, this common branch of function thereof, is in violation of the architecture law, A.A. 545, which prohibits the practice of architecture by corporations and non-registered persons . Furthermore,
this common practice is not in accordance with the Standard Form for Plans as regulated by the
implementing rules and regulations of P.O. 1096, otherwise known as the National Building
To protect the public from such misleading, unnecessary and deceptive information, and
so that the law may not be circumvented, for the maintenance of good ethics and standards in
the practice of architecture in the Philippines, the Board of Architecture, in the exercise of the
powers vested in it by Sec. 2 and B of R A . 545, hereby resolved as it hereby resolves, to promulgate and adopt the following regulation as a supplement to the existing rules and regulations of the Board implementing the provisions of A.A. 545:
It shall be unlawful to place the names of corporations. firms or non-registered per
sons, except as project owners. in the title block of architectural plans, specifications,
correspondence or ~ther instruments of service of the architect.
All plans, specifications, correspondence, reports and other instruments of service of
the architect shall indicate only the name of the architect, or architects in group practice,
who prepared, signed, sealed and is responsible tor said documents of projects owner,
shall appear thereon.
The t itle block for architectural plans shall conform strictly to the Standard Form fo~
plans, as required under the regulation of P.O. 1096. (National Building Code).
Violation of this regulation by any person, natural or judicial. shall be punishable by a
fine of not less than five hundred pesos nor more than one thousand pesos or imprisonment of not less than six months nor more than one year, or both, in the discretion of the
Court, without prejudice to any administrative action in accordance with Section 8 of R.A.

rhis regulation shall take effect after its approval by the Professional Regulation Commission fifteen ( 1 5) days following its publication in the Official Gazette.
Done in the City of Manila, this 29th day of January, 1982.



M ember



APPROVED: as part of t he Rules and Regulations governing the practice of architecture, this
8th day of February, 1982 .


A ssociate Commissioner


Associate Commissioner


January 13, 1984
Chairman. Board of Architecture
Professional Regulation Commission
"ARTICLE 1 723" The engineer or architect who drew and authored specifications for a
buildings is liable for damages within fifteen years from the completion of the structure, if the
same should collapse by reason of a defect in those plans and specifications, or due to the
defects in the ground. The contractor is likewise responsible for the damages if the edifice falls,
within the same period, on account of defects in the construction or use of materials of inferior
quality furnished by him, or due to any violation of the terms of the contract. If the engineer or
architect supervises the construction, he shall be solidarity liable with the contractor.
Acceptance of the building after complet ion, does not imply waiver of any cause of action
by reason of any defect mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

The action must be brought within 10 years following the collapse of the building."
From the above law, the following implications are clear:
1. Art. 1723 conforms to and reaffirm RA 545, particularly Sec. 25 and Sec .

14~ cl.

2. The collapse of a building is attributable to defective structural plans and specifica

tlons. defective construction, or improper supervision ot construction. Defects in
mechanical, electrical or sanitary plans will not cause the collapse of the building but
can cause damage.
3. Responsibility and liability for damage due to defects in the structural plans and
specificat ions rests upon the engineer or architect who drew up and signed such
plans and specifications. defect in which had caused the collapse of the building .
4. Article 1723 clearly implies that only the engineer or architect prepares structural
plans and specifications of buildings. Please note however, that since th e word "ar
chitect" is specific, there is no doubt that the architect does prepare structural plans
of buildings. Besides , the architectural and structural designing of buildings is the


practice of architecture as defined by RA 545 Sec. 14{c}. However, since the word
"engineer" is not described, it can refer to civil, structural, mechanical, electrical,
sanitary or other engineer.
5. Since the word "engineer" in Art. 1723 is not specific, in present practice however,
it can be implied to refer to a "structural engineer". A structural engineer is a civil
engineer who holds a specialty certificate of registration or recognition as such,
issued by the Professional Regulation Commission. The word "engineer" therefore in
Art. 1 7 2 3 can be correctly described without contradiction as the structural plans
and specifications, and certainly not an ordinary civil engineer.
6. Either the engineer or architect may supervise construction and be held solidarity
liable with the contractor. Again the word "architect" is specific while the word
"engineer" is not but in present practice may however be implied to mean a civil
engineer who possesses special knowledge of supervision or construction management of buildings and holds a PRC certificate of registration or recognition as such.
7. Structural design of buildings may not be qualified nor limited in scope for either the
structural engineer or the architect. The concept is not supported by any existing Jaw
on universal practice. What is important is that professional responsibility and liability
is assumed by the structural engineer or architect who prepared and signed the structural plans and specifications of the buildings.
8. Although defects in mechanical, electrical, or sanitary or other engineering plans and
specifications will not cause the collapse of the building, damages to the building
should be the responsibility and liability of the corresponding engineer who prepared
and signed their respective plans and specifications for the building. These engineers
should be solidarily liable with the contractor if they supervise the construction of
their respective branches of the work.
g. Under Art. 1 7 2 3, only one signatory is required for the plans and specifications for
any branch of the work required for the completion of a building. He is either the architect or corresponding engineer for such branch of the work.


;See additional lists on page 41)

By virtue of Executive Order No. 648, the HSRC was organized to foster the growth
and renewal of urban and rural communities in an integrative manner that promotes
optimum. land use, adequate shelter and environment protection. It is to enforce, implement, coordinate and streamline land use policies and regulations on human settlements, including ~he implementation and enforcement of the Urban Land Reform
Decree, land value and building rental regulations and other related laws.


The HDMF administers the PAG-IBIG fund, a provident savings fund for housing. It entitles PAG-IBIG members who are public and private employees as well as the selfemployed to housing loans.
NHMFC .is tasked with the generation of a continuing source of fund for housing
through the secondary mortgage market system that seeks to attract private investments into housing. This system takes the risks from private investors who are in


HFC's main functions to attract private sources of capital for home financing. It pro~
vides mortgage credit insurance by acting as guarantor of individual home loans to
assure the payment of said mortgage loans. It is also directly involved in providing
construction and development finance for housing.

The NHA is the construction agency of the Ministry. It is responsible for undertaking
housing development and resettlement and for prescribing guidelines and standards
for the reservation , conservation, and utilization of public lands identified for housing
and resettlement.

The NHC is responsible for developing, standardizing and mass producing building
materials for housing and stockpiling of the same gowrnment housing projects.
HFC was formerly the Home Financing Commission created in 1965 by the President
Ramon Magsaysay to ease the housing problem. It was revitalized in 1979 by Presi~
dent Marcos through Executive Order No. 635 which strengthened its original func~
tion and expanded its powers to make it more responsive to the country's growing
shelter requirements.

The Logbook of Diversified Experience in Architecture involves three groups: .the

Trainees who are prospective examinees, the Mentors who are licensed architects and
the Advisers who are faculty members for trainees while still students . Graduates are
not required to have advisers where trainee graduated from. Each group is given
specific guidelines in the implementation of the program. The general objective is to
ensure that those who shall take the licensure examination for architects have had sufficient diversified experience necessary in comp\iance with the provisions of R.A.
645. It also aims to require all the practicing architects to take upon themselves the
mentorship of the aspir.a nts to the profession as a salient provision of the Architects' of Ethics. The logbook includes the rules of training, activity areas, ancillary subjects and diversified training forms, which record the diversified experience gained by
the trainee. The forms must be duly certified by the mentor and the adviser.
A SPECIFIC RECORD OF DIVERSIFIED EXPERIENCE is required by law to be establish
ed to the satisfaction of the Board of Architecture, prior to admission to licensure examination.
Section 18 of RA 545 entitled "Qualification of Applicant for Examination", provides
among others, that any person applying for examination and for a certificate of registration as architect shall, prior to admission to examination, establish to the satisfaction of the Board that he or she has a ., specific record of at least two years diversified
experience as architectural draftsman, clerk-of -work, specification writer or
superintendent: provided, however, that an applicant holding a Master'sd~gree ih Architecture from a school, college, university or institute recognized by the Government
or the State in which it is established , shall be credited one year in his practical experience. " The Board of Architecture holds the view that an applicant; in order to acquire the minimum two year diversified experience must necessarily ga\n experience
in all work designation above~enumerated. For instance, two years practical ex~
perience solely as specification writer cannot be considered as diversified experience.
turn assured by the NHMFC, thereby ensuring wide participation of private financing


Candidates who have had practicat training and/or experience in other countries may
be given accreditation according to the requirements established in the logbook or as
required by the Soard of Architecture. Each training and/or experience period must be
duly certified by the mentors or offices where he worked, and must be submitted to
the Board of Architecture . Professional Regulation Commission, together with his application for examinati on.
The Board of Architecture shall determine the equivalent credit hours of such training
and/or experience, and in no case shall the experience gained in other countries be
credited by more than 2000 hours. To complete the required diversified experience of
two years or equivalent of 3840 hours, he is required to log at least 2000 hours of
diversified experience in the Philippines.
The Nationa l Code for Architects on the other hand , emphasize in no uncertain terms
in its UAP OQC. 200; .Code of Ethics, that it is the duty and moral obligation of an
. aspir.ant to the profession." (Architects Code of Ethical Conduct).
Pursuant to this, the Board of Architecture will require every architect to give training
to at least one trainee aspirant to the profession. for a minimum period of four (4)
months for every year. This will afford a greater number of trainees to acquire the
experience required under several architects .
Through time, the various Boards of Architecture in the past have.devised ways and
means to enforce ~he requirement on diversified experience and to rationalize and institutionalize a system to make the requirement more effective and efficient for the
benefit of all concerned.
This logbook of Diversified Experience is a result of the reconciliation of an architect's
moral duty under the Code of Ethical Conduct and the trainee' s obligation to acquire
diversified exi>erience and as required by law. This logbook when faithfully accomplished is specif.ic and reliable record of diversified experience that establishes to
the satisfaction of
Board of Architecture, an applicant' s qualification for admis
sion to take the licensure examination as required by law.


Examrnation "shall be given twicea year in the City of Manila and othe! places where
conditions may warrant on the second Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays of
January and July provided such days do not fall on a holiday, in which case the working day following will be the day of examination."
Since passing the examination will lead directly to the issuance of certificate .of
registration by the Board of Architecture and corporate membership in the United Architects of the Philippines, it is designed to test if the candidate has reached a
desirable standard of professional competence and proficiency.


a. to test knowledge of subject matters , intellectual abilities and skills, apptication ,
analysis, synthesis and evaluation;
b. to test the student proficiency in architecture and his knowledge, professional practice
and ability to apply it; and to reveal his understanding of the ethics and responsibility of
the professional;
c. to assess the practical diversified experience he has gained.
The arrangements for a diversified training program are designed to guarantee that the


qualifying candidate will not fail in llis professional responsibilities. The program acts as a
complement to the theoretical knowledge he has learned in school so as to supply the can
didate w ith the experience which cannot be learned by other means. OT Form 001 and OT
. Form 002 are included in every Logbook which gives the rules for the scheme and
discusses the varieties of experience encourage. Professionalism under.(B) involyes a matter of judgment. and the examination is designed to reveal a candidate's competence and
his ethical standards and character.

Physical & land use Planning, Environmental Planning, Urban Planning & Design
Space Planning, Utilllatlon and Programming; Interior Design; Site Development Planning; Site f'(anning. Selection Analysis and Utilization~ Landscape Architecture;
Town and .City Planning; Architectural Detailing; Architectural Programming; Community Architecture; Sub-division Planning; Housing Design; Tropical Design;
Building Design; Monumental Design; Architectural Design of Engineering Structures.
Architectural Structures; Building Technology; .Reinforce~ Concrete; Steel Design;
Timber Design; Theory of Structures; Stress Diagrams. Soil Mechanics; Seismic
Analysis and Design Application; Mechanical, Electrical , Plumbing, Sanitary and
Utilities Systems and Equipment; Architectural Lighting; Acoustics and Lighting.
Specifications; Professional Regulatory Laws; RA 545; PI;> 223; LOI 1000; National
Building Code; Fire Code; Zoning Regulations; BP 220; PO 957 (Subdivision Law),
Project Feasibility, Financing. Programming, Promotional Studies; Estimating; Architects National Code; Standards of Professional Practice UAP Doc. 201 208;
Code of Ethical Conduct UAP Doc. 200; Contract Documents and General Conditions
UAP Doc . 301; Documents of UAP Organization; Building Materials; Systems and
Methods of Construction; Construction Management Works Supervision; Construction Administration; Building Administration; Construction Scheduling; History ~nd
Theory of Architecture; Filipino Architecture; Legacies and Conservation.
A general average of 70% with no subject lower than 50 is .required to pass the examination.
An applicant who for the third consecutive time fails to pass the examination shall not
be allowed to take another until at least one year has eiapsed
his last examination.



The purpose of r.ecording in detail in the logbook the scope and period of practical diversified experience gained is to meet the requirement that those who shall take the
licensure examination for Architects have had sufficient diversfied e)(J)8t'ience neces


sary and duly recorded, in compliance with the provisions of A.A. 545 .and pertinent
to the Board of Architecture Resolutions.

It is advisable for the Trainee to choose his own Adviser. The Trainee shall:
a. Report to the Adviser at least once a month to assess and certify the progress and
work or training accomplished.
b. Notify the Adviser of any change of training venue and status.


In planning your training program. do bear in mind that the rules and time limits are
simply minimal and intended to guide you into the pattern of training that is likely to
prove most effective. but it is the Board of Architecture who will finally decide
whether your practical training has been adequate upon favorable recommendations
by the UAP. The rules are drawn broadly so as to allow for complementary periods of
training .


During the required minimum period of two (2) years (3840 hours) the trainee should.
seek opportunities whenever possible to participate in or at least observe the follow
ing activities. in coordination with his mentor.
a. Meetings with clients, including discussions oi the brief and project drawings.
b. Preliminary site investigations. meeting witr. local authority ofticials;
c. Preparation of design and production drawing, specifications-and schedules;
d. Meeting with contractors. surveyors, structural, mechanical, sanitary eng"ineers
and other consultants;
e. Pre-contract job management, contract, procedures, correspondence and reports;
f. Site visits, site meetings with members of the construction industry;
g. Post completion procedures. defects liability inspections and;
h . Office procedures and o~ganization.
Not all these activities are always available but a deficiency in your record may be
treated objectively by the board of Architecture provided you may have every effort to
compensate for the omission. For instance, a lack of experience in contract ad
ministration will be mitigated by a deliberate study in your own time subject to the
recommendations of your Adviser. Your aim should be to maximize for educational
ends the particular kinds of experience which the mentor is able to provide.

Work experience under licensed allied professionals may be credited provided, these.

are under the supervision of allied professionals concerned.

The scope is obviously very wide and you must ask yourself just how valuable in each
case the experience will be to you from a professional view point. Two weeks spent in
a constructor's firm as a "checker" in the job site will give a trainee an excellent appreciation of the constructor' s work. Two months would have been an extravagance.
Consult your Adviser in all such cases.


The Board of Architecture will be concerned with the quality of your experience as
wit~ its diversity. Much will depend on the way you approach the job and the con-


fidence you inspire in your mentor. The aim should be to use each task as an educational exercise as well as in gaining experience : If for instance, you are asked to
prepare a contract for a small house, work out (in your own time) a critical path network and compare your forecasts with actual progress. On the site you should make a
slump test and check levels dimensions and perpendiculars in order to gain experience
in judging tolerances that are acceptable. Effective inspection of building work is a
most important field of experience to acquire.


The total number of hours that a full time trainee will earn in two (2) years is as
At eight
(8 l
(5 l
equals 8 x 5 x 48

work weeks/year
1,920 hours/ year or
3,840 hours in two
12) years

In no case, shall the diversified training period be less than a total of 3,840 hours.

The trainee must secure a registered copy of the official Logbook as approved by the
Board of Architecture. Professional Regulation Commission from the United Ar
chitects of the Philippines for an amount to cover cost only, duly approved by the
For records of training and experiences _in architecture and allied professions the
trainee should-fill up DT form 001 citing the synopsis of work completed under a men.tor. The trainee must accomplish DT form 002 showing a summary of the total
number of hours required credit for each field of practice. DT form 003 must indicate a
summary of the training venues, listing the mentors and advisers.
Should additional forms be needed, these 'can be obtained from the UAP Secretarial.
When undergoing training, a trainee should supply himself with his own drafting
equipment and materials like, T -squares, triangles, technical pens, pentel pens, colored pencils, tracing papers and others that are necessary to the execution of work,
unless otherwise offered by the mentor.

To select an Adviser and to consult him regularly.

To seek placement with mentors or firm for di-versiiieti tra\ning.
To accomplish the required forms (jf the Logbook.
To observe and follow all office rules and regulations issue<! by the mentor or firm
in the performance of his training.
e. To observe honesty and proper decorum at all times.
f. To maintain strict confidentiality of all projects undertaken by the mentor or the

Failure to comply with any of the duties and responsibilities of the trainee as stipulated


above shall be subject to disciplinary action or termination of training which may be

appealed to the Board and the Commission.

The purpose of the logbook of practical experience is to ensure that those wt-to shall
take the licensure examination for architects have had sufficient diversified experience necessary in compliance with the provisions of R.A. 545. Article 1, Section
18-C, which states "xxx has a specific 1'ecord of at least two (2) years of diversified
experience ..... XXXXXXX."
Resolution No. 9-A series of 1979 by the Board of Archit'ecture, Professional Regulation Commission pursuant to Sections 2 and 8 of R.A. 545, as amended, adopted
UAP Document 200 (Code of Ethical Conduct) among others as the National Code for
Architects as part of the Rules and Regulations governing the practice of Architecture
in the Philippines (September 24, 1979); One of the provisions of the Architects Code
of Ethics (UAP Doc. 200} states: "I shall inspire by my beha'vior the loyalty of any
associates and subordinates and take upon me the mentorshipof the aspirants to the prc.fession." This provision constitutes a protessionat obligation and duty on the part of
an architect to act as mentor and train an aspirant or candidate to the profession.

There are two major undertakings by the mentor which should be regarded as setting
a minimum standard.
a. fo give the trainee ~easnnable opportunities to gain an adequate breadth and
depth of experience from the range of professional activities describ-ed in the
b. To undertake direct supervision of trainee if mentor is practicing alone. or member
of firm, _g overnment or private agency or faculty member of school, related to ar
chitecture. If head of a firm, to assign or designate a qualified Architect who will be
responsible for the trainee's work so that adequate experience is obtained.
Many trainee during their first few weeks in an office tend to be judged on their ability
to draw and detail. Some may compare unfavorably in skitts against a good draftsman.
It is important to remember, however, that courses in architecture cover a wide range
of subjects and have become much broader considering the new five-year ladder type
curriculum. The trainee's particular skills and interest should therefore be established,
in a wide range of more advanced work, such as aspects of user requirements, environmental control of integrated design schemes.
No.I But before making the decision to terminate his training, Adviser assigned to the
trainee would appreciate an opportunity to discuss the matter with the mentor and
with the trainee.
Trainee who are obtaining satisfactory practical training are generally advised to remain with the.same mentor.
If this happens, the mentQr may retain the trainee and assign him /her to do research


works within the various areas of training for not more than 3 2 0 hours. However, pro
blems in this regard may be taken up with his/her Adviser, and if practicable, to be
transferred to another Mentor.

First, as a checklist for both the tfainee and mentor in ensuring that a broad
.coverage of diversified experience is given as opportunity allows;
Second, as an easily assessed and specific record, which w ill show to the
satisfaction of the Board of Architecture the diversity of a candidate's training .

It is intended that every trainee should necessarily obtain all the different kinds of
experience from one mentor. A trainee with an imbalance in the training gained
during his first year witl obviously bear this in mind when applying with other men
tors or offices for the second period .
The trainee should aim to make the most of the particular opportunities available at
the time. The initiative in this respect must be the trainee's and should seek
guidance from his Adviser on what is reasonable to expect in any circumstances.

a. Must be a Corporate member of the United Architects of the Philippines for at least
one (1 } year.
b. Must be in the active practice of his profession whether in private or government
sector including teaching and allied professional undertakings.

a. Open opportunities for the trainee to undergo diversified experience.

b. Supervise the trainee in obtaining diversified experience in Architecture.
c. Ensure that the record or logbook is properly kept and regularly discussed with the
trainee .
d . Coordinate with the Adviser of the trainee the progress of his training.

The trainee shall be subject to disciplinary action by mentor or termination of training

for violations of rules and regulations set forth by the mentor or firm. Serious viola
tions may be brought by the Mentor to the attention of the United Architects of the
Philippines which, after due process, may recommend action to the Board of Architecture, which action may be appealed to the Commission.

The mentor is not obliged to accept or co1npensate any trainee . Renumeration of an

undergraduate or graduate is optional to the mentor.



The purpose of 'the accreditation of practical experience is to ensure that those who
shall take the licensure examination for Architects have had sufficient diversified ex-


perience necessary in compliance with the provisions of A.A. 545, Article 1, Section
18-C, which states: " ... has a specific record of at least two 12) years of diversified
experience ... ''.

a. Assist the trainee in the compliance of the logbook.

.b. Assist the trainee to look for a mentor, if necessary.
1. The minimum period of diversified experienC9 required is two 121 years or a total of 3840

2. The minimum of two years diversified training in all cases be spent in an architectural or
allied professional firms, under the direct supervision and guidance of a UAP Corporate
3. Practical training must include the range of professional activities set fourth in the Logbook, which must be duly signed by the Mentor and countersigned by the Adviser. (See
DT Form -001 ).
4. The trainee must sign every form {DT Form-001 and DT Form-002) certifying that the
record therein is true information of his diversified training and experience in architecture.
5. The forms come in duplicates. The original forms which state "to be submitted to the
Board of Architecture , PRC" must be detached from the logbook . Duplicates will be retained for the trainees' personal file and records. Do not submit the whole logbook .
6. The Board of Architecture will only consider a candidate's practical diversified training
which is properly recorded in his registered Logbook, issued only by the United Architects
of the Philippines, through the schools/coll eges of Architecture in the Philippines.
Candidate should register in person for the Board licensure Examination. All the properly
accomplished forms in the Logbook of Diversified Experience in Architecture (ORIGINALS}
shall be submitted to the Board of Architecture one month before the examination .

This list of training areas for architectural competency where the trainee should gain experience during the practical training are the services which are necessary to protect the
public health, safety and welfare of users of building that architects design. These services
are useful in the formulation of subject areas where the trainee should gain experience
before taking the examination for Architects given by the Board of Architecture, PRC.
It is important to always bear in mind that during your training you should sharpen your:

Analytical and perceptual ability

Conceptual and synthetic process
Creative and artistic talents
Management and coordination competency
Communicate talents covering graphic. numeric, literary, manipulative and verbal

The following are specific areas of training and corresponding time percentage within the
scope of the practice of architecture as stipulated under Resolution No.9, Series of 1982,
dated February 22, 1982 of the Board of Architecture which trainees shall therefore be re
quired to undertake:
A. Architectural Drafting, Designing, Planning and the Like (25%}


1. Space programming and Planning .t'.rchitectural Programming.

2 . Building Design
3 . Environmental Site Analysis and Design; Site Selection, Analysis and Utilizat ion; Site
Development Planning; and Site Planning.
4 . Town and City Planning; Urban Planning and Design; and Subdivision .Pianning.
5. Physical and Land Use Planning; Community Architecture; and Landscape Architecture .
6. Housing Design, Architectural Design and Architectural Detailing.
7 . Interior Design; and Interior Detailing and Furnishing.

B. Preparation of Contract Documents. Specifications Writing and the Like (26%)

1. Preparation of working drawings, specification and other Contract Documents.

2. Preparing General Conditions and Construction Specifications.
3 . Preparing Project Feasibility, Financing, Programming and Promotio'nal Studies.

C. Clerk of Works and the Uke {15%t

1 . Construction Management
2 . Building Cost Estimating
3. Building Materials Purchasing
4 . Materials and Equipment Warehousing
6 . Construction Scheduling:PERT-'CPM
6. Construction Records and Time Keeping

0 . Superintendence and the Uke 110%)

1 . Works Supervision

2. Construction Administration
3. Building Maintenance and Administration
4 . Project Management
E. Structural Design and Allied Engineering Fields (15%)

1 . Structural Designing, Drafting, Computations and the lik.e.

2. Mechanical, Electrical, Sanitary and Utilities Systems Equipment Selection and Plan
3. Architectural Lighting and Acoustics
4. Computer Study and Operation.
F. Ancillary Services and the Like (10%1

Assisting in Teaching Architectural Subjects

Building Material and Equipment Sales and Servicing.
Assisting in government public works projects.
Building , Planning and Zoning Regulatory Functions
Architectural legacies documentation, Res.earch and Restoration Work.

The following are activities that constitute synopsis of work that the trainee can perform in
gaining experience in various training. During your initial encounters with the various fields
of activity, seek assistance from your superiors and the more experienced. As mentors of
the architectural profession they will gladly give you encouragement and support.
1 . Office meetin~s. brainstotrning and coordination works.
2. ConferencE> with rtients.
3. Meetings with local authorities


4. Prepar~tion of presentation materials, audio-visual aids, scaled models and other promotional studies.
5. Preparation of minutes and reports
6 . Site visitations and inspections
7. Preparation of architectural and structural design documents.
8. Architectural drafting and preparation of contract drawings.
9. Materials selection and specification writing.
10. cost planning, quantity estimating and cost controlling.
11 . Meetings and brainstorming with design team.
1 2 . Conference with building team
1 3. Office management, general administration and procedures.
14. Pre-contract job management
1 5. Construction administration and works supervision.
16. Post-Construction and building operations .
These activities together with the list of training can be utilized as a checklist in monitoring
the practical experience you have gained during your tenure of traini~g.


Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council {an office mandated to coordi
nate and supervise the government's housing is also tasked with monitoring
the perlormance of the housing sector, and is also involved in r&search and policy
formations and policy advocacy. The HUDCC administers the government's national
shelter program.
Under the HUDCG structure, the SSS, the GSIS, and Pag-lbig are the frontliners. Thls
also include the UHLP and HDMF. Below are the key housing agendes, the NHMFC.
NHA, HLAB, and HIGC which are direct HUDCC supervision.
The support agencies are the DBM, NEDA, DBP, OF. OPWH, and Representatives of
four private sector organizations, which may be from SHOA. CAEBA, REBAP,PARE B.
NAR, UAP, etc.)




Social Security System

(coverage in the SSS shall be compulsary upon all employee.s not over sixty
years of age and their employers for the private sector)


- Government Service Insurance System

(The insurance system for the Public Sector)


- Pag-lbig Fund
(a provident savings fund for housing open to most private ent~ies)


- Unified Home Lending Program

(This is administered by NHMFC from funds constributed by SSS, HDMF and


- Home Development Mutual Fund

(The HDMF administers the Pag-lbig fund, it ent~les Pag-lbig members who are
public and private employees as well as the self-employed to housing loans).



- National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation

(The agency mandated to administer mortgage take-outs of buyers originated by
banks and developers, faced with administrative problems in loan processing like
shortage of evaluators, and computers as wall as power outages.}


NHMFC is tasked with the generation of a continuing aouroe of fund for housing through the
seoondary mortgage market system that seeks to attract private investments Into housing. This
system takes the risks from private investors who are in HFC's main functions to attract private
sourcfi of capital for home financing. n provides mortgage credit Insurance by acting as
guarantors of individual home loans to assure the payment of said mortgage loans. ll is also
directly involved in providing construction and development finance for housing.

- National Housing Authority

(The Af,jeney tasked for the building d housing units and residential condominJums. The NHA also facilitates joint venture projects among landowners, developers, financial institutions and local governments.) It is responsible for undertakIng housing development and resettlement and for prescribing guidelines and
standards for the reservation, conservation, and utilization of publlc Ianda
identified for housing and resetttement.


- Home Insurance Guarantee Corp.

(insuring the subdivisions and also a lending entity)


Housing and Land use Regulatoty Board

(The government's principal regulatory body in housing and land development.)
h is to enforce, implement, coordinate and streamline land use policies and regulations on human settlements, including the implementation and enforcement of
the Ulban land Reionn Deaee, and value and building rental regulatlons and
other related laws. The approval of preUminary and subdivision schemes and
development plans of all subdivisions for residential, commercial industrial and
other purposes of the pubtic and private sector, is now being transferred to the
LGU - (local government units) as per the new local government code.


Department of Budget and Management


National Economlc and Development Authority


Development Bank of the Phifeppines


Department of Finance



of Public Works and Highways



Subdivision and Housing Developers Association, Inc.


Chamber of Realtors and Builders Associaton


Realtor$ and Builders Association of the Phils.


Philfppine Association of Realtors and Builders


National Association of Realtors


United Architects. Phils.


Public Estates Authority

(An agency tasked to implement relocation of squatter families.)

United States At;ymc:tj for International Development


Planning and Development Collaborative international


National Urban Development and Housing Framework

(The comprehensive development plan urban and urbanizable areas intended
primarily to uplift the conditions of the underpriveleged and homeless citizens in
Urban areas and in resettlement areas.

This consist of volume I for macro framework for national development and housing, while
volume It covers the guidelines for local government units, including town planning guidelines
in condensed form, shelter P*tnning guidelines, implementing rules and regulations.



1 . BUILDING PERMIT - a written authorization granted by Building Official to an applicant allowing him to proceed with the construction of a specific project after plans,
specifications, and other pertinent documents have been found to be in conformity
with the National Building Code (PO 1096} and its implementing rules and regulations.
It includes any or all of th~ Permits enumerated under Section 1 of Rule 11 1. {see page 49B
2. CONSTRUCTION - all on-site work done from site preparation, excavation, foundation; assembly of all the components and installation of utilities and equipments of
3. ERECTION - Installation in place of components of a building/structures.
4. ADDITION - Any new construction which increases the height or area of an existing
5. AlTERATION - construction in a building/structure involving changes in the
materials used, partitioning, location/size of openings, structural parts, existing
utilities and equipment but does not increase the overall area thereof.
6 . RENOVATION - Any physical change made on a building/structure to increase its
value, utility and/or to improve its aesthetic quality.
7. CONVERSION - a change in the use or occupancy of a building/structure or any portion/s, thereof which has different requirements.
B. REPAIR - Remedial work done on any damaged or deteriorated portionls of a
building/structure to restore its original condition.
9 . MOVING - The transfer of a building/structure or portion/s thereof from its original
location or position to another, either within the same lot or to a different one.
10. DEMOLITION - The systematic dismantling or destruction of a building/structure.
in whole or in part.
11 . ANCILLARY BUILDING/STRUCTURE - a secondary building/structure located within
the same premises the use of which is incidental to that of the main building/structure.

No person, firm, or corporation, including any agency or instrumentality of the government
shall erect, construct, alter. repair, move, convert, or demolish any building or structure or
cause the same to be done without first obtaining a building permit therefore from the
Building Official assigned in the place where the subject building is located or the building
work is to be done.
However, a building permit shall not be required for the following constructions and-repairs:
provided that said constructions or repairs shall not violate any provisions of the Code and
its implementing Rules and Regulations:

a. Minor Constructions:
1. Sheds, outhoiJses. greenhouses, children's playhouses, aviaries. poultry houses


and the like. not exceeding 6 sq. m. floor area, provided they are completely
detached from any other building and are intend~d only for the private use of the

2. Addition of open terraces or patios resting directly on the ground, not exceeding
20 sq. m. in floor area. exclusively for the private use of the owner.

3. Installation of Window grilles.

4. Garden pools for the cultivation of water plants and/or aquarium fishes not exceeding 500 millimeter {0.50m) in depth.
5. Erection of garden walls other than party walls not exceeding 1.80 meters .in
height, cementing, of footpaths, garden walks and/or driveways.

b. Repairs:
1 . Repair works not affecting or involving any structural member, such as replacement of deteriorated roofing sheets or tiles, gutters, downspouts, fascias, ceilings
and/or sidings.

2. Repair of non-load bearing partition walls.

3. Repairs of any interior portion of a house not involving addition or alteration.

4. Repair and/or replacement of window and floorings.
5. Repair of perimeter fence and walls.

6. Repair and/or replacement of sanitary or plumbing fixtures, such as toilet bowls

and cisterns, urinals and bidettes. pipes. fc.ucets, valves, water pumps and/or

7. Repair or replacement of faulty or deteriorated wiring devices, fixtures and safety

devices, provided that no alteration shall be made on the service entrance and the
main switch or breaker, and that no additional circuits shall be added.
Any person desiring to obtain a building permit shall file an application therefore in writing
and on the prescribed form. (see. page 490, 492 and 4941

1. Together with the accomplished application form the following shall be submitted to
the office of the Building Official:
a. ln case the applicant is the reg)stered owner of the lot.
1 . Certified true copy of TCT (Title)

2. Tax Declaration
3. Current real property tax receipts (all xeroxed in 3 copies!
b. In case the applicant is not the registered owner of the lot.

1 . Duly notarized copy of the contract of lease or

2. Duly notarized copy of the Deed of Absolute Sale, or
3. Duly notarized copy of the contract of sale.
Five (5) sets of plans and Specifications, and Bill of Materials, Prepared, signed and
sealed. {see page 4601

by a duly licensed architect in case of architectural.

by a duly licensed civil engineer for structural plans.
by a duly licensed electrical engineer, in case of electrical plans.
by a duly licensed sanitary engineer or master plumber, in case of plumbing or


sanitary installation plans.

e. by a duly licensed professional mechanical engineer, in case of mechanical plans.
2 . The Building permit fQrms shalt be accomplished and s\gned by the Architect who
prepared the plans and also the architect who will be in charge of the construction.
The owner shall also sign the form. (see page 490)

3. The application for electrical permit form shall be duly filled up and bear the signature
of 'the Electrical Engineer who prepared the Electr ical plan and also the signature of the
Electrical Engineer who is in charge of the installation. fsee page 4921
4. The application for plumbing/sanitary forms shall bear the signature of the sanitary or
master plumber who prepared the plumbing plans and the signature of the plumber in
charge of the plumbing installations. (see page 494l
5. Logbook tsee page 521
NOTE: Plans and Specifications shall not be required f or:
a) Tra<Dtional inadequate family dwellings which are intended for the use and occupancy
'Of the family of the owner only and constructed of native materials such as bamboo,
nipa, logs, or lumber, the total cost of which does not exceed fifteen thousand pesos

(P1 5,000.00).
b) Single detached dwellings up to 20 sq. m. in floor area.
For a or b, a simple sketch with
map, will suffice.

~imensions ,




accompanied by a site location and vicinity

a. Location Plan within a two kilometer radius for commerciaL industrial, and institutional complex and within a half-kilometer radius for residential buildings at any
convenient scale.

Scale 1:200

b. Site Development Plan at scale of 1':200 m. Standard or any convenient scale for
large-scale devek>pment showing position of building in relation to lot, existing
buildings within and adjoining the lot shall be hatched and distances between the
proposed and existing, buildings shall be indicated.

d . Floor Plans at scale of not less than 1:100 m for a small residence. a scale of 1:50
is good.

at least four (4)

f. Sections - at least two (21

g. Foundation Plan at scale 1 :100 or more
h. Floor -

framing Plan

i. Roof - framing Plan

j. Details of Footing/Column at any convenient scale.
k. Details of Structural Members, like stairs.

I. Balconies, Trusaes, Beams. etc. arch'l details like closets, cabinets etc.


a. Design analysis shall be required for all buildings or structures except for the
1 . Traditional indigenous family dwellings
2 . Single detached residential buildings with a total floor area up to 20.00 sq. m .
b. Boring and Plate Load Tests (Soil Classification) required only for buildings or
structures of four (4) stories and higher:




SEC. 25 RA 545
Drawings and specifications duly signed, sealed or stamped, as instruments of service. are the property and
documents of the architect, whether the object for which they are made is e~ecuted or not. It shall be unlawful
for any person, without the writter~ consent of the architect or author of said documents. to duplicate or to
make copies of said documents for use in the repetlti011 of and for other projects or buildings, whether executed
partly or in whole.













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c. Seismic Analysis (Earthquake Forces)

Every building or structure and every portion thereof except single detached
buildings, duplexes, housing, church rectories which are less than 7.5 meters in
height, shall be designed and constructed to resist stresSGs produced by lateret

a. For new, additional or altered plumbing Installation not exceeding twenty (20)
units, the engineering documents signed and sealed by a duly licensed master
plumber shall include the following~
, . Plumbing Plan and Layout
2. Isometric Drawing
3. Guide Specifications and Bill of Materials
4 . 'Estimate of Cost (for statistical -purposes only)
b. For new Sanitary Installation with more than twenty (20) units of plumbing installations. water supply, storm drainage, water purification and sewage treatment plant, applications shall be accompanied by sanitary plans and specifications
signed and sealed by aduly licensed Sanitary engineer.
1 . Sanitary plan, layouts and details.

2. Isometric drawings of roughing- ins of sanitary drainage, ventilation lines, hot

and/or cold wateT distribution/supplies to plumbing fixtures and equipment
3. Detail drawings of Imhoff tanks/septic tanks in the absence of disposal to the
street sanitary sewer.
4. Riser diagram of drainage including details of miscellaneous appurtenances
such as manholes, junction boxes catch basins, water/sewer/storm drainage
5. Design Analysis, technical specifications.
6. Estimate of Cost (for statistical purposes only)
7. Detail drawings of deep well water source and water-treatment device in the
absence of municipal water system.


a. The corresponding plans and specifications for 50 Hp or more, signed and seated
by a duly licensed, Professional Mechanical Engineer shall contain the following:
1 . General layout plan for. each floor, to a scale of not less than 1 :, 00 m indicating the equipment in heavier lines than the building outline. Names of
machinery and corresponding brake horsePQwer shall be indicated.
2. Longitudinal and Transverse action drawn to scale of at least 1:100 m showing interfloor relations and defining the manner of support of mitchinery
(whether through building structure, by separate staging, or by foundations
resting on the ground).
3. Isometric drawing for piping syatem showing:
a. Assembly of pipes on rocks and supports.
b. Complete individual piping system indicating terminal to terminal valves,
fittings, sizes and color codings.
4. Plan indicating location of store rooms, fuel tanka, fire extinguishing system,


fire doors, fire escapes. ladders and other similar fire protective facilities.
5. Plans of all duct w ork installations , indicating dampers, controls. filters,
fireproofing, acoustical and thermal insulation.

6. Detailed plans of machinery foundation and supports drawn to scale 1:50 m.

7. Detailed plans of boilers and pressure vessels with a working pressure of
above 10 psi regardless of HP rating . 1:50 m.
8. Computation and detailed plans of elevator, escalators and the like.

9. Complete machinery list, showing

a. Name and type of machinery
b . Make and catalog number, size, model sedal number, capacity.
c. Revolution per minute (RPM) and drive (direct, V-belt or flat-belt, gear
reducer hydraulic, magnetic, chain or line shafting).
d. Motor or Prime Mover Showing

1 . ICE (International Combustion Engine)

a. Horsepower Rating (HP)
b. RPM (revolution per minute)
c. Total horsepower
d . Fuel
e. Use

a. Horsepower (HP) rating
RPM !revolution per minute)
g. Kilowatt (kw)
h. Use


10. Flow Sheets

for processing plant, manufacturing plant or Assembly plant.
b. For all installations, additions or alterations involving machinery of at least 20 HP
the signature of the applicant shall be sufficient.
c. Estimate cost of Installation and Equipment shall be submitted.
For new electrical installation with more than twenty !20) outlets or a capacity of
more than a 4 Kw, of any voltage, application shall be accompanied by electrical plans
and specifications signed and sealed by a duly licensed professional electrical
engineer, containing the following:

1 . General Electrical Layout with Legends

2. Single line Diagram

3. Riser diagram
4. Schedule of Loads
5. Design Analysis
6. Estimate of Cost
7 . Whenever necessary, written certifications/ Clearances shall be obtained from the
various government exercising regulatory functions affecting buildings and other


related structures, such as the:

Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board HLURB (formerly the Human Settlements Regulatory Commission HSRC) zoning and land use
National Housing Authority (NHA)
For subdivision and residential condominium
National Pollution Control Commission (NPCC)
For pollution abatement and control Measures.
Ministry of Tourism (MOT)
For Tourism Oriented Projects
Civil Aeronautics Administ ration (CAA)
For height clearance for constructions near airports.
Philippine Ports Authority (PPA)
For constructions in port zones, etc.
PROJECT ------- -- - - -- -- -- -- - - - - - - -- -- - - - - -









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(Structural. Sanitary, Electrical. Mechanical, Architectural, etc.)
V. CORRESPONDENCE - received & transmitted




a. The appficant goes to the zoning administrator who shall first verify conformity of the
proposed building with the land use plan and zoning regulations of the City/Municipality.


{The building official acts on this in the places where there is no zoning administrator\.

a. When satisfied that all documents, plans and specifications accompanying an application are in order . The Building Official gives due course to the application.
b. Upon receipt of application the Building Official refers one t 1) set of plans and
specifications to the chief of the Local Fire Service !CLFSl for his evaluation,
review and /or r-ecommendation w ith res pect to fire safety and control requirements . The CLFS is given five days to act and submit this report to the
Building Official .


a. Building Official establishes and/or verifies lot as reflected in the Torrens title or
TCT and its relation to the proposed building.
b. Building establishes setbacks and determines grades in relation to road lots, property lines, streets or highways whether existing or proposed, as reflected in the
land-use, zoning or development plan of the City/Municipality including road
widening and construction of various public utilities and other infrastructure projects.

(Corresponding Technical Staff evaluates bidding documents as to technical requirements for:)

a) Architectural
types of construction
11equirements ot Fire Zones
Light and Ventilation
Building Projections over public streets
General Design and Construction Requirements
Classification and General Requirements by use or occupancy.
bl Structural
Structural design requirements
Fire resistive requirements on construction
Excavations. foundations and retaining walls
The use of Computers
Pre-fabricated Construction
c) Sanitary/Plumbing
- Sanitation
d) Electrical
- Electrical Regulations
el Mechanical
- Mechanical Regulations
fl Fire Safety and Control
- Fire extinguishing systems
(The required . Fees under each Technical documents concerned shall be paid to the Public
Works Cashier and then the receipts to be submitted to the assistant of the Building Official
who is in charge of the Processing of the permit}.

a) The Technical Staff prepares assessment o f corresponding fees, including the
0 . 1% (or 10% of 1% = .001 or simply ~1 .00 for every 11"1 ,000.00 estimate) for
example if the total permit is t-400,000 Multiply by .001 = P400.00 permit fee or
J-400,000.00 divide by fD1 ,000.00 == ~400.00 Fee) FIRE FUND FEE. This is paid
to t he fire dept. and a receipt is issued.
a) When satisfied that the work described in an application for building permit and the
plans and specifications submitted herewith, coniorm to the requirements of the
Co de as well as of these Rules., the Building Official shall, within fifteen days from
p ayment of the required f ees by the applicant, issue the building permit applied for.
b) The Building Official may issue a permit for the c'onstruction of only a part or port ion of t he building or structure whenever the plans and specifications submitted
together with the application do not cover the entire building or structure .
c. The Building official may issue a permit for foundation and basement even while
the application is still being processed, and shall charge corresponding fees
therefor in accordance with pertinent provisions of rule 111. The fee so collected
shall be deducted from the total building permit fees.
a. The Building Official may order or cause the non-issuance. suspension or revocation of building permits on any or all of the following reasons or grounds :
1 . Errors found in the plans and specifications.
2 . Incorrect or inaccurate data or information supplied.
3 . Non-compliance with the pertinent provisions of the Code or of any r ule or
regulation issued thereunder.
b. Notice of non-issuance, suspension or revocation of building permits shall always
be made in writing, stating the reasons or ground therefor.
a. Approved plans and specificatio.n s upon which the issuance oi the permit has been
based shall not . be changed, modified or altered without the approval of the
Building Official and the work shall be done strictly in accordance thereto.
b. The issuance of a building permit shall not be construed as an approval authorization to the permittee to disregard or violate any of the provisions of the Code.

Whenever the issuance of a permit is b ased on approved plans and specifications

which are subsequently found defective. the Building Official is not precluded from
requiring permittee to effect the necessary corrections in the said plans and
specifications or from prevent ing or ordering the stoppage of any or all building
operations being carried on thereunder which are not in acc ordance wit h the Code
and/or this Rule.

d. In the actual execution of the project, the architect or civil engineer in charge of the
construction w ork may hi re the services of one or more project inspectors/to
assist in the full time inspection and supervision of all aspects of the construction.
Said project inspector/s must be professional/s who is/are duly registered architect/s, engineers. master electrician/s master plumber/s. etc. qualified in their
respective disciplines.


e. The owner shall put up a sign complying with the prescribed dimensions and re
quired information. Such sign shall remain posted on the construction site for the
duration of the construction. isee pag~.; 497!


A building permit issued under the provisions of the Code shall expire and become null
and void if the building or work authorized therein is not commenced within a period of
one year from the date of such permit, or if the building or work so authorized is
suspended or abandoned at any time after it has been commenced for a period or 120
PROMULGATION OF THE NATIONAL BUILDING CODE (PO 1 096} ; (see page 4961 Section 309 of the National Building Code (PO 1096}, no building or structure
shall be used or occupied and no change in the existing use or occupancy classification of a
building or structure or portion thereof shall be made until the Building Official has Issued a
Certificate of Occupancy therefor.

1. To secure a certificate of occupancy, the following procedure shall be followed:

The owner/applicant shall submit to the Building Official the following documents:

a. Certificate of Completion together with the logbook and the Building Inspection
Sheet duly accomplished by the Contractor (if the construction is undertaken by
contract) and signed and sealed by the architect or civil engineer in-charge of the
construction work .. Said architect or civil engineer may hire the services of one or
more project inspector/s to assist in the full time inspection and supervision of all
aspects of the construction. Said project inspector/s must be qualified profes
sional/s, who is/are duly registered architect/s. master electrician/s, master
plumber/s, etc.
b. As-built plans and specifications jointly signed and sealed by the designer architect
or civil engineer and the architect or civil engmeerin-charge of the construction
and signed by the contractor (if the construction is undertaken by contract) and
confirmed by the owner. Said plans and specifications shall reflect faithfuliy all
changes, modifications and alterations made on the originally approved plans and
specifications which are the basis of the issuance of the original building permit.
Pursuant to Section 304 of the National Building Code, all such changes, modifications
and alterations shall likewise be approved by the Building Official and the subsequent
mandatory permit therefor issued before any work on said changes, modifications
and alterations shall be started. The as-built plans and specifications may be just as
orderly and comprehensive compilation of all the documents which include the original
ly approved plans and specification and all amendments thereto as actually built or
they may be entirely new set of plans and specifications accurately describing and/or
reflecting therein the building as actually built.
The Office of the Building Official shall undertake the final inspection, verification
and/or review of the building based on the Certificate of Completion, logbook. plans as
built-plans as the case may be, and specifications on the prescribed standard form (see
MPW Form No. 77004-B), according to the following:
a. Conformity with approved Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance.

a. Types of Construction (Chapter 4 of the N.B.C. )
b. Requirements of the fire zones (Chapter 5 of the N.B.C.l
c. Light and ventilation (Chapter 8 of the N.B.C. Rules XVI. NBC Memorandum Order
d. Building projection over public streets (Chapter 10 of the N.B.C.)
e. General design and construction requirements (Chapter 12 of the N.B.C.)
f. Classification and general requirements by use of occupancy !Chapter 7 of the N.B.C.)

g. Signs (Chapter 20 of the N.B.C. Rule V of the Implementing Rules and Regulations)

a. Compliance with established line and grade.


a. Structural design (National Structural Code for Building\.
b. Fire-resistive requirements in construction (Chapter 6 of the N.B.C.!
c. Excavation, foundation and retaining walls (Section 1202 of the N.B.C.)
d. Pre-fabricated construction (Chapter 1 5 of the N.B.C.)


a . Sanitation (Chapter 9 of the N.B.C.)

a. Electrical regulations (Chapter 13 of the N.B.C. ; Rule IX NBC Memorandum Order 77-41

a. Fire-Extinguishing system (Section 1212, Chapter 12 of the N.B.C.l
Pursuant to the Memorandum of Agreement signed on August 1, 1978 between the
MONO and the MPW, the Building Official shall notify the Chief of the Local Fire Service to
conduct his final inspection and requires him to submit his Fire Safety Inspection Certificate
within five l5) working days from receipt of notif ication . In case of non-issuance. suspension or revocation of said Certificate by the CLFS, he shall so state in writing the reasons or
grounds therefor.

a. Said certificate shall be issued by the Chief of the Local Fire Service (CLFS) not later
than five (5) working ~ays from referral. If. after the prescribed period , no action is
taken by the CLFS, the Building 01ficial may issue the Certificate of Occupancy with the
condition that the fire safety requirements shall be complied with the prescribed period
set forth in the Fire Code of the Philippines.
b. In case of Industrial bullding/s structures a certificate from the National Pollution Control (NPCC> shall also be required.
Building Official's technical staff prepares assessment of fees .
Building Official reviews technical evaluation and assessment of fees and orders payment
for the full amount of fees .

Building Official issues the Certi.ficate of Occupancy in the form prescribed therefor (MPW
Form 77006-Bl
A partial Certificate of Occupancy may be issued for the use or occupancy of a portion or
portions of a building or structures prior to the completion of the entire building or struc
Pursuant to Section 702 and 703 of the National Building Code, a building for which a Cer
tificate of Occupancy has been issued may further be issued other Certificates of Occupan
cy due to changes in use/s or type/s or occupancy is/are less hazardous based on life and
fire risk then the original use or type of occupancy.

In the absence official land Use Plan, the following guidelines shall be observed:
1 . The Building Official shall determine the major land use pattern in his respective area
of jurisdiction in consultation with Human Settlements Regulatory Commission
IHSRC) or the local planning and/or development body. All new building construction
shall conform to this major land use pattern.
2 . Any form of land qevelopment such as site grading, construction of curbs and gutters,
fencing, etc., shall not be allowed unless adequate provisions for environmental protection are made to safeguard the area adjacent to the proposed development from
flooding, pollution and other physical ill effects.

-3. In cases of large-scale land development covering an area of 2,500 square meters or
more, the consent of the homeowners and/or barangay association and adjacent property owners shall first be obtained before any permit is issued.
4 . All land development projects covering housing subdivision and residential condomin iums shall conform to the rules and regulations promulgated under PO 9 53 and
957 by the National Housing Authority (NHA}.




1. Zoning and Land Use Verification

2. Establishment of Line and Grade
3. Excavation and Ground Preparation Permit
4 . Building Permit, for the construction, erection, addition, alteration, renovation , conversion, repair, moving or demolition of residential, commercial, industrial, mstitutional, recreational, agricultural, ancillary, temporary and other buildings/structures.



Single detached dwellings and duplexes for use of owner "on

campus" dormitories, rectories, convents and monasteries,
residential condominiums owned by o.ccupants, army bar
racks, etc.
Single detache~ dwellings and duplexes for lease, boarding
houses, apartments, accessories, hotels and inns, "of
campus" dormitories, transportation terminals and stations,
night clubs and dance halls, restaurants, markets and shopping


centers, theaters, sports stadia : grandstands, gaspline service

station, parking garages, funeral parlors etc.

Factories, plants, mills, arsenals, breweries, processing plants,

gas geneFating plants, shipyards. aircraft hangars. slipways,
drydocks and piers, lumber mills. warehouse, storage tanks,
grain and cement silos, etc.

In stitutional

Educational institutions, libraries, museums, clubhouses ,

hospitals, sanitaria, asylums, homes for the aged, jails, police
and fire stations, places of worship, etc.

Recreat ional

- Cinemas, billiard halls, disco pads, amusement houses, etc.


Barns, poultry houses. hatcheries,

greenhouses, granaries, etc.




Garages, carports , tanks, towers, smokestacks and chimneys,

vaults, swimming pools, pelota courts, aviaries, aquariums,
zoo structures. fire walls and fences over 1.80 meters in
height, etc.


Field offices, laborers quarters, canopies and railings, protective fencing, etc.


Cemetery structures such as mausoleums. tombs. multi-level

niches, etc.

5. Demolition Permit
6. Moving Permit
7 . . Sanitary/Plumbing Permit, for the installation . alteration or repair of' sanitary , plumbing, water supply and drainage systems.
8. Electrical Permit, for the installation. alteration or repair of any electrical system .
9. Temporary Service Connection Permit
10. Pole/Attachment Location Plan Permit
11 . Mechanical Permit, for the installation, alteration or repair of elevators, lifts,
escalators. dumb-waiters. conveyors, boilers, pumps, fans and blowers, pressure
vessels. furnaces steam or pneumatically activated machinery or heat producing apparatus, air conditioning or refrigerating equipment or plant, including piping or duct
work and appurtenances thereto, gas and fuel supply systems, etc.
12 . Fencing permit, for construction of fences up ~o 1.80 meters in height and made of
materials other than those mentioned in Section 14.1 of this Rule.
13. Sidewalk Construction Permit
14. Temporary Sidewalk Enclosure and Occupancy Permit
15. Scaffolding Permit, for the erection of scaffolding on public areas .
1 6. Certificate of use or Occupancy, for full or partial, permanent or temporary use or occupancy and any change of use or occupancy. (see pag~ 4961
17. Annual Inspection of buildings/structures and their sanitary/plumbing, electrical and
mechanical installations, machinery and equipment.


18 . Sign Permit, f or the erection, installation, repair, alteration or removal of signs, as

enum erated in Rule V.
1 9. Communication/Electronics Permit

1 . Type of Occupancy or Use of Building

2. 'cost of Construction
3. Floor Area
4. Height

"Cost ot Construction is t he cost per square meter o1 f loor area o~ building, based on
group classification, as shown in Section 4 of this Rule.
Occupancy Groups are Classified int o five Categories, Namely:

Residential buildings.

This shall comprise Group A and partly Group B


Commercial and Industrial - This shall comprise partly Groups B,

C, E, F. G. H. and I buildings.


Social , Educational and Institutional - This shall comprise part ly

Groups C, D. E and H buildings.


Agri cultural - This shall comprise partly Group J buildings .


Ancillary - This shall comprise partly Group J buildings .


Cost/Square meter

I. Metro Manila and all
First Cla ss Cities.

II. Second Class Cities

and First Class
Ill. All Others




p 600 .00


P500 .00




P300 .00


1. Construction/additional/renovation/alteration of traditional indigenous family dwelling
units as defined under Section 209 of the Code.
2. Construction/addition/renovation/alteration of public buildings. For purposes of this
Rule the term "PUBLIC BUILDING OR STRUCTURE" refers to any building owned, oc-


cupied and operated by regular and/or specialized agencies or offices performing purely government functions.
3. Construction/ addition/renovation/alteration introduced or undertaken by the National
Housing Authority on government ow ned tenement houses and other housing units
while the ~itle of the lot is still under the name of the government .
4 . Reconstruction of buildings or structures damaged or destroyed by typhoons, fires,
earthquakes or other calamities, provided that t he cost of such reconstruction shall
not exceed twenty percent (20%) of the original construction cost based on the
schedule of rates provided in this Rule and that an application therefor ls filed with the
Building Official together w ith the Certificate of Damage which shall be obtained from
the Office of the Building Official not later than thirty 130) days after the occurrence of
such calamity.
5. Construction of buildings or structures by civic organizations, charitable institutions
to be donated to the government for public use.
6. Construction/addition/renovation/alterat ion/repair of buildings/structures and electrical equipment/installations owned by electric cooperative organized and/or
operating pursuant to PD 269. However, individual household. members of such
cooperatives are not exempted.


Certified true copy of building permit .................. ..... ........... .......................

Certified true copy of Certificate of Use/Occupancy .................. ......... o . . . . .
Issuance of Certificate of Damage .... ... .. .... .... ... .. .. ... .... ..............................
Certified true copy of Certificate of Damage .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. ...... ............. ...........
Certified t rue copy of Electrical Certificate of Damage ......... .. .. .. .... .. .... .......
Issuance of Certificate of Gas Meter Inst allation ................... .............. ..... ....
Certified true copy of Certificate of Operation ......
o o. o o .



2 .00

2 .00
2 .00


All fees mentioned in this Rule shell be paid to the Cashier of the District/City/Municipal
Building Official or to the Municipal Treasurer before the issuance of the building permit .

1. A surcharge of 100% shall be imposed and collected from any person who shall construct, install, repair, alter or cause any change in the use or occupancy of any
building or parts thereof or appurtenances theret o without any permit.
2 . All inspection fees shall be paid within 30 days from the prescribed date; otherwise a
surcharge of 2S% shall be imposed.
3 . Administrative fines, penalties and/or surcharges for various violations of the Code
are prescribed under Sections 8 to 10 of Rule VIII.




This Rule is promulgated to define the procedure for the proper reporting 11nd recordrng of
collections and disbursements of the funds of the General Fund Special Account 1 51 of
the office of the Minister, MPW.


PursuC:lnt to Chapter 20 of the National Building Code lP. D. 10961, the following rules ana
regulations shall govern the design, content, construction, location. installation al"d
maintenance of outdoor billboards. advertising and display signs, streamers. posters and
the like.
A. DEFINITION - For purposes of this Rule, the fo'lowing definitions shail apply:
a. SIGN - Any letter, word, numeral, pictor!al presentatror.. f!iustratior.. decoration.
embl~~m. Jevicc. symbol or trademark. flag. banner. or pennant. or an-:. other figure of
similar character that is:
attached to painted on or in any manner represented on a building or structure.
used to announce, direct attention to or advertise. and visible to the public.

b. BUSINESS SIGN - An accessory sign that directs attention to a profession. business.

commodity, service or entertainment conducted. sold or offered in the same place
where the business is located. An identification or on-premise sign.
c. DISPLAY SIGN - Any material. device or structure that is arranged, intended, designed. or used as an advertisement, announcement or directory that includes a sign,
sign screen, billboard or advertising device of any kind.
d. ELECTRICAL SIGN - Any sign which has characters, letters, figures, designs, faces,
backgrounds or outline illuminated by incandescent or fluorescent lamps or luminous
tubes as part of the sign proper. These light sources being either external or internal.
e. GROUND SIGN - A sign resting on the ground.

A fabricated flat surface upon which a message is either posted or

g. ADVERTISING SIGN - A sign that directs attention to a business, profession, commodity, service or entertainment conducted, sold or offered at a place other than where
the business, profession, etc., is located. An off-premise sign.
h. PROJECTING SIGN - A sign fastened to, suspended from or supported on a building
or structure, the display surface of which is perpendicular from the wall surface or is at
an angle therefrom.
i. TEMPORARY SIGN - A sign of cloth or other light and/or combustible material, with
or without frame installed for a .limited period of time.

A sign painted on, attached or fastened to the surface of the wall or any
part of a building or structure the display surface of which is par-allel to the wall surface.

k. SIGN STAND- Any movable structure on which a sign is mounted or supported.

I. BILLBOARD - A panel for posting bills or posters.
m. DISPLAY SURFACE - The entire area enclosed by the extreme limits or perimeter of a
n. DISPLAY WINDOW - That portion of a building abutting the sidewalk open to public
view protected by grilles, screens or transparent materials for the display of goods.
o. DISPLAY STAND - Any movable structure, table, showcase, cabinet and the like
where goods or periodicals are displayed.
p. ROOF SIGN - A sign installed on roofs, roof decks or eaves.
q. IMPRINT - A plaque or sticker or lettering to be painted on either the top or the bottom

r. 1

of the poster or sign as a means of identifying the company to whom the structure
belongs and the permit issued therefor.
r. BUILDING LINE - The line formed by the intersection of the surface of the enclosing
wall o f the building and the surface of the ground.
s. ARCADE - Any portion of a building above the first floor project ing over the sidewalk
beyond the first story wall used as protection tor pedestrians.

t. STRUCTURE - That which is built or constructed, an edifice or building of any kind. or

any piece of w ork artifically built up or composed of parts joined together in some
definite manner.
u. CHAMFER - Surface produced by beveling square edge or corner equally on both sides.

1 . Signs shall adhere to the Code of Ethics for Advertising and Promotions and to the
rules and regulations of the appropriate agency in charge of the conduct of the
2. Signs shall promot e and uphold the public good especially in historical monuments
and shrines, natural scenic areas. parks, parkways, and their immediate app roaches.
Immediate approaches shall mean a distance not exceeding 50,00Gmeters from the
periphery of said areas.
3 . Signs shall display or convey only messages or visuals that conform t o public decency
and good taste.
4. Signs shall follow standards of design, construction and maintenance in the interest of
public safety, convenience. good viewing and to promote proper urban design or community architecture .
5. Sign struc tures may be constructed only in area s where zoning regulati ons permit
them and in accordance with t he accepted standards o f design; construct ion and
6. Signs and sign structures shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of
Section 2003 of the National Building Code . Plans of signs structures exceeding 3.00
meters in height from t he ground shall be signed and sealed by a duly registered Architect or Civil Engineer.
7. Signs and sign structures built within highly restrictive fire zones shall be of incombustible materials. No combustible materials other than approved plastic shall be used
in construction of electrical signs.
8 . Signs and sigro structures equipped with electrical devices shall have an electrical wir
ing plan conforming with the provisions of the Philippine Electrical Code duly signed
by a profession al Elec trical Engineer; Provided . that for installation n ot exceeding 600
volts and 4 kilowatts, a sketch and bill of materials signed and sealed by an Electrical
Engineer or Master Electrician shall be sufficient.
9 . Signs shall be placed in such a manner that no part of it s surface will interfere in any
way with the free use of a doorway, a fire escape, standpipe or other required means
of exits and fire-protect ive devices.
10 . Signs shall be erected in such a manner as not to confuse or obstruct the view or interpretation of any public sign, traffic signal or device, nor obstruct the sight, distract the
attention of motorists, reflect bl!nding light or cause glare to oncoming traffic.
1 1 . Signs which are written in Chinese or any foreign language shall have a corresponding
translation in English or in the local dialect .
( )" ....

1 2. The bottom line of all signboards adjacent to each other shall follow a common base
line as determined by the Building Official.
13 . The installation of all kinds of signs shall be such that a harmonious and aesthetic relationship of all units therein is presented.

Outdoor adverti sing signs shall be permitted only in commercial or industrial zones as
designated in the Official Zoning Map .
2.1 Business signs shall have a maximum w idth of 1 .20 meters and a length not exceeding the frontage of the lot.
2.2 Business signs installed, displayed or erected in the same bJJilding shall
preferably be of identical size and flush against the building facade.
2.3 In highly built -up urban areas, business signs may be allowed within the immediate approaches as det\ned in Section 2. 2.
3. 1 The design and construction of roof signs shall conform to the provisions of Sec .
2030 of the Nat ional Building Code. However, no sign shall be erected , attach
ed to, installed or fastened on roof tops of buildings of wooden structures.
3.2 Adequate provisions for grounding metallic parts of roof signs exposed to ligh
ning shall be provided.
Ground signs shall be subject to the following conditions:
4 . 1 Ground sig ns sha ll not exceed 6 .00 meters in height above the street crown except neon signs w hich shall be constructed in conformity w ith accepted
engineering standards.
4 . 2 Ground signs shall be located within the property line and under no circumstances shall they occupy the street or sidewalk.
4.3 Public government signs erected or installed within the area of the sidewalk shall
be so designed and located that they do not obstruct the easy passage of
pedestrians nor distract the attention of motorists.
4.4 Self-supporting outdoor signs along highways shall be located 10.00 meters
away from the property lines abutting t he road right-of-way
5 . PROJECT ING SIGNS (see pages oJ and 641
The erection of projecting signs shall be subject to the following conditions :
5. 1 On non-arcaded streets or where arcades are proposed. signs shall not extend
more than 1 .20 meters from the wall line or building line. On arcaded streets, the
signs shall not project more than 1 .00 meter from the wall line over the street.
For buildings abutting on streets or alleys without sidewalks or provisions
therefor, the rules for arcaded streets shall apply on projecting signs.

5.2 A clearance of not less than 3.00 meters shall be provided below the lowest part
of su ch signs projecting over sidewalks on buildings without arcades and a
clearance of not less than 5.00 meters shall be provided below the lowest part of
such signs projecting over arcaded streets.

":- 3 The erection of electric neon signboards or other advertisements of similar n atu re
projecting over roadways or public streets, shall be allowed. provided that:
a. Clear distance betweer~ the signboards erected on one building is not less
than 4.00 meters.
b. Signboards on multi-storey buildings shall b~ erected on the same v ertical line
and sh all not overlap each other .
c. T ops of signboards shall not extend over the topmost part of the parap et
or the bottom line of the eaves of the building.
d . Horizontal projections of signboards shall follow Rules 5.1 and 5.2 above.
e. In c ase of two adj acent buildings , adjacent signboard s shall be placed at a
distance of not less than 2.00 meters from the common boundary line .
f. Signboards shall not obstruct any window or emergency exit, not be clo~er
than 1 .00 meter to electric and telephone posts and wires .

g. Vertical clearances shall follow Rule 5.2 above.










The construction of wall


TElE~ fiiQST


shall be subiect to the followinq conditions:


SIGN ..-----H---,+--t

6.1 Display signs placed against the exterior surface of bui\dings shan not extend
more than 300 millimeters from the wall with its lowest portion not less than
3.00 meters above the sidewalk.


6.2 Sign shall not extend beyond the top and/or sides of any face of the exterior
perimeter wall of the buildtng. Signs when made of combustible materials shall
not exceed 4 .00 squere meter in area. Those made of Incombustible materials
may be allowed to cover the entire surface of bSank walla only and shalt not be
&flowed to cover or obstruct openings.

6.3 AJI signs painted or pasted on the exterior surface of bulldinga or 8ti'Uctures may
be considered either as business or advertising signs.

6.4 Sign stands or display stands ahall not be placed on the sidwalk pavement.

6.5 Signs shall not be attached to, painted on, installed or displayed on posts or col
umns of arcades.
6.6 Display windows or wall signs within 3.00 meters above the sidewatk shatt be
flushed or recessed.

7. 1 Alt temporary signs, bills, posters and the like may be instaUed or posted only In
areas or structures all.,wed by pertinent provisions of thi.s Code.

7. 2 Streamers strung over or across any public thoroughfare shall have the
necessary permit therefor from the Building Official. The lowest point of the bottom edge of the streamer shall have a minimum clearance of 4.30 meters above
the pavement.


Any person desiring to display, erect, or maintain any design shall file an application
therefor to the Office of the Building Official in a standard form stating among
others, the location of the premises wherein said sign is to displayed, erected or maintained, accompanied by the pertinent drawings and/or sketches. The application
shall also Include the location and the site plans, written consent of the owner of the
premises and such other pertinent data as may be required by the Building Official.

No sign of any kind shall be erected, Installed or constructed unless a permit therefor
is obtained from the Building Official.

A permit shall not be required for any sign not exceeding 0 .20 square meter of display
surface nor for temporary signs for charitable, religious, and civic purposes duly
authorized . This exemption shall not release .the owner from responsibility for its
design. construction, installation, maintenance and removal.
A sign with permit which was erected before the adoption of this Rute but not conforming hereto shall be given a grace period to conform dating from the receipt of notice
as follows :
a) Neon Signs ....... ............ .. .... .. .............. .. , .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . . 1 2 months
b) All others . ' ...................................... ............. .........................

After the expiration of the period , such non-conforming signs shall be removed .


a. Existing signs without permit but comforming to the provisions of this Rule shall be
allowed to remain provided the owner obtains a validating permit within 30 days
from receipt of notice from the Building Official.

b. Existing signs without permit and non-conforming to the provisions of this Rult:
shall be altered to conform to this Rule. The owner shall secure the necessary permit not later than 60 days from receipt of notice from the Building Official. In case
of failure t o secure permit within the grace period the sign shall be removed by the
owner. For failure of the owner to remove the sign, the Building Official shall cause
the removal of the sign at the expense of the owner.

Signs shall be maintained in a safe and presentable condition. Should a sign become,
in the opinion of the Building Official, unsafe or an eyesore, the permittee shall, upon
notice from the Building Official, immediately restore the sign to a safe and satisfactory condition.
For non-compliance with the notice, the Building Official shall restore the sign at the
expense of the permitee.

Signs shall bear the imprint of the permittee.


Signs and sign structures shall be designed and constructed to resist wind and seismic
forces as specified in this Rule. All bracing systt:ms shall be designed and constructed
to transfer lateral forces to the foundations. For signs on buildings, the dead and
lateral loads shall be transmitted through the structural frame of the building to the
ground in such manner as not to overstress any of the elements thereof .
The overturning moment produced from lateral forces shall in no case exceitd twothirds of the dead load resisting moment. Uplift due to overturning shall be adequately
resisted by proper anchorage to the ground or to the structural frame of the building .
The weight of earth superimposed over footings may be used in determining the deadload resisting moment. Such earth shall be carefully placed and thoroughly

Signs and sign structures shall be designed and constructed to resist wind forces as
specified in Chapter 2 of the National Structural Code for Buildings (NSC13).

Signs or sign structures shall be designed and constructed to resist seismic forces as
specified in Chapter 2 of the NSCB.

Wind and seismic loads need not be combined in the design of signs or sign structure,
only that loading producing the larger stresses need be used.
Vertical design loads, except roof loads, shall be assumed to be acting simultaneously
with the wind or seismic loads.

The design of wood , concrete, or steel members shall conform to the requirements of
Chapter 3, 4 and 6, of the NSCB, Loads, both vertical and horizontal , exerted on the
soil shall not produce stresses exceeding those specified in Chapter 7 of the NSCB.
The working stresses of wire rope and its fastening shall not exceed 25 percent of the
ultimate strength of the rope or fastener .


The supports of all signs or sign structures shall be placed in or upon private property
and shall be securely built. constructed, and erected in conformance with the requirements of this Rule.
Materials of construction for signs and sign structures shall be of the quality and grade
as specified for building in this Rule.
In all signs and sign structures, the materials and details of construction shall , in the
absence of specified requirements, conform with the following:
2.1 Structural steel shall be of such quality as to conform with ASTM A 36. Secondary members in contact with or directly supporting the display surface may be
formed of light guage steel, provided such members are designed in accordance
with the specifications of the design of light guage steel as speci'fied in ASTM A
242 and in addition shall be galvanized. Secondary members, when formed integrally with the display surface, shall be not less than No. 24 guage in thickness
the secondary members shall be No. 1 2 gauge. The minimum thickness of hotrolled steel members furnishing structural support for signs ~hall be 6.35 mm.
except that if galvanized. such members shall be not less than 3.18 mm. thick.
Steel pipes shall be of such quality as to conform with ASTM A 36. Steel
members may be connected with one galvanized bolt provided that connection is
adequate to transfer the stresses in the members.
2.2 Anchors and supports, when of wood and embedded in the soil. or within 150
mm. of the soil , shall all be of hardwood of a durable species or shall be
pressure-treated with an approved preservative.

1 . Members supporting unbraced signs shall be so proportioned that the bearing loads
imposed on the soil in either direction. horizontal or vertical, shall not exceed the safe
values. Braced ground signs shall be anchored to resist the specified wind or seismic
load acting in any direction. Anchors and supports shall be designed for safe bearing
loads on the soil and for an effective resistance to pull out amounting to a force 2 5
percent greater than the required resistance for overturning.
2. Portable ground signs supported by frame or posts rigidly attached to the base shall
be so proportioned that the weight and size of the base will be adequate to resist the
wind pressure.
3. Signs attached to masonry, concrete, or steel shall be safely and securely fastened
thereto by means of metal anchors, bolts, or approved expansion screws of sufficient
size and anchorage to support the loads applied.

4 . No wooden blocks or anchors with wood used in connection with screws or nails shall
be considered proper anchorage, except in the case of signs attached to wood framing.


Pursuant to Section 1004 of the National Building Code (PO 10961, arcade shall be
constructed on sidewalks o1 streets whenever required by existing building and zoning
regulations. Subject to existing laws and regula.tions, the local planning authority shall
determine which street shall have an open sitlewalk or an arcaded sidewalk, or a combination of both, and the width and height thereof, according to the following:


1. Sidewalks shall be of uniform width throughout the entire length of the street. The
width of a sidewall< shall not be less than 1/6 of the road right-of-way .
1. 1 The sidewalk pavement shall have a non-slip surface and shall slope down from
the building line towards the curb line at not more than one in fifty ( 1/50) and
shall level off with the curb.

1.2 Sidewalks of 2.00 meters or more in width shall include on its outer side a planting strip of not less than 800 millimeters in width, separating the curb from the
sidewalk pavement.

2. All arcades shall be of uniform width throughout the entire length of the street within
the block. or from one street corner to another.
2 . 1 Arcade shall be cantilevered from the building line over the sidewalk, and the
horizontal clearance between the curb line and the outermost face of any part of
the arcade shall not be less than 500 millimeters.

c~~ ~A0!----------~~~~7~~~~,~~7-~



I. + R t/1 ~ AOAI>-AIGHT aF- WAY

Ill aF flo.t.D RIGHT- Of'- WAY

ftG. t


2 .2 Combined open and arcaded sidewalks shall be provided with a planting strip of
not less than 800 millimeters in width as a separating strip between the arcaded
portion and th e open portion of the sidew alk.

l't.ANTING Sill!*- --+-..


1 . The vertical clearance of arcade shall be uniform throughout the entire length of t he
street within the block or from one street corner to another.


81.0<> (8)


2. The minimum vertical clearance of arcades shall be 3 meters and the maximum shall
be 6 meters. !See Fig. 1 l page 72.

1 . Sidewalks shall, as much as possible, be level and of uniform grade throughout the
entire length of the street.


2. Whenever the slope of the street does not exceed one in twelve t 111 2) the sidewalk
grade shall follow the level or slope of the street.


SLOG. (!)








MCI. oNifO Gll.t.ot M

--- -hlrJ~~"f(T


3. Whenever the slope of the is one in ten ( 1/1 0) the sidewalk shall be maintained
level for every 20 to 40 meters of run. Sidewalks of different levels shall be }oined by
ineans of a ramp having a convenient slope not exceeding one in six {1/61



ltOII ~)

iloo !'A
'- .

4 . When the grade of two connecting sidewalks are between one in ten { 1/1 0) and one in
eight ( 1/8) , the two sidewalks shall be joined by means oi a ramp having any convenient slope not exceeding_one in ten ( 1/1 0).
~ ')



1 .1 To maximize the use of the sidewalk area, the surface of the sidewalk and the
drivewayshall as much as possible be at the same plane. The entry ramp of the
driveway connecting the roadway surface to the sidewalk surface shall have a
slope ranging from one in three ( 1/3) to one in iour ( 1/41.
1 .2 Whenever the height of the curb is more than 200 millimeters, driveways may be
constructed across the entire width of the sidewalk, provided that the driveway
shall be joined to the sidewalk by means of a ramp of rough finish having a slope
of not mor e than one in eight ( 1/ 8). The driveway and the ramp shall be made of
th e same materials as that of the sidewalk.










1.3 Driveways underneath arcades may be allowed only underneath cantilevered arcades within the road right-of-way or underneath colonaded arcades on private
properties outside the road right-of-way .



0, ROAOWA.Y 8o









2.1 Entrance or exit ramps shall have a stope not exceeding one in ten (1/10).


2.2 Entrance or exit steps shall have treads of not less than 300 millimeters. The
minimum number of steps shall be two (2) with risers not exceeding 100

2.3 No portion of either entrance or exit ramps or steps shall intrude into the sidewalk

Under no circumstances shall obstruction of any kind be allowed on sidewalks, whether
open or arcaded .




l, All buiidings or structure as well as accessory facilities thereto shall conform in all

respects to the principles of safe construction and must be suited to the purpose for
which they are designed.

2. Buildings or structures intended to be used for the manufacture and/or production of

any kind of article or product shall observe adeQuate environmental safeguards.
3. Buildings or structures and all parts thereof as well as all facilities found therein shall
be maintained in safe, sanitary and good looking condition.

The land or site upon which will be constructed any building or structure, or any ancillary or
auxiliary facility thereto, shall be sanitary, hygienic and safe. In the case of sites of buildings intended for use as human habitation or abode, the same shall be at a sate distance, as
determined by competent authorities, from streams or bodies of water and/or sources of air
considered to be polluted; from a volcano or volcanic site and/ or any other building considered to be a potential source of fire or explosion.



Any building or structure which has any or all of the conditions or defects hereinafter
described shall be deemed to be a dan~erous building or structure provided that such conditions or defects exist to the extent that life, health, property or safety of the public or its
occupants are endangered.
1.1 Whenever any building or structure or portion thereof has been damaged by
t ire. earthquake, wind, flood, or by any other cause to such an extent that the
structural strength or stability thereof is materially less than it was before the
catastrophe and is less than the minimum requirements of the National Structural Code for Buildings for new buildings of similar structure, purpose or location.
1. 2 Whenever any portion or member or appurtenance thereof is likely to fall, or to
become detached or dislodged or to collapse and thereby injure persons or
damage property.
1 .3 Whenever any port ion of a building or structure, or any member, appurtenance
or ornamentation on the exterior thereof is not of sufficient strength or stability ,
or is not anchored, attached or fastened in place so as to be capable of resisting
a wind pressure of one-half of that specified in the National Structural Code for
Buildings for such type of buildings.
1 .4 Whenever any portion thereof has been wrecked, buckled or settled to such an
extent that walls or other structural portions have materially less resistance to
winds or earthquakes than is required in the case of similar new construction.
1 . 5 Whenever the building or structure, or any portion thereof, because of 11}
dilapidation. deterioration or decay; (2) faulty construction; (3) the removal,
movement or instability of any portion of the ground necess~ry for the purpose
of supporting such building; (4) the deterioration, decay or inadequacy of its
foundation; or (5) any other cause, is likely to partially or totally collapse.
1.6 Whenever the exterior walls or other vertical structural members list, lean or
buckles to such an extent that a plumbing passing through the center of gravity
does not fall inside the middle one-third of the base.
1. 7 Whenever the building or structure, exclusive of the foundation, shows 33 percent or more damage or deterioration of its supporting member or members, or
50 percent damage or deterioration of its non-supporting members, enclosing
or outside walls or coverings.
1.8 W henever the building or structure has been so damaged by fire, wind, earth
quake or flood, or has become so dilapidated or deteriorated as to become 1l an
attractive nuisance to children; 2) a harbor for vagrants, criminals or as to 3)
enable persons to resort thereto for the purpose of committing unlawful or
immoral acts .
1 .9 Whenever any building or structure which, whether or not erected in accordance with all applicable laws or ordinances, has in any non-supporting part,
member or portion less than 66 percent of the ( 1) strength; (21 fire-resisting
qualities or characteristics; or (3) weather-resisting qualities or characteristics
required by law in the case of a newly constructed building of like area, height
and occupancy in the same location.
1.10 Whenever any portion of a building or structure remains on a site after the .
demolition of the building or structure or whenever any building or structure or


portion thereof is abandoned for a period in excess of twelve I 12 l months so as

to constitute such building or portion thereof an attractive nuisance or hazard to
the public.

2.1 Any building or portion thereof, device, apparatus, equipment, combustible
material, or vegetation which may cause fire or explosion, or provide a ready fuel
or augment the spread and intensity of fire or explosion arising from any cause.

2.2 All buildings or portions thereof not provided with the required fire-resistive or
fire-protective construction or fire-extinguishing systems or equipment.

2. 3 Whenever any door, aisle, passageway, stairway, or other means of exit is not of
sufficient width or size, or is not so arranged as to provide safe and adequate
means of exit in case of fire or panic.

2.4 Whenever any building or structure. because of obsolensce, dilapidated condition, deterioration, damage, inadequate exits, lad. of sufficient fire-resistive construction, faulty electric wiring, gas connections or heating apparatus, or other
cause, is determined by the Building Official to be a fire hazard.


3.1 All wiring systems or installations which do not conform to the rules and regulations embodied in the Philippine Electrical Code.
3.2 Inadequately maintained or improperly used electrical wiring, outlets, devices
and/or equipment.

4. 1 Mechanical systems or installations which do not conform to the rules and

regulations embodied in the Mechanical Engineering Code of the Philippines.

4.2 Inadequately maintained or improperly used mechanical outlets, devices and/or

4.3 Lack of improper operation of required ventilating equipment or air conditioners


5.1 All sanitary and plumbing systems or installations which do not conform to the
rules and regulations embodied in the Code on Sanitation and the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines.

5.2 Inadequately maintained or improperly used sanitary and plumbing facilities.

5.3 Infestation of insects, vermin, or rodents and lack of adequate control for the

5.4 lack of adequate garbage and rubbish storage and removal or disposal facilities.
5. 5 Source of pollution.
6.1 All buildings or portions thereof used or occupied .for purposes other than their
intended uses.
6.2 Inadequate parking space, as required.


6.3 tnsufflcient amount of natural light and '!entilation due to inadequate open
spaces such as courts, yards, and setbacks, as required.

6.4 Inadequate sizes of rooms and space dimensions and window openings .
6. 5 Dilapidated, blighted and other upresentable buildings or .structures against
generally accepted aesthetic standards.

7. 1 All buildings or structures or portions thereof which do not conform to the approved lend use and zoning plan.
7. 2 Buildings located in highly volcanic, earthquake or floodprone areas or sites considered to be extr4!!mely dangerous.
A building or structure shall be deemed to be an illegal construction when it is constructed, existing or is maintained in violation of any specific requirements or prohibition applicable to such building or structure as provided in the National Building Code;
the building rules and regulations or in any law or ordinance of the city or municipality
relating to the condition and location of the structure and building therein.


Pursuant to Section 215 of the NBC; when a building or structure is found or declared by
the Building Official to be a nuisance, is dangerous or ruinous, the Building Official shall order its
repair' vacation or demolition depending upon the degree of danger to life, 'heah"h safety
and/or well-being of the general public and its occupants.

The following steps shall be observed in the abatement/demolition of buildings under this
1 . There must be a finding or declaration by the Building Official that the building or
structure is a nuisance, ruinous or dangerous.
2. Written notice or advice shall be served upon the owner and occupants-Is of such finding or declaration, giving him at least fifteen ( 1 5) days within which to vacate or cause
to be vacated, repair, renovate, demolish and remove as the case may be, the
nuisance, ruinous or dangerous building or structure or any part or portion thereof.
3. Within the fifteen-day period the owner may, if he so desires, appeal to the Secretary
the finding or declaration of the Building Official and ask that a re-inspection of the
building or structure be made.
4, If the appeal is meritortous the Secretary may designate a competent representative /s
other than the Building Official to undertake the re-inspection or re-investigation of the
building. The representative/& so designated aliall make or complete his/their report
within a period of thirty days from the date of termination or re-inspection or reinvestigation.
5. If after re-inspection, the finding is the same as the original one, the Secretary thru the
Building Official shall notify the owner, giving him not more than 1 5 days from receipt
of notice with affirmed finding to vacate or cause to be vacated and make the
necessary repair, renovation , demolition and removal of the subject building or parts
thereof, as the case may be.


5.1 If the Building Official has determined that the building or structure must be
repaired or renovated the Order to be issued shall require that all necessary permits therefore be secured and the work physically commenced within 1 5 days
from the date of receipt of the Order and completed within such reasonable time
as may be determined by the Building Official.

5.2 If the Building Official has determined that the building or structure must be
demolished , t he Order shall require that the building be vacated with.i n 1 5 days
from the date of receipt of the Order; that all required permits be secured therefor
within the same 1 5 days from the date of the Order, and that the demolition be
completed within such reasonable t ime as may be determined by the Building Official.
6 . The decision of the Secretary on the appeal shall be finaL
7. Upon failure of the owner to comply with the Order of the Building Official or of the
Secretary, in case of appeal, to repair, renovate, demolish and remove the building or
any part thereof after fifteen days from the date of receipt of the Order, the Building
Official shall cause the building or structure t o be repaired, renovated , demolished and
removed, partly or wholly, as the case may be, with all expenses therefor chargeable
to the owner.
8. The building as repaired or in case of demolition, the building materials gathered after
the demolition of t he building shall be held by t he Office of the Building Ofi icial until
full reimbursement of the cost of repair, renovation, demolition and removal is made
by the owner which , in no case, shall extend beyond thirty (30) days from the date ct
the completion of the repair, renovation , demolition and removal. After such period,
said building materials of the building thus repaired or removed shall be sold at pubilc
auction to satisfy the claim of the Office of the Building Otf~ciai. Any amount in excess
of the claim of the government realized from the sale of the building materials shall be
delivered to the owner.
The procedures, actions and remedies provided herein are without prejudice to further action that may be taken by the Official against the owner/occupants of buildings or structures found or declared to be nuissance/s, dangerous, and/or ruinous under the provisions
of Articles 482 and 694 to 707 of the Civil Code of the Philippines.


Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary, now Minister of Public Works under the
provisions of Section 211 and 212 of the National Bu ilding Code of the Philippines {P.O.
1 096), rules and regulations are hereby promulgated to govern the conduct of cases involving the implementation of the Code as well as the enforcement of orders, rules and
regulations issued in relation thereto and the imposition of administrative penalties for
vio!Jltions thereof.



Utilities 2
Utilities 2



Pursuant to Section 704 of the National Building Code (P.O. 1 096), no building shall be
constructed unless it adjoins or has direct access to a public space, yard or street on at least
one of its sides. All buildings shall fece a public street, alley or a private road which has
been duly approved by the proper authorities.
Said access streets, alleys or roads shall have t he following widths:
1 . Interior or rear lots shall have an access road with a minimum width depending upon
the number ot ..buildings
units -wr1icn it serves subject to approval ot the local planning authority, provided, however, that said access street or road shall not be less than
three meters (3.00M) in w1dtn.


2. Multiple Living Units on Same lot on which apartments, rowhouse or accessorias or a

group of single-detached buildings are built shall be provided , w ith an access road
directly connecting said buildings or units to a public street or alley toUowing the
schedule below









4 ' - i - - - S.OO MTS. WIOE IIIINIMUM








18.SO M.











Uf' TO I






1 .00







I. to




II 100.00 MTS. A CU.. DI-Me

a} Up to six {6) units .......

b) Seven (7) up to fifteen
11 5} units .. ... ........................
ooOooo o...
c) Sixteen 11 6) up to twentvfive
(26} units ............ ..... ........... ......... 00.. .... .. ... ... .... ... .... .. ..... ... ..
d) Twenty-six {26) up to t hirty-five
(36) units .................... .... ... o........... ..... ......... ...
ooo .. ..
e) More than thirt y-five
(35) units . o.... : ......

0 . . . . . 0

.............. 0

0 . . 0




o .. .... ... ...... .. .... .. ... .........

............. 0

.... .... .. .. .. .

...... .... .. 0

.. 0

..... 0

..... .

3 .00 Mowide
4 o00 M. wide
5.00 M. wide
6.00 M . wide
7.50 Mo wide

Privately-owned access roads shall be duly registered and annotated in the lot title as such
for as long as the said apartments, rowhouses. et c., exist.
All kinds of subdivision and residential condominiums shall comply with the rules and
regulations on access roads promulgated by the National Housing Authority (NHAI.


Pursuant t o Section 102 and 203 of t he National Building Code (PO 1096), for the protec
tion of buyers or leases of lots in cemeteries and memorial parks as w ell as the
owners/operators of concrete or memorial parks, the rules shall govern the establishment
of cemeteries and m emorial parks .





Pursuant to Section 1207 of the National Building Code, tPD 1096}, the following rules and
regulations shall govern the determination of occupant loads. For purposes of this Rule. the
term Occupant Load shall mean the total number of persons that may occupy a building or a
portion thereof at any one time .

1 . DETERMINATION OF OCCUPANT LOAD - The occupant load in. any building or por. tfon thereof for the purpose of resolvinq the required n-umber of eXIts shall be determir
ed by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the unit area per occupant set
forth in Table A.
1 . 1 When the unit area per occupant for any particular occupancy is not provided for
in the Table, Building Official shall determine the same based on the unit area for
the occupancy which it most neany resembres .

1 .2 The occupant load of any area having f ixed seats shall be determined by the
number of fixed seats installed. Aisles serving the fixed seats in said area shall
not be included in determining the occupant load.
1 . 3 the occupant load permitted in a building or portion thereof may be increased
above that specified in the Table if the necessary exits are provided .
1 .4 In determining the occupant load, all. portions of a building shall be measured to
be occupied at the same time.
1.4 . 1 EXCEPTION - Accessory use area which ordinarily are used only by persons 'Y"ho occupy the main areas of an occupancy shall be provided with
exits as though they were completely occupied. However. in computing
the maximum allowable occupant load for the floor/building, the occupant load of the accessory area /s shalt be disregarded .

Table A: General Requ"ements for Oceupant Loads and Exits


(Sq. M.l

A. Dwellings



18 .6


Dorm itories
Conference Rooms
Exhibit Rooms
School Shops
Vocational Institutions

D. Hospitals* , Sanitaria*
Nursing Homes
Children's Homes
Homes for the Aged
Nurseries for Children


4 .6
4 .6


Minimum of Two Exits other

than elevators are required
where number of occupants
is over.




E. Stores - Retail Sales Rooms


G(ound Floor
Upper Floors
Aircraft hangars (no repair)
Parking Garages
Dining Establishments
. Kitchens (Commercial)

F. Warehouses
Mechanical Equipment Rooms
G. Garages

H. Auditoriums
Churches & Chapels
Dance Floors
Reviewing Stands





9 .3


46 .5










* In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than
ten (10) shall not have less than two (2) exits.

* * Institutional Sleeping Department shall be based on one occupant per eleven ( 11 l sq.
meters of. the gross floor area: Inpatient Institutional Treatment Departments shall be
based on one occupant per twenty-two {22~ square meters of gross floor area.


Pursuant to Section 1101 to 1108 of the National Building Code (Pd 1096}, the followihg
rules and regulations shall provide minimum standards of safety and protection for construction and/or demolition of buildings/structures. The provisions of this Rule shall apply
to all work in connection with the construction and/or demolition of buildings/structures.
The provisions of this Rule shall apply to all work in connection w ith the construction, alteration, repair, renovation, removal and demolition of buildings/structures.

1.1 The construction, erection, alteration and removal of scaffolds and the application, installation and setting up of safeguards and equipment devices shall be
done by skilled workmen under the supervision of a person qualified by experience or training for such work.
1 .2 A safeguard, device or piece of equipment which is unsafe shall be reported to
the superintendent or foreman who shall take immediate steps or remedy such
condition or remove such safeguard, device or equipment.
1 .3 Scaffolds, ladders, stairs, fuel gas tanks and other devices or equipment falling
within the scope of this Rule shall be maintained in a good, safe and usable condition as long as in use.
1 .4 No scaffolds, 'adders, railings or other devices or equipment or any part thereof
required by this Rule shall be removed, altered or weakened when required by
the work unless so ordered by the superintendent or foreman in charge.


1.5 Scaffolds, temporary floors, ramps, stairway landings, stair treads, and all
other walkway surfaces shall be kept free from protruding nails and splinters.
They shall be kept free from unnecessary obstructions so that the workers may
move about safely.

1 .6 Prot ruding nails and tie wire ends shall be removed, hammered , hammered in or
bent in a safe condition.

1 . 7 Electric lines, moving ropes and cable gears, or similar hazards with which a
worker might come in contact shall be encased or protected .

1 .8 No person, firm or corporation, either personally or through an employee or

agent of another, shall operate or move any machinery, equipment, material,
scaffolds, or materials in process or assembly closer than 5 .00 meters to any
energized high voltage overhead electrical facilities except with the approval of
the electrical inspector.

1 .9 All workmen on any demolition job shall be furnished with and be required to
wear industrial safety helmets.
1 . 1 0 Construction sheds and tool boxes shall be so located as to protect workers
from dangerous falling walls and other falling objects.

1 . 11 The Building Official may permit the use of alternative methods and/or devices
depending on local conditions provided that the minimum ~tandard of safety
sought to be achieved under this Rule is not jeopardized.

2. Protective methods/Devices shall be provided in accordance w ith the conditions

hereunder :
2 .1 Table 1
Height of Construction

Distance trom Construction

Protection Required

2 .40 meters or less

Less than 1 . 80 meters

1 .80 meters or more


Less than 1 . 80 meters

Fence and Canopy

More than 2.40 meters

1 . 80 meters or more
but not more than onefourth the height of
1 .80 meters or more but
exceeding one-half the
construction height

Fence and Canopy


2 .2 Fence
a. When the horizontal distance between the outermost face of the building
and the inner edge of the sidewalk is more than one-half the height of t he
building, only a fence shall be required.
b. Fences shall entirely enclose the construction/ demolition site.
c . . Fences shall be built solid for its full length except for such openings as may
be necessary for proper execution of the work. Such openings-shall be provided with doors which shall be kept closed at all times when in actual use.








d. Fences shall be erected on the building side of sidewalks or walkways and

shall be made of approved materials (e.g. G.l. sheet, wooden boards and/or
planks, plywood or " Lawanit", sawali) not less than 2.40 meters in height
above the curb line.
2.3 Canopy
a. When the horizontal distance between the outermost face of the building
and the inner edge of the sidewalk is equal to or less than one-half the height
of the building, a canopy shall be required in addition
a fence.







b. The protective canopy shall have a clear unobstructed height of 2 .4

meters above the walkway and shall be made of sufficient strength ar
stabmty to sustain safely the weight of materials that may be placE
thereon, and to withstand shocks incident to the handling of such prepar;
tion for use, and accidental jars from trucks passing or delivering material:


c. When the canopy is used for the storage of materials or for the performance
of work of any kind, substantial railing not less than 300 millimeters high
shall be placed along the street side and ends of the canopy. The canopy
shall be capable of safety sustaining a load of 800 kg. per sq. m. or the intended load to be placed thereon, whichever is bigger.
d. The deck flooring of a canopy shall consist of planking not less than 50
millimeters in thickness, closely laid. All members of the canopy shall be
adequately braced and connected to resist displacement of members or
distortion of the framework.
e. Canopies shall be constructed solid for its entire length except -for such
openings as may be necessary for loading purposes. Such openings shall be
kept closed at all times except during actual loading operation.
f. Unless the top deck of the canopy is built solidly against the face of the
building/structure to be constructed or demolished, the vertical face of the
canopy supports next to the building shall be solidly fenced throughout in
accordance with Section 2.2 of this rule, except for such openings as may
be necessary for the execution of work. Such openings shall be provided
with sliding or swinging gates which shall be kept closed at all times except
when in actual use.

g. The street side of the canopy shall be kept open for a height of not less than
2.40 meters above the curb . The underside of the canopy shall be properly
lighted at night with not less than one 1 00-watt bulb every 6.00 meters of
its length and at each change of grade or elevation of sidewalk surface.

//////./~ ~--ALTEitNATt POSITION Of'

CANOI"Y ....0 MiliCI

~eu.c, if OIIW

. . .,...L_














.-'-+--c ANOf''t'





*c. nor wolllway






!MACE, if Oily


h. Where a wall of the building abuts or fronts a street, fans or catch platforms
shall be erected along that w all at the level of the first floor of the building
above the street level. Fans or catch platforms shall be erected at the level of
other floors of the building as may b e necessary to prevent nuisance from
dust or danger from falling debris or materials.
2 .4 Protective Net/Screens
a. When the horizontal distance between the outermost face of the building
and the outer edge of the sidewalk is less than one-half the height of the .
building. a protective net extending from the uppermost part of the construction!demolition to ground level shall be required in addition to a f ence
and canopy.
b. Wherever required, protective netting/covering shall be of approved and
substantially strong material such as G._l. wire gauge 16.38 millimeter mesh
nylon net, canvass.




- --


4-1-- --->.-~.---'




FACE 0 1"






' '\



' ',
















' '


~ _.,.___..,~ J

. . . - - - -- __:_


WHEN X-t-5



c. Where a wall of the building abuts or fronts a street, dust screens shall be
erected to cover the entire wall so as to prevent nuisance from dust.
2. 5 Walkways and Railings
a. Where the sidewalk is permitted by the Building Official to be fully occupied
and fenced-off or enclosed, a temporary walkway adjacent to the curb line
shall be required ..Where the street has no sidewalk, a temporary w alkway
adjacent to the street line not more than 1. 20 meters wide shall be provid-

ed. Where the road rightof-way is 5.00 meters or less, no temporary

walkway shall be allowed.
b. The width of the walkway shall be not \.ess than 1 . 20 meters but not more
than one-third (1 / 3) the width of the sidewalk.
Where only partial occupancy and fencing-off of the sidewalk is necessary,
a temporary walkway will not be required provided that a width of at least
1.20 meters of the sidewalk is left open for the use of pedestrians.
c. Walkways shall be. capable of supporting a uniform live load of 650 kg. per
sq. m. A durable wearing surface shall be provided and maintained along the
entire length of the walkway throughout the duration of the construction/demolition period.
d . Where the walkway occupies part of the road wey protective railings on the
street side shall be required.
e. Where the walkway is adjacent to an excavation, protective railings on thf
excavation side shall be required.
f. Railings, where required, shall be built substantially strong and sturdy and
shall be not less than 1 .00 meter in height.
2. 6 Warning Signs and Lights
a. At every construction/demolition site, warning signs shall be conspicuously
. posted around the property. Warning signs shall be adequately illuminated
at night for the protection of unwary pedestrians .
b. All entrances/exits to and from the construction/ demolition site shall be
kept closed at all times except during actual passage of men, materials or
equipment. Red warning lights shall be installed at all entrances/exits which
shall be. kept lighted at night and during periods of unusual darkness .
c. All warning signs and lights shall be properly maintained even when operations are not in progress.
d. All areas of danger in demolition operations shall be property enclosed and
danger signs posted. Watchmen shall be provided to warn workers of impending dangers and all unauthorized persons shall be excluded from places
where demolition is in progress .

3.1 Excavations and Trenches
a. Before undertaking excavation work, drilling or otherwise disturbing the
ground, the person doing the work, or causing such contract all public
utilities to determine the possible location of underground facilities, to avoid
hazard to public safety, health and welfare caused by the inadvertent
disruption of such facifities.
b . The sides of every excavation in connection with construction operations,
including trenches for pipes or any other purpose, shall be sheet-piled braced or shored when necessary to prevent the soil from caving in on persons
engaged in work within the excavation.
c. Every trench, 1.50.meters or more in depth, shall be provided with suitable
means of exit or escape at least every 7. 50 meters of its length.


d. Where workers are employed adjacent to an excavation on work other than

that directly connected with the excavation, substantial railings or fences
shall be provided to prevent such workers from falling into the excavation.

3.2 Excavation and Fills

a. Excavation or fills for building or structures shall be so constructed or protected that they do not endanger life or property.

b. Cut slopes for permanent excavations shall not be steeper than 2 horizontal
to 1 vertical unless substantiating data justifying steeper slopes are submitted. Deviation from the foregoing limitations for slopes shall be permitt-ed
only upon the presentation of a soil investigation report acceptable to the
Building Official.
c . No fill or other surcharge loads shall be placed adjacent to any building or
structure unless such building or structure is capable of withstanding the
additiona\ loads caused by the fill or surcharge.
d. Existing footings or foundations which may be affected by any excavation
shall be under pinned adeQuately , or otherwise protected against settlement, and shall be protected against lateraf movement.
e. . Fills to be used to the foundations of any building or structure shall be plac
ed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. A soil investigation
report and a report of satisfactory placement of fill, both acceptable to the
Building Official shall be submitted.
f. Any person making or causing an excavation below grade immediately ad.joining another property shall protect the excavation so that the soil of adjoining property will not cave-in or settle. Before commencing the excava
tion, the person making or causing the excavation to be made shall notify in
.writing the owners of adjoining buildings not less than 1 0 days before such
excavation is to be made.

3.3 Storage of Materials

a. Materials to be stored at or near construction sites shall be piled or stacked
in an orderly m anner to avoid toppling over or being otherwise displaced. No
materials shall be piled or stacked higher than 1 .80 meters, except in yards
or sheds intended especially for storage. When piles exceed 1.20 meters in
height, the material shall be so arranged that the sides and ends of the piles
taper back.
b. The placing of construction materials in a building/structure during construction operations shall be done with the consideration of the effect of
such loads on the structural members and such loads shall, in general, be
placed as near as possible to the points of support of the structural
members. Such loading shall not cause stresses in any structural member
b~yond the design stresses .
.c. Waste materials or rubbish resulting from construction operations shall be
removed as rapidly as possible and shall not be allowed to accumulate on
the premises or adjacent thereto.
d. Storage of combustible materials shall not be allowed in any part of a
buifding under construction untit fire proofing of that pert of the building has
been installed. Storage of combustible materials shall not be permitted
under or near welding operations.


e. In every building of reinforced concrete construction, forms of combustible

materials shall be stripped from the concrete and removed from the building
as soon as practicable. No part of the building shall be used for the storage
of combustible materials until such forms have been removed in the part of
the building.
f. Storage of materials on stairs or in stairways or adjacent to stair openings
shall not be permitted.

g. Open fires for the purposes of disposing of waste materials, the heating of
roofing or other materials or for any other purpose whatsoever shall not be
allowed except with the permisssion of the Chief pf the local Fire Service.
In Fire Zones of Types 1, 11 and 111 construction, only heaters with
enclosed flames shall be used for the heating of any roofing or other similar
materials. Wherever any enclosed flame heaters or open fires are used,
there shall be a workman in constant attendance, whose duty shall be to
have such heater or fire under proper control at all times.
3 .4 Fire Protection
a. In a building in which standpipes are required, such standpipes shall be installed as the construction progresses in such a manner that they are always
ready for Fire Department use, to the topmost constructed floor. Such
standpipes shall be provided with a Fire Department connection on the outside of the building at the street level and with one ( 1) outlet at each floor.
b. In every construction operation wherever a tool house, storeroom or other
shanty is built or a room or space is used for storage, dressing room or
workshop, at least one (1 l approved handpump, tank or portable chemical
or dry powder fire extinguisher shall be provided and maintained in an
accessible location.
c. During construction operation, free access from the street to fire hydrants
and to outside connection for standpipes, sprinklers or other fire extinguishing equipment, whether permanent or temporary shall be provided
and maintained at all times. No material or construction equipment shall be
placed within 3.00 meters of such hydrant or connection, nor between and
the center line of the street.
3.5 Sanitation and first aid
a. Adequate toilet facilities, maintained in a clean, sanitary condition, shall be
provided at the construction/demolition site for the use of the workers.
b. An adequate supply of pure, cool drinking water shall be provided for
workers during hours of work, and adequate sanitary washing facilities shall
be provided for workers within reasonable access.
c. At every construction/demolition operation, arrangements shall be made for
prompt medi~al attention in case of accident. An ample supply of first aid
medicine (e.g. iodine, mercurochrome, absorbent cotton , aseptic gauze
bandages) shall be provided and maintained .in a clean sanitary cabinet,
which shall be available at all times under the direction of the superintendent
or a person designated by him.
Unless competent medical attention is quickly available, where more than
200 workers are employed, a properly equipped first-aid room shall be provided, and a physician or competent nurse shall be in constant attendance.


3.6 Temporary Light and Power

a. All parts of buildings/structures under construction/demolition, and all
sheds, scaffolds. canopied walkways. work or storage areas, and equipment used in connection with such operations shall have sufficient light to
insure safety and protection of life an9 property. In passageways, stairways
and corridors theaverage light intensity measured at floor level shall be not
less than 2 foot candles.
b. At locations where tools and/or machinery are used, the average light intensity measure at flooc level shall be not less than 5 foot candles. Natural or artificial illumination shall be provided in such a manner that glare-and
shadows will not adversely affect the protection of workers and property.
c. Temporary wiring for light, heat and/or power shall be adequately protected
against mechanical or over-current failures. All conductive materials enclosing fixed or portable electric equipment, or forming a part of such equipment
shall be properly grounded.
d. Temporary electric service poles shall be self-supporting or adequately
braced or guyed at all times.
3. 7 Welding and Cutting
a. Gas welding and cutting and arc welding in construction/demolition operations shall be restricted to experienced workers to the NYMC. Suitable goggles or helmets and gloves shall be provided for and worn by workers engaged in gas welding or cutting or arc welding. Incombustible shields shall
be provided to protect the worker when exposed to falling hot metal oxide.
b. Gas welding or cutting shall not be carried out in any place where ample
ventilation is not provided, or from which quick escape is difficult. When
unavoidable. workers engaged in such work in confined spaces shall be
allowed frequent access to fresh air. a relief worker shall be stationed close
at hand to assist the worker in case of accident and to shut off the gases.
c. Gas welding or cutting or arc welding shall not be done above other
workers. When unavoidable, an incombustible shield shall be provided between the work and the workers below. A watchman shall be stationed to
give warning at places where workers, in the course of their activity, are
likely to pass under a gas welding or cutting or an arc welding operation.
d. Tanks of fuel gas shall not be moved or allowed to stand for any extended
period when not in use unless the caps of such tanks are in place. Suitable
cradles shall be used for lifting or lowering oxygen or fuel tanks, to reduce to
a minimum the possibility of dropping tanks. Ordinary rope slings shall not
be used.
e. Tanks supplying gases for welding or cutting shall be located at no greater
distance from the work than is necessary for safety. Such tanks shall be
securely fastened in place and in an upright position. They shall be stored or
set in place for use so that they are not exposed to the direct rays of the sun
or to high temperature.
f. Before steel beams or other structural shapes or elements of construction
are cut by means of a gas flame they shall be secured by cables or chains to
prevent dropping or swinging.
g. Where, in the course of demolition work, steel work or ironwork is being


cut, released or dismantled, all necessary precaution shall be taken to prevent danger from sudden twist, spring or collapse.
3 .8 Special Typhoon Precautions
a. Whenever a typhoon is expected to pass at or near the construction site, all
construction materials or equipment shall be secured against displacement
by wind forces. Construction sheds, construction materials and equipment
shall be secured by guying, shoring, or by tying down.
b. Where a fuJI complement of personnel is employed or engaged for such protection purposes, normal construction activity or uses of materials or equipment may continue, allowing such reasonable time as may be necessary to
secure materials or equipment before winds of gale force are anticipated , in
accordance with warnings or advisories issued by the PAGASA.

4.1 Hoisting Machinery

a. In addit ion to the requirements of Sec. 4 of Rule X, every hoisting engine
shall be provided with adequate brakes capable of holding the maximum
load at any point of travel.
b. Hoisting machinery shall be enclosed to exclude unauthorized persons. If
placed outside the building, further protection against falling objects shall be
Guards shall be provided for exposed gears and other moving parts and
around hoisting cables at all points to prevent workers from tripping or getting their clothing caught .
c. Ample room shall be provided around hoisting engines. motors or other
machinery or apparatus to allow the free and safe movement of the
d . When hoisting machinery is set on an elevated platform, such platform shall
be of substantial and sturdy construction. Guard rails and toe boards shall
be provided along all open sides of such platforms.
e. Electrical machinery and equipment to be used for construction work shall
be instalfed and operated in accordance with the Philippine Electrical Code .
f . Steam boilers used in construction work shall be installed, equipped and

maintained in accordance with the Philippine Mechanical Engineering Code.

g. A tag or guide rope shall be used on all loads being hoisted or lowered.
4.2 Platform Hoists
a. Platform hoists for the handling of materials in buildings under construction
shall have the car substantially c.o nstructed and provided with covers, either
solid or wire mesh . Sections of the cover may be arranged to swing upward
for the handling of bulky materials. If suitable overhead protection is provided the covers may be omitted.
b. Hoists shall be equipped with a broken-rope safety device.
c. Where wheelbarrows or buggies are used for handling material on platform
hoists, cleats shall be nailed to the platform to fix the proper position so that
handles shall not project beyond platform edges.


d. Supports for the overhead sheave of the hoist shall be designed to carry two
times the weight of the hoist and its maximum load.

4.3 Hoist Towers

a. Hoist towers erected in connection with construction work shall be substantially constructed. All members shall be so proportioned that the stresses
shall r.ot exceed those specified for the material when carrying the dead
load of the tower plus two times the weight of the platform or bucker or its
maximum load .
b . Every hoist to~er shall rest on a sufficiently solid foundation to prevent injurious settlement or distortion of its framework.
c. The base of every hoist tower shall be screened or otherwise protected on
all sides to a height of not less than 1 .80 meters.
d. Every hoist tower shall be secured in not less than four directions against
swaying or tipping, at intervals of not more than 9.75 meters in its height,
by steel cable guys adequately anchored or by other satisfactory means.
Such towers which are constructed adjacent to buildings shall be secured to
the building frame at each floor as the construction progresses.
e. Hoist towers erected within the building, but not occupying the entire
opening through which they pass , shall be completely enclosed on all sides
to the height to which material is to be loaded or uni"Oaded.
f. Landing platforms in hoist towers or platforms connecting a hoist tower to

building or other structure shall be provided with guard rails and toe boards.

4.4 Derricks and Cranes

a. Derricks shall be so designed and assembled that no part shall be stressed
beyond the safe working stress for the material under its maximum rated
load in any possible position. Such maximum load shall be conspicuously
posted on each derrick.
b. The foot-block of every derrick shall be firmly secured against motion in any
c. Guy derrick shall have the top of the mast held by not less than six (6) steel
guy cables secured by firm anchorages and so placed that the angle of the
guy with the mast shall be as large as possible.

d. The moving parts of derricks and cranes shall be kept well lubricated. Atl
parts shall be inspected at least every other day.
e. Use and operation of cranes shall be in accordance with Section 3 of Rule X.
f. In the operation of cranes, and similar devices a standard signal system
shall be used and all men assigned to the operation of such equipment shall
be fully instructed on the signals.

4.5 Cables. Ropes, Chains and Blocks

a. All ropes and cables used in connection with scaffolds, derricks and
. hoisting apparatus shall be tested before being put to use at least oncEevery 30 days while in use, to insure their safety and suitability for the purpose . Any rope or cable found to be unsafe or unfit shall not be used.


b. Cables, ropes. chains and blocks shall be of such size that the maximum
load supported by them will not exceed one sixth ( 1/6) of their breaking
strength . Blocks designed for use with abaca ropes shall not be used for
steel cables. Blocks used at or near floors or in other exposed places to
change the direction of cables shall be enclosed or otherwise effectively

c. Chains shall not be used for slings, bridles or other similar purposes, but
shall be restricted to only such purposes, as a straight pull.
d . Hooks shall not be used for hoisting buckets, cages or skips.
4.6 Ladders and Temporary Stairway
a. Except where either perman ent or temporary stairway or runways are re
quired, ladders shall be provided to give access to all floors, stagings or
platforms where work is being done more than five storeys above ground or
above a permanent or temporary floor. Ladders required by this Rule shall
be substantial construction. They shall be left in place until the permanent
stairway are ready for use or until temporary stairways are installed. Stairway~
shall be erected as soon as the building exceeds 18.00 meters in height.
b. Ladders , other than sectional extension ladders, shall not be extended by
joining two or more together. No single ladder shall exceed 6.00 meters in
length. When greater heights are to be reached, intermediate platforms
shall be erected. Ladder landings shall be at least -1.20 meters square and
equipped w ith handrails and toe boards. Ladder rungs shall be spaced
uniformly and as near to 300 mm. as is practicable.
c. ladders leading to floors, staging or platforms shall extend at least 900
mm. above the level of such floors, stagings or platforms.
d. When used temporarily in place of stairway or runways, ladders serving
tra~fic in both directions simultaneously shall be at lea~t 1 .00 meter wide. If
separate ladders are provided for going up and coming down, they shall be
marked "UP" and "DOWN" respectively at each floor and platform level.
e. All ladders, when
prevent slipping.
ladders, shall be
and if necessary,
or shaking.

in use, shall be set up in a manner to be secured and to

ladders, except stepladders or other sel~supporting
securely fastened to a permanent support at the top,
at the bottom, and braced to prevent swaying, bending

f. Ladders shall not be placed or used in shafts of operative elevators or hoists

except by workers engaged in the erection, construction , alteration or
repair of any such shafts, hoistway or equipment.
g. Ladders shall not be painted, but may be oiled or treated with preservatives
so as to permit the detection of faults.
Every ladder shall be inspected by the superintendent or foreman in charge
before being put to use on a construction operation and thereafter at least
once every 30 days while in continued use. Broken or weak ladders, or ladders with weak or missing rungs, shall not be used or permitted to remain
on the construction site: but shall be repaired and made safe or destroyed.
h. Permanent stairways shall be installed in all buildings under construction as
soon as conditions will permit.


When the work on a building has progressed to height in excess of 18.00

meters and it has not been practicable to install the permanent stairways,
at least on e temporary stairway shall be provided for the full height and
continued upward as rapidly as the work progresses.
i. Stairs and stairways Shall be of sufficient strength to support a load of at leas:
490 kg./square meter. All stairway shall be guarded on all open sides with
hand rails and toe boards.

j. Temporary stc;tirs shall be constructed so thct treads and risers are uniform
in width and height in any one flight.
The sum of t he 'h eight of the two risers and the width of one tread shall be
not t~ss than 160 millimeters nor more than 660 millimeters. Temporary
stairway shall be not less than 91 5 millimeters wide. landings shall be not
less than 762 millimeters long. No flight of stairs of a temporary stairways
shall have a vertical rise in excess of 3.60 meters. Whenever necessary intermediate landings shal\ be provided.
k. Temporary and permanent stairways shall be adequately lighted, as set
forth in Section 3.5 of this Rule.
I. Permanent stairs that are to be used during construction and on which
treads are t o be f illed in later shall have wooden treads firmly fitted in place
for t he f ull area of t he tread. The top surfaces of the temporary treads shall
be maintained above the tops of the risers or nosings.

m. No door.shall open directly onto a fliqht of stairs, but a landing eQual to at

least the width of the door shall be provided between the door and the
stairs. Temporary doors higher than 1.35 meters shall be fitted with wire
glass panels.
4 .7 Runways and Ramps
a. Runways and ramps in connection with scaffolds or extending from story to
story or otherwise located and maintained for an extended period of time or
for the transfer of bulky material shall be constructed of at least three 250
millimeters planks laid closely side by side and substantially supported and
braced to prevent unequal deflection and spinging action.
b. Runways and ramps shall have a slope not steeper than one in three. The
total rise of a runway or ramp between landings shall not exceed 3.60
c. When the rise is steeper than one in six, or when the rise is more than 1.8
meters and steeper than one in- eight, runways or-ramps shall be provided
with cleats spaced not more than 200 millimeters apart.
d. runways and ramps having a total rise of more than 1.80 meters or .passing
over or near floor openings, high tension wires or other dangerous places,
shall be provided with guard rails and toe hoards.
4.8 Scaffolds
a. Properly const ructed scaffolds shall be provided for all work which cannot
be done safely by workmen standing on permanent or solid construction,
except when such work can be done safely from ladders. All such scaffolds
shall be substantially constructed to support at least four times the maximum load, and shall be secured to prevent swaying.


b. Planks used in the construction of stationary scaffolds shall be not less than
50 mm nominal thickness. Where such planks overlap at the ends, the
overlap shall be not less. than 1 50 mm. Planks shall be so placed that they
cannot tip under the weight of the worker at any point. ~ails used in the
construction of scaffolds shall be of ample size and length to carry the loads
they are intended to support. All nails shall be driven full strength. No nails
shall be subject to direct pull .
. c. Ropes, cables, and blocl<s used in the support of swinging scaffolds shall be
of sufficient size and strength to sustain at least six times the maximum
loads to which they will be subjected. Where acids are likely to come into
contact with them, ropes shall not be used in support of scaffolds, but steel
cables properly protected by.grease or oil or other effective methods shall be
used instead.
d. Every scaffold , the platform level of which is more than 1.80 meters above
the ground or above a permanent or temporary floor, other than iron
workers' scaffolds and carpenters' braker scaffolds, shall be provided with
guard rails and toe boards extending the full length of the scaffold and along
the ends except where ramps or runways connect with them, unless otherwise enclosed or guarded. On suspended, swinging and pole scaffolds, the
space between guard rails and toe boards shall be fitted with wire mesh
screens securely attached.
e. Where objects are likely to fall on scaffolds from above, a substantial
overhead protection shall be provided; not more than 3.00 meters above
the scaffold platform , and at doorways, passageways or other points where
workers must pass under scaffolds, a substantial overhead protection shall
be provided.
No materials or equipment other than required by the workers shall be placed on scaffold platforms.
f. Roof brackets, roof scantling, crawling boards and similar forms of supports
aha\\ be substantial in construction and securely fastened in place when in
g. Barrels, boxes or other similar unstable objects shall not be used as supports
for planking intended as scaffolds or place of work.
h. When used over public sidewalk or other places of public use, scaffolds used
for minor buildin9 repairs, alterations, or painting, shall be equipped with
drop cloths to effectively prevent the falling of paint or debris.
i. Scaffolds for sandblasting and guniting operations shall be entirely and effectively enclosed, and the determination of effective enclosure shall be the
complete absence of particles of materials of operation in the air at a
horizontal distance of 15.00 meters irom the point of operation.
4.9 Temporary Flooring
a. In buildings of skeleton construction, the permanent floor, except for
necessary hoiscyvay openings, shall when possible, be constructed as the
building progresses. There shall be not more than three un-filled flobrs
above the highest permanent floor.
b. In buildings of wood joist construction, the under-floor shall be laid for each
floor as the building progresses.
c. In buildings of skeleton construction the entire working floor shall be


planked over, except spaces required for construction work, for raising or
lowering materials, and for stairways or ladders. Planks shall be placed so
that they cannot tip under the weight of a worker at any point and secured
so that they cann.ot slip out of place.

4.10 Floor Openings .

a. All floor openings use<i as hoistways or elevator shaftways shall be protected on all sides, except the side being used for loading or unloading. Pro.
taction shall be in the form of barricades not less than 1.20 meters high
along or near the edges of such openings, or guard rails not less than 91 0
mm: high. placed not less than 600 mm. distant at all points from the edges
of such openings. If guard rails are used, toe boards shall be provided along
the ed~es of the openings. Side left open for loading or unloading shalt be
guarded by similar solid doors or gates.
b. AU floor-openings used as stairways or for the accomodation of \adders or
runways shall be guarded by railings and toe boards.
c. All .other f~oor openings shall be protected on all sides by solid barriers not
less than 91 0 mm. high or by railings and toe boards, or shall be planked
over or covered by temporary construction capable of sustaining safely
suchloads aS are likely to come thereon.
d. Barriers for the protection of openings used as hoistways or for elevators
'lhall be constructed so that workers cannot thrust head, arms or legs
chrough them, and loose materials cannot fall or be pushed into the shattway.
e. Barriers and guard rails around f:oor openings shall remain in place until permanent enclosures or protection are Otherwise provided.

4.11 Guard Rails and Toe Boards

a. Guard rails, when required under this Rule, shall have the top rail not less
than 910 IT)m. ~igh abov~ the platform l~vel. An intermediate rail shall be
provided 'between t he top rail and the platform.
All guard rails shall have adequate supports not more than 2.40 meters
Every guard rail shall be constructed. to withstand a horizontal force of 30
kgs. per meter.

b. Toe boards, whenever required under this Rule, shaU be solid to full height,
and .shall extend not less than 1 50 mm. above the platform level and shall
be placed to fit close to the edges of the platform. They shall be adequately
supported, secured and br~ced along the entire length to resist the impact of
worker's feet and .the shifting of materials. Toe boards of wood shalt be not less
than 25 mm. nominal thickness; with supports not more than 1.20 meters apart.
Toe boards of metal shall not be less than 3.174 mm. thick, with support not
more than 1.20 meters apart.

5 .1 Precautions before demolition
a. Before commencing the work of demolition of a building/structure, all gas,
electric, water and other meters shali be removed and the supply lines
disconnected, except such as are especiallyprovided or required for use in
connection with the work of demolition.
b. All . fittings attached to the building and connected to any street lighting
system, electrical supply or other utilities shall be removed .


c. All electric power shall be shut off and all electric service lines shall be cut
and disconnected by the power company at or outside the property line.
d. All gas, water end other utility service lines shall be shut off and cut or capped. or otherwise controlled at or outside the building line.
In each case, as also in 6 . 1.3 above. the utility company inlv'olved shall be
notified in advance and its approval or cooperation obtained.
e. No electric cable or other apparatus, other than those especially required for
use in connection with the demolition work, shall remain electrically charged during demolition operations. When it is necessary to maintain any
power, water, gas or other utility lines during the .process of demolition,
such lines shall be temporarily relocated and protected w ith substantial
covering to the satisfaction of the utility company concerned .
f. All necessary steps shall be taken to prevent danger to persons arising from
fire or explosion from leakage or accumulation of gas or vapor; and from
flooding from uncapped water mains, sewers and/or culverts.
g. All entrances/exits to and.from the building shall be properly protected so as
to prevent any danger to persons engaged in the demolition work using such
entrances in the performance of their work.
h . Glazed ashes and glazed doors shall be removed before the start of demolition operations.

6.2 Chutes
a. Chutes for the removal of materials and debris shall be provided in all parts
of demolition operations which are more than 6.00 meters above the point
from which material is to be removed. Chutes shall be so situated and constructed so as not to pose any danger to the public or to workmen.
b . Chutes shall be completely enclosed and shall be equipped, at intervals of
7.60 meters or less, with substantial stops to prevent descending materials
from attaining dangerous speeds . Proper tools shall be provided and kept
available to loosen materials or debris jammed in the chute. No materials or
debris shall be dropped from any part of a building under demolition to any
point outside the walls of the building except through properly enclosed
wooden or metal chutes.
c. Chutes which are at an angle of more than 46 from the horizontal shall be
completely enc\osed on all four sides, except for openings at or about floor
level at each ffoor, for the receiving of materials debris.
d. Chutes at an angle of less than 46 with the horizontal may be left open on
the upper side. However, where such a chute discharge Into another chute
steeper than 46 with the horizontal, the top of the steep chute shall be
covered at the junction point of the two chutes to prevent the spillage of
materials or debris.
e. Openings into which materials or debris are dumped at the top of a chute
shall be protected by a substantial guardrail extending at least 1. 90 meters
above the level of the floor.

f. At chute openings where materials or debris are dumped from wheelbarrows, a toe board or bumper not less than 160 mm. high and 50 mm.
nominal thickness shall be provided. Any space between the chute and
edges of floor openings through which the chute passes shall be solidly
planked over.


g. Chutes, as well as floors, stairways and other places, shall be effectively

wet down at frequent intervals, whenever the dust from demolition operations would cause a menace or hardship to adjoining buildings or premises.
h . The bottom of each chutes shall be equipped with an adjustable gate or stop
for r.egulating the flow of materials .
Except when in actual use in the discharge of materials, the gate or stop
shall be kept closed . A reliable person shall be designated to control the gate
and the backing up and loading of trucks. He shall see to it that no person is
allowed to stand or pass under the discharge end of the chute at any time.
i. The area at the discharge end of each chute shall be completely enclosed
with a substantial fence at all times or otherwise made inaccessible . A
danger sign shall be placed at t he discharge end of every chute.

5.3 Demolition of Walls and Chimneys

a. No wall, chimney or other construction shall be allowed to fall in man, except under competent supervision.
Scaffolds or stagings shall be erected for workers if walls or other elements
of the structure are too thin or tou weak Heavy structural members, such as
beams or columns, shall be carefully lowered and not allowed to fall freely.
b. Masonry walls or sections of masonry walls shall be permitted to fall upon
the floors of the building in such masses as to exceed the safe carrying
capacity of the floors.

c. No walls or section of walls

whos~ height is more than twenty-two (221

t imes its thickness shall be permitted to stand without lateral bracing unless
such wall is in good condition and was originally designed to stand to a
greater height without such lateral support.

d. Workmen shall not be permitted to work on top of a wall when weather con-.
ditions constitute a hazard .

e. Before demolishing any interior/exterior wall which is within 3 .00 meters of

any opening in the floor immediately below, such opening shall be substantially planked over unless all workmen sre removed from all floors below and
access to such floors are positively prevented.
f. At the completion of each day's work, all walls urn:femolished shall be left
stable and in no danger of overturning or falling.

g. Foundation walls which serve as retaining walls to support earth and adjoining structures shall not be demolished until such adjoining structures have
been underpinned or braced, and eart h either removed or supported by
sheet piling or other suitable materials.
h. In the demolition of brick and/or masonry chimneys which cannot safely be
toppled or dropped, all materials shall be dropped down through the inside
of such chimneys.

i. The loading point at the discharge end of any chute at or near at or near the
bottom of a chimney shall be completely protected by means of any
overhead timber canopy constructed in accordance with Section 2.3 of this


j. To enable workmen to reach or leave their work on any wall or scaffold ,

walkways shall be provided. Such walkways shall not be less than three (3)
planks , properly tied or nailed to bearers of not less than 560 mm. in width,
such that the planks do not deflect more than 50 mm. under normal loading.

k. In buildings of skeleton construction, the steel framing may be left in place

during the demolition of masonry work . When this is done, all steel beam,
girders and the like shall be cleared of all loose materials as the demolit ion
progress downward.

5.4 Demolition of Floors

a. Before the demolition of floors and floor beams shall be completely supported by temporary planking and supports.
When the load is transferred to lower floors , these floors shall be carefully
propped. Demolition of floors shall not be started until the surrounding floor
area to a distance of 6 .00 meters have been entirely cleared of debris and
other unnecessary materials.
b. No floor, roof or other part of a building that is being demolished shall be so
overloaded with debris or materials as to render it unsafe.

c. Where workmen are engaged in the removal of iloors, planks of ample

strength which are supported independently of the flooring shall be provided for the workmen to step on . The planks shall be so placed as to give
the workmen a firm support in case the floor gives way or collapses unexpectedly. Where it is necessary for a workman to stradle a space between
two planks, such space shall not exceed 400 millimeters. To enable
workmen to reach any work place without the necessity ot walking on exposed beams, planks shall be provided to serve as catwalks.
Stringers of ample strength shatl be installed to support. The planks where
necessary of such intringers shall be supported by the floor beams or
d. Planks used for temporary protectioh shall be sound and at least 2 5 mm,
thick. They shall be laid close together, with the ends overlapping by at least
100 mm. over solid bearings to prevent tipping under a load .

e. Where floors are being removed, no workmen shall be allowed to work in

the area directly underneath. Such areas shall be barricaded to prevent access to it.

f. Structural or load-supporting members on any floor shall not be cut or

removed until all stories have that floor have been demolished and removed.
g. Where any floor has been removed, the entire tier of beams on which any
device is supported shalf be completely planked over, except for such openings as are required for the handling of material or equipment.
h. Stairs and stair railings shall be kept in place and in usable condition as long
as it is practicable. Steps and landings shall be kept free from debris.



Pursuant to section 801 to 811 of the National Building Cede (PO 1 096), the following
rules and regulations shall be observed:

1.1 Subject to the provisions of the Civil Code of the Philippines on easements of
light and view. and to the provisions of chapter 8 of the code, every building shall
be designed. constructed, and equipped to provide adequate light and ventilation .
1. 2 All buildings shall face a street or public alley or a private street which has been
duly approved .
1 .3 No building shall be altered nor arranged so as to reduce the size of any room or
the relative area of windows to less than t hat provided for buildings under this
rule, or to create an additional room conforms to the requirements of this rule.
1 .4 No building shall be enlarged so that the dimensions of the required court or yard
would be less than that prescribed for such building.


2.1 The measurement of site occupancy or lot occupancy shall be taken at the
ground level and shall be exclusive of courts, yards and light wells.
2.2 Courts , yards, and light wells shall be measured clear of all projections from the
walls enclosing such wells or yards with the exception of roof leaders. wall
copings sills or steP.I fire escJ pes no Pxcn(dinQ 1./.0 n"' ("' 1n ..... , 1 ~,
2.3 Maximum stte occupancy shall be governed by use, type of construction, and
height of the building and the use, area, nature and location of the site; and subject to the provisions of the local zoning requirements and in accordance with
the following .


a - Public Ope., Spaces
streets, alleys, easemens of seashores, rivers,
plaza. playgrounds, etc.


railrond, tracks. parks.

b - Private Open Spaces

. courts, v<trds, setbacks, Hghtwclls, uncovered driveways, access
ing spaces.


and park -


Table 1 - Private Open Space Requirements


A & B (Residential)


All Others

a} Interior Lot
(Lot located in the interior of a block
made accessible from a public street or
alley by means of a private access road)



b) Inside lot
(Non-corner or single frontage lot)

2 0%


c) Corner and/or Through Lot





d) Lots bounded on three (3) or more sides

by public open spaces such as streets,
alleys, easement of seashores, rivers ,
esteros, etc.

NOTE: 1) Refer to Section 3 of Rule 1 1 1 for occupancy grouping.

2) Group A buildings in R 1 Zones shall follow the minimum yard standards in
Table 1 1 to comply with the open space requirement.
EXCEPTIONS: When the lots as described in (b), (c) and (d) in Table 1 are to shallow such
that the public open space on which they abut can adequately supply light and ventilation
to every room therein si,Jbject to the requirements on window openings, the requirements
on private open space above may be waived, provided, however, that for lots abutting only
one public open space, the depth shall be not more than 5.00 meters and for those abutting
two or more public open spaces, the depth shall be not more than 10.00 meters .


L .' 0

... ..


z .'


~~ . .




o r



.. - pr~ty


l neJ

09tn t{)OC:t


. c, o a


25% ooen apoet

,., !, F, 0, H .. I &<~'"

20 "' OC*'I space
fer A.I. C.O a J oc~
l5% optn . IPOCt
11r E,F,O, Hal occ_.a"

tront lot

- ' - - --

l -



F\G. 1.1

FIG. 1.2



FIG. 1

10 % open

10 % open apace

tot A, I ,C, O a J tot

tk._I.C,O I J ..,....._

5" Opel'!


' " ' open

a 1 oee

fOr E. F H


tlr!,F, O,H al


r----- ---

FIG. I.!




!5 % open spoee
""" en ,,_. tce11cte



" '0













FIG. 1.6



M inimum sizes of courts and yards and their least dimensions shall be governed by the
use, type of constru ction and height of the build ing as provided hereunder , pro vided
that the minimum horizontal dimension of said courts and yards shall be not less than
2.00 m ete rs . All inner courts shall b e connected to a street or yard, either by a
passageway with a minimum wid th of 1.20 meters or by a door through a room or

3.1 Courts - An .unoccupied sp ace b etween building lines and lot lines other than a
yard : free, open and unobst ructed from the ground upward.
a) Inner Court
lines .

A court bounded on all sides or around its periphery by building

b ) Open Court .. A court boundecl on three sid as by building lines with one side
bounded by another open spact whether public or private.
cl Through Court - A court bounded on two opposi te sides by building lines w ith
the othEH opposite sides bounded by other open spaces whether public o r
private .
Ever y court shall have a width of not less than 2. 00 m eters for one and
two-story b uild ings . However , this may be reduce to not less than 1.5 0
m eters in cluster liv ing units such as quadruplexes . rowhouses and the
lfke one or t wo stori es in heig ht with adjacent courts w ith an area of not
less t han 3.00 square met ers . Provided , further. that the separation
with or fen ces, if any , shall be not higher th an 2 .00 m eters . Irregularly
shaped lots such as triangular lots and the like whose courts may be
also triangular in shape may be exempted from having a minimum width
of 2.00 meters, provided that no side thereof shall be less th an 3 .00
meters and the area shall be not less t han that required in Table 1.





SlOES 2..00 1111. AHO
1.&0 1111 . . . AY INT" CHAN8[ .

llll i


_ _ _ _ _ . . . . COUOT/TAOO--


( tota l 1101 leiS t l'lu

reqlih unt of TAIIL I)

no aidf Ina
ttoc111 J .OO "':


For buildings more than t wo (2) stories in height, the minimum w idt h ot
the court shall be increased at the rate of 300 millimeters (0. 3 0 m) for
each additional story up to the f ourteenth story. For buildings exceeding fourteen (14) stories in height, the required widt h of the cou rt
shall be computed on tl:le basis of fourteen ( 14\ st ories .










10% IIOq.m.


2.00 2 .30 2.410 2.90 3.20


!.80 4.10

! 10


4 ,40 ; 4,70



~. 00 ~30


!!. ~

abuttno ~~ ,,.,
nv.r.. -.oa:.
Sampe Computation: A lot with an area (1f 600sq.m. Minimum Mtback Of 0 .30M. for ev.ry a1ory
ttorttnv from m third floor up shctll be added to tl\e minimum rtqUirtd wl.dth Of 2 . OOM.


for tM fll'$t and ..coM 11oriet ond moy be d111ributd in different areas provided fhclt
the to1al OCKJrtvott open space shall not be leu than tM percentOQt required.


width of court or
oPnlng at
and upper floors




2 .001111.

to 2. 991111.
S. 9~



( ) ) Sfiii'Y


14 1 S tor.,-.



4.00 M.

to . 1111.


(51 Storeys

!U)O M.

to !!.Itt loot.






1-w.ll ( TI Stofe7t


to 7.99M.

El_., ( 8) Story



l .ttM.

Mlae ( t) Store,.

9.00M. to

. 99M.



( 10) Storey


3 .2 Yard - The Vacant space left between t he building and the property lines .
Yards shall be subject to the same basic requirements as courts. In addition, the
follo wing rules shall be observed:

Yards for Residential Buildings



R- 1
5.00 m.
2.00 m.
2.00 m.


*See abutments

means Low-Density Residential Zone, characterized mainly by single-family,

single detached dwellings with the usual community ancillary uses on a
neighborhood scale, such as exclusive residential communities which are not


means Medium-Density Residential Zone, characterized mainly by mediumdensity housing like low and medium-rise, multiple family dwellings on a limited
scale and the usual community ancillary uses on a barangay scale , such A
semi-exclu sive subdivisions and semi-exclusive residential communities which
are not subdivision s.


means High-Densi ty Residential Zone, characterized by a very mixed housing

type and high density housing. like high-rise buildings with more than usual community ancillary uses increasingly commercial in scale.











Abut ments on the f ront, side and rear property lines may be allowed provided
t hat the f ollowing requirements shall b e c om plied with:
1. Open space as prescribed in \able , .
2. W indow opening as prescribed in Section 7 .










3. F1r ewall with a minimum of one-hour fire resistive rating constructed w ith a
minimum height clearance of 1 .00 meter above all the roof.
The required open space shall be located totally or di stributed anywhere w ithin
the lot in such a manner as to provide maximum light and ventillation into the
b ) Yards Commercial , Industrial , Institutional and Recreational Buildings .

- - - -- - - -- ..---- ------- --- - -- - ---- 30 ~eters & above
3 m.
25-29 meters
8 m.
3m .
6 m.
20-24 m eters
3m .
3 m.
4m .
1 0-1 9 meters
2m .
Below 10 meters


The yard requirements in Table 111 above are for newly-developed

thoroughfares. For highly built-up urban areas with duly established lines and
grades reflecting therein proposed road widening and elevation, the requirements in Tabl e 11 1 above may not be imposed and the building may abut
on the front side and rear property lines provided that the requiremen ts on ope ~
space, window opening, artificial ventilation. if any, and firewall s are complied'
w it h .

3. 3 Setback - the vacant space left between the building and lot lines not l ess than
2.00 meters in width . A setba ck may be considered part of the open space ,
provided that it abuts a permanent public open space without any separation
between them which obstructs the free flow of light and ventilatiOn . Fences , if
any, made of wrought or galvan ized iron bars and the like with solid masonry
zocalo, if any, not higher than 1 .00 meter shall be allowed.

3 .4 Uncovered Driveways, Access and Parking Spaces may be considered as part

of the open space provided that they are open and unobstructed from t h e
ground upward as in courts and yards.

4.1 Habitable room s provided with artificial ventilation shall have ceiling heights
not less th an 2.40 m eters mea sured from the floor to the ceiling; Provided that
for buildings of more than one-storey, the minimum ceiling height of the firs t
story shall be 2. 7 0 meters and that for the second story 2. 40 meters and the
succ eeding stories shall have an unobstructed typical head-room clearance of
not less than 2. 1 0 meters above the finish ed floor. Above stated rooms with a
natural ventilation shall have ceiling heights not less than 2. 70 meters.
4.2 Mezzanine floors shall have a clear ceiling not less than 1.80 meters .tiJovc an1
belovv it.


M inimum s1zes of rooms and their i east horizontal dimensions shall be as follows:

5.1 Rooms for Human Habitations 2.00 meters;

5.2 Kitchen -

6.00 square meters with a least dimension of

3 .00 squarP- meters w i th a least dimension of 1. 50 meters .

5.3 Bath and toilet -

1.20 square meters with a least dimension of 0.90 m eter.

11 J


Minimum air space shall be provided as follows:
6.1 School Rooms - 3.00 cubic meters with 1.00 square meter of floor area per
6.2 Workshop. Factories, and Offices person;
6.3 Habitable Rooms -

12.00 cubic meters of air space per

14.00 cubic meters of air space per person.

7.1 Rooms intended for any use, not provided with artificial ventilation system,
shall be provided with a window or windows with a total free area of openings
equal to at least ten percent of the floor area of the room, laundry rooms and
similar rooms shall be provided with w indow or windows with an area not less
than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms, provided that such opening
shall be not less than 240 sq . mm. Such window or windows shall open directly
to a court yard , public street or alley , or open water course.
Exception. Required windows may open into a roofed porch.
a) Abuts a court, yard; public street or alley, or open water course and other
public open spaces.
b) has a ceiling height of not less than 2. 70 meters.
c) has one of the longer sjdes at least 65 percent open and unobstructed.
7.2 Eaves over required windows shall be not less than 750 miliimeters from the
side and rear property lines .

8.1 Ventilation or vent shafts shall have a horizontal cross-sectional area of not less
0 square meter for every meter of height of shaft but in no case shall
the area be less than 1 .00 square meter. No vent shaft shall have its least
d'lmension less man 600 millimeters.


8.2 Skylights - Unless open to the outer air at the top of its full area, vent shafts
shall be covered by a skylight having a net free area of fixed louver open ings
equal to the maximum required shaft area.
9.3 Air ducts shall open to a street or court by a horizontal duct or intake at a point
below the lowest window opening . Such duct or intake shall ha"e a minimum
unobstructed cross-sectional area of not less than 0 .30 square meter with a
minimum dimension of 300 millimeters. The openings to the duct or intake shall
be not less than 300 millimeters above the bottom of the shaft and street sur
face or level of court, at the respective ends of the duct or intake.

Skylights shall h~ve a gross area not less than that required for the windows that are
replaced. They shall be equipped with movable sashes or louvers with an aggregate
net free area not less than the required for openable part in the window that are replaced or provided with approved artificial ventilation of equivalent effectiveness.



10.1 Rooms or spaces housing industrial or heating equipment shall be provided with
artificial means of ventilation to prevent excessive accumulation of hot and/or
polluted air.
10.2 Whenever artificial ventilation is required, the equipment shall be designed and
constructed to meet the following minimum requirements in air changes:


Banking Space
Barber Shop
Beauty Parlor
.Broker's Board Room
Cocktail bar
Department Stores
Director's Room
qrugstore's (no counter)
Drugstore (w/counterl
Funeral Parlor
Gambling Rooms, Garage
Hospital Room,
Hotel Room
Restaurant. Kitchen
Shop. retail






0 . 22
0 .57
0 . 22
0 .85
0 .29

0 .85


0 .29

0 .43
0 .57


3 .00





4 - 1/2

4 - 1/ 2
3 - 314


1 -1/2







1 :-112



1-1/ 2



1 -3/4

1 y,



1 -112


1 - 3/4
3 /4
2-1 / 4


10.3 For other rooms or spaces not specifically covered under this Section, applicable provisions of the Philippine Mechanical Engineering Code shall be
Buildings/structures shall be designed and equipped to provide adequate lighting in accordance with the provisions of the Philippine Electrical Code and Fire Code of the



Pursuant to Section 105 of the National Building Code (PO 1 096} and in accordance with
the latest Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA). now Bureau of Air Transportation (BAT),
Air Regulations , the following rules and regulations shall govern the construction of
buildings/structures within approach/departure zones of runways'of airports.
1. DEFINITIONS - For purpose of this Rule, the following definitions shall apply:
APPROACH/DEPARTURE ZO NE OF AN AIRPORT - That area with an inner edge
located 60 meters from the end of the runway, perpendicular and symmetrical about
the prolongation of the runway centerline both sides of which have a divergence of
12.5% towards the..outslde, and with the inner edge as the short base of the isosceles
trapezoid thus formed.
INNER EDGE - A line perpendicular to t he prolongation of the runway centerline and
60 meters from the end of the runway . It is the short base of the isosceles trapezoid
formed by t he approach/departure zone, having a length as follows :
a) 1 50 meters for runways less than 1 , 500 meters only.
b) 300 meters tor runways 1, 500 meters long or more.
INNER HORIZONTAL SURFACE - A horizontal plane located 45 meters above the
elevation of the airport , starting from a dist ance of 390 meters from the c enterline of
the runway up to 4, 390 meters, for runways less than 1,500 meters long; and at a
distance of 46 5 meters from the centerline of the runway up to 4465 meters, for runways 1,500 meters long or more .
TRANSITLON SURFACE - A specified surface sloping upwards from the edge of the
approach/departure zone and from a line originating at the end of the inner edge .
drawn parallel to the runway centerline, having a slope of .4.3% ( 1 :7). The outer limit
of the transition surface shall be determined by its intersection w ith the plane of the in
ner horizontal surface.
STRIP OF RUNWAY - That rectangular area determined by a line originating at the
end of the inner edge drawn parallel to the centerline of the runway having a total
length of L + 1 20 meters, where l is the length of the runway in meters, and a width
equal to the length of the inner edge.
3. The portion of the approach/departure zone where new construction is aHowed is an
isosceles trapezoid symmetrical about the prolongation of the runway centerline, the
shorter base of which is the inner edge of the approach/departure zone . The height o1
building/structures within this zone shall be limited by an imaginary line with a slope of
2% for the first 3,000 meters from the inner edge reckoned from the surface of the
runway, and thence 2.5% beyond 3,000 meters. The dimensions of the isosceles
trapezoid are on the following table.


Length of runway
in meters
...........- ...



1 , 500 or more
Less than 1 , 500

Inner edge
(Short base)
in meters

Long base
in meters

Distance between
in meters




4 .. A height clearance certificate shall fir st be secured f rom the CAA (not BAT) before a
bu ilding permit may be issued for th e construction of buildings/ structures located:
al within 5 00 me_
t ers measured normal to the centerline of the runway of an airport,
regardless of height;
bl from 500 meters up to 24.5 kilometers measured normal to the centerline of the
runway of an airport and exceeding 45 meters in height abcve the elevation of the
c) w ithin t he approach/departure zone of an airport at a distance of 2, 2 50 meters
measured from the inner edge, regardless of height;
d} within the approach/departure zone of an airport beyond 2,2 50 meters from the
inner edge up to 1 5 kilometers and exceeding 45 meters in height above the eleva
tion of the runway.




1$ NOT MOlt TliAH 4e .OO Ill . IN HE IGHT IYDI40 Til

31S M. Ofll !100 Ill OISTA!'fCE FIIOM STRI' EOG

- -Y--...






nw4 4&.00 M. IN HE~HT llEl'OND

EO (If;.






oP .TO

~. 00 M.

@ .w>@- OISTANC TO



4,00 M. 11GHT.


l 000"'

4. --- - 6 0 Ill.



~ M. lHHER EDG - 1,500 lol . R\HAY

!00 Ill INME.R EDGE + I, 500 M.

$Y_,.,..._ ,



150 Ill .

t -- - - 'iDQic.I!L_ __......._-2!1EIS..!!III~._..,__~\~UP-~&Qi>.J!.. ___ __.......


20 ~











Pursuant to Section 707 ot the National Building Code (PO 1096) the maximum height and
number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the character of occupancy
and the type of construction considering population density, building bulk, widths of
streets and car parking requirements in relation to other existing local land use plan and
zoning regulations, geological, hydrological, meteorological, light and ventilation, as well as
other environmental considerations, prevailing traffic conditions. the availability and
capacity of public utility/service systems.
1. DEFINITIONS - For purposes of this Rule, the following definitions shall apply:
HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURE - The vertical distance from the e-stablished
grade elevation to the nighest point of the coping of a flat roof, to the average height
of the highest gable, pitch or hip roof, or to the top of the parapet, if the roof is provided with a parapet, whichever is higher (See Figs. A, B. Cl .







CHARACTER OF OCCUPANCY - The classification of use or occupancy of

buildings/structures or portions thereof. (see page 59)
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION - The classification based on the fire resistivity ratings o1
materials and methods of construction of buildings/structures or portions thereof.
GRADE (ADJACENT GROUND ELEVATION) - The lowest point of elevation of the
finished surface of the ~round between the exterior wall of a buildinq and a point 1. 50
meters distant from said wall or the lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of the
finished surface of the ground between the exterior wall of a building and a property

UOiol .





~AO :


8l.DG. AND l"ftOI'ERTV LfiE

l EI


line if it is less than 1.50 meters distant from said waiiiSee Fig. 3 1. In c ase walls are
par~llel to and within 1 . 50 meters of public sidewalk, alley or other public way . the
grade shall be the elevation of the sidewalk, alley or public way !See Fig. 41.
ESTABLISHED GRADE ELEVATION - The point of reference on the highest adjoining
sidewalk or the highest adjoining ground surface, as established by the proper government authority. However, in case of sloping ground, the average ground level of the
buildable area shall be considered the established elevation, !See Fig. 5).

2.1 The height shall be measured from the highest adjoining public sidewalk or
ground surface. Provided, that the height measured from the lowest adjoining
surface shall not exceed such maximum height by more than 3.00 meters; Except, that towers , spires and steeples, erected as parts of the building and not
used for habitation or storage are limited as to the height only by structural
design, if completely of incombustible materials, or may extend not to exceed
6 .00 meters above the height limits for each occupancy group, if of combustible materials, (See Figs. 1-A, 1-B, 1-C).
2.2 The height of any buildings/structure shall be subject to clearance requirements
of the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) in the case of airports, and of
military authorities in the case of security-oriented facilities/installations.
2.3 Character of occupancy and type of construction:
Buildings/structures whose character of occupancy .or use and occupant load

:ne less hazardous as to life and fire risks may be built higher than those which
are more hazardous.


Building s/ structures falling under Types IV or V (steel. iron, co nc~ete or

masonry construction) may be built higher than those falling under Types 1 or
11 (wooden construction).
2.4 In any given locality the height of buildings/ structures shall be governed by the
following factors:
a. Population density:
Consider both the present and projected density in the area.
Q. Building bulk:
For a given volume of buildings/structures, that which has a lesser area of
ground coverage may be built higher than that of greater area of ground

c. Widths of streets :
Provide .for adequate light and ventilation and accessibility.
d. Traffic conditions and parkinglloading requirements :
Provide effective control of traffic and adequate parking/loading facilities.
e. Provisions of land use plans and zoning ordinances.
f . Geological conditions:
Consider soil characteristics, location in relation to fault tines and earth
quake belts and proximity of volcanoes.
g. Hydrological conditions:
Consider the water table at the site and distance to waterways and
h. Meteorological Conditions:
Consider the frequency and instensity of destructive typhoons, prevailin g
wind direction, relative humidity, amount of precipitation and the prevailing
i. Environmental conditions:
Provide effective control of air, noise and thermal pollution. Promote growth
of vegetation . Optimize natural light and ventilation.
j. Availability and capacity of public utility/service systems:
Consider the availability and adequacy of electric power, potable and nonpotable water supply, drainage and sewerage, transportation and communications facilities.


Pursuant to Section 803 of the National Building Code (PO 1096) providing for a maximum
site occupancy, the following provisions on parking and loading space requhements shall
be observed :
1.1 The size of an average automobile parking slot shall be computed at 2.4 meters
by 5.00 meters for perpendicular or diagonal parking, at 2.00 meters by 6.00
meters for parallel parking. A truck or bus parking/loading slot shall be computed at a minimum of 3.60 meters by 12.00 meters. The parking slot shalt be
drawn to scale and the total number of which is indicated on the plans and


specified whether cr not parking accommodations, are attendant managed.

(See Section 2 for computation of parking requirements).
1. 2 Low-income single detached living units in housing ptoject areas with individual
lots not more than 100 square meters.
Pooled parking at 1 slot/1 0 living

1.3 Multi-family living units regardless of

number of stories with an average of
living unit floor area of:
a) Up to 50 sq.m.
b) Above 50 sq.m. to 100 sq.m.
c) More than 100 sq .m.

1 slot/8 living units

1 slot/4 living units
1 slot/living unit

1.4 Hotels

1 slot/1 0 1ooms

1 . 5 Residential hotels and apartels

1 slot/5 units

1.6 Motels

1 slot/unit

1 . 7 Neighborhood shopping center

1 slot/1 00 sq .m. of shopping floor

1 slot/30 sq.m. of customer area.

1.8 Markets

1 .9 Restaurants, fast-food centers, bars

1 slot/30 sq.m. of customer area

and beerhouses
1. 10 .Nightclubs, supperclubs and theaterrestaurants (See Section 1.20)

1 slot/20 sq.m. of customer area

1 . 11 Office buildings

1 slot/125 sq.m. of gross floor area

1 . 1 2 Pension/boarding/lodging houses

1 slot/20 beds

1 . 1 3 Other buildings in business/ commercial zones.

1 slot/125 sq.m,. of gross floor area.

1 . 14 Public assembly buildings such as

theaters, cinemas, auditoria, stadia,

1 slot/50 sq.m. of spectator area

1 . 1 5 Places of worship and funeral parlor

1 slot/50 sq.m. of congregation area

1 . 1 6 Schools
1 . 1 6.2 Elementary , secondary,
vocational and trade
schools .

1 slot/ 10 clasSfooms

1. 16.2 Colleges and universities

1 . 1 7 Hospitals

1 . 1 8 Recreational facilities
1. 1 8.1 Bowling alleys

1 slot/4 alleys

1-.18.2 Amusement centers

1 slot/50 sq.m. of gross floor area

1 .1 8.3 Clubhouses, beach houses

and the like

1 slot/1 00 sq.m. of gross floor area.

1.19 Factories;
buildings, warehouses and storage

1 car slot/1 ,000 sq .m. of gross floor


1 .20 Tourist bus parking areas


-- 1 slot/5 classrooms

2 bus slots/hotel
restaurant .




The off-street parking requirements rating may be reduced in accordance with any or
all of the following applicable conditions, provided such conditions are permanent:
2.1 Only offstreet service and loading bay requirements are to be provided if the
area where the building/structure to be erected is designated as a pedestriandominated zone.
2.2 In mixed occupancies, the parking requirements shall be the sum of 100% of
the domiT'ant use and 50% of each of the non-dominant uses.
2 .3 Fifty percent of all available on-street parking slots along roads f ronting the property lines, whether police-controlled or meter-controlled, may be included in
computing parking requirements of individual buildings/structures located
2 .4 In areas where adequate public parking lots/multi-floor parking garages ar.e
available within 200 meters of the proposed buildings/structures, only 20% of
parking requirements may be provided within the premises.
2 .5 In computing for parking slots, a fraction of 0.5 and above shall be considered
as t slot .
In all cases however, a minimum of 1 parking slot shall be provided except in
cases falling under Section 1.2 and 1 .3.
For buildings/structures intended for the use or occupancy of the handicapped, the
following minimum provisions shall be observed :


3 , 1 1 accessible parking Slot for."lhe h~ndi~apped per 50 parking slots up to 1 50

slots and an additional slot fm every 100. thereaher ,
3 .2 Wheel chair transfer area :

:.. ..

One between every tws spaces . .

Directly connects to accessible walks of travel and accessible building entrances (See Fig. 1 ).




(J'} "::J








~- ~
> :-r:
, .. ::::










~~ >~






'--- -- - ----- -- - - - -- -- - -- ---'


*Wheel bumper shail be used if parking lot pit'tement is at same level as accessible walkway.
3.3 Maximum distance of accessible parking area from facility served.
Perking areas for the physically handicapped shall be within 60 m. of the facility
being served. This shall be measured from the farthest parking space along ac-
cessible path t o the closest accessible entrance. {See Fig. 2).


Fig. 2



3 .4 AU accessible parking spaces for the handicapped shall have the international
symbol of access (See Fig. 3}.

Fig. 3

All signs are to be in white graphics on a dark blue background.

Size for exterior use shall be 30 em. or 60 em. by 60 em .

lettering for brief facility identification for the partially sighted shall be a
minimum height of 5 .0 em.



4 .1 Stores, manufacturing, wholesale of

mercantile buildings/structures. or
similar occupancies.

1 loading slot for every 5,000 sq.m.

of gross floor area with a minimum of
1 truck loading slot .

4. 2 Hotels and hospitals

1 truck loading slot


Pursuant to Section 203 of the National Building Code {PD 1 096) the following guidelines
shall be observed in the design of public buildings/structures:

1 . Public buildings/structures are permanent buildings/ structures owned by the government, wheth~r national or local, its agencies, including government-owned and/ or
controlled corporations.
2. Design of public buildings/structures aside from baing logically functional and structurally souQd, should promote, enhance and express the aesthetic quality, customs
and traditions.socio-economic values and cultural heritage of the region towards a
distinct Filipino architecture.
2 . 1 The architectural character of public buildings/ strl,lctures should express the
nature of their functions, use or occupancy and should reflect their identity as
public buildings/ structures compatible with their total environment.
2.2 Public buildings/structures should be designed for permanence.
2. 3 Use of indigenous and/or locally manufactured/ produced materials, such as
marble, stone, adobe, clay tiles, wood, coco wood, kapis shells should be maximized.
2.4 Use of natural light and ventilation by means of proper orientation, cross ventilation, convection, sun control devices and the like should be maximized.
2. 5 Choice of finishes should aim to minimize maintenance costs,
2.6 Decorative motifs and ornaments should evolve f rom native, ethnic or regional
arts and be an inherent expression of the whole design.
These guidelines are not intended to limit the creativity of the designer nor preclude the use
of advanced or innovative technology.
BATAS PAMBANSA BlG. 344 , . . Q.C .... Julv 26. 1982
Be it enscted by the Batasang Pambansa in session assembled


SECTION 1. In order to promote the realitation of the rights of disabled persons to participate fully in
the social li fe and the development of the societies in which they live and the enjoyment of the oppor
tunities available to other citizens, no license or permit for the construction. repair or renovation of public
and private buildings for public use, educational institutions, airports. sports and recreation centers and
complexes, shopping centers or establishments, public parking places, work-places. publlc utilities. shall
be granted or issued unless the owner or operator th!;lreof shall install and incorporate in such building,
establishment, institution or public utility, such architectural facilities or structural features as shatl
reasonably enhance the mobility of disabled persons such as sidewalks, ramps, railings and the like. If
feasible, all such existing buildings. institutions, establishments, or public utilities may be renovated or
altered to enable the disabled pe~ns to have access to them: Provided, however, That buildings. institu
tioos, establishments. or public ut~ities to be constructed or established for which licenses or permits had
already been issued may comply with the requirements of this law: Provided. further, That in case of
government buildings, street and highways, the Ministry of Public Works and Highways shall see to it that
the same shall be provided with architecturallacifities or ~tructural fea1ures for disabled persons.
In the case of the parking place of any of the above institutions. buildings, or establishment, or public
utilities, the owner or operator shall reserve sufficient and suitable space for the use of disabled persons.
SEC. 2. In case of public conveyance, devices suc'1 as the prominent display of posters or stickers
shall be u!ied to generate public awareness of the right. of the disabled and foster understanding of their
special needs. Special bus stops shall be designed for disabled persons. Discriminating against disabled
persons in the ca.rriage or transportation of passengers is hereby declared unlawful.


!1.10 Minimum when oar Is pulled oa for

at. poat.lble

access area



3 .70 H 3 .70 )( 2 .50 ~ 2 .60)

reou or








Grab raU

to ..,. provided ot every pedeatrtc:ln croulnt

8101 TRAtiSFIR


t> S'-Pe of ,._, stHIU not ex.oeed 1:12

t> 1:20 oooct

[> Lancllnt ,..,Ired If tonter ramp lstpeolflecl


( t.30.







I~ao r

.. ,

Provkla .70 m. & 90 m.

hanc:lrolla on bothsldoa

curb provide on

Labor Code

Social Security
ARTICLE 82. COVERAGE - The provision of this title shall apply to employees in all establishment and undertakings, whether for profit or not, but to government employees,
managerial employees, field personnel, members of the family of the employer who are
dependent on him for support. domestic helpers, persons in the personal service of
another, and workers who are paid by results as determined by the Secretary of Labor in
appropriate regulations.
As used herein, "MANAGERIAL EMPLOYEES" refer to those whose primary duty consists
of the management of the establishment in which they are employed or of a department or
subdivision thereof, and to other officers or members of the managerial staff.
"FIELD PERSONNEL" shall refer to non-agricultural employees who regularly perform their
duties away from the principal place of business or branch office of the employer and
whose actual hours work in the field cannot be determined with reasQnable certainty.
ART. 83. NORMAL HOURS OF WORK - The normal hours of work of any employee shall not
exceed eight {8).

ART. 84. HOURS WORKED- Hours worked shall include.

a. All time during which an employee is required to be on duty or to be at a prescribed
~ork place.
b. All time during which an employee is suffered or permitted to work.
Rest period of short duration during working hours shall be counted as hours worked .
ART . 85 . MEALS PERIOD - Subject to such regulations as the secretary of Labor may
prescribe, it shall be the duty of every employer to give his employees not less than sixty
160) minutes time-off for their regular meals.

ART . 86. NIGHT SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL - Every employeE~ shall be paid a night shift differential of not less than ten per cent (1 0%) of his regular wage for each hour of work performed between ten o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning.
ART . 87. OVERTtME WORK - Work may be performed beyond eight (8) hours a day provided
that the employee is paid for the overtime work, an additional compensation equivalent of
his regular wage plus at least twenty-five (25%) p~rcent thereof . Work performed beyond
eight-hours on a holiday or rest day shall be paid an additional compensation equivalent to
the rate of the first eight hours on a holiday or rest day plus at least thirty percent thereof.


ART . 88. UNDERTIME NOT OFFSET BY OVERTIME - Undertime work on any particular day
shall not be offset by overtime work. on any other day. Permission given to the employee to
go on leave on some other day of the week shall not exempt the employer from paying the
additional compensation required in this Chapter.
ART. 89. EMERGENCY OVERTIME WORK- Any employee may be required by the employer
to perform overtime work in any of the following cases:
al When the country is at war or when any other national or loc~t emetgency has been
declared by the National Assembly or the Chief Executive;
b) When it is necessary to prevent loss of life or property or in case of imminent danger to
public safety due to an actual or impending emergency in the locality caused by serious
accidents, fire, flood, typhoon, earthquake, epidemic, or other disaster or calamity;
c) When there is urgent w ork to be performed on machines, installations, or equipment, in
order to avoid serious loss or damage to the employer or some other cause of similar
d} When the work is necessary to prevent loss or damage to perishable goods; and
e) Where the completion or continuation of the work started before the eight hour is
necessary to prevent serious obstruction or prejudice to the business or operations of
the employer.
Any employee required to render overtime work under th\s Article shall be paid the additional compensation required in this Chapter.
overtime and other addit ional'remuneration as required by this Chapter the ''regular wage''
of an employee shall include the cash wage only withoutdedu~tion on account of facilit ies
provided by the employer .



ar tt shall'be the duty of every employer, whether operating for profit or not, to provid e
each of his employees a rest period of not lessthan twentyfour {24) consecutive hours
after every six (6) consecutive normal work days.
b} The employer shall determine and schedule the weekly rest day of his employees subject to collective bargaining agreerrtent and to such rules and regulations as the
Secretary of labor may provide. However , t he employer shall respect the preference of
employee as to ttleir weekly rest day when such preference is based on religious
grounds .
ART. 92. WHEN EMPLOYER MAY REQUIRE WORK ON REST DAY require his employees to wor.k on any day:

The employer may

a) In case of actual or impending emergen'Cies caused by serious accident, f ire. flood,

typhoon, earthquake. epidemic or other disaster or calamity to prevent loss of life and
property, or imminent danger to public safety;
b) In cases of urgent work to be performed on the machinery, equipment, or installation,
to avoid serious loss which the employer would otherwise suffer;
c) In the event of abnormal pressure of work due to special circumstances, where the
employer cannot ordinar~ly be expected to r~sort to other measures;


d) To prevent loss or damage to perishable goods;

e) Where the nature of the work requires continuous operations and the stoppage of work
may result in irreparable injury or loss to the employer; and
fl Under other circumstances analogous or similar to the foregoing as determined by the
Secretary of Labor.
ART. 93. COMPENSATION FOR REST DAY. SUNDAY. OR HOLIDAY WORKa) Where an employee is made or permitted to work on his scheduled rest day, he shall be
paid an additional compensation of at least thirty percent (30 %) of his regular wage.
An employee shall be entitled to such additional compensation for work performed on
Sunday only when it is his established rest day.
b) When the nature of the work of the employee is such that he had no regular work days
and no regular rest days can be scheduled, he shall be paid an additional compensation
of at least thirty percent (30%) of his regular wage for work performed on Sunday and
c:;) Work performed on any special holiday shall be paid an additional compensation of at

least thirty percent (30%) of the regular wage .of the employee. Where such holiday
work falls on the employee's scheduled/rest day, he shall be entitled to an additional
compensation of at least fifty percent (50%) of his regular wage.
d) Where the collective bargaining agreement or other applicable employment contract
stipulates the payment of a higher premium pay than that prescribed under this Article
the employer shall pay such higher rate.


ART. 94. RIGHT TO HOLIDAY PAY a) Every worker shall be paid his regular daily wage during regular holidays, except in
retail and service establishments regularly employing less than ten ( 10) workers;

b) The employer may require an employee to work on any holiday but such employee shatl
be paid a compensation equivalent to twice his regular rate; and
c) As used in this Article, "holiday" includes: New Year's Day, Maundy Thursday, Good
Friday, the ninth of April, the firstof May; the twelfth of June, the tourth of July, the
thirtieth of November, the twentyfifth and the thirtieth of December, and the day
designated by law for holding a general election.
ART. 95. RIGHT TO SERVICE INCENTIVE LEAVEal Every employee who has rendered at least one year of service shall be entitled to a year
ly service incentive leave of five days with pay.
b) This provision shall not apply to those who are already enjoying the benefit herein pro
vided, those enjoying vacation leave with pay of at least five days and those employed
in establishments regularly employing less than ten employees or in establishments
exempted from granting this benefit by the Secretary of labor after considering the
viability or financial condition of such establishment.
c) The grant of benefit in excess of that provided herein shall not be made a subject or
arbitration or any court or administrative action.
ART. 96. SERVICE CHARGES - All charges collected by hotels, restaurants and similar
establishments shall be distributed at the rate of eighty-five percent (85%) for ell covered
employees and fifteen percent {15%) for management. The share of the employees shall


be equally distributed among them. In case the service charge is abolished, the share of the
covered employee shall be considered integrated in their wages.


SECTION 1 . General Statement of Coverage - The provisions of this Rule shall apply to all
employees in all establishments and undertakings, whether operated for profit or not, except to those specifically exempted under Section 2 thereof.
SEC. 2.

Exemption - The provision of this Rule shall not apply to the following persons if
they qualify for exemption under the conditions set forth herein;
a) Government empioyees whether employed by the Nat!ona! Government. or any of its
political subdivisions, including those employed in government-owned and/or controlled corporations.
b) Managerial employees, if they meet all of the following conditions, namely:
1 ) Their primary duty consists of the management of the .establishment in which they
are employed or of a department or sub-diVision thereof;
2) They customarily and regularly direct the work of two or more employees therein;

3) They have the authority to hire or fire other employees of lower rank; or their sug-

gestions and recommendations as to the hiring or firing and as to the promotion or

any other change of status of other employees are given particular weight.

cl 'Officers or members of

managerial staff if they perform the following duties and

1 ) The primary duty consists of the performance of work directly related to management policies of their employer;

21 Customarny and regularly exercise discretion and independent judgment;

3) 1) Regularly and directly assist a proprietor or a managerial employee whose

primary duty consists of the mana.gement of the estabtishment in which he is

employed or. subdivision thereof; or execute under general supervision work
along specialized or technical lines requlring apec.ial training, experience, or
kflowledge; or execute under general supervision special assignments and
tasks; and
4) Who do not devote more than 20 percent of their hours worked in a work~week to
, activities which are not dlrectty and close related to the performance of the work
described in paragraphs 1 ), 2) and 3) above.
d) Domestic servants and persons in the personat service of another if they perform such
service in the employer's home which are usually necessary or desirable for the
maintenance and enjoyment thereof or minister to the personal comfort, convenience,
or safety of the employer as weft as the members of his employer' s household.
e) Workers who are paid by results, including those who are paid on piece-work, "takay' ',
"pakiao", or task basis, if their output rates are in accordance with the standards
prescribed under Section 8, Rule VII, Book 111, of these reg~lations, or where such
rates have been fixed by the Secretary of Labor In accordance with the aforesaid
Section .
f) Non-agricultural field l)ersonnel if they regularly perform their duties away from the

principal or branch office or place of business of the employer and whose actual hours
of work in the field cannot be determined with reaso~able certainty.


SEC. 3 .

Hours Worked -The following shall be considered as compensable hours worked:

a) All t ime duriFlg which an employee is required to be on duty or to be at the employer'.s

premises or to be at a prescribed workplace; and
b) All time during which an employee is suffered or permitted to work.

SEC. 4. Principles in Determining Hours Worked - The following general principles shall
govern i_n determining whether the time spent by an employee is considered hours worked
for purposes of this Rule:

al All hours are hours worked which the employee is required to give to his employer,
regardless of whether or not such hours are spent in productive labor or involve
physical or mental exertion ;
b) An employee need not leave the premises of t he work-place in order that his rest period
shalt not be counted, it being enough that he stops working, may r.est completely and
may leave his workplace, to go elsewhere, whether within or outside the premises of
his workplace;
c) If the work performed was necessary, or it benefited the employer, or the employer. or
the employee could not abandon his work at the end of his normal working hours
because he had no replacement, all time spent for such work shall be considered as
hours worked, if the work was with the knowledge- of the employer or immediate supervisor ;
d) The time during which an employee is inactive by reason of interrupting in his work
beyond his control shall be considered working time either if the imminence of the
resumption of work requires the employees' presence at the place of work or if the in- .
terval is too brief to be utilized effectively and gainfully in the employee:s own interest.
SEC. 5 . Waiting Time
a) Waiting time spent by an employee shall be considered as working time if waiting is an

integral part of his work or the employee is required or engaged by the employer to
b) An employee who is required to remain on call in the employer's premises or so close

thereto that he cannot use the time effectively and gainful\y for his own purpose shan
be considered as working while on call. An employee who is not required to leave word
at his home or with company officials where he may be reached is not working while on
SEC. 6. Lectures. Meeting, Training Programs - Attendance at lectures, meeting, training
programs, and other similar activities shaH not be counted as -working t ime if all of the
following conditions are met:
al Attendance is outside of the employee's regulaf working hours;
b} Attendance is in fact voluntary; and
c) The employee does not perform any productive work during such attendance.
SEC. 7. Meal and Rest Periods - Every employer shall give his employees, regardless of sex,
not less than one ( 1} hour time-off for regular meals, except in the following cases when a
meal period of not less than twenty {20} minutes may be given by the employer provided
that such meal period is credited as compensable hours worked of the employee:

a) Where the work is not-manual work in nature or does not involve strenuous physical


b) Where the establishment regularly operates not less tnan sixteen hours a day;
c) In cases of actual or impending emergencies or there is an urgent work to be performed
on machineries, equipment or installations to avoid serious loss which the employer
would otherwise suffer. and
dl Where the work is necessary to prevent serious loss of perishable goods.
Rest periods or coffee breaks, running from five (5) to twenty {20) minutes shall be considered as compensable working time.
SEC. 8. Overtime Pay -Any employee covered by the Rule who is permitted or required to
work beyond eight (8) hours on ordinary working days shall be paid an additional compensation for the overtime work in an amount equivalent to his regular wage plus at least
twenty-five percent (25%1 thereof.
SEC. 9.

Premium and Overtime pay for holiday and rest day work.

a) Ex-cept employees referred to under Section 2 of this Rule, an employee who is permitted or suffered to work on special holidays or em his designated rest days not falling on
regular holidays. shall be paid with an additional compensation as premium pay of not
less than thirty percent {30%) of his regular wage. For work performed in excess of
eight (8) hours on special holidays and rest days not falling on regular holidays, an
employee shall be paid an additional compensation for the overtime work equivalent to
his rate for the first eight hours on a special holiday or rest day plus at least thirty percent (30%) thereof.

Employees of public utility enterprises as wei: as those employed in non-profit institutions and organizations shall be entitled to the premium and overtime pay provided
herein, unless they are specifically excluded from the coverage of this Rule as provided
in Section 2 hereof.

cl The payment of additional compensation for work performed or regular holidays shall
be governed by Rule IV, Book 111, of these Rules.
SEC. 10. Compulsory Overtime Work - In any of the following cases, an employer may
require any of his employees to work beyond eight {8) hours a day, provided that the
employee required to render overtime work is paid the additional compensation required
these regulations:

a) When the country is at war or when any other national or local emergency has been
declared by the National Assembly or the Chief Executive;
b) When overtime work is necessary to prevent loss of life or property, or in case of
imminent danger to public safety due to actual or impending emergency in the locality
caused by serious accident, fire, floods, typhoons, earthquake, epidemic or other
disaster or calamaties;
cl When there is urgent work to be performed on machines, installations, or equipment, in
order to avoid serious loss or damage to the employer or some other causes of similar

SEC. 1.

Coverage - This Rule shall apply to all employees. except:

a} Those of the government and any of its political subdivisions, including governmentowned and/or controlled corporations;


b) Thos.e of retail and service establishments regularly employing not more than five (5}
c) Domesti c helpers and persons in the personal service of another;
d} Managerial employees as defined in Book 1 11 of this Code;
e} Field personnel and other employees whose time and performance is unsupervised by
the employer. including those who are engaged on task or contract basis, purely com~
mission basis, or those who are paid a fixed amount for performing work irrespective of
the time consumed in the performance thereof.
SEC. 2. Night Shift Differential - An employee shall be paid night shift differential of no less
than ten percent ( 10% l of his regular wage for each hour of work performed. between ten
o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning.
SEC. 3. Additional Compensation - Where an employee is required or suffered to work on
the period covered after his work schedule, he shall be entitled to his regular wage plus at
least twenty-five percent (25%) and an additional amount of no less than ten percent
( 1 0%) of such overtime rate for each hour of work performed between 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
SEC. 4. Additional Compensation on Scheduled Rest Day/Special Holiday - An employee
who is required or permitted to work on the period covered during rest days and/ or special
holidays not falling on regular holidays, shall be paid a compensation equivalent to his
regular wage plus at least thirty per cent 130%) and an additional amount of not less than
ten percent I 10 % l of such premium pay rate for each hour of work performed.
SEC. ~. Additional Compensation on Regular Holidays - For work on the period covered
during regular holidays, an employee shall be entitled to his regular wage during these days
plus an additional compensation of no less than ten per cent (10%) of such premium rate
for each hour: of work performed.
SEC. 6. Relation to agreements - Nothing in this Rule shall justify an employer in withdrawing or reducing any benefits, supplements or payments as provided in existing individual or
collective agreements or employer practice or policy.


SEC. 1 . General statement on Coverage - This Rule shall apply to any employers whether
operating for profit or not, including public utilities operated by private persons.
SEC. 2.. Business or Sundays/Holidays - All establishments and enterprises may operate or
open for business on Sundays and holidays provided that the employees are given the
weekly rest day and the benefits as provided in this Rule.
SEC. 3. Weekly rest day - Every employer shall give his employees a rest period of not less
than twenty-four (24) consecutive hours after every six consecutive normal work days.
SEC. 4. Preference of Employee - The preference of the employee as to his weekly day -of
rest shall be respected by the employer if the same is based on religious grounds. The
employee shall make known his preference to the employer in writing at least seven 17)
days before the desired effectivity of the initial rest day so preferred.
Where, however, the choice of the employees as to their rest day based on religious
grbunds will inevitably result in serious prejudice or obstruction to the operations of the
undertaking and the employer cannot normally be expected to resort to other remedial

measures, the employ~r may so schedule the weekly rest day of their choice for at ieas:
two (2) days in a month. .
Schedule of rest Day -

SEC. 5.

al Where the weekly rest is given to all employees simultaneously, the employer shall
make known such rest period by means of a written notice posted conspicuously in the
workplace at least one week before it becomes effective.
bl Where the rest period is not granted to all employees simultaneously and collectively.
the employers shall make known to the employees their respective schedule of weekly
rest through written notices posted conspicuously in the workplace at least one week
before they become effective.
SEC. 6. When work on Rest Day Authorized - An employer may require any of his
employees to work on his scheduled rest day for the duration of the following emergency
and exceptional conditions:
a) In case of actual or impending emergencies caused by serious accident, fire, flood,

typhoon, earthquake. epidemic of other disaster or calamity, or prevent loss of life or

property, or in cases of force maieure or imminent danger to public safety;
b) In case of urgent work to be performed on machineries, equipment or installations, to
avoid serious loss which the employer would otherwise suffer;
c) In the event of abnormal pressure of work due to special circumstances . where the
employer cannot ordinarily be expected to resort to other measures.
d) To prevent serious loss of perishable goods:
e) Where the nature of the work is such that the employees have to work continuously for
seven (7} days in a week or more, as in the case of the crew members of a vessel to
complete a voyage and in other similar cases; and
f) When the work is necessary to avail of favorable weather or environmental conditions
where performance or quality of work is dependent -thereon.
No employee shall be required. against his will to work on his scheduled rest day except
under circumstances provided in this Section, however, that where an employee
volunteers to work on his rest day under other circumstances, he shall express such desi~e
in writing, subject to the provisions of Section 7 hereof regarding additional compensation.

SEC. 7.

Compensation on Rest Day/Sunday/Holiday -

a) Except those employees referred to under Section 2, Rule 1, Book l11, an employee
who is made or permitted to work on his scheduled rest day shall be paid with an addi
tiona\ compensation of at least 30% of his regular wage. An employee shall be entitled
to such additional ~ompensation for work performed on a Sunday only when it is nis
established test day.
b) Where the'nature of the work of the employee is such that he has no regular work days
and no regular rest days can bescheduled, he shall be paid an additional compensatiqn
of at least 30% of his regular wage for work performed on Sundays and holidays.
c) Work performed on any special holiday shall be paid with an additional compensation of
at least 30% of the regular wage of the employees. Where such holiday work falls on
the employee's scheduled rest day, he shall be entitled to additional compensation of at
least 50% of his regular wage.
d) The payment of addit ional compensation for work performed on regular holiday shall
be governed by the Rule IV, Book 111 , of these regulations.


el Where the collective bargaining agreement or other applicable employment contract

stipulates the payment of a higher premium pay than that prescribed under this Sectio n
the employer shall pay such higher rates.
SEC. 8. Paid Off-Days - Nothing in this Rule shall justify an employer in reducing the
compensation of his employees for the unworked Sundays, holidays, or other rest days
which are considered paid off-days or holidays by agreement or practice subsisting upon
the effectivity of the Code.
SEC. 9. Relation to Agreement - Nothing herein shall prevent the employer and his
employees or their representatives from entering into any agreement with terms more
favorable to the employees than those provided herein or to be used to diminish any
benefit granted to the employees under existing laws, agreements, and voluntary employer


SEC. 1 . Coverage - The rule shall apply to all employees except :
a) Those of the government and any of the political subdivisions including government
owned and controlled corporations;
b) Those of retail and service establishments regularly employing less than ten { 1OJ
c) Domestic helpers and persons in the personal service of another;
d) Managerial employees as defined in Book 11 1 of the Code;
e) Field personnel and other employees whose time and performance is unsupervised by
the employer including those who are engaged on task or contract basis. purely commission basis, or those who are paid a fixed amount for performing work irrespective of
the time consumed in the performance thereof.
SEC. 2. Status of Employees paid by the month - Employees who are uniformly paid by the
month, irrespective of the number of working days therein with a salary of not less than
the statutory or established minimum wage shall be presumed to be paid for all days in the
month whether worked or not.
For this purpose, the monthly minimum wage shall not be less than the statutory minimum
wage multiplied by 365 days divided by twelve.
SEC. 3. Holiday Pay - Every employer shall pay his employees their regular daily wage for
cmy unworked regular holiday.
As used in the Rule, the term' 'holiday'' shall exclusively refer to: New Year' s Day, M aundy
Thursday, Good Fridays, the ninth of April, the first of May, the twelfth of June, the fourth
of July, the thirtieth of November, the twenty-fifth and thirtieth of December and the day
designated by law for a general election or national referendum or' plebiscite.
SEC. 4. Compensation for Holiday Work - Any employee who is permitted or suffered to
work on any regular holiday, not exceeding eight "(8) hours, shall be paid at least two hundred percent (200%) based on his regular wage rate.
SEC. 5. Overtime pay for Holiday Work - For work performed in excess of eight hours on a
regular holiday, an employee shall be paid an additional compensation for the overtime
work equivalent to his rate for the f irst eight hours on such holiday work plus at least 30%

Where the Regular holiday work exceeding eight hours falls on the scheduled rest day of
the employee, he shall be paid an additional compensation for the overtime work
equivalent to his regular holiday-rest day for the first 8 hours plus 30% thereof. The
regular holiday rest day rate of an employee shall consist of 200% of his regular daily wage
rate plus 30% thereof.
SEC. 6.

Absences -

a) . All covered employees shall be ~ntitled to the benefit provided herein when they are on
leave of absence with pay . Employees who are on leave of absence without pay on the
day immediately preceding a regular holiday. may not be paid the required holiday pay if
he has not worked on such regular holiday.
b) Employees shall be granted the same percentage of the holiday pay as the benefit
granted by competent authority in the form of employee's compensation or social
security payment, whichever is higher, if they are not reporting for work while on such
benefits .
c) Where the day immediately preceding the holiday is a non-working day in the establishment or the scheduled rest day of the employee, he shall not be deemed to be on leave
::lf absence on t hat day, in which the case he shall be entitled to the holiday pay if he
worked on the day immediately preceding the non-working day or rest day.
SEC. 7.

Temporary or periodic Shutdown and Temporary Cessation of Work -

a) In cases of temporary or periodic shut down and temporary cessation of work of an

establishment, as when a yearly inventory or when the repair or cleaning of
machineries and equipment is undertaken, the regular holidays falling within the period
shall be compensated in accordance with this Rule.
b) The regular holiday during the cessation of operation of an enterprise due to business
reverses as authorized by the Secretary of Labor may not be paid by the employer.
SEC. 8.

Holiday Pay of Certain Employees -

a) Private school teachers, including faculty members. of colleges and universities, may
not be paid for the regular holidays during semestral vacations. They shall, however , be
paid tor the regular holidays during Christmas vacation.
b) Where a covered employee is paid by results or output , such as payment on piece
work, his holiday pay shall not be less than his average daily earnings for the last seven
{7) actual working days preceding the regular holiday; Provided, however, that in no
case shall the holiday pay be less than the applicable statutory minimum wagerate.
c) Seasonal workers may not be paid the required holiday pay during off-season when
they are not at work.
d) Workers who have no regular working days shall be entitled to the benefits provided in
this Rule.
SEC. 9.

Regular Holiday Falling on Rest Days or Sundays

a) A regular holiday falling on rest day shall be compensated accordingly.

bl Wher~ a regular ryoliday falls on a Sunday , the following day shall be considered a
special holiday for purposes of the Labor Code, unless said day is also a regular holiday.
SEC. 1 0. Successive Regular Holidays - yYhere there are two {21 successive r.egular
holidays, like Holy Thursday and Good Fridays, an employee may not be paid for both
holidays if h.e absents himself from work on the day immediately preceding the first holiday, unless he works on the fir st holiday, in which case he is entitled to his holiday pay on
the second holiday.


SEC. 11 . Relation to Agreements - Nothing in this Rule shall justify an employer in withdrawing or reducing any benefits, supplements or payments for unworked holidays as provided in existing individual or collective agreement or empl0yer practice or policy.


SEC. 1.

This rule shall apply to all employees except:

Coverage -

a) Those of the governmen t and any of its political subdivisions, including governmentowned and con tro lled corporations;
b) Domestic helpers and persons in the personal service of another;
cl M anagerial employees as defined in book 111 of this Code;
dl Field personnel and other employees whose performance is un su pervised by the
employer including those who are engaged on task or contract basis, purely commis
sion basis, or those who are paid in a fixed amount for performing work irrespective of
the time consumed in the performance there of;
e) Those who are already enjoying the benefit herein provided;

Those enjoying vacation leave with pay of at least five days; and

gl Those employed in establishments regularly employing less than ten employees.

S~C .

2. Right to Service Incentive Leave - Every employee who has rendered at least one
year of service shall be entitled to a yearly service incentive leave of five days with pay.

SEC. 3 . Definition of Certain Terms - The term "at least one year service" shall mean service within 12 months, whether continuous or broken reckoned from the date the
employee started working, inc luding authorized absences and paid regular holidays unless
the working days in the establi shments as a matter of practice or policy, o r that provi ded in
the employment contract is less than 1 2 months, in which case said period shall be
considered as one year.
SEC. 4. Accrual of benefit - Entitlement to the benefit provided in this Rule shall start
December 18, 19 75, the date the amendatory provision of the Code took effect .

SEC . 5. Treatment of Benefit -- The service incentive leave shall be commutable to its money
equivalent if not used or exhausted at the e1'd of the year.
SEC . 6. Relation to Agreements - Nothing in the Rules shall justify an employer ,from
withdrawing or reducing any benefits, supplements or payments as provided in existing
individual or collective agreements or employer's practices or policies.

WHEREAS, it is necessary to further protect the level of real wages from the ravage of worldwide inflation;
WHEREAS; there has been no increase in the legal minimum wage rates since 1970;


. WHEREAS , the Christmas season is an opportune time for society to show its concern for the
plight of the working masses s~ they may properly celebrate Christma:3 and New Year.
NOW, THEREFORE, I FERDINAND E. MARCOS, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the
Constitution do hereby decree as follows:
SECTION 1. All employers are hereby required to pay all their employees receiving a basic
salary of not more than PJ1 ,000 a month, regardless of the nature of their employment; a
13th:month pay not later than .Oecember 24 or every year.
SEC. 2. Employers already paying employees a 13-month pay of its equivalent are not
covered by this Decree.
SEC. 3.

This Decree shall take effect immediately.

Done in the City of Manifa . this 16th day of December, 1975.


By virtue of the powers vested in me by law, the following rules and regulations implementing Presidential Decree No. 8 51 are hereby issued for the guidance of all concerned.
SEC. 1. Payment of 13-month pay- All employers covered by Presidential Decree No. 851,
hereinafter referred to as the "Decree," shall pay to all their employees receiving a basic
salary of not more than 11'1,000 a month a rlOt later than December
24 of every year.
SEC . 2.

Definition of certain terms - As used in this issuance -

a) "Thirteenth-month pay" shall mean one twelth (1/12 ) of the basic salary of an
employee within a calendar year;
b) "Basic salary" shall include all remunerations or earnings paid by an employer to an
employee for services rendered but may not include cost-of-living allowances granted
pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 525 or Letter of instructions No. 174, profitsharing payments, and all allowances and monetary benefits which are not considered
or integrated as part of the regular or basic salary of the employee at the time of the promulgation of the Decree on December 16, 1 9 7 5.
SEC. 3.

Employers covered -

The Decree shall apply to all emplo.yers except for to:

a) Distressed employers, such as (1) those which are currently incurring substantial
losses or (2) in the case of non-profit institution6 and organizations, where their income, whether from donations, contributions, grants and other earnil"gs from any
source. has consistently declined by more than forty (40%) percent of their normal income for the last twc !2l years, subject to the provision of Section 7 of this issuance;
b) The Government and .any of its political subdivisions, including government-owned and
controlled corporations operating essentially as private subsidiaries of the Government;
c) Employers already paying their employees 1 3th-month pay or more in a calendar year
or its equ ivalent at the time of th is issuance;
d) Employers of those who are paid on purely commission, boundary, or task basis, and
those who are paid a fixed amount for performing a specific work. irrespective of the
time consumed in the performance thereof; except there the workers are paid on piecerate basis in which case the employer shalt be covered by this issuance insofar as such
workers are concerned.
1.'i: f

As used herein , workers pa1d on piece-rate basis shall refer to those who are paid a
standard amount for every piece or unit of work produced that is more or less regularly
replicated, without regard to the time spent in producing the same.
The term "its equivalent" as used in paragraph (c) hereof shall include Christmas
bonus, mid-year bonus: profit-sharing payments and other cash bonuses amounting to not
less than 1/12 of the basic salary but shall not include cash and stock dividends, cost of
living allowances and all other allowances regularly enjoyed by the employee, as well as
non-monetary benefits. Where an employer pays less than 1I 12 of the employee's basic
salary, the employer shall pay the difference.
SEC. 4. Employees Covered - Except as provided in Section 3 of this issuance, all
employees of covered employers shall be entitled to benefits provided under the Decree
who are receiving not more than 111 .000 a month, regardless of their position, designation
or employment status, and irrespective of the method by which their wages are paid, provided that they have worked for at least one month during the calendar year.
SEC. 5. Option of covered employers - A covered employer may pay one-half of the 13th
month pay required by the Decree before the opening of the regular school year and the
other half or on or before the 24th day of December of every year.
In any establishment where a union has been recognized or certified as the collective
bargaining agent of the employees therein, the periodicity or frequency of pavm.ent of the
13th-month pay may be the subject of agreement.
Nothing herein shall prevent employers from giving the benefits provided in the Decree
to their employees who are receiving more than One Thousand 1,.1,000} Pesos a month or
benefits higher than those provided by the Decree.
SEC. 6. Special features of benefit - The benefits granted under this issuance shall not be
credited as part of the regular wage of the employees for purposes of determining overtime
and premium pay, fringe benefits as well as premium contributions to the State Insurance
Fund, social security, medicare and private welfare and retirement plans.
SEC. 7. Exemption of Distressed Employers - Distressed employers shall quality for exemption from the requirement of the Decree upon prior authorization by the Secretary of Labor.
Petitions for exemptions may be tiled with the nearest regional office having jurisdiction
over the employer not later than January 15, 1976. The regional officers shalt transmit the
petitions to the Secretary of Labor within 24 hours from receip~ thereof.
SEC. 8. Report of compliance - Every covered employer shall make a report of his compliance with the Decree to the nearest regional labor office not later than January 1 5, of
each year.

The report shall conform substantially with the following form:



Name of establishment
Principal product or business
Total employment
Total number of workers benefited
Amount granted per employee
Total amount of benefits granted
Name, position and tel. no. of person giving information

SEC. 9. Adjudication of Claims - Non-paym ent of the thirteenth-month pay provided by the
Decree and these rules shall be treated as money claims cases and shall .be processed in accordance w ith the Rules and Regulations Implementing the Labor Code of the Philippines
and the Rules of the National Labor Relations Commission.
SEC. 10. Prohibition against reduction or elimination of benefits - Nothing herein shall be
construed to authorize any employer to eliminate, or diminish in any way, supplements. or
oth~r employee benefits or favorable practice being enjoyed by the employee at the time of
promulgation of this i ssuance.
SEC. 11. Transitory Provision - These rules and regulations shall take effect immediately
and for purposes of the 13th-month pay of 1975. the same shall apply only to those who
are employees as of December 16, 1975.
Manila, Philippines, 22 December 1975.



P.O. NO. 851

To insure uniformity in the interpretation, application and enforcement of the provislons of P.O. No. 851 and its implementing regulations, the following clarifications are
hereby made for the information and guidance of all concerned :
1. Contractors and Subcontractors, including Security and Watchman Agencies, are exempt for the year 1975 subject to the following conditions:
a) That the contr actors of such enterprises were ent ered into before December 16,

b) That such enterprises have complied with all labor standards law during the year;

c) That the contract does not provide for cost escalation clause.
d) That the contract cannot really accommodate 13th-month pay or its equivalent;


2. Private school teachers, including faculty members of colleges and universities, are entitled to 1/ 1 2 of their annual basic pay regardless of the number of months they t each
or are paid within a year.
3. New establishments operating for less than one year are not covered except sub
sidiaries or branches of foreign and domestic corporations.

4. Overtime pay , earnings and other remunerations which are not part of the basic salary
shall not be included in the computation of the 13th-month pay.
5. In view of th e lack of sufficient time for the dissemination of the provisions of P. D. No.
8 51 and its Rules and the .unavailability of adequate cash flow due to the long holiday
season, complianc e and reporting of compliance with this decree are hereby extended
up to March 31, 1 9 7 6 except in private schools where compliance for 1 9 7 5 may be
made not later than 30 June 1 9 7 6 .
6. Nothing herein shall sanction the withdrawal or diminution of any compensation,
benefits or any supplements being enjoyed by the employees on the effective date of
this issuance.
Manila, January 16, 1976.


Be it enacted by the Senate . and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress
SEC. 1. Short title - This Act shall be known as the "Social Security Law" (As amended by
Sec. 1 Pres. Decree No . .24 S-1972).
SEC. 2 . Declaration of Policy - It is the policy of the Republic of the Philippines to establish,
develop promote and perfect a sound and viable tax-exempt social security service suitable
to the needs of the people throughout the Philippines which shall provide to cover
employees and their families protection against the hazard s of disability, sickness, old age,
and death, with a view to promoting their well-being in the spirit of social justice. (As
amended by Sec. 1 RA 1792 and Sec . 2 Pres. Decree No. 24 , S-1972 )



SEC. 3. Social Security System - a) To carry out the purposes of this Act, the Social Security
System with principal place of business in Metro Manila, Philippines, is hereby created.
The SSS shall be under the general supervision of a Social Security Commission composed
of the Secretary of Labor, the SSS Administrator and six appointive members, two of
whom shall represent the labor group . Two, the management group and two, the general
public, to be appointed by the President of the Philippines. The Chairman of the Commission shall be designated by the President from among its members. The term of the appointive members shall be three. Provided, that the terms of the first six appointive members
shall be one, two and three years for every two members, respectivelY.. All vacancies except through the expiration of the term, shall be filled for the unexpired term only . The appointive members of the Commission shall receive two hundred pesos per diem for each
meeting actually attended by them. Provided, that no compensation shall be p~id for more
than eight meetings a month. lAs amended by Sec. 2 RA 1792; Sec. 1 RA 2658; Sec. 1
RA 4857; Sec. 3, Pres. Decree No. 24 S-1972; Sec. 1 Pres . Decree No. 347, S-1973;
Sec. 1 Pres. Oecreee No. 735, S-1975 and Sec. 1 Pres. Decree No. 1202 S- 19771.

Scope of the System

SEC . 9 Compulsory Coverage. - ta) Coverage in the SSS shall be compulsory upon all
employees not over sixty years of age and their employers: Provided, That any benefit
already earned by employees under private benefit plans existing at the time of the approval of this Act shall not be disconti_nued , reduced or otherwise impaired : Provided further. That private plans which are existing and in force at the time of compulsory coverage
shall be integrated with the plan of the SSS in such a way where the employer' s contribution to his private plan is more than that required of him in this Act he shall pay to the SSS
only the contribution required of him and he shall continue his contribut ion to his private
benefit plan and to the Social Security System shall be the same as his contribution to his
private plan before the compulsory coverage . Provided, further, That any changes, adjustments, modifications, eliminations or Improvements in the benefits to be available
under the remaining private plan, which may be necesary to adopt by reason of the reduc
ed contribution thereto as a result of the integration. shall be subject to agreements between the employers and employees concerned: Provided further. That the private benefit
plan which the employer shall continue for his employees shall remain under the
employer's management and control unless there is an existing agreement to the contrary:


Provided, finally, That nothing in this Act shall be construed as a limitation on the right of
employers and employees to agree on and adopt benefits which are over and above those
provided under this Act. !As amended by Sec . 5. RA 1972; Sec. 5, RA 2658 and Sec. 2.
(b) Filipinos recruited in the Philippines by foreign based employers for employment
abroad may be covered by the SSS en a voluntary basis . (As amended by Sec. 2. Pres.
Decree No. 177, S-1 973 and Sec. 6 Pres. Decree No. 735, S-1975).
SEC. 9 -A Compulsory Coverage or the Self-Employed - Coverage in the SSS shall also be
compulsory upon all self-employed persons earning P1 ,800 or more per annum;_Provided ,
That the effectivity of the coverage of certain groups of self-employed shall be determined
by the Commission under such rules and regulations it may prescribe; Provided, further
That the effectivity of the coverage of the following self-employed persons shall be in
accordance with Section 10 (b) thereof.
1 . All self-employed professionals licensed by the Professional Regulations Commission
or those licensed to practice law.
2. Partner and single proprietors of businesses.
3. Actors and actresses, directors, script writers and new correspondents who do not fall
within the definition of the term " employee" in Section 8 (d} of this Act.
4. Professional athletes, coaches, trainers licensed by the Games and Amusement Board
as well as jockeys and trainers licensed by the Philippine Racing Commission.
Unless otherwise specified herein. all provisions of the SSS Law applicable to covered
employees shall also be applicable to the covered self-employed persons . (As amended by
Sec. 3, Pres. Decree No. 1636, S-1979) .
SEC. 10 Effective date of Coverage- Compulsory coverage of the employer shall take effect
on the first day of his operation and that of the employee on the day of his employment:
Provided; that the compulsory coverage of self-employed persons referred to in paragraphs
( 1) to (4} shall take effect on the first day of January following the calendar year they
started the practice of their profession or business operations but in no case earlier than
January 1, 1980. (As amended by Sec. 6, RA 1792; Sec. 6. RA 2 658 and Sec. 4, Pres.
Decree No. 1636, S-1979).
SEC. 11. Effect of Separation from Employment - When an employee under compulsory
coverage is separated from employment, his employer's contribution on his account and
his obligation to pay contribution arising from that employment shall .be credited with all
contributions paid on his behalf and entitled to benefits according to the provisions of this
Act. He may, however, continue to pay the total contributions to maintain his right to full
benefit. (As amended by Sec. 4 RA 4857 and Sec.
Pres. Decree No. 735, S- 1975).


SEC. 11-A. Effect of Interruption of Business or Professional Income - if the self employed
realizes no net professional or business income in any calendar year. however, be allowed
to continue paying contributions under the same rules and regulations applicable to
separated covered employees . (As amended by Sec. 5, Pres. Decree No . 1636 S-1979).

SEC. 1 2.

Monthly Pension -

(a) The monthly pension shall be the sum of the following:

The average monthly sa lary credit multiplied by the replacement ratio; and year of ser
vice in excess of ten years.
b) The monthly pension shall in no case be less than one hundred twenty pesos. nor
paid in an aggregate amount of less than sixty times the monthly pension except to a


secondary beneficiary: Provided, That the monthly pension of surviving pensioners shall be
increased by twenty percent. (As amended by Sec. 7, RA 1 792; Sec. 7, RA 2658; Sec. 5,
AA 4857; Sec. 6, Pres. Decree No. 24; Sec. 3, Pres. Decree No. 1 77; Sec. 8, Pres. Decree
No. 735, S- 197 5; Sec. 2, Pres. Decree No. 1202. S-1977 and Sec. 6, Pres. Decree No.
1639, S-1979).
SEC. 12-A. Dependents pension - The dependent's pension shall be equivalent to ten percent of the monthly pension for each dependent child but not exceeding five, beginning
with the youngest and without substitution. CAs amended by Sec . 3, Pres. Decree No.
1202; S-1977.).
SEC. 128. Retirement benefits - (a) A covered employee who had paid at least one hundred
twenty monthly contributions prior to the semester of retirement; and who ( 1) has reached
the age of sixty years and is not receiving a monthly compensation of at least three hu!'dred pesos, or (2) has reached the age o~ sixty-five years, shall be entitled for as long as he
lives to the monthly pension. Provided, That his dependents born before f)is retirement of
marriage subsisting when he was fifty-seven years old shall be entitled to the dependents'
pension. (As amended by Sec. 4, Pres. Decree No. 1202, S-1977).
(bl A covered member who is sixty years old at retirement and who does not qualify
for pension benefits under paragraph (a} above, shall be entitled to a lump sum benefit
equal to the total contributions paid by him and on his behalf; Provided, That he is
separated from employment and is not continuing payment of contributions to the SSS on
his own.
(c) The monthly pension shall be reduced upon the re-employment of a retired
employee who is less than sixty-five years old by an amount equivalent to one-half his earnings over three hundred pesos. He shall again be subject to section eighteen and his
employer to section nineteen of this Act. (As amended by Sec . 7, RA 1 792; Sec. 7, AA
2658; Sec. 6 Pres. Decree No. 24, Sec. 3, Pres. Decree No. 177; Sec. 8, Pres. Decree No.
735; $ec. 4. Pres . Decree No. 1202 and Sec. 7 Pres. Decree No. 1636, S-1979).
(d) Upon the death of the retired employee pensioner, his primary beneficiaries shall
be entitled to eighty percent of the monthly pension, and his dependents to the
dependent's pension: Provided, That if he has no primary beneficiaries and he dies within
sixty months from the start of his monthly pension, his secondary beneficiaries shall be entitled to a lump sum benefit equivalent to the smaller of { 1) twenty times the monthly pension or (2) the difference of sixty times the monthly pension and the total monthly pensions payed by the SSS excluding the dependents' pension. (As amended by Sec. 7 Pres.
Decree No. 1636, S- 1979).
SEC. 13. Death Beneficiaries - Upon the covered employee' s death, his primary
beneficiaries shall be entitled to the monthly pension and his dependents to the dependents pension : Provided, That he has paid at least thirty-six monthly contributions prior to
the semester of death. Provided, further, That if the foregoing condition is not satisfied his
primary beneficiaries shall be entitled to a lump sum benefits equivalent to twenty times
the monthly pension: Provided, however, that the minimum death minimum death benefit
shall not be less than the total contributions paid by him and his employer on his behalf nor
less than one thousand pesos : Provided. finally, That the beneficiaries of the covered
employee who dies without having paid at least three monthly contributions shall be entitled 'to the minimum benefit. lAs amended by Sec. 5, Pres. Decree No. 1202, S-1977
and Sec. 8 , Pres. Decree No. 1636, S-1 979} .
SEC. 13-A. Permanent disabitity benefits - {a} Upon the covered employee's permanent
total disability. if such disability occurs after he had paid at least thirty-six monthly contributions prior to semester of disability, he shall be entitled to the monthly pension and his


dependents to the dependent's pension: Provided, That if the disability occurs before he
has paid thirty-six monthly contributions prior to the semester of disability, he shall be entitledto a lump sum benefits equivalent to thirty-five times the monthly pension: Provided,
further, That the minimum disability benefit shall not be less than the total contributions
paid by him and t)is employer on his behalf nor less than one thousand pesos: Provided, further, That a covered employee who becomes permanently totally disabled without having
paid at least three monthly contributions shall be entitled to the minimum benefit: Pro
vide.d, finally, That a member who ( 1 I received a lump sum benefit and (2) is .re-employed
not earlier than one year from the date of his disability shall again be subject to compulsory coverage and considered a new member, (As amended by Sec. 6. Pres. Decree No.
1202, S-1977).
)b) The monthly pension shall be reduced upon his re-employment by an amount
equivalent to onehalf of his earnings over three hundred pesos. The monthly pension and
dependents' pension shall be suspended upon his recovery from the permanent total
disability, or his failure to present himself for examination at least once a year upon notice
by theSSS, (As amended by Sec. 6, Pres. Decree No. 1202, S-1977 and Sec. 9, Presidential Decree No. 1636. S- 19791
(c) Upon the death of the permanent total disability
pensioner, his primary
beneficiaries shall be entitled to eighty percent of the monthly pension and his dependents
to the dependents' pension. Provided, That if he has no primary heMficiaries and he dies
within sixty month s from the start of his monthly pension, his secondary beneficiaries
shall be entitled to a lump sum benefit equivalent to the smaller of ( 11 twenty times the
monthly pension or (2) the difference of sixty times the monthly pension and the total
monthly pensions paid by his SSS excluding the dependents' pension (As amended by
Sec. 9 Pres. Decree No. 1636, S 1 979}.

(d) The following disabilities shall be deemed permanent total:

1. Complete loss of sight of both eyes.

Loss of two limbs at or above the ankle or wrists;
Permanent complete paralysis of two limbs;
Brain injury resulting to incurable imbecility or insanity; and
Such cases as determined and approved by the'SSS, {As amended by Sec. 9, Pres.
Decree No. 1636, S-1979).


(e) If the disability is permanent partial, and such disability occurs before thirty-six
monthly contributions have been paid prior to the semester of disability, the benefit shall
be such percentage of the lump sum benefit described in the preceding paragraph with due
regard to the degree of disability as the Commission may determine. (As amended by Sec.
9, Pres. Decree No. 1636, S-1979).
{f) If the disability is permanent partial, such disability occurs after thirty-six monthly
contributions have been paid prior to semester of disability, the benefit shafl be the
monthly pension for permanent total disability payable not longer than the period
designated in the following schedule:


One thumb
One index finger
One middle finger
One ring finger
One little finger
One big toe
One hand




One arm
One foot
One leg
One ear
Both ears
Hear_ing of one ear
Hearing of both ears
Sight of one eye




(As amended by Sec. 10, Pres. Decree No. 735, S-1975 and Sec. 9 , Pres . Decree No .
1636. S-1979}.
(g) The percentage degree of disability, which is equivalent to the ratio that the
designated number of months of compensability bears to seventy-five, rounded to the next
higher integer, shall not be additive for district separate and unrelated permanent partial
disabilities, to a maximum of one hundred percent, in which case the employee shall be
deemed as permanently totally disabled . (As amended by Sec . 9 . Pres. Decree No . 1636,
S-1 979).

SEC. 138. Funeral Benefit. - A funeral grant of seven hundred fifty pesos shall be paid to
help defray -the cost of funeral expenses upon the death of a covered member, permanently
totally disabled employee or retiree. !As amended by Sec. 11. Pres. Decree No. 735.
SEC. 14. Sickness Benefit. - (a) A covered employee who has paid at least three monthly
contributions in the twelve-month period immediately preceding the semester of the
sickness and is confined for more than three days in a hospital or elsewhere with Commission's approval, shall for each day of compensable confinement or fraction thereof be paid
by his employer, or the SSS . if such person is unemployed,,an allowance equivalent to
eighty-five percent of his average daily salary credit, sub)ect to the .following conditions.

be less than four pesos nor

exceed twenty pesos nor paid longer than one hundred twenty days in one calendar
year, nor shall any unused portion of the one hund~ed twenty. days of sickness benefit
granted under this section be carried forward and added to the total number of compensable days allowable in the subsequent year;

(1) In no case shall the total amount of such daily allowance

(2) No employee shall be paid any sickness be.neflt for more than two hundred forty days

on account of the same confinement; and

(3) The employee shall notify his employer of the fact of his sickness or injury within five
calendar days after the start of his confinement unless such confinement is in a
hospital or the employee became sick or was injured while working or within the
premises of the employer in which case notification to the employer is not necessary.
Provided, That is the member is unemployed he shall directly notify the SSS of his confinement within five calendar days after the start thereof unless such confinement is in
a hospital in which case notification is necessary, the confinement shall be deemed to
have the started not earlier than the fifth day immediately preceding the date of
notification. (As amended by Sec. 9 RA 2658; Sec . 7, RA 4875; Sec. 8, Pres. Decree
No. 24, S-1972; Sec. 12, Pres. Decree No. 735, S-1975 and Sec. 10, Pres. Decree
No. 1636, S-1979).
lb) The compensable confinement shall begin on the first day of sickness, and the
payment of such allowances shall be promptly made by the employer every regular payday or on the fifteenth and last day of each month, and similarly in the case of direct payment of the SSS, tor as long as such allowances are due and payable; Provided, That such
allowance shall begin only after all sick leaves of absence with full pay to the credit of the


employee shall have been exhausted. (As amended by Sec. 9, RA 2658; Sec. 7 RA 4857;
Sec . 8 Pres. Decree No. 24; Sec . 5Pres. Decree No. 177 and Sec. 14 Pres. Decree No.
735, S-1975).
(c) One hundred percent of the daily benefits provided in the pre<;eding paragraph
shall be reimbursed by the SSS to said employer upon receipt of satisfactory proof of such
payment and legality thereof; Provided, That the employer has notified the SSS of the confinement within one year per~od immediately preceding the date the claim for benefit or
reimbursement is received by the SSS, except confinement in a hospital in which case the
claim for benefit or reimbursement must be filled within one year from the last day of confinement. (As amended by Sec. 9, RA 2658; Sec. 1 RA 4428; Sec. 7, RA 4857 and Sec.
8 , Pres . Decree No. 24, S: 1972}.
(dl Where the employee has given tl'w! required notification but the employer fails to
notify the SSS of the confinement or to file claim for reimbursement within the period
prescribed in this section resulting in the reduction of the benefit or denial of the claim sut;:h
employer shall have no right to recover the corresponding daily allowance he advanced to
the employee as required in this section, .(As amended by Sec. 8 Pres. Decree No. 24,
S-1972 and Sec. 12, Pres. Decree No. 735-, S-1975).
{e) The claim 1ri'r reimbursement shall be adjudicated by the SSS within a period of
two months from receipt thereof: Provided, that should no payment b' received by the
employer within one month after the period prescribed herein for adjudication the reimbursement shall thereafter earn simpJe interest of one per cent per month until paid. (As
amended by Sec. 8, Pres. Decree No. 24, S-1972} .
{f) The provisions regarding the notification required of the covered employee and the
employer as well as the period within which the claim for benefit or re\mbursement may be
filled shalt apply to all claims filed with the SSS beginning January 1, 1973. (As amended
by Sec. 8, Pres. Decree No. 24, S-1972).

SEC. 14-A. Maternity Leave Benefit. - A covered female employee who has paid at least
three monthly maternity contributions in the twelve-month period immediately preceding
the semester of her children, abortion, or miscarriage and who is currently employed shall
be paid a daily maternity benefit equivalent to one hundred per cent of her average daily
salary credit for forty-five days subject to the following conditions:
~a) That the employee shall have notified her employer of her pregnancy and the probable data of her childbirth which notice shall be transmitted to the SSS in accordance with
the rules and regulations it may provide;

{b) That payment shall be advanced by the employer in two equal installments within
thirty days from the filling of the maternity leave applications;
(c) That payment of daily maternity benefits shall be a bar to the recovery of sickness
benefits provided by this Act for the same compensation period of forty-five days. for the
same childbirth, abortion, or miscarriage.
(d) That the maternity benefit provided under the Section shall be paid only for the
first four deliveries after March 1 3, 19 7 3;
(e) Thatthe SSS shall immediately reimbursethe employer of one hundred perc~nt of
the amount of maternity benefits advanced to employee by the employer upon receipt of
satisfactory proof of such payment and legally thereof;
(f) That if
employee should give birth or suffer abortion or miscarriage without the
required contributions having been remitted for her by her employer of time of the pregnancy, the employer shall pay to the SSS damages equivalent to the benefits which said
employee would otherwise have been entitled to ; and the SSS shall in turn pay such
amount to the em.ployee concerned.



The SSS shall maintain a separate fund for maternity benefits equivalent to 0.4% of
the monthly salary credit to be taken from the employer's contribution specified in Section
18 hereof, and such funds shall be administered and disbursed in the same manner, conditions. requirements and safeguards as those provide~ for other funds collected and kept by
the SSS, in accordance with this Act. lAs amended by Sec. 7, Pres. Decree No. 1202, S.
1977 and Sec. 11 Pres. Decree No. 1636. S-1979) .

SEC. 15. Non-tranaferabifity of benefits. - The SSS shall pay the benefits provided for in this
Act to such per&ons as may be entitled thereto in accordance with the provisions of this
Act: Provided, That the beneficiary who is a national of a foreign country which does not
extend benefits to a Filipino beneficiary residing in the Philippines, or which is not recognized by the Philippines. shall not be entitled to receive any benefit under this Act: Provided ,
further , That notwithstanding the foregoing where the best interest of the SSS will be
served, the Commission may direct payments without regard to nationality or country of
residence: Provided, further, That if the recipient is a minor or a person incapable of ad
ministering his own affairs, the Commission shall appoint a representative under such
terms and conditions as it may deem proper: Provided, further, That such appointment
shall not be necessary in case the recipient is under the custody of or living with the
parents or spouse of the employee in which case the benefits shall be paid to such parents
or spouse, as representative payee of the recipient. Such benefits are not transferable and
no power of attorney or other document executed by those entitled thereto, in favor of any
agent, attorney, or any other person for the collection thereof on their behalf shall be
recognized , except when they are physically. unable to collect personally such benefits:
Provided, further, That in case of death benefits, if no beneficiary qualities under this Act,
said benefits shall be paid to the legal heirs in accordance with the law of succession: Provided, finally, That notwithstanding any law to the contrary. the payment of benefits under
this Act shall ban the recovery of similar benefits under Title 11 of Book IV of the Labor
Code of the Philippines, as amended , during the period of such payment for the same con
tingency, and conversely. (As amended by Sec. 10, RA 2658; Sec. 4 RA 3839; Sec . 8,
RA 4857; Sec. 8-A, Pres. Decree No. 24, S-1972 and Sec. 13, Pres. Decree No. 735,
SEC. 16. Exemption from Tax. lega4 process and Lien. - All laws to the contrary notwithstanding the SSS and all its assets and properties; all contributions collected and all
acruals thereto and income or investment earnings there- from as well as all supplies,
equipment, papers or documents which may be required ~n connection w ith the operation
of execution of this Act shall be exempt from any tax, assessment fee, charge or customs
or import duty; and all bene-fit payments made by the SSS shall likewise be exempt from all
kinds of taxes, fees or charges, and shall not be liable to attachments , garnishments , levy
or seizure by or under any legal or equitable process whatsoever, either before or after
receipt by the persons entitled thereto, except to pay any debt to the SSS. Any tax assessment against, and still unpaid by the SSS shall be null and avoid . (As amended by Sec. 9,
Pres . Decree No. 24. S-1972 and Sec. 14, Pres:oecree No. 735, S-1975).

SEC. 17. Fee of Agents, Attorneys, Etc. - No agent, attorney or other person in charge of
the preparation, filling or pursuing any claim for benefit under this Act shall demand or
charge for his services any fee, and any stipulation to the contrary shall be null and void.
The retention or deduction of any amount f rom any benefit granted under this Act for the
payment of fees for such services is prohibited; Provided, however , That any member of
the Philippine Bar who appears as counsel in any case heard by the Social Security Commission shall be entitled to attorney's fees not exceeding ten per cent of t he benefits
awarded by the Commission, which fees shall not be payable before the actual payment of
the benefits, and any stipulation to the contrary shall be null &nd void.


Any violation of the provision of this Section shall be punished by a fine of not less
than five hundred pesos nor more than five thousand pesos, or imprisonment for not less
than six monthsnor more than one year, or both, at the discretion of the court. (As amended by Sec. 4, Pres. Decree No~ 34 7, S-1973 and Sec. 8. Pres. Decree No. 1202, S-19771.

Sources of Funds - Employment Records and Reports

SEC. 18. Employee's contribution. - (a) Beginning as of the last day of the calendar month
when an employee's compulsory coverage takes effect and every month thereafter during
his employment, the employer shall deduct and withhold from such employee's monthly
salary, wage, compensation or earnings, the employee's contribution in an amount corresponding to his salary, wage, compensation, or earnings during the month in accordance
with the following schedule effective on January 1 , 1 980:




Range of
1- 49.99
50- 99.99


Monthly Contribution







The maximum covered earnings.or compensation of all SSS members shall be limited
toP 1,000 per month as provided in the foregoing schedule unless otherwise provided by
the Social Security Commission through rules and regulations taking into consideration actuarial calculations and rate of benefits.
(As amended by Sec. 10, RA 1792; Sec. 11, RA 2658; Sec. 10 Pres. Decree No. 24,
S-1972; Sec. 9 Pres. Decree No. 1202, S-1977 and Sec. 1 2, Pres. Decree No. 1636,
(b) Every employer shall issue a receipt for all contributions deducted from the
employee's compensation or sha\\ indicate such deductions on the employer's pay
envelopes. lAs amended by Sec. 12. Pres. Decree No. 1636, S-1979).
SEC. 19. Employer's contributions. - (a} Beginning as of the fast day of the month when an
employee's compulsory coverage takes effect and every month thereafter during his
employment, his employer shall pay, with respect to such covered employee, the
emp\oyer' s cont~ibution in accordance with the schedule indicated in Section eighteen of
this Act. Notwithstanding any contract to the contrary, an employer. shall not deduct
directly or indirectly, from the compensation of his employees covered by the SSS or
otherwise recover from the employer's contributions with respect to such employees.
(b) The remittance of such contributions by the employer shall be supported by a
quarterly collection list to be submitted to the SSS at the end of each calendar quarter indicating the correct 10 number of the employer, the correct names and SSS numbers of the
employees and the totat contributions paid for their account during the quarter. (As amended by Sec. 13. Pres.oecree No. 1636, S-1979).


SEC. 19-A. Contributions of the Self-employed. - The contributions to the SSS of the selfemployed shall be determined in accordance with Section 18 of this Act. Provided, That
the average monthly net earnings declared by the self-employed at the t\me to his registration with the SSS shall be considered as his monthly compensation and he shall pay both
the employer and employee contributions.
Net earnings as understood under this section shall be the net income from his
business or profession as reflected in the income tax, tax return for the immediately
preceding year. excluding rental income, dividend, interest investments and the like or ali
types of incoll)es which are not derived from his business registefed with the SSS or from
the practice of his profession.
The average .monthly net earning declared by the self-employed member at the time of
his registration shall remain the basis of his monthly salary credit, unless he makes, at the
start of the year, another declaration of his average monthly net earnings based on his income tax returns for the immediately preceding year , in which case such latest declaration
becomes the new basis of his monthly salary credit. (As amended by Sec. 14, Pres. Decree
No. 1636. S-1979) .
SEC. 20. Government contribution. - As the contribution of the Government to the operation of the System, the Congress shall annually appropriate out of any funds in the National
treasury not otherwise appropriated, the necessary sum or sums to meet the estimated expenses of the Syst em for each ensuing year. In addition to this contribution, the Congress
shall appropriate from time to time such sum or sums as may be needed to assure the
maintenance of an adequate working balance of the funds of the ~ystem as disclosed by
suitable periodic actuarial studies to be made of the operations of the Systems.
SEC. 21. Government Guarantee.- The benefit in this Act shall not be diminished and to
guarantee said benefits the-government of the Republic of the Philippines accepts general
responsibility for the solvency of the System. (As amended by Sec. 13, RA 1792}.
SEC. 22. Remittance of Contributions. - (a) The con:ributions imposed in the preceding sections shall be remitted to the SSS within the first seven days of each calendar month
following the month for which they are applicable or within such time as the Commission
may prescribe. Every employer required to deduct and to remit suchcontributions shall be
liable for their payment and if any contribution is not paid to the SSS as herein prescribed,
he shall pay besides the contribution a penalty thereon of th.;_.-e percent per month from the
date the contrioution falls due until paid. If deemed expedient and advisable by the Commission, the collection and remittance of contributions shall be made quarterly or semiannually in advance, the contributions payable by the employees to be advanced by their
respective employers: Provided, That upon separation of an employee, any contribution so
paid in advance but not due shall be credited or refunded to his employer. (As amended by
Sec. 12. Pres. Decree No_. 24, S-1972L
(b) The contributions payable under this Act in cases where an employer refuses or
neglects to pay the same shall be collected by the SSS in the same manner as taxes are
made collectible under the National Revenue Code, as amended. Failure or refusal of the
employer to pay or remit the contributions herein prescribed shall not prejudice the righ~ of
the covered employee to the benefits of the coverage.
The right to inst itute the necessary action against the employer may be commenced
within twenty (20) y.:ars from the t ime the deliquency is known or the assessment is made
by the SSS, or from the time the benefit accrues, as the case may be. (As amended by Sec.
15. Pres. Decree No. 16~6. S-1979).
(c) Should any person, natural or judicial, default in any payment of contributions, t he
Commission may also collect the same in either of the following ways.


1. By an action in court, which shall hear and dispose of the case in preference to any
other civil action; or

2. By issuing a warrant to the Sheriff of any province or city commanding him to levy
upon and sell any real and persona 1 property of the debtor. The sheriff's saleby virtue
of said warrant shall be governed by the same procedure prescribed for executions
against property upon judgement by a court of record.
(d) The last complete record of monthly contributions paid by the employer or the
average of the monthly contributions paid during the past three years as ofthe date of filing the action for collection shall be presumed to the monthly contributions fer the account
of employees listed therein payable and due from the employer to the SSS for each of the
unpaid month, unless contradicted and overcome by other evidence: Provided, That the
SSS shall not be barred from determining and collecting .t he true and correct contributions
due the SSS even after full payment pursuant to this paragraph, not shall the employer be
relieved of his liability under section twenty-eight of this Act (As amended by Sec. 12,
Pres. Decree No. 24, S-1972 and Sec. 11 Pres. Decree No. 1202, S-1977).
(e) For purposes of this section, any employer who is delinquent or has not remined
all the monthly contributions due and payable may within six (6) months from approval of
this amendatory act remit said contributions to the SSS and submit the corresponding col
lection lists therefor without incurring the prescribed three per cent penalty. In case the
employer fails to remit
the SSS the said contributions within the six months grace
period, the penalty of three p,ercent shall be imposed from the time the contrib~tions f irst
became due as provided in paragraph (a) or t his section: Provided, however, that the Administrator may, in meritorious cases, allow employers who have submitted a payment
plan, on or before April 19, 1973. to pay their contributions due and payable up to
December 31, 1973 without incurring the prescribed three percent penalty. (As amended
by Sec. 12, Pres. Decree No. 24, S-1972 and $ec: 6 Pres. Decree No. 177, S 1973}.


SEC. 22-A. Remlttance of contributions of self-employed members shall remit their monthly
contributions quarterly on such dates and schedules, as the Commission may specify
through rules and regulations.
The penalty of three percent per month for late payments provided for in paragraph (a)
of Section 22 of this Act and the manner of collection of contributions specified in
paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of Section 22 of th is Act are also applicable to the collection of.
penalties and contributions of the covered self-employed . !As amended by Sec. 1 6, Pres.
Decree No. 1636, S-1979) .
SEC. 23. Method of collection and Payment.- The SSS shall require a complete and proper
cotlection and payment of contributions and proper Identification of the employer and the
employee. Payment may be made in cash, checks, stamp, coupons, t ickets, or other
reasonable devices that the Commission may adopt. (As amended by Sec. 15 Pres. Decree
No. 735, 5-1975).
SEC. 24. f.rnptoyment Re~ords and Reports. - (a) Each employer shall immediately report to
the SSS the names, ages, civil statuses, occupations, salaries and dependents of all his
employees who are subject to the compulsory coverage. Provided, That if an employe~
subject to compulsory coverage die or become sick or disabled or reach the age of sixty
without the SSS having previously received any report or written communication about
him from his employer or a contribution paid in his name by his employer, the said
employer shall pay to the SSS damages equivalent to the benefits to which said employee
would have been entitled had his name been reported on t ime by the employer to the SSS,
except to the SSS, except that in case of pension benefits, the employer shall be liable to
pay the SSS damages equivalent to five year's monthly pension, including dependent' s


monthly pension: Provided, further, That if the contingency occurs within thirty days from
the date of employment, the employer shall be relieved of his liability for damages. (As
amended by Sec. 15, RA 1792; Sec. 9, RA 4857 ; Sec . 13, Pres . Dec ree No. 24, S-1972:
Sec. 16, Pres. Decree No. 735, S-1'975 and Sec. 12, Pres. Decree No. 1202, S-1977}.
(b) Should the employer misrepresent the true date of employment of his employees
or remit to the SSS contributions which are less than those required in this Act. resulting in
a reduction of benefits, the employer shall pay to the SSS damages to the extent of such
reduction . {As amended by Sec. 13, Pres. Decree No . 24, S-197 2 Sec. 16, Pres. Decree
.No. 735, S-1975 and Sec. 17, Pres. Decree No. 1636, S-19791.
(c) In addition to the liability mentioned in the preceding paragraphs (al and lbl hereof,
the employer shall also be liable for the payment of the corresponding unremitted contribut ions and penalties thereon. (As amended by Sec .17, Pres. Decree No. 1636, S- 1979).
{d) The records and reports duly accomplished and submitted to the SSS by the
employee or the employer, as the case may be kept confidential by the SSS except in compliance with a subpoena duces tecum issued by the Courts, shall not be divulged without
the consent of the Administrator or any official of the SSS duly authorized by him. shall be
presumed correct as to the data and other matters stated therein, unless the necessary
corrections to such rl}cords and reports have been properly made by the parties concerned
before the right to the benefit being claimed accrues. and shall be made the basis for the
adjudication of the claims, if as a result of such adjudication of the claims. If a result of
such adjudication the SSS in good faith pays a monthly pension to a beneficiary who is interior to right to another beneficiary or w ith whom another beneficiary is interior in right to
another beneficiary is entitled to share, such payments shall discharge the SSS from liability, unless and until such other beneficiary notifies the SSS of his claim prior to the
payments. (As amended by Sec. 13, Pres. Decree No. 24, S-1972 and Sec. 16, Pres .
Decree No. 735, S-1975!.
\e) Every employer shall be kept true and accurate work record for such period and
containing such information as the Commission may prescribe, in addition to an "Annual
Register of New Separated Employees'' which shall be secured from the SSS wherei~ the
employer shall enter on the first day of employment or on the effective date of. separation
the names of the persons employed or separated from employment, their SSS numbers,
and such other data that the Commission may require and said annual register shall be sub.mitted the SSS in the month of January of each year. Such records shall be open for inspection by the SSS or its authorized representatives quarterly or as often as the SSS may
The SSS may also require each employer to submit, with respect to the persons in his
employ, reports needed for the affective administration of this Act . (As amended by Sec.
13, Pres. Decree No. 24, S-1 972).
(f) Effective July 1, 1973, each employer shall require as a condition to employment,
the presentation of a registration number secured by the prospective employee from the
SSS may adopt: Provided that in case of employees who have earlier been assigned
registration numbers by virtue of of previous employment, such originally assigned to them
should be used for purposes of this section: Provided, further, That the issuance of such
registration numbers by the SSS shall not exempt the employer from complying with the
provisions of paragraph {a) of this Section. {As amended by Sec. 13, Pres. Decree No. 24,

(g) Notwithst~nding any law to the contrary, microfilm copies of original SSS records
and reports, duly certified by the offici~! custodian thereof, shall have the same evidentiary
value a$ the originar and be admissible as evidence in all legal proceedings . (As amended by
Sec. 16, Pres. Decree No. 735, S-1975).


SEC. 24-A. Reports and Registration of the Self-Employed. - Each covered self-employed
person shall, within thirty (30) days from the effective date of cover~ge, report to the SSS
his name, age, civil status, and occupation, average monthly net income and his
dependents: Provided, That if after said period of thirty days, he should die or become sick,
or disabled or reach the age of sixty 160} without the SSS having previously received such
report, the SSS shall not pay him the corresponding benefit. (As amended by Sec. 18,
Pres. Decree No. 1636, S-1979}.



SEC. 1. Medical Care Benefits*. - Under such rules, regulations and/or conditions as the
SSS or the GSIS may prescribe subject to the approval of the Commission. A beneficiary
under Program 1 who suffers from sickness or injury requiring hospitalization/surgical
operation shall be entitled to the following benefits:
Ia) Allowance for hospital room and board at twelve CP 12.00) pesos per day for a
period not exceeding 45 days per year for each member of Program 1 and another 45 days
per year to be shared by all his legal dependents. The Commission may; however, fix a
higher rate not exceeding eighteen (P 18.001 pesos per day in accordance with such standards that it may set.
{b) Allowance for necessary drugs and laboratory examination including X-ray not exceeding one hundred fifty (P150.00) pesos for single period of confinement. However, an
amount not exceeding two hundred fifty IP250.00) pesos may be allowed for cases requiring intensive care as may be defined by the Commission.
(c) Operating room fee allowance not exceeding twenty tP20.00) pesos for minor
surgery, fifty (P50.00) pesos for medium surgery and seventy-five (P75.00) pesos for
major surgery.
(d} Surgeon's fee allowance not exceeding fifty (P50.00) pesos for minor surgery,
two hundred fifty IP250.00l pesos for medium surgery and five hundred IP500.00) pesos
tor major surgery, the exact amount of which shall be determined under a relative value
scheme covering each kind of surgical procedure under rules and regulations !O be promulgated by the Commission for this purpose, but not to exceed five hundred (P500.00)
pesos for any listed operation. The fee shall cover for two {2) days of pre-Operative care
ar1d five (5) days of post-operative care.
tet Anesthesiologist's fee allowance shall not exceed thirty per cent (30%) of tfle
surgeon's fees.
(f) Allowance for medical and dental practitioner's fe~ of ten (P 10.00) pesos for each
daily visit not tq exceed two hundred (P200.00) pesos for a single period of confinement
or for any sickness or injury provided that in determining the compensable daily visit occasioned by any one sickness or injury not more. than one visit for any one day shall be


(g) Allowance for sterilization expenses of a contributing member or his spouse as

may be determined by the Commission.
The beneficiary shall have the option to secure the drugs and medicines used for his
treatment from either the hosp.ital ph.armacy wherein he i.s ~onfined or from any retail drug
store of his own choice subject to the rules and regulations promulgated to the Commission or as provided for in Section 21 and 22 thereof.
Out~patient and domiciliary care shall be carried out by existing government hospitals,
rural health units, other government clinics and all clinics under the supervision of variousgovernment entities.

As soon as feasible the Commissi~n shall provide expense allowance for ambulatory
and domiciliary care benefits rendered in/by government or private hospitals or clinics to
beneficiaries of this Medical Care Act subject to rules and regulations promulgated by the
All government hospitals. sanitaria, clinics, dispensaries and rural health units shall
provide back-up services to the medical care plan especially for -patient occupying service
SEC. 2 . Participants in the Delivery of Medical Services. - Only the following may participate
in the delivery of medical care services in the Philippine Medical Care Plan under such rules
and regulations as the Commission may set:
(a) Hospitals duly accredited by the Commission.
(b) Drugstores duly accredited by the Commission.
SEC. 3. Free Choice of Hospital, Medical or Dental Attendance. - Any beneficiary who
becomes sick or is injured shall be free to choose the hospital in which he will be confined
and the medical or dental practitioner or medical or dental attendance by whom he will be
treated, under such rules and regulations as promulgated by theCommission.
The right of any beneficiary who so desires to arrange privately for medical care at his
own expense shall not be prejudiced by any provision of this Decree.
SEC. 4. Entitlement to Medical Care Benefits. - An employee who shall have paid at least
three monthly contributions during the last twelve months prior to the first day of the
single period of confinement, as well as his legal dependents shall be entitled to medical
care benefits: Provided, That until such time that such an employee becomes entitled to
the benefits of Program 1, he shall be covered by Program 11 .
SEC. 5. Supervision. - The Commission, the SSS and the GSIS shall exercise supervision
over the confined beneficiaries under such rules and regulations as they may promulgate
for the purpose. This authority may be exercised by the Commission through its intermediaries.
SEC. 6. The GSIS and SSS Health Insurance Funds. - Payment for Medical care benefits In
Program 1 , shall be borne by the SSS and GSIS Health Insurance Funds which shall consist
of all contributions and accruals thereto. These funds shall be kept distinct and separate
from all other funds administered by the said agencies.
The Health Insurance FJJnds administered under the GSIS and SSS shall be deposited,
invested, administered and disbursed in the same manner and under the same conditions,
requirements, and safeguards as provided by Republic Act Numbered Eleven Hundred
Sixty-One, as amended and Commonwealth Act numbered One Hundred Eighty-Six as
amended, with regard to such other funds as are administered by the SSS and GSIS
respectively: Provided, That the SSS and GSIS may disburse each from operational ex-


penses not more than 12 percent of the total contributions and investment earnings col
lected during the year.
SEC. 7 . Rates of Contributions for the S~S and GSIS health Jnsurance funds. - Contribu
tions for the Health Insurance Funds by members of the SSS and GSIS shall be compulsory in
accordance with the following schedule:
Monthly Salary
Wage or Earnings
1.00- 49.99
50 .00
100 .00- 149.99
150.00- 199.99
200.00- 249.99
250.00- 349.99
350.00 499.99










SEC. 8. Collection of Contributions to the SSS and GSIS Health lnsur"'nce Funds. - The
employer shall deduct from his employee's contribution. The employee's contribution and
the employer's counterpart thereof shall be remitted by the employer directly to the GSIS
or the SSS, as the case maybe, in the same manner as other SSS and GSIS contributions
and shall be subject to the same penalties for late payment. The employer's counterpart
contributions shall not in any manner be recovered from the employee. Failure of the
employer to remit to the GSIS and the SSS the corresponding employee's and employer's
contributions of the benefits of this Decree.
SEC. 9. Effects of Separation from Employment. - An employee who is no longer obliged to
contribute under Section 19 hereof by separation from employment may continue to enjoy
medical care benefits, subject to such rules, regulations and/or conditions as the Commission may prescribe .
SEC. 10 . Payment of Medical Care Benefits. - Payment for medical care services shall be
made directly to the hospital, the medical or dental practitioner. and the retail drug store
according to rules, regulations and/or conditions which the Commission may set: Provided, That when the charges and fees agrees upon between the beneficiary. who chooses
to oc:;upy a bed more expensive than a service bed, and the provider ohhe service exceed
the amount of benefits provided for under this Decree, the difference shall be borne personally by the patient. Medical care expenses incurred while outside the country may be
reimbursed to the beneficiary under such rules, regulations and/or conditions as the Commission may prescribe.
SEC. 1 1. limitation to Payment of Benefits. - Claims for payment of services rendered under
this Decree which are filed beyond sixty (60) days after the discharge of the patient from
the hospital or from the time a patient has been declared well shall be barred from
payment .
Payment for services rendered may be reduced or denied when the claimant:
Ia) Furnishes false or incorrect information concerning any matter required by in
Decree or the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission.

(b) Falls without good cause or legal ground to comply with any provision of this
Decree or the implementing rules and regulations of the Commission .


The cost of medical care benefits of patients confined in service beds shall be limited
to the prescribed medical care benefit allowances.
When a claim is reduced or denied, the amount thus reduced or denied shall be charged directly or indirectly to the beneficiary involved unless the latter is directly responsible
for the cause of such reduction or denial.

SEC. 12. Exclusion. -The benefits granted under the Medical Care Plan shall not cover any
expenses for:
Ia) Cosmetic .surgery or treatment;
(b) Optometric Services;

(c) Psychiatric illness;

(dl Normal obstetrical delivery; and
(e) Services which are purely diagnosti~ .


Fire Code of the Philippines

P.O. 1185
Part 1
SECTION 8. Inspections, Safety Measures, fire Safety Constructions and Protective
and/or Warning Systems

al Safety Measures for hazardous operation- Fire Safety Measures shall be reQuired
for the following hazardo~s operations( processes:

Welding or soldering
Industrial baking and drying
Waste Disposal
Pressurized/forced-draft burning equipment
51 Smelting and Forging
6) Motion picture projection using electrical arc lamps
7) Refining, distillation and solvent extraction.


Owners, occupants or administrator of buildings, structures and their premises or facilities,

except such other buildings or structures as may be exempted in the rules and regulations
under Section 6 hereof, shall incorporate and provide therein fire safety construction, protective and warning system, end shall develop and implement fire safety programs, to wit:
1) Fire Protection Features such as sprinkler systems, hose boxes, hose reels or
standpipe systems and other fire fighting equipment;
2) Fire alarm systems;
3) Fire walls to separate adjoining buildings, or warehouses and storage areas from
other occupancies in the same building;
4) Provisions for confining the fire at its source such as fire resistive floors and walls
extending up to the next floor slab or roof, certain boards and other fire containing or stopping components~
5) Termination of all exits in an area affording safe passage to a public way or safe
dispersal area;
6) Stairways, ertical shafts, horizontal exits and other means of egress sealed from
smoke and heat;
7) A fire exit plan for each floor of the building showing the routes from each room
to appropriate exits, displayed prominently on the door of each room;
8} Self-enclosing fire resistive doors leading to corridors;
9) Fire dampers in centralized airconditioning ducts;
1 0) Roof vents fot use by f ire fighters;
11 ) Properly marked and lighted exits with provision for emergency lights to ade
quately illuminate exit ways in case of power failure.

The following are declared as prohibited acts and

a) Obstructing or blocking the exit ways or access to buildings clearly marked for fire
safety purpose, such as but not limited to aisles in interior rooms, any part of stair
ways, hallways, corridors, vestibules, balconies or bridges leading to a stairway or
exit of any kind, or tolerating or allowing .said violations;


bl Constructing gates, entrances and walkways to building components and yards

which obstruct t he orderly and easy passage of fir_e fighting vehicles and equip-

c) Prevention, interference or obstructi0!1 of any operation of the Fire Service, or of
duly organized and authorized fire brigades;

d) Obstructing designated fire lanes or access to fire hydrants;

e) Overcrowding or admission of persons beyond the authorized capacity in movie
houses, theaters, coliseums, auditoriums or other public assembly buildings,
except in other assembly areas on the ground floor with open sides or open doors
sufficient to provide safe exits;
f) Locking f ire exits during periods when people are inside the building ;
g) Prevention or obstruction of the automatic closure of Fire doors or smoke partitions
or dampers;
h) Use of Fire protective or fire fighting equipment of the Fire Service other than for
fire fighting except in other emergencies where their use are justified;
i) Giving false or malicious fire alarms;

jl Smoking in prohibited areas as may be determined by Fire Service or throwing of

cigars, cigarettes, burning objects in places which may start or cause f ire;
kl Removing , destr oying, tampering or obliterating any authorized mark, seal, sign or
tag posted or required by the Fire Service for Fire safety in any building, structure
or processing equipment;
I) Use of jumpers or tampering with electrical wiring or overloading the electrical
system beyond its designed capacity or such other practices that would tend to
undermine the fire safety features of the electrical system.

Part 2




SEC. 1 SCOPE following:

The provisions of the Fire Code shall apply to and govern the

a. All persons

b. All private orpublic buildings, facilities, structures and their premises, constructed
before or after the effectivity hereof;
c. Storage, handling or use of expfosives and/or combustible, flammable, toxic and
other hazardous materials;
d. Design and installation of electrical system;
e. Fire Safety construction and
f. Fire protective and Warning equipment or systems.
SEC. 5


AUTOMATIC FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM - an integrated System o.f Underground

or overhead piping or both connected to a source of extinguishing agent or medium


and designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards which when
actuated by its automatic detecting device suppresses fire within the area protected.
COMBINATION STANDPIPE- pipe line system filled with water and connected to a
constant water supply for the use of the service and the occupants of the building
solely for fire suppression purposes.
DRY STAND PIPE - a type of standpipe system in which the pipes are normally not filled with water. Water is introduced into the system thru Fire Service connections when
FIRE ALERTING SYSTEM - a fire alarm system activated by the presence of a fire,
where the signal is transmitted to designated locations instead of sounding a general
alarm, in order to prevent panic.
FIRE RESISTANCE RATING - the time duration that a material or construction can
withstand the effect of standard fire Test.
FIRE WALL - a wall designed to prevent the spread of fire, having a fire resistance
rating o f not less than four (41 hours with sufficient structural stability to remain
standing even if construction on either side collapse under fire conditions.
FLAME SPREAD RATING - The time in which flame will spread over the surface of a
burning material .
FLAME (FIRE) RETARDANT - any compound, or mixture which when applied properly improves the fi re resistant quality of fabrics and other materials like wood .
FUMIGANT - a gas, fume, or vapor used for the destruction or control of insects,
fungi, vermin. germs, rodents or other pests.
MEANS OF EGRESS- a continuous and unobstructed route or exit from any point in a
building, structure, or facility to a public way.
OCCUPANT LOAD - The maximum number of persons that may b e allowed to occupy a particular building. str~cture or facility or portjons thereof.
PANIC HARDWARE- a mechanical device consisting of linkages and a horizontal bar
across a door , which cause the door to open and facilitates exit from a building,
structure or facility.
PLENUM - an air compartment or chamber to which one or more ducts are connected
and which form part of an air distribution system.
SEC. 1. Fite Safety ,Inspection - Inspection of all buildings structure and facilities and
the determination of compliance of provisions of this Fire Safety Inspector of t he Fire
Service of the Integrated National Police.
SEC. 2. Inspection Requirements - Fire Safety Inspection shall be conducted as a prerequisite to grants of permits and/or licenses by local governments or other govern~
ment agencies.




SEC. 1. Bonfires and Outdoor Rubbish Firee - No person shall kindle or maintain any
bonfire or rubbish fire or authorize any such fire to be kindled unless:


11 The location is not less than fifteen ( 1 5) meters from any structure and adequate
provision is made to prevent fire from spreading to within fifteen ( 1 5) meters of
any structure;
2) The Fire is contained in an approved waste burner or incinerator located safely

not less than five (5). meters from any structure.

SEC. 2.

Types and Construction of lnclneratora

a) Fixed commercial, industrial and apartment type incinerators shall be constructed

iri accordance with the provisions of the Building Code.

b) Residential fixed incinerators shall be constructed of brick, concrete hollow blocks,

or other five-resistive material other than metal, with a completely enclosed combustion chamber and shall be equipped with a permanently attached spark arrester
constructed of iron, heavy wire mesh, or other noncombustible material; with
openings not larger than thirteen (13) millimeters.
SEC. 3. location - Any residential incinerator used in connection with a single family
dwelling shall be located not less than one and one-half ( 1 1/2) meters from any wood
frame building or structure, or other combustible material, or not less than one (1)
meter from a masonry, stucco, similar fire resistive building or str~cture and not less
than one and one half ( 1 1/2) meters from any opening of said building or structures.
Any residential incinerator used in connection with any occupancy other than a single
family dwelling shall be iocated not less than three 13) meters from any building or property line: Provided, that the smoke stack of any incinerator terminate not less than
one and one half ( 1 1/2t meters from any combustible roof, overhang on eave construction.



SEC. 1.01.


a) This rule deals with life safety from fire and Uke emergencies, it covers construction, protection and occupancy features to minimize danger to life from fire,
smoke, fumes, or panic before buildings are vacated. It specifies the number, size
and arrangement of means of egress sufficient to permit prompt escape of oc
cupants from buildings, or structures or facilities in case of fire.
b) Nothing in this rule shall be construed to prohibit a better type of building construe
tion, more exits or otherwise safer conditions than the requirements specified in
this Rule.
c) This rule recognizes that panic in a burning building may be uncontrollable. It deals
with the potential panic hazard through measures designed to prevent the development of panic. Experience indicates that Panic seldom develops even in the
presence of potential danger, so long as occupants of buildings are moving toward
exits which they can see within a reasonable distance with no obstruction or undue
congestion in the path of Travel. However, any uncertainty as to the location or
adequacy of means of egress. the presence of smoke, or stopping of travel', such
as may occur when one person stumbles and falls on stairs may be conducive to
panic. Panic danger is greatest when the number of people in a confined area. exceeds the capacity of the exits.


SEC. 2.01.

Fundamental Requirement

a. Building or structure, new or old, designed for human occupancy shall be provided
with exits sufficient to permit the fast escape of occupants in case of fire or other
emergency. The design of exits and other fire safety construction shall be such
that reliance for safety to life in case of fire or other emergency w ill not depend
solely on any single fire safety construction. Additional safeguards shall be provided for life safety in case any single safeguard is ineffective due to some human
or mechanical failure.
b. Every building or structure shall be so designed, constructed,_equif)ped, maintained and operated as to avoid danger to the lives and safety of its occupants from
fire, smoke, ''fumes, or resulting panic during the period for escape from the
building or structure.
c. Every building or structure shall be provided with Exits of kinds, numbers, location
and capacity appropriate to the individual building or structure, with due regard to
the character of the occupancy, the number of persons exposed. The fire protection available and the height and type of construction of the building or structure,
to afford all occupants convenient facilities for escape.
d. Every exit of buildings or structures shall be so-arranged and maintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from all parts thereof, at all times. NO LOCK or
fastening that would prevent escape, from the inside of any building shall be in
stalled except in mental, penal, or correctional institutions where personnel are
continually on duty and effective provisions are made to evacuate occupants in
case of fire or other emergency.
e. Every exit shall be clearly visible. The route to the exit shall be conspicuously
marked in such a manner that every occupant of a building or structure will readily
know the direction of escape. Each route of escape, in its entlretv, shall be soarranged or marked that the way to a place of safety outside is unmistakable. Any
doorway or passage not constituting out exit or way to reach an exit, which may
be mistaken for an exit, shall be MARKED as to minimize its possible confusion
with an exit.

f. All means o~ egress shall be provided with adequate and reliable ILLUMINATION.
g. In every building or structure of such size, arrangement, or occupancy that a fire
may not itself provide adequate warning to occupants, FIRE ALARM FACILITIES

shall be provided.
h. Ev&ry building or structure, section, or area thereof of such size, occupancy, and
arrangement such that the reasonable safety of a number of occupants may be endangered by the blocking of any single means of egress due to fire or smoke, shall
have at least two means of egress REMOTE from each other, so arranged as to
minimize any possibility that both may be blocked by any one fire or other
emergency conditions.

i. Every vertical way of exit and other vertical opening between floors of a building
shalf be suitably enclosed or protected as necessary to afford reasonable safetY to
occupants while using. exits and to prevent spread of fires, smoke, or -fumes
tt:lrough vertical openings from floor to floor before occupants have entered exits.

SEC. 3.301.


a. ASSEMBLY- Places of Assembly include buitdings used for gathering together of

fifty (50) or more persons in commercial places of assembly and one hundred
11 00) or more persons in nonco.mmercja) pJaces of assembly. This include
theaten>; exhibition halls, restaurants, churches, dance halls, restaurants, chur
ches, dance halls, gymnasium, terminals, court rooms, etc ..
b. EDUCATIONAL - include aU buildings used for the gathering of groups of six (6) or

more persons for purposes of instrument. .This include schools, colleges, univer
sities, academics, etc.
c.. INSTITUTIONAL - those used for purposes such as treatment or care of persons
suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity; care of infants, convalescents or aged persons; and for penal or correctional purposes. These
buildings are provided with sleeping facilities for .the occupants and are occupied
by persons who are mostly incapable of self preservation because of age, physical
or mental disability, or beCause of security measures not under the occupants con
Institutional occupancies are the following:
Health care facilities, such as hospitals and nursing homes; residential-custodial
care such as nurseries, homes for the aged; and mental retarded care institutions,
residential-restrained care such as penal institutions, reformatories, and jails.
d. RESIDENTIAL - One in which sleeping and/or sleeping accommodations are provided for residential purposes, except those classified under Institutional occupan
cies. The following groups are hotels; motels, pension houses, inns, apartments,
dormitories, orphanages; lodging or rooming housesi and one and two family
e. MERCANTILE - Occupancies include stores, markets, and other rooms, buildings, or structures for. the display and/or sale of merchandise. Included in this
occupancy group are: Supermarkets; department stores; shopping centers;
drugstores; and auction rooms.
f.. BUSlNESS -

Buildings used. for the transaction of business other than that

covered under mercantile, for the keeping of accounts and records and similar pur
poses. Included in this occupancy group are office for lawyers; doctors; dentists;.
and other professionals, general offices; City/town hall; court houses and libraries.

g. INDUSTRIAL - Occupancies include factories making products of all kinds and

properties devoted to operations such as processing, assembling, mixing, packaging, finishing or decorating, and repairing, including among others, the following:
Factories of all kinds; laboratories; dr'y cleaningplants; power plants; pumping stations, smokehouses; laundries; creameries; gas plants; refineries, and sawmills.
h. STORAGE - Includes all buildings, or structures utilized primarily for the storage
or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products, vehicles or animals. Included in this.
occupancy group are: Waterhouses, Cold storages; freight terminals; truck and
marine terminals, bulk oil storage; parking garage; hangars; grain elevators: barns
and stables.

C. 3.302. Hazardous Contents- For purposes of this rule hazard of contents shall be
the relative danger of the start and spread of fir~, the generation of smoke or gases,
the danger of exi>tosion or other occurence potentially endangering the lives and safety ot the occupants of th& building or structure due to the nature of the contents or
processes/operations therein.


CMuifiulion of Hu.rd of Contenr.:

a} LOW Hazard Contents - are those of such iow combustibility that no selfpropagating fire therein can occur and that consequently ~ only probable danger
requiring the use of emergency exits will be from panic, f.umes or smoke or fire
from some external source.
b) Ordinary hazard contents - are those which are liable to burn with moderate
rapidity or to give off a considerable volume of smoke, but from which neither
poisonous fumes nor explosions are likely to occur In case of fire.
c} High Hazard Contents - are those which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity or
from which gases or explosions are to be expected in the event of fire.

Sp:/11/ Ptovl8/ona for High Haztlld Contenta

1 ) Exits shall be provided for such types and numbers and so arranged as to permit
all occupanis to escape from the building or structure or from the hazardous area
thereof the outside or to a ptace of safety with a travel distance of not over twenty three (23) meters.

21 Capacity of Exits - not less than one ( 11 unit of exit width for each thirty (301
persons if the exit is by inside or outside stairs; or one ( 1 ) unit of exit width for
each f ifty (50) persons if the exit is by doors at ground level, by horizontal exits
or by c'ass A ramps.


Protectiwl EncloiiUrtl of Exits
1 ) When an exit is required to be protected by separation from other parts of the
building by some requirements of this rule, the separating construction shalf meet
the following requirements.
a) The separation shall have at least one-hour fire resistance rating when the
exit connects three (3) stories or less, regardless of whether the stories connected are above or below the storey at which the exit discharge begins.
b) The separation shall have at least two-hour resistance rating when the exit
connects four (41 stories or more whether above or below the floor of
c) Any opening in the separation wall construction shall be protected by an ap. proved selfclosing fire resistive door.
d) .openings in exit enclosure shall be confined to those necessary for access to
the enclosure form normally occupied spaces and for egress from the
2) No exit enclosure shal! be used for any purpose, suoh as piping for flammable liquids or gases, .which could Interface with its function as an exit.

D. Width llfld Capilclty of Muns of EgretJ$

1 ) The capacity in number of persons per unit of exit width for approved components of means of egress shall be as follows:
Level egress components (including Class A ramps)
Inclined egress components (Including Class 8 ramp~) - 60 persons
21 Means of egress shall be measured in untts of exits width of fifty five (55)
centimeters, Fractions of a unit shall be coUhted, except that thirty (30)


centimeters added to one or more full units shall be counted as one-half

(0.5) of a unit of exit width.

3) Units of exit width shall be measured at the narrowest unobstructed point of

the means of egress except that a handrail may project inside the measured
width on each side not more than eighty nine (89) millimeters and a stringer
may project inside the measured width not more than thirty eight (38)
millimeters. An exit or exit access door swinging into an aisle or
passageway shall not restrict the effective width thereof at any point during
its swing to less than minimum width hereafter specified.

E. Egress


snd Occup11nt LOIId

1 ) The capacity of means of egress for any floor, balcony, tier, or other occupied
space shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof. The occupant load
shall be the maximum number of persons that may be in the space at any
time. but shall not be less than the number computed in accordance with the
individual occupancies.
For Places of Assembly
Occupant load: The occupant load permitted by dividing the net floor area or
space assigned to that use by the square meter per occupant as follows:
An assembly area of concentrated use without f ixed seats such as
auditoriums, church, dance floor, 10.65 sq.m, per person)
An Assembly area of less concentrated use such as conference room, dining
room, drinking establishment, exhibit room, gymnasium, (1.4 sq. mtperson)
Standing room or waiting space (0.28) sq. m. per person)
For Educational Occupancies
The occupan t load shall be the maximum load but not less than one person
for each 1.8 square meteres of net classroom area or 4.6 sq. m . of net area of
shops, laboratories, etc.
For Institutional Occupancies
The occupant load shall be the maximum number of persons intended to oc
cupy that floor but not less than one ( 1) person for each 11 sq. m. gross floor
area in institutional sleeping departments and not less than one ( 1 ) person for
each 22 square meters of gross floor area of inpatient institutional Treatment departments.
For Residential
The occupant load in numbers of persons except for single and two family
dwellings shall be determined on the basis of one ( 1) personper 1 8 .6 square
meters gross floor area.
For Mercantile Occupancies
One street floor, the occupant load is one {1) person for each 5.6 sq. m.
gross floor area floors used for offices, storage, shipping not open to general
public: one ( 1) person for each 4.3 sq. m . gross floor area.
For Business Occupancies
The occupant load of business purposes shall be no less than one (11 person
per nine and t h ree tenth (9.3) square meters of gross floor area.


For Industrial Occupancies

The occupant load shall be one ( 1) person per 9. 3 square meters gross floor
2) Where exits serve more than one floor, only ~he occupant load of each floor
considered individually need be used in computing the capacity of the exits at
that floor: Provided , that exit capacity shall not be decreased in t he direction
of exit travel. When means of egress from floor above and below coverage at
an intermediate floor, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of
convergence, shall not be less than the sum of the two .

F. Ammge/TI6nt of Exit:
When more than one exit is required from a story, at least two of the exits shall be
remote from each other and so arranged and constructed as to minimize any
possibility that both may be bl<?cl<ed by any one fire or other emergency condition.

G. Exit Distsnc11 snd Desd-End Limits:

The maximum travel distance in any occupied space to at least one exit, measured
in accordance w ith the following requirements shall not exceed the limits for individual occupancies means of egress shall be so arranged that there are no deadend pockets, hallways, corridors, passage ways or courts whose depth exceeds
the limits specified for individual occupancies.

For Pisces of Assembly

a) No individual unit of exit width shall serve more than 100 person .
b) Every Class A I 1 ,000 or more) capacity shall have at least four (41 separate exits as remote from each other.

cl Class (B) 300-600 capacity shall have at least two (2) separate exits 600
above shall have three (3) exits.
d) Class IC) 50-300 capacity shall have at least 2 means of exit, consisting of
separate exits leading to a corridor giving access to 2 separate independent
exits in different directors.
e) Every assembly occupancy shall be provided with a man exit to accommodate
1/2 of the total occupant load.
f) Travel distance -

46 meters minimum if not protected by automatic the suppression and 61 meters if protected.



of Trsvel Distnc11 to Exits

1) The travel distance to an exit shall be measured on the floor or other walling
surface along the center line of the natural path of travel, starting 30 centimeters from the most remote point, curving around any corner or constuction with a 30 centimeters clearance t herefrom, and ending at the center of
the doorway or other point at which the exit begins. Where measurement in
eludes stairs, it shall be taken in the plane of the tread nosing.
2) In the case of open areas, distance to exits shall be measured from the most
remote point subject to occupancy. In case of individual rooms subject to occupancy by not more than six (6) persons, distance to exits shall be
measured f rom the doors of such rooms provided the path of travel from any
point in the room to the room door does not exceed 15 meters.

3) Where open stairway or ramps are permitted. As a path of travel to required

exits, such as between mezzanines or balconies and the floor below, the
distance shall include the travel on th~ stairway or ramp, and the travel from
the end of the stairway or ramp to reach an outside door or other exit, in addition to the distance to reach the stairway or ramp ..

Where any part of an exterior way of exit access is within four and a half
(4.5) meters horizontal distance of any unprotected building opening, for
outside stairs, the distance to the exit shall include the length of travel to
ground level .

. I. Access to Exits:
1) Exit shall be so located and exit access shaH be so arranged that exits are
readily accessible at all times. Where exits are not immediately accessible
from an open floor area, safe and continuous passageways, aisles, or corridors leading directly to every exit shall be maintained and shall be so arrange as to provide convenient access for each occupant to at least 2 exits
by separate ways of travel, except where single exit or limited dead-ends are
permitted by other provisions of this rule.
2) A door from

a room to an exit or to a way of exit access shall be of the side-

hinged, swinging type. It shall swing with exit travel when the room is occupied by more than 50 persons or used for a high hazard occupancy such
access doors shall conform to the appropriate requirements of Sec. 3.402 on

31 In no case shall access to exit be, through a bathroom, bedroom or other

room subject to locking, expect where the exit is required to serve only the
bedroom or other room subject to locking, or adjoining rooll)s constituting
part of the same dwelling or apartment used for single family occupancy.
41 Way of exit access and the doors to exits to which they lead shall be so
designed and arranged as to be clearly recognizable as such. Decorations or
draperies shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or
adjacent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit.

5) Exit access shall be so arranged that it wiU not be necessary tct travel toward
any area of high hazard occupancy in order to reach the nearest exit, unless
the path is protected by suitable partitions.

as specified for individual occupancies, but in no case shall such width be less than 71 cen. timeters. Where a single way of. exit shal4 be at least equal to the required
capacity of the exit to which it leads. Where more than one way of exit access leads to an exit. Each shall have a width adequate for the number of p~r- .
sons it must-accommodate.

6) The minimum width of any way of exit access shall be

J. Exterior Weys of Exit Accen

1) Access to an exit may be by means of any exterior balcony, porch, gallery, or

roof that conforms to the requirements of this division.

2) Exterior ways of exit access shall have smooth, solid floors, substantially
level, and shall have guards Qn the unclosed sides at least equivalent to those
specified in paragraph "F" of Sec. 3.403.
3) A permanent, reasonably straight path of travel shall be maintained over the
required exterior way of exit access. There shall be no obstruction by rail-


ings, barri~-rs or gates that divide the open space into sections appurtenances
to individual rooms, apartments, or other uses. However. if, the width of the
exterior way of exit access is greater than the required path of travel, it may
be permitted to relocate furniture on one side out of the path's way.
4 ) an exterior way of exit access shall be so arranged that there are no deadends in excess of six 161 meters in length.
5) Any gallery , balcony, bridge , porch or other exterior exit access that projects
beyond the outside wall of a building shall comply with the requirements of
this Division as to width and arrangement. The material of construction may
be as permitted for the building served.


from Exits

1) All exits shall terminate directly at a public way or at an exit discharge.

Yards, courts, open space, or other portions of the exit discharge shall be of
required width and size to provide all occupants with a safe access to a
public way .
2) Where permitted for individual occupants, a minimum of 50 percent of the
exits may discharge through areas on the floor of discharge provided all of
the following are met:
al Exits shall discharge to a free and unobstructed way to the exterior of the
building ~h ich way is readily v isible and identifiable from the point of
discharge from the exit.
b) The floor of discharge into which the exit discharges and any other portion of the level of discharge with access to the discharge areas are protected w ith automatic fire suppression system or separated from it in accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of exits (Section 3.401
paragraph "o") .
Exception: The above requirements may be waived if the discharge area
is a vestibule or foyer complying with all the following: The depth from
the ext erior of the building is not greater than 3 .00 meters and the length
is not greater than 6 meters. The foyer is a separated from the remainder
of the level of discharge by construction providing protection at least the
equiva.lent of wired glass in steel frames, and the foyer serves only for
means of egress including exits directly to the outside.
c) The entire area on the floor of discharge is separated from areas below by
construction having a minimum of two-hour fire-resistance rating.
3) Stairs and other exits shall be so arranged as to make clear the direction of
egress to the street. Exit stairs that continue beyond the floor of discharge
shall be interrupted at the floor of discharge by partitions, doors, or other effective means.
4 ) Stairs, ramps, bridges, balconies, escalators, moving walls and other components of an exit discharge shall comply with the detailed requirements of
this division for such components.
5) Subject to approval, exits may be accepted where discharging to roofs or
other sections of the building or adjoining buildings, where the roof has a fire
resi$tance rating at least the equivalent of that required for the exit
enclosure, where there is a continuous and safe means of egress from the
room, and all other reasonable requirements fol"fire safet y are maintained.


L. Headroom:
Means of egress shall be so designed and maintained as to provide adequate
headroom as provided in other sections of this rule but in no case shall the ceiling
height (headroom) be less than 2.3 meters nor any projection from the ceiling be

less than 2:00 meters from the floor.

M. Changes in Elevation:
Where a means of egress is not level such difference in elevation shall be
negotiated by stairs or ramps conforming to the requirements of this division for
stairs and ramps.
N. Interior Finish in Exits:
The flame spread of interior finish shall not exceed Class B in exit enclosures.

0. Maintenancettnd Workmanship
1) Doors, stairs, ramps, passages, signs, and all other components of means of
egress shall be of substantial, reliable construction and shall be built or installed in accordance with good engineering practice.
2) Means of egress shall be continually maintained free of all destructions or

impediments to insure instant use in case of fire or other emergency.

3) Any device or alarm installed to restrict the improper use of a means of

egress shall be so designed and installed that it cannot, even in case of

failure, impede or prevent emergency use of such means of egress.

SEC. 3.402


A . Applicetion
11 A door assembly, including the doorway, frame, door, and necessary hardware, may be used as a component in a means of egress when it conforms to
the general requirements of Sec. 3.401 and to the special requirements of
this Section. At such the assembly is designated as a door.
2) Every door and every principal entrance which are required to serve as an
exit shall be so designed and constrU<:ted that the way of exit travel is obvious and direct. Windows, which because of their physical configuration or
design and the materials used in their construction could be mistaken for
doors, shall be made inaccessible to the occupants by barriers or railings conforming to the requirements oi paragraph "F" of Section 3.403.
B. Swing end Force to Open
1 ) Any door used in an exit shall be so designed and installed .that when a force
is applied to the door on the side from which egress is to be made, it shall
swing in the direction of exit travel from any position to the full instant use
of the opening in which it is installed. During its opening process or when
fully opened, door shall not obstruct the exit width as determined by
paragraph 'D" of Section 3.402.
2) A door providing access to a stairway shall swing in the direction of ecit
travel. A door during its swing shall not block stairs or landings and in no
case, in new buildings, shall any door at any point in its swing reduce the effective width of stair or landing to less than one unit of exit width, nor when
opened interface with the full use of the stairs.


3 l The force required to fully open door shall not exceed twenty three ( 2 3) kilos
applied to the latch stile.

C. Locks, Lstchss, Alsrm Deviees:

1 ) A door shall be so arranged as to be readily opened from the side from which
egress is to be made at all times when the building served thereby is oc
cupied. Locks, if provided, shall not required the use of a key for operation
from the inside of the building.
2} A la.t ch or other fastening device on a door shall be provided with a knob,
handle, panic bar. of other simple type releasing device, the method of operation of which is obvious, even in darkness.

3) A door designed to be kept normally closed in a means of egress, such as a

door to a stair enclosure or horizontal exit, shall be provided with a reliable
self-closing mechanism, and shall not at any time be secured in the open
position. A door designed to be kept normally closed shall bear a sign reading
substantially as follows:


D. Units of Exit Widths:

1 } In determining the units of exit width for a doorway. only the clear width of
the doorway when the door is in the open position shall be measured. Any
projections into the doorways by doorsteps or by the hinge stile shall be

a doorway is divided by mullions , the allowable units of exit width for

the entire doorway shall be the sum of the units of exit width measured
separately for each individual door in the opening.

2 } Where

E. Width snd Floor Level:

1) No single door in

a doorway shall be less than seventy one (7 1 l centimeters

2} No single door in a doorway shall exceed one hundred twenty two ( t 2 2} centimeters in width.
3) The floor on both sides of a door shall be substantially level and shc:~ll have
the same elevation on bot h sides of the door, for a distance on each side at
least .equal to the width of the widest single door. When the door discharges
to the outside or to an exterior balcony . exterior exit, or exterior exit, access,
the floor level outside the door may be one step lower than the inside but not
more than twenty and a half (20.5) centimeters lower.

F. Psnic Hardwal'fl
1) When a door is required to be eQuipped with panic hardware, the panic hardware shall cause the door latch to release when a force of not more than
seven (7) kilos is applied to the releasing device in the direction of exit trevel.
2) Such releasing devices shall be bars or panels extending not less than two
thirds {2/ 3) of the width of the door and placed at heights suitable for the service required, and shall not be less than seventy six (76} nor more than one
hundred twelve ( 11 2) centimeters above the floor .


3) Only approved panic



shall be used.

Required panic hardware shall not be equipped with any locking or dogging
device, set screw, or other arrangement which can be used to prevent the
release of the latch when pressure is applied to other bar.

G. Maintenance
No lock, padlock, hasp, bar. chain, or other device or combination thereof
installed or maintained at any time on or in connection with any door on which
panic hardware is required by this rule, if such device prevents, or is intended to
prevent, the free use of the door for purposes of egress.
H. Powsr Operated Doors
1) Where required doors are operated by pcwer, such as those photo-electric

activated mechanism which open upon the approach of a person or doors

with power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such that in event
of power failure the door may be opened manually to permit exit travel or
closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress.
2) No power-operated door shall be counted as a required exit unless it also
swings with the exit travel by manual means.

1. ScrHn and Storm Doors

No screen door or storm door in conection with any required exit shall swing
against the direction of exit travel in any .case doors are required to swing with the
exit travel.

Revolving Doors:
1 J A revolving door shalt not be used in a means of egress for an exit from the
floor of discharge directly to the outside except where specifically permitted.
It shall not be used at the foot or top of stairs at the floor of dischargfl. Where
permitted, the revolving door shalt be given a credit of only fifty (50} percent
of the required units of exit width.
2) The number of revolving doors used as exit doors shall not exceed the
number of swinging doors used as exit doors within six (6) meters.
Exception: Revolving doors may serve as exits without adjacent swinging
doors for street floor elevator lobbies, if no stairways or doors from, other
parts of the building discharge through the lobby, and the lobby has no occupancy other than as means of travel between elevators and street.
3) Revolving doors shall be equipped with means to prevent their rotation at too
rapid a rate to permit orderly egress.

K. Turnstiles

11 No turnstiles or similar device to restrict travel, to one direction, or to collect

fares or admission charges, shall be so placed as to obstruct any required
means of egress, except that approved turnstiles not over ninety one (91)
centimeters, which turn freely in the direction of exit travel, may be used in
any direction of exit travel, may be used in any occupancy where revolving
doors are permitted.
2) Turnstile in or furnishing access to required exits shall be of such design as to
provide fifty six (56) centimeters clear width as the turf.lstiles rotates.


SEC. 3 .403.

Interior Strs end Smoke proof Tower

A. General
All stairs serving as required means of egress shall be of permanent fixed construction.
B. C!Hss of stMT8 - Stairs shall be of Class A or class B types. In class A the maximum height between landings is 2.75 m and the Class 8 is 3.70 M.

C. Treads end Risers

1 ) The height of every riser and the width of every tread shall be so proportioned that the sum of two (2) risers and a t read, exclusive of its nosing of
projections is not less than sixty (60) centimeters nor more ~han sixty three
and a half (63.5) centimeters.
2) The minimum number of risers in any one flight of stairs shall be three (3)
D. Enclosurtl:
All interior stairways shall be -enclosed in accordance with the provisions of Section 3.501 of this Rule:

E. Stair DetHs
1) E.aoh new stair and platform, landing, balcony and stair hallway floor used in
building of four (4) stories or more and in all new buildings, required by this
rule to be of fire-resistive construction , shall be non-combustible material
throughout except that handrails are exempted from this requirement.
Treads of stairs and landing floors shalt be solid.
21 Each stair, platform, landing, balcony , and stair hallway floor shall be designed to carry a load of four hundred eighty-eight (488} kilos per square
meter, or a concentrated load of one hundred thirty six ( 136) kilos, so
located as to produce maximum stress conditions.
3) Where material of stair treads and landings Is such as to involve danger of
slipping , nonslip material shall be provided on tread surface.
4) Stairways and intermediate landings shall continue with no decrease in width
along the direction of exit travel.

F. Guh nd Hndl'llils
1l Means of egress such as stairs, stair landings, balconies, ramps and aisles,
located along the edge of open-sided floors and mezzanines, . shall have
guards to prevent fells over the open side. Each new stair landing, and Class
B ramp shall have handrails on both sides.
2 ) Required guards and handrails shall continue for the full length of each flight
of stairs.
3) The design of guards and handrails and the hardware for attaching handrails
to guards balusters or masonry walls shall be such that there are no projecting lugs on attachment devices or non projecting corners or members of
grills or panels which may engage loose clothing. Opening in guards shall be
desig11ed to prevent loose clothing from becoming wedged In such openings .
4 ) Handrails Details:
a) Handrails on stair shall be not less than seventy six l 76) centimeters nor


more than eighty six and one-half 186.5) centimeters above the upper
surface of the tread, measured vertically to the top of the rail from a point
on the tread twenty five (25) millimeters back from the leading edge.
bl Handrails shall provide a clearance of at least thirty eight
between handrail and wall to which it is fastened.



c) Handrails shall be so designed as to permit continuous sliding of hands on

d} Every stairway required to be more than two hundred twenty three (223)
centimeters in width shall have intermediate handrails dividing the stair
way into portions not more than two hundred twenty three (223) centimeters in width.
5) Guard and Details
a) The height of guards shall be measured vertically to the top of the guard
from a point on the tread twenty five (25) millimeters back from the
leading edge or from the floor of landings or balconies.
b) No guards shall be required for inside stairs which reverse direction at in
termediate landings where the horizontal distance between successive
flights is not more than thirty and a half (30.5) centimeters.
c) Guards shall both be less than one hundred six ( 106) centi~eters high.
Guards protecting changes in level one story or less on interior balconies
and mezzanines shall be not less than ninety one (91) centimeters.
d) Guards shall be so constructed that the area in the plane of the guard
from the top of the floor, riser, or curb to the minimum required height of
guard shall be subdivided or filled in one of the following manners:
A sufficient number of intermediate longitudinal rails so that the clear
distance between rails measured at right angles to the run of rail does
not exceed twenty five and a half centimeters (25.5). The bottom rails
shall not be more than twenty five and a half (25.5) centimeters from
the top of the floor measured vertically.
Vertical balusters spaced not more than fifteen and one fourth ( 1 5. 2 5)
centimeters apart.
Areas filled wholly or partially by panels of solid wire mesh or expanded metal construction or by ornamental grills which provide protection against falling through the guard equivalent to the provided by the
intermediate rails or vertical balusters.
The lower part of the area may consist of a continuous substantial
curb, the top of which is not less than seventy six (76) millimeters on
stairs (measured at right angles to the curb from its top to the nosing
of the tread) and not less than fifteen and one-fourth (16.26) centimeters for level areas.

G. SnwktJproof Tow':
l) A smokeproof tower shall be a stairway endurance. so designed that the

movement into the smokeproof tower of products of combustion, produced

by a fire occuring in any part of the building, shall be limited.
2) A smokeproof tower, as herein specified, shall bQ a continuous fire-resistive
encrosure protecting a stairway from fire or smoke. in the building served,


with communication between the building and the tower by means of

balconies directly open to the outer air .
3) Stairs, enclosure walls. vestibules. balconies and other components of
smokeproof towers shall be of noncombustible materials, and all other requirements hereinbefore specified for inside stairs shall apply to stairs in
smokeproof towers .
4) Stairways shall be completely enclosed by walls having a two hour fire
resistance rating and comprised of noncombustible material. There shall be
no openings in walls separating the enclosure from the interior of the
building . Fixed or automatic fire windows are permitted in an exterior wall
not subject to severe fire exposure hazard from the same or nearby buildings.
6) Access to the smokeproof tower shall be provided from every story thrcugh
vestibules open to the outside. Ot'l an exterior wall or from balconies
overhanging an exterior wall, but not subject to severe fire exposure hazard.
Every such vestibule or balcony shall have an obstructed length and width
not less than the required width of exit doors serving the same and shall be
directly open to a street or alley or yard or to an enclosed court open at the
top not less than six (6) meters in width and ninety two (92) square meters in
area. Balconies or vestibules shall have guards not less than hur:'dred six
( 1 06) centimeters high and shall conform with paragraph "F" (5) of this section. Watt openings exposing balcC\nies or vestibules shall be protected in.accordance with paragraph "B" of Section 3 .404.
7) Access from a building to vestibules or balconies shall be through doorways
not less than one ( 1 l meter wide for new and ninety one l9') centimeters
wide for existing towers. These openings and the entrance to the towers
shall be provided w ith approved, self-closing fire doors swinging with the exit travel. Clear wired glass not exceeding one half (0.5) square meter shall be
provided in all doors giving access to the enclosure.
H. Monument! Stslr
Monumental stairs, either inside or outside, amy be accepted as required exits if
all requirements for exit stairs are complied with, including required enclosures
and minimum width of treads, except that curved stairs may be accepted with a
radius of seven and one-half (7 .5) meters or more at the inner edges.

SEC; 3 .404. Outa\de Stairs

A . GentHBI
1 ) Any permanently installed stair outside of the building served is acceptable in
a means of egress under the same condition.



1) Under all conditions where enclosure of inside stairways is required, outside

stairs shall be separated from the interior of the buildings with wells having
the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the wall enclosing inside
stairs. Any qpening in such wall shall be protected by fire doors or fixed
wired glass windows. Protection of opening maybe waived of the building is
three (3) stories or less and it is provided with a remote second unit.
2) If the building is four (4) stories or more, openings within the distances set
below shall be protected .


a) Within four and a half (4.5) meters from any balcony, platform or stairway constituting a part of the exterior or outside stairs.
b) Within three (3) stories or ten and two thirds (10.67) meters directly
below any balcony, platform or stairway consisting a part of the outside
cl Within two (2) stories or six and one-tenth (6.11 meter~ directly t;>elow a
platform or walkway leading from any story to the exits.
B. Egress from Area of Refuge:

1 I Every fire section for which credit is allowed in connection with a horizontal
exit shall have in addition to the horizontal exit shall have in addition to the
horizontal exit or exits at least one stairway, doorway leading outside, or
other standard exit. Any fire section not having a stairway or doorway
leading outside shall be considered as part of an adjoining section with stairway.
2) Every horizontal exit for which credit is given shall be so arranged that there
are continuously available paths of travel leading from each side of the exit to
stairways or other standard means of egress leading to outside the building.
This reQuirement is complied with where the entire areas from each side of
the horizontal exit to the stairways or other standard means of egress are occupied by the same tenant; or where there are public corridors or other continuously available passageways leading from each side of the exit to stairways or other standard means of.egress leading to outside the building.
3} Whenever either side of the horizontal exit is occupied, doors used in connec
tion with the horizontal exit shall swing in opposite directions and shall not
be locked from either side.
4) The floor area on either side of a horizontal exit shall be sufficient to hold the
occupant of both floor areas, allowing not less than three-tenths {0.3) square
meter cfear ffoor area per person.

C. Bridges 11nd be/conies

1 ) Each bridge or balcony. utilized in conjunction with horizontal exits shall comply with the structural requirements for outside stairs and shall have guards
and handrails in general conformity with the reQuirements of Section 3.403
for stairs and smokeproof towers.


2) Every bridge or balcony shall be at least as wide as the door leading it and
not less than one hundred twelve ( 11 2) centimeters from new construction.
3) Every door leading to a bridge or balcony serving as a horizontal exit from a
fire area, snail swing with the exit travel out of the fire area.
4) Where the bridge or balcony serves as a horizontal exit in one direction, only
the door from the bridge or balcony into the area of refuge shall swing in.
5) Where the bridge or balcony serves as a horizontal exit in both directions,
doors shall be provided in pairs swinging in opposite direction, only the door
swinging with the exit travel to be counted in determination of exit width,
unless the bridge or balcony has sufficient floor area to accomodate the occupant load of either connected building or fire area on the basis of three
tenths (0.3) square meter per person or in existing buildings by specific permission of the direction general or his duly authorized representative, in


which case doors on both ends of the bridge or balcony may awing out from
the building.
6) The bridge or balcony floor sh.a ll be tevel wfth the floor of the building.

be employed where there is a difference in level between con~

nected buildings or floor areas. Steps may be used where the difference In
elevation ia greater than fifty three and one-thlrd (63.34) centimeters.
Ramps and stairs shall be in accordance with the sections of this rule pertaining to ramps, stairs and outside stairs .

7) Ramps shall

8) All wall openings, in both of the connected buildings or fire areas eny part of
which is within three (3) meters of any bridge or balcony as measured
horilontally or below, shall be protected with fire doors or fixed metal-frame
wired-glass windows.

D. 0ptlllin!J6 ThtOUgh WaM loT Hotlzontlll Exh:

11 Walls connected by a horizontal exit between buildings shall be of noncombustible material having a two (2) hour fire resistance rating . They shall provide a separation continuous to the ground.
2) Any opening in such wall1, whether or not such openings serves as an exit,
shall be adequately protected against the passage of fire as smoke

31 Swinging fire doors a horizontal exits shall swing with the exit travel. Where
a horizontal exit serves areas on both sides of a wall there shall be adjacent
openings with swinging doors at each wall, opening in opposite directions,
with signs on each side of the wall of partitions indicating as the exit the door
which swings w lth the travel from that side, or other approved arrangements
providing doors always swinging with any possible exit travel.
4) Sliding fire doors shall not be used on

a horizontal exit except where the

doorway is protected by a fire door on each side of the wall in which such
sliding fire doors are located. tn this case, on fire door shall be of the swinging type as provided in paragraph "C" (3) above and the other may be an
automatic sliding fire door that shell be kept open whenever the building is

E. Omls6/on Df Fife Peitltlon Dn Certain Floors:

1 } Where .a fire partition is used to provide a horizontal exit in any story of a
building, such partition may be omitted Inany lower story under the fo\low~
ing condttions:
a} The open fire area story from which the fire partition is omitted shall be
separated from the stories above the construction having at least a
2-hour fire resistance rating.

b} Required exits from the stories above the open fire area story shall be
separated therefrom by construction having a 2-hour fire resistance
rating and shall discharge outaide without travel through the open fire
aree story.
c) Vertical openings between the open fire area story and the stories above
shall be enclosed with conatructi~n having a 2~hour fire resistance rating.
Other details shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 3.601.


2) Where a fire partition is used to provide' a horizontal exit for any story below
the discharge under the following conditions:
a) The open fire area story shall be separated from the stories below by co~
struction having at least a 2hour fire resistance rating.
b) Req!,Jired exits from stories below the open fire area story shall be
separated from the open fire area story by conssruction having a 2 -hour
fire resistance rating and shall di!$charge directly outside without travel
through the open f ire area story.
c) Vertical openings between the open fire story and the floors below shall

be enclosed with the construction having 2-hour fire resistance rating.

Other details shall be in accordance with the applicable provision of Sec:
tion 3.501.
SEC. 3 .406.


A. Inside Ramps:

1) Application: A ramps shall be permitted as component In a means of egress

when it conforms to the general requirements of Section 3.401 and to the
special requirements of this Section.
2) Classification:
a) A ramp shall be designated as Class A or Class Bin accordance with the
following table:
Class A

Class B

Width .......................... .

1 1 2 em and greater

76 to 112 em

Slope .......................... ..

8 to 10%

Maximum height between

Landings ............... ..

No limit

10 to 17%

3.66 m

Capacity in person per unit

as modified by
Divisions 7 through 5
Down .......................... .


Up ... ............................ .



3). Protective Enclosure:

a) When a ramp inside a building is used as an exit or exit component, it shall
be protected by separation from other parts of the building as specified in.
Section 3.401 "C".
b) Fixed wired glass panels in steel sash may be installed in such a separa
tion in a building fully provided with automatic fire suppression system.
c) There shall be no enclosed usable space under ramps in an exit enclosure
nor shall the open space under such ramps be used for any purpose .
4) Other Details:

f!) A ramp and the platforms and landings associated therewith shall be

designed for not less than four hundred eighty-eight (488) kilos per
square meter Jive load ar:td shall have a nonslip surface.
b) The slope of a ramp shall not vary between landings. Landings shall be
level and changes direction of travel ff any shall be made only at landings.



c} A ramp used as an exit or exit component in a building more than three (3)
stories, or in a building of any height of noncombustible or fire resistive
construction, shall be of noncombustible material. The ramp floor and
landings shall be solid and without perforations .
d) Guards and handrails complying with Section 3.403 "F" shall be provided In comparable situationsfor ramps except that handrails are notrequired on Class A ramps.

B. Outaide Rampa:
1) General

a) Any ramp permanently installed on the outs~de of the building may be accepted as component in a means of egress under the same conditions as
an inside ramp: provided, That it complies with all requirements for inside
ramps except as modified by the following provisions of this subsection

as to avoid any handicap to their use
by persons having a fear of high places. For ramps more than three (3)
stories, any arrangement intended to meet this requirement shall be at
least one hundred twenty ( 120) centimeters.

b) Outside ramps shall be so arranged

2) Enclosures:

a) Under all conditions where enclosures of inside ramps is required outside

ramps serving as exits shall be separated hom the interior of the building
by a wall construction that has a fire resistance rating equal to that required for such enclosure. In buildings three (3) stories or less, such protection need not be required where th~re is provided a remote second
exit. If the building is four (4) stories or more in height, the openings in
the wall be protected in the same manner as provided for outside the

be approximately level with the

floor of the building, or no more than twenty and three-tenths (20.3) centimeters below of the inside floor .

b) Balconies, to which access doors, shall

3) Ramp Details

a) Except where embedded in masonry or concrete or where a suitable fireresistive and waterproof covering is provided, no structural metal
member shall be employed the entire surface of which is nat capable of
being insp~cted and painted.
b} All supporting members for balconies and ramps, which are in tension
and fastened directly to the building, shall pass through the wall and be
securely fastened on the opposite side of shall be securely fastened to the
framework of the building. Metal members shall be protected effectively
against corrosion, where they pass through walls. Holes in the walls
through which metal members pass shall be effectively fire-stopped to
pra$erve the fire resistive quality of the wall.
c) Balcony and ramp enclosures and railings shall be designed to resist a
hor.i zdntal force of seventy five (75) kilos per lineal meter of r.ailing or
enclosure applied at the top of the railing or to the enclosure one hundred
seven (1 07) centimeters above the floor .


SEC. 3.407. Exit Passageway

A. Application
Any hallway, corridor, passage or tunnel, may be designated as an exit
passageway and used as an exit or exit component when conforming to all other
requirements of Section 3.401 as modified by the provisions of this Section.

B. Protective Enclosure and ~rrangement:

1 ) An exit passageway shall be protected by separation from other parts of the
building as specified in paragraph '"C" on Section 3:401.

a separation in
a building fully provided with automatic fire suppression system.

2} Fixed wired glass panels is steel sash may be installed in such

C. Width:
The width of an exit passageway shall be adequate to accomodate the aggregate
capacity of all exits discharging through it.

0. Floor:
The floor shall be solid and without perforations.
SEC. 3.408.

Escalators and Moving Walks

A. Application:

1l An escalator or moving walk. may be accepted as a component in a means of

egress when it conforms to the general requirements of Section 3.401 and
to the special requirements of this Section.
2) A sign indicating the direction of the nearest approved exit shall be placed at
the point of entrance to anv.. escalator or moving walk that is not a means of

An escalator shall be of horizontal tread type and shall be of non-combustible

construction thrOughout, except for the step tread surfaces, handrails and
step wheels.

4) A single escalator eighty one (81) centimeters wide shall be credited as one
( 1) unit of exit width. An escalator one hundred twenty one I 1 21) centimeters
wide, shall be given credit for two (two) units of exit width.
5) There shall be an unobstructed space of at least ten (1 0) centimeters outside
the handrails and above the handrail for the full length of the escalator.
6} No single escalator shall have an uninterrupted vertical travel of more than
one story.
7) As escalator shall be designed and operated according to generally accepted
standards of safe engineering practice.

C. Moving W11lks
1) An inclined moving walk shall comply with the applicable requirements of
Section 3.406 for ramps. and a level moving walk shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 3.407 for exit passageways, except as
modified by this section.
2) No moving walk capable of being operated in the direction against the normal
exit travel shall be used in a means of egress.


3) A moving walk shall be designed and operated according to generally ac

cepted standards of safe engineering practice.

SEC. 3.409. Ffre Escape, Stairs, Ladders. and Slide &capes.

A. Rte Escape Stlllrs
'1) General

Fire escape stairs (not those under Section 3.403 and 3.404) may be used in
required meBns of egress only in existing buildings, subject to the applicable
provisions of Divisions 7 through 1 5. Fire escape stairs shall not constitute
more than fifty (50%) percent of the required exit capacity in any case. Fire
escape stairs shall not be accepted as constituting any part of the required
means of egress for new buildings.

B. Fire Escape Shall provide a continuous unobstructed safe path of travel to th.e
ground or other safe or refuge to which they lead. Where the fire escape is not
continuous, as in cases where stairs lead to an adjoining roof. which must be
crossep before continuing downward travel, the direction of travel shall be clearly
indicated, and suitable walkways with handrails shall be provided where
necessary. Where a single means of egress consists of a combination of inside
stairs and fire escape stairs, each shall comply with the applicable provisions of
this Rule, and the two shall be so arranged and connected as to provide a con
tinuous safe path of travel.
2) Types

The following types of fire escape stairs are recognized by this Rule: Return
platform types with superimposed runs .or straight run type, with platforms
continuing in the same direction. Either or these may be parallel to or at right
angle to the building. They may be attached to buildings or erected independently of them and connected bridges.
3) Stair Details:

Fire escape stairs. depending upon the requirements of Division 7 through

1 5 of this Rule, shall be in accordance with the following table and subse
quent paragraphs.
Existing Stairs
for Very Small


Minimum Widths ..................... .. ...... .. ..........

55.9 em clear

45 .7 em clear

Minimum horizontal dimension any landing

of platform ...........................................

55.9 em

45.7 em

Maximum rise ... ............ .... ;.. .... ....... .. ....... .. .

22.9 em


Minimum tread, exclusive of nosing ...... .... .. .. :.

22.9 em

15 .25 em

Minimum nosing or projection ...... .. ................

2.5 em

No requirements

Tread Construction ... ...... .. . .. .. .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. .. ..

Solid, 13 mm

Flat metal bars on

edge, or square
against turning
spaced 38. 1 mm
maximum on

Winbars (spiral)


Permitted subject
to capacity penalty


Itt Ill I


tt l<o>

f I ... t t


Risers . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .


No requirement

Maximum height between landings ................

3.66 m

No require!llent

Headroom, minimum ...................................

2 .13 m

1.98 m

Access to Escape .. . . .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .

Door or casement windows

61cmby1 .98
m or double
hung windows
?6.2 em by
9, .44 em clear

Level of access opening . ... .. ... ............. .......... Not over 30.5


em above floor;
steps if higher
Discharge to ground .. .. .. . . ... . . .. ... .. . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . .

Swinging stair
section permitted

Swinging stair
or ladder if

Capacity number of person$ .. .. ..... ........ .. .. .. ...

45 per unit,
access by door;
20 if access by
climbing over
window rail

38 if winders or
ladder from bottom
balcony 5; if both.

4 ) Arrangement and Protection of Openings:


Fire escape stairs shall be so arranged that they will be exposed by the
smallest possible number of window and door openings. There shall be
no transom over doors. every opening, any portion of which is in the
limit ~pacified below , shall be compietely protee<ted by approved fire
doors or metalframe wired glass w indows in the same manner as provided for outside stairs and outside ramps.

5) Access:

a) Access to fire escape stairs shall be provided in accordance with the table
in paragraph (3) (a) of Section 3.409 and the general provisions of
paragraph "G" Section 3.401.
b). Where access is by way of double windows, such windows shall be so
counterbalanced and maintained that they can be readily opened wlth a
minimum of physical effort. Insert screens, if any, on any type of opening
giving access to fire a escape stair shall be of types that may be readily
opened or pushed out. No storm sash shall be used on .any window providing to fire escape stairs.
c) Fire escape stairs shall extend to_the roof in all cases where the roof is
subject to occupancy or is constructed and stranged to provide an area of
refuge from fire. In all cases where stairs do not extend to the roof, access thereto shaJI be provided by a ladder in accordance with pertinent
provision of Section 3 .409 on Fire Escape ladder, except that such lad
ders are not required in the case of roofs with pitch or slope steeper than.
sixteen and two thirds ( 1 6 . 6 7%) percent.
d) Balconies, to which access is secured through windows with sills above
the inside floor 1eve1, shall be not more than forty six (46) centimeters
below the sill. In no case shall be balcony level be abovethe sill.


6) Materials and Strength:

a) Iron, steel or concret~ or other approved noncombustible material shall be
used for the construction of fire escape, balconies, railings, and other
features appurtenant thereto.
b) Balconies end stairs shall be designed to carry a load of four hundred

thirty six (4361 kilos so located as to produce maximum stress



c) Except where embedded in masonry or concrete or where a suitable fire

resistive and waterproof covering is provided no structural metal mem_ber
shall be employed the entire surface of which is not capable of being inspected and painted.
d) All supporting members for balconies and stairs, which are in tension and
are fastened directly to the building. Where metal members pass through
walls, they shall be protected effectively fire stopped to preserve the fire
resistive quality of the wall .
e) Balcony and ~tair enclosure and railings shall be designed to withstand a
horizontal force of seventy five (7 5~ kilos per meter of railing or enclosure
without. serious deflection, and support at walls for such railings or
enclosures shall be in the manner specified in (6) (b) for tension members,
except as provided In (61 (f).

Guards and Handrails:

a) All tire escapes shall have walls or guards on both sides, in accordance
with "E" 11) and "F" (51 of Section 3.403, except for height, which shall
be one hundred seven (107) centimeters and ninety one (91) centimeters
for fire escape for every small buildings, the height being measured ver
tically from a point on the stair tread twenty five (25} millimeters beck
from the leading edge, or vertically above any landings or balcony floor
b) All fire escape shall have handrails on both sides, no~ less than sev~nty
six (76) centimeters not more than one hundred seven .<107) centimeters
high, measured vertically from a point on the. stair tread twenty five (25)
millimeters back from the leading edge, aU in general conformity to the requirements for stair handrails. "F" (1) through "F" (4) of Section 3.403.
c) Handrails and guards-shall be so oonstructed as to withstand a force of
ninety one (91) kilos applied downward or horizontally at any point.

8) Swinging Section of Fire Escape Stairs:

a} Swinging stair sections shall not be used for fire escape stairs except
where termination over sidewalks, alleys or driveways makes it impracticable to build stairs permanently to the ground. Where used, swinging
stairs shall comply with all provisions of this subsection.
b) Swinging section of stairs shall not be located over doors, over the path
of travel from any other exit, or in any location where there are or are like
ly to be obstructions.
c) Width of swinging section of stairs shall be at least equal to that of the
stairs above,
d) Pitch/slope shall not be steeper than that of the stairs above-.
el Railings shall be provided similar in height and construction to those re-


quired for the stairs above. Railings shall be designed to prevent any
possibility of injury to persons at head or stairs or on balconies when
stairs swing downward. Minimum clearance between moving section
where hands might be caught shall be ten ( 1 0) centimeters.
f) If distance from lowest platform to ground exceed three and two thirds
(3.671 meters, an intermediate balcony not.more than th~ee an two-thirds

(3.67) meters from the ground or less than two 12) meters in the clear
underneath shall be provided with not less than that of the stairs and
length not less than one and two tenths (1.2) meters.
g) Counterweight shan be provided ior swinging stairs and this shall be of
type balancing about a pivot, no cables being used. Counterweight shall
be securely bolted in place, but sliding ball weight or their equivalent may
be used to hold stairs up and help lower them. Counterbalancing shall be
such that a person weighing sixty eight (68) kilos, who makes one step
from the pivot, will not start swinging the section downward, but when
he is one quarter of the length of the swinging stairs from the pivot, the
section will swing down.
h) Pivot for swinging stairs shall have a bronze bushing or have sufficient
clearance to prevent sticking on account of corrosion.
i) No latch to lock swinging stair section in up positi~n shall be installed.

B. Fire Escspe Ladders

1 ) USE - No form of ladder shall be 'LJsed as a fire escape under the provisions
of this Rule, except that ladders conforming to the following specifications
may be used to provide a means of escape from boiler rooms, grain elevators
and towers as permitted by Divisions 14 and 1 5, elevated platforms around
machinery or similar spaces subject to occupancy by not more than three
able-bodied adults.
2) Installation
a) AU leaders. shall be permanently installed in fixed position, supported by
rigid connection to the building or structure at intervals not exceeding
three (3) meters.
b) Where ladders provide access to roofs or elevated platforms, rails shall
extend not less than one hundred fourteen (114) centimeters above roof
line or platform floor or above coping or parapet. Extension of side rails to
roof shall be carried over coping or parapet to afford hand hold.
c) Ladders shall be arranged parallel to buildings or structures with travel
either between ladder and building, in which case minimum clearance
center of rungs and building shall be sixty eight (68) centimeters, or out-
side of ladder, in which case minimum clearance between center of rungs
and building shall be sixteen (16} centimeters.
d) ladders shall be vertical or positively inclined (i.e., ladder sloping out over
the head of a person using it) shall be permitted.
3. Construction:
a) ladders shall be constructed of iron, of steel or of other metal in design
having equivalent strength and resistance to corrosion.
b) Rails of iron or steel ladders shall be not less than one and one-fourth


( 1.25} centimeters by five (5) centimeters in section , not less than forty
(401 centimeters apart.
cl Rungs shall be not less than twenty two {22) centimeters nor more than
thirty and one~half (30. 5) centimeters on center.
d) The lowest rung of any ladder shan be not more than thirty and one~half
(30. 5) centimeters above the level of the ground or balcony floor beneath

C. Slide Escape:
1 l Use and Capacity Rating

A slide escape may be used at component in means of egress where

specifically authorized by Divisions 7 through 15.

b) Slide escapes, where permitted as required exits, shall be rated at one

unit per s\ide, with rated trave1 capacity of 60 persons per f11inute.
c) Slide escapes, except as permitted for high hazard manufacturing
buildings or structures, shall not constitute more than twenty five
(25%1 percent of the required number of units of exit width from any
building or structure or any individual story or floor thereof.
d) Slide escape, used as exits shall comply with the applicable requirements

of this Division for other types of ex its subject to the discretion of th$
Director General of is authorized representative.
2 ) Types -

SEC. 3 .410.

Each slide escape shall be of an approved type.

Illumination of Meant of Egrets

A. General
1 ) Illumination of means of egress shall be continuous during the time that the
condition of occupancy require that the means of egress be available for use.
Artificial lighting shall be employed at such places and for such periods of
time as required to maintain the illumination to the minimum lumen values
herein specified.

2} Illumination of means of egress shall be provided for every building and structure, as required by Division 7 through 15.
3) The floors of means of egress shall be illuminated at all points including
angles end intersection of corridors and passageways, landings of stairs, and
exit doors to values of not less than one thousandth (0.001 I lumens per
square centimeter.
4) Any required illumination shall be so arranged that the failure of any lighting
unit, such as the burning outof an electric bulb, will not leave area in

B. Sources of Illumination:
1 ) Illumination of means of egress shall be from a source of reasonably assured
realiability, such as public utility electric service.
2) Where electricity is used as a source of illumination of means of egress, the
installation shall be properly made in accordance with the appropriate made
in accordance wit~ the appropriate and internationally accepted standards.


3) No battery operated electric light nor an.y type of portable lamp or lantern
shall be used for primary illumination of means of egress, but may be used as
!'In emergency source to the extent permitted under Emergency lighting
paragraph "C" of the Section.
4) No luminescent, fluorescent, or reflective material shall be permitted as
substitutes tor any of the required illumination herein specified.

C. Emergency Lighting:
1) In occupancies specified in Division 7 through 15, emergency lighting
facilities shall be provided for means of egress. Where maintenance of
illumination depends upon charging from one energy source to another, there
shalf be no appreciable interruption of illumination during the changeover.
Where emergency lighting is provided by a prime mover-operated electric
generator, delay of not more than ten ( 1 0) seconds shall be permitted.
2) Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to maintain the specified
degree of illumination in the event of failure of the normal lighting for a period
of at least one half ( 1/ 2) hour in building more than thirty six and a half (36. 5)
meters in height.
31 An emergency lighting system shall be provided as specified in Division 7
through 15. subject to the ground of Director General or his duly authorized
representative as to the suitability of the equipment for its intended use and
the conditions in the individual premises.
4) Electric battery-operated emergency lights shall use only reliable types of
storage batteries, provided with suitable facilities for maintenance in properly charged condition. Dry batteries shall not be used to satisfy these requirements. Electric storage batteries used in such lights or units shall be approved tor their intended used and shall comply with the internationally accepted standards.
5) An emergency lighting system shall be so arranged as to provide the required
illumination automatically in the event of any interruption of normal lighting,
such as any failure of public utility or other outside electrical power supply,
opening of a circuit breaker or fuse, or any manual act, including accidental
opening of a switch controlling normal lighting facilities.
6} An emergency lighting system shall either be continuously in operation or
shall be capable of repeated automatic operation without intervention.

SEC. 3.411.

Exit Marking

A. Signs:
1} Where required by the provisi ons of Division 1 5, exits shall be marked by a
readily visible sign. Access to exits shall be marked by readily visible sign in
all cases where the exit or way to reach it s not immediately visible to the occt~pants and in any case where required by the applicable provisions of Divisions 7 through 1 5 for individual occupancies.
2) Any door, passage, or stairway which is neither an exit nor a way of exit
access and which is so located or arranged as likely to be mistaken for an exit, shall be identified by a sign reading "NOT AN EXIT" and shall be identified
by a sign indicating its actual character, such as "TO BASEMENT",
"STOREROOM ", "LINEN CLOSET" or the like.


3) Every required sign designating an exit or way of exit access shall be so

located and such size, color, and design as to readily visible. No decorations,
furnishing, or equipment which impair visibility exit sign shall be permit
ted nor shall be permitted, nor shall there be any brightly illuminated sign (for
other than exit purposes), display, or object in or near the line of vision to the
required exit sign of such a character as to so detract attention from the exit
4) A sign reading "EXIT", with an arrow indicating the direction, shaU be placed
in every location where the direction of travel to reach the rtearest exit is not
imm~diately apparent.
5) Every sign shall be distinctive in color and shall provide c~:mtrast with decorations, interior fin\sh, or other signs.
B. lllumln11tlon of Signa:
1) Every sign shall be suitably illuminated by a reliable light source giving a
value of not less than five thousandth (0.005} lumens per square centimeters on the illuminated surface. Such illumination shall be cont1nuous as
required under the provisions of Section 3.510. Ulluminat\on of Means of
Egress} and where emergency lighting facilities are required, exit signs shan
t>e illuminated from the same source.
2) Internally illuminated signs shall be provided in all occupancies where reduc
tion of riormal Illumination is permitted such as to motion picture theaters.

C. Size of Signs:
Every exit shall have the word "EXIT" in plainly legible letters not leas than fifteen
(15) centimeters high with the J)i-incipal strokes of letters not less than nineteen
( 1 9) millimeters wide, except that in existing buildings externally illuminated exit
signs therein having the word "EXIT" in plainly visible letters not less than eleven
and one-half (t 1.5) t:entimeters high, other than in places of assembly, may be
continued in use.

SEC. 3.601

Protection of Vertical Opening and Combustible Concealed Space

A. GeMI'tll:
1) Every stairway. elevator shaft, light and ventilation shaft, chute and other
opening between stories shan be enclosed or protected to prevent the spread
of fire or smoke, except openings of building protected by automatic fire suppression system as permitted by other Section of this Rule.
2) In any building with low or ordinary hazard occupancy protected with
automatic fire suppression system, up to three (3) communicating floor
levels are permitted without enclosure protection between floors, provided
all the following conditions are met.
a) The arrangement is permitted by the applicable occupancy section of this
Rule and by the Director General or his.duly authorized representative;
b) The lowest or next to the lowest level is a street floor;
c} The {Intire area including all communicating floor levels Ia sufficiently
open and unobstructed so that It mav be assure~ that tire or other
dangerous .condition in any. part will be lmmediately obvious to the occupants of all communicating levels and areas;


dl Exit capacity is sufficient to provide simultaneously for all occupants of

all communicating levels and areas, all communicating levels in the same
fire area being considered as a single floor area for purposes of d etermina
t ion of required exit capacity.
el Each floor level , considered separately, has at least one-half of its in
dividual required exit capacity provided by an exit or exits leading directly
out of that area withou traversing another com municating f loor level or
being exposed to the spread of f ire or smoke therefrom; and

fJ A ll requirements of t his Rule with respect to interior f inish, protection of

hazards. construction and other features are fully observed, without
waivers. expect openings in floors of educational and educat ional and in
stitutional occupancies shall be enclosed as required in Divisions 8 and 9 ,
3) Each floor opening, as specified in paragraph "A" ( 1) of this Section shall be
enclosed by substantial walls having fire resistance not less than tl;lat re
qui red for stairways, paragraph "A" (4) hereof, with approved fire doors or
windows provided in openings therein, all so designed and installed as to provide a complete barrier to the spread of fire or smoke through such openings.
41 The en.closing walls of floor openings serving stairways. or ramps shall be so
arranged as to provide a continuous path of escape including landings and
passageways. in accordance with Section 3.403, providing protection for
persons using the stairways or ramp against fire or smoke therefrom in other
parts of the building. Such walls shall have fire resistance as follows:
a) New buildings four stories or more in height two hours five resistance .
bl Other new buildings - One ( 1) hour
c) Existing buildings - 112 hour, except where greater resistance is required by t he Direc tor General or his duly authorized representa t ive in
considerati on of the hazard present .

used to co11tro1 traffic.


Republic Act 386

Civil Code of the
(Contracts and Obligations)
ART: 1166 - An OBLIGATION is a juridical necessity to do or not to do.
ART. 1157 - Obligations arise from:
1 . Law
2. Contracts
3. Quasi-Contracts
4 . Acts or Omissions punished by law
5 . Ouasidelicts




ART. 1181 - In conditional obligations, the acquisition of rights, as well as tht! extinguishment or loss of those already acquired, shall depend upon the happening of
the event which constitutes the condition.
ART. 1182 - When the fulfillment of the condition depehds upon the sole will of the debtor, the conditional obligation shall be void. If it depends upon chance or upon the will
of a third person, the obligation shall take effect in conformity with the provision of
this C-ode.
ART. 1183.- Impossible Conditions; those contrary to good customs or p'u blic policy and
those prohibited' by law shall annul the obligation which depends upon them . If the
obligation is divisible, the part thereof which is not affected by the impossible or
unlawful condition shall be valid.

The condition not to do an impossible thing shall be considered as not having been
agreed upon.


ART. 1193 - Obligations for whose fulfillment a day certain has been fixed, shall be
demandable only when that day comes. Obligations with a resolutory period take ef~
feet at once, b.ut terminate upon arrival of the day certain.

A day certain is understood to be that which must necessarily comes, although it may
not be known. When if the uncertainty consists in whether the day will come or not,


the obligation is conditional, and it shall be regulated by the rules of the preceding Sec.
ART. 1198 - The Debtor shall lose every right to make Use of the Period.
1 l When after the obligation has been contracted, he becomes insolvent, unless he
gives a guaranty or security for the debt.
2} When he does not furnish to the credilor the guarantees or securities which he
has promised.
3) When by his own acts he has impaired said guarantees or securities after their
establishment, and when through a fortuitous event ...... they disappear, _unless he
immediately gives new ones equally satisfactory;
4) When the debtor violates any understanding, in consideration of which the

creditor agreed to the period;

5) When the debtor attempts to go abroad.

SEC. 6


ART. 1226. ln. obligations with a penal clause, the penalty shall substitute the indemnity
for damages and the payment of interests in case of noncompliance, if there is no
stipulation to the contrary. Nevertheless, damages shall be paid if the obligor refuses
to pay the penalty or is guilty of fraud in the fulfillment of the Obligation.
The penalty may be enforced only when it is demandaple in accordance with the provisions of t his Code.
A~T .

1227. The debtor cannot exempt himself from the performance of the obligation
by paying the penalty, save in the case where this right has been expressly reserved
for him. Neither can the creditor demand the fulfillment of the obUgation and the
satisfaction .of the penalty at the same t ime, unless this right has been clearly granted
him. However, if after the creditor has decided to reQ.u ire the1ulfillmentof the obliga
tion, the performance thereof should become impossible without his fault, the penalty
may be enforced.

ART. 1228. Proof of actttai damages suffered by the creditor is not necessary in order
that the penalty may be demanded.

ART. 1229. The judge shall equitably reduce the-penalty when the principal obligation
has been partly or irregularly complied with by the debtor. Even if there has been no
e , the penalty may also be reduced by the courts .if it"is iniquitous or unconscionable.
ART. 1230. The nullity of the principal obligation does not carry with it that of the penal

ART. 1231 .

Obligations are extinguished :

11 By payment or performance;
21 By the loss of the ~hing due;
3) By the condonation or remission of the debt;
4) By the confusion or merger of the rights of creditor and debtor;
51 By compensation;
61 By n()vation.


Other causes of extinguishment of obligations, such as annulment, rescission, fulfillment of a resolutory condition, and prescription, are governed elsewhere in this Code.


ART. 1232. Payment means not only the delivery of money but also the performance, in
any other manner, of an obligation.
ART. 1233. A debt shall not be understood to have been paid unless the thing or service
in which the obligation consists has been completely delivered or rendered, as the
case may be.
ART. 1234. tf the obligation has been substantially performed in good faith, the obligor
may recover as though there had been a strict and complete fu\fiUment, \ess damages
suffered by the obligee.
ART. 1235. When the obligee accepts the performance, knowing its incompleteness or
irregularity, and without expressing any protest or objection, the obligation is deemed
fully complied with.
ART. 1236. The creditor is not bound to accept payment or peformance by a third person who has no interest in the fulfillment of the obligation, unless there is a stipulation
to the contrary.
Whoever pays for another may demand from the debtor what he has paid, except that
if he paid without the knowledge or against the will of the debtor, he can recover only
insofar as the payment has been beneficial to the debtor.
ART. 1237. Whoever pays on behalf of the debtor without the knowledge or against the
will of the latter, cannot compel the creditor to subrogate him in his rights, su~h as
those arising from a mortgage: guarranty, or penalty .
ART. 1238. Payment made by a third person who does not intend to be reimbursed by
the debtor is deemed to be a donation, which required the debtor's consent. But the
payment is in any case valid as to the creditor who has accepted it.
ART. 1239. In obligations to give payment made by one who does not have the free
disposal of the thing due and capacity to alienate it shall not be valid, without pre
judice to the provisions of article 1427 under the Title on "Natural Obligations."
ART. 1240. Payment shall be made to the person in whose favor the obligation has been
constituted, or his successor in interest, or any person authorized to received it.
ART. 1241. Paymentto a person who is incapacitated to administer his property shall
valid if he has kept the thing delivered, or -insofar as the payment has been beneficial to
Payment made to a third person shall also be valid insofar as it has redounded to the
benefit to the creditor ne~d not be proved in the following case$:
1 ) If after the payment, the third person acquires the creditor's right;
2) If the creditor ratifies the payment to the third person;
3) If the creditor's conduct, the debtor has been led to believe. that the third person
h&d authority to receive the payment.
ART. 1242. Payment made in good faith to any person in possession of the credit shall
release the debtor.
ART. 1243. Payment made to the creditor by .the debtor after the latter has been judicially ordered to retain the debt shall riot be valid.


ART. 1 ?..44. The debtor of a thing cannot compel the creditor to receive a different one,
although the latter may be of the same value as, or more valuable than that which is
In obligations to do or not to do, an act or forbearance cannot be substituted by
another act or forbearance against the obligee's will.
ART. 1245. Dation in payment, whereby property is alienated to the creditor in satisiac. tion of a debt in money, shall be governed by the law of sales.
ART. 1246. When the obligation consists in the delivery of an indeterminate or generic,
whose quality and circumstances have not stated, the creditor cannot demand a thing
of superior quality. Neither can the debtor deliver a thing of inferior quality. The pur
pose of the obligation and other circumstances shall be taken into consideration.
ART. 1247. Unless it is otherwise. stipulated, the extra-judicial expenses required by the
payment shall be for the account of the debtor. With regard to judicial costs, the Rules
of Court shall govern.
ART. 1248. Unless there is an express stipulation to that effect, the creditor cannot be
compelled partially to receive the presentations in which the obligation consists.
Neither may the debtor be required to make partial payments.
However, when the debt is in part' liquidated and in part unliquidated, the creditor may
demand and the debtor may effect the payment of the former without waiting for the
liquidation of the latter.
ART. 1249. The payment of the debts in money shall be made in the currency stipulated,
and if it is not possible to deliver such currency. then in the currency which is leg~l
tender in the Philippines.
The delivery of promissory notes payable to order. or bills of exchange or other mercantile documents shalt produce the effect of payment only when they have been
cashed, or when through the fault of the creditor they have been impaired.
In the meantime, the action derived from the original obligation shall be held in
ART. 1250. In case an extraordinary inflation or deflation of the currency stipulated
should supervene, the value of the currency at the time of the establishment of the
obligation shall be the basis of payment, unless there is an agreement to the contrary.
ART. 1251.

Payment shall be made in the place designated in the obligation.

,There being no express stipulation and if the undertaking is to deliver a determinate

thing, the payment shall be made wherever the thing might be at the moment the
obligation was constituted.
In any other case the place of payment shall be the domicile of the debtor.
If the debtor changes his domicile in bad faith or after he has incurred in delay, the ad
ditional expenses shall be borne by him.
These provisions are without prejudice to venue under the Rules of Court.


ART. 1252. He who has various debts of the same kind in favor of one and the same
creditor, may declare at the time of making the payment, to which of them the same
must be applied. Unless the parties to stipiJiate, or when the applic~tion of payment is
made by the party for whose benefit the term has been constituted, application shall
not be made as to debts which are not yet due.


If the debtor accepts from the creditor.a re~pt in.which an application of the payment
is made, the former cannot complain ofe the same, unles.s there is .a cause for In
validating the contract.
ART. 1263.If the debt produces interest, payment of the principal shall not be deemed
to havebeen made until the i nterests have been covered.
ART. 1264. When the payment cannot be applied in ~ccordance with the preceding
rules, or if application cannot be inferred from other circumstances, the debt which is
most onerous to the debtor, among those due, shall be deemed to have been satisfied.
If the debts due are of the seme nature and burden, the payment shall be applied to all
of them proportionately.

ART. 1305. A contract is a meeting of minds between two persons whereby one binds
himself, with respect to the other, to give something or to render some service .

ART. 1306. The contracting parties may establish such stipulations, clauses, terms and con
ditions as they may deem convenient, provided they are not contrary to law, morals, good
customs public order, or public policy.

ART. 1307. Innominate contracts shall be regutated by the stipulations of the parties, by the
provisions of Titles 1 and 11 of this Book, by the rules governing the most analogous
nominate contracts, and by the customs of the place.
ART. 1308. The contract must bind both contracting parties; its valklity or compliance can
not be left to the will of one of them.
ART. 1309. The determination of the performance may be left to a third person, whose deci
sion shall not be bindlng until it has been made known to both contracting parties.
ART. 131 0. The determination shall not be obligatory if it is evidently inequita~le . In such
case, the courts shall decide what is equitable under the circumstances.

ART. 1311. Contracts take effect only between the parties, their assigns and heirs. except in .case where the rights and obligations arising from the contract are not
transmissible by their nature, or by stipulation or by provision of law . The heir is not
liatlle beyond the value of the property he received from the decendant.
If a c ontract should contain some stipulation in favor of a third person, he may demand
its fulfillment provided he communicated his acceptance to the obligor before its
revocetion. A mere incidental benefit or Interest of a person is not suffiCient. The con
tracting parties must have clearly and deliberately conferred a favor upon a third person.
AR1'. 1312. .\n contracts creating rea\ rights, third persons who come into possession of
the object of the contract are bound thereby, subject to the provisions of the Mortgage
Law and the Land Registration laws.

ART. 1313. Creditors are protected in cases of contracts intended to defraud them .
ART. 1314. Any third person who induces another to violate his contract shall be liable
for damages to the other contracting party .
ART. 1315. Contracts are perfected by mere consent, and from that moment the parties
are bound not ~nly to the fulfillment of what has been expressly st ipulated but also to
all the consequences which, according to their nature, may be in ke6ping with good
faith, usage and taw.


ART. 1316. Real contracts, such as deposit, pledge and commodatum, are not perfected
until the delivery of the object of the obligation.
ART. 1 317. No one may contract in the name of another without being authorized by the
latter, or unless he has by law a right to represent him.

A contract entered into in the name of another byone who has no authority or legal
representation, or who has acted beyond his powers, shall be unforceable, unless it is
ratified, expressly or impliedly, by the person or whose behalf it has been executed,
before it is revoked by the other contracting party.


ART. 131 8.

There is no co.ntract unless the following requisite$ concur:

1 ~ Consent of the contracting parties;

2) Object certain which is the subject matter of the contract;
3) Cause of the obligation which is established.
ART. 1319. Consent is manifested by the meeting of the offer and the acceptance upon
the t hing and the cause w hich are to constitute the contract. The offer must be certain
and the acceptance absolute. A qualified ac.ceptance constitutes a counter-.offer.

Acceptance made by letter or telegram does not bind the ofierer except from the time
it came to his knowledge. The contract, in such a case, is presumed to have been
entered into in the place where the offer was made.
ART. 1320.

An acceptance may be express or. Implied.

ART. 1321. The person making the offer may fix the time, place, and manner of acceptance, all of which must be complied with .

ART. 1322. An offer made through an agent is accepted from the time acceptance is
communicated to him.
ART. 1323. An offer becomes ineffective upon the death, civil inte'rdic;:tion, insanity, or
insolvency of either party before acceptance is conveyed.
ART. 1324. When the offerer has allowed the offeree a certain period to accept, the offer may be withdrawn at any time before acceptance by communicpting such
withdrawal, except when the option is founded .upon a consideration, as something
paid or promised.
ART. 1325. Unlt;~ss it appears otherwise , business advertisements of things for sale are
not definite offers, but mere invitations to make an offet".
ART. 1326. Advertisements for bidders are simply invitations to make proposals, and
the advertisers is not bound to accept the high'e st or lowest bidder, unless the contrary
ART. 1327.

The following cannot give consent to a contract.

1) Unemancipated minors:
2}. Insane or demented persons, and deafmutes who do not know how to write.
ART. 1328. Contracts entered to during a LUCID interval (Temporaryperiod of nationality between period of unsanity or d&lirium) are valid. Contracts agreed to in a state of
drunkenness or during a hypnotic spell are voidable.


ART. 1329. The incapacity declared in article 1327 is subject to the modifications determin~d by law, and is understood to be without prejudice to special disqualifications
established in the laws.
ART. 1330. A. contract where consent is given through mistake, violetlce, intimidation,
undue influence, or fraud is voidable.
ART. 1331.

In order that mistake may invalidate consent, it should refer to the

of the thing which is the object of the contract, or to those conditions
which have principally moved one or both parties to enter into the contract.


Mistake as to the identity or qualiiications oi one oi the parties w1U vitiate consent only
when such identity or qualifications have been the principal cause of the contract.
A simple mistake of account shalt give rise to its correction.
ART . 1332. When one of the parties is unable to read, or if the contract is in a language
not understood by him, and mistake or fraud is alleged, the person enforcing the con
tract must show that the terms thereof have been fully explained to the former.
ART. 1333. There is no mistake if the party alleging it knew the doubt, contigency or risk
affecting the object of the contract.
ART. 1334. Mutual error as to the legal effect of an agreement when the real purpose of
the parties is frustrated, may vitiate consent.
ART. 1335. There is violence when in order to wrest consent, serious or irresistible force
is employed.
There is intimidation when one of the contracting parties is compelled by a reasonable
and well-grounded fear of an imminent and grave evil upon his person or property, or
upon the person or property of his spouse, descendants or ascendants, to give his
To determine the degree of the intimidation, the age, sex, and condition of the person
shall be borne in mind.
A threat to enforce one's claim through competent authority, is the cl.aim is just or
legal, does not vitiate consent.
ART. 1336. Violence or intimidation shall annul the obligation, although it mav have
been employed by a third person who did not take part in the contract.
ART. 1337. There is undue influence when a person takes improper advantage of his
power over the w ill of another, depriving the latter of a reasonable freedom of choice.
The following circumstances shall be considered: the confidential, family, spiritual and
other relations between the parties, or the fact that the person alleged to have been
unduly influenced-was suffering from mental weakness, or was ignorant or in financial
ART. 1338. There is fraud when, through insidious words or machinations of one of the
contracting parties, the other is induced to enter into a contract which, without them,
he would not have agreed to.
ART. 1339. Failure to 'disclose facts, when there is a duty to reveal them, as when the
parties are bound by confidential relations, constitutes fr~ud.
ART. 1340. The usual exaggerations in trade, when the other party had an opportunity
to know the facts, are not in themselves fraudulent.
ART. 1341. A mere expression of an opinion does not signify fraud, unless made by an
expert and the other party has relief on the former's special knowledge.


ART. 1342. Mispresentation by a third person does not vitiate consent, unless such
.misrepresentation has created substantial mistake and the same is mutual.
ART. 1343.

Misrepresentation made in good faith is not fraudulent but may const1tute

ART. 1344. In order that fraud may make a contract voidable, it should be serious and
should not have been employed by both contracting parties.
Incidental fraud only obliges the person employing it to pay damages.
ART. 1345. Simulation of a contract may be absolute or absolute or relative. The former
takes place when the parties do not intend to be bound at all; the latter, when the parties conceal their. true agreement.
ART. 1346. An absolutely simulated or fictitious contract is void . A relative simulation,
when it does not prejudice a third person and is not intended for any purpose contrary
to law, morals. good customs, public order or public policy binds the parties to their
real agreement.
ART. 134 7 . All things which are not outside the commerce of men, including future
things. may be the object of contract. Atl rights which are not intransmissible may also
be the object of contracts.
ART . 1348.

Impossible things or services can not be the object of contracts .

ART. 1349. The object of every contract must be determinate as to its kind . The fact
that the quantity is not determinate shall not be an obstacle to the existence of the
contract. provided it is possible to determine the same without the need of a new contract between the parties .
ART. 1350. In onerous contracts the cause is understood to be, for each contracting party, the presentation or promise ot a thing or service by the other; in remuneratory
ones. the service or benefit which is remun erated; and in co ntracts of pure
beneficence. the mere liberality of the benefactor.
ART. 1351. The particular motives of the parties in entering.into a contract are different
from the cause thereof.
ART. 1352. Contracts without cause , or with unlawful cause, produce no effect
whatever. The cause is unla wful if it is contrary to law, morals , good customs. public
order or public policy .
ART. 1353. The statemen t of a false causes in contracts shall render them void, if it
should not be proved that they were founded upon another cause which is true and
ART. 1354. A lthough the cause is not stated in the contract, it is presumed that it exist
and in lawful, unless the debtor proves the contrary.
ART. 1355. Except in cases specified by law, lesion or inadequacy of cause shall not
invalidate a contract, unless there has been fraud , mistake or undue influence .
ART. 1356 . . Contracts shall be obligatory, in whatever form they may have been entered
into, provided all the essential requisites for their validity are present. However, when
the law requires that a contract be in some form in order that it may be valid or en-


forceable, or that a contract be proved in a certain way, that requirement is absolute

and indispensable. tn such cases, the right of the parties stated In the following article
cannot be exercised.
ART. 1367. If the law requires a document or other special form , .as in the acts and
contracts enumerated in the followiog article, the contracting parties may compel
each other to observe that form, once the contract has been perfe~ted. This right may
be exercised simultaneously wlth the action upon the contract.
ART. 1368. The following must appear hi a public

docu~ent .

1) Acis and contracts which have for their object the creation, transmission,
modification or extinguishment of real rights over immovable property; sales of
real property or of an interest therein are governed by articles 1403, No. 2. and
2l The .cession, repudiation or renunieiation of heredttary rights or of those of the
conjugal partnershtp of gains;
3} The power to administer property, or any other power which has for its object an
act appearing or which should appear in a public document, or should prejudice a
third person.
4) The cession of actions or rights proceeding from an act appearing in a public
All other contracts where the amount involved exceeds five hundred pesos must ap
pear in writing even a private one. But sales of goods chattels or things in action are
governed by artictes 1403, No. 2 and 1405.
ART. 1390. The following contracts are voidable or annullable, even though there may
have been no damage to the contracting parties:
11 Those where one of the parties is incapable (if giving consent to a contract:
2) Those where the consent is vitiated by mistake, violence, intimidation, undue
influence or fraud.
These contracts are binding, unless they are annulled by a proper action in court. They
are susceptible of ratification.
ART. 1391. The action for annutlment shall be br.ought within four years.
This period shall begin:
In cases of intimidation, violence or undue influence, from the time of defect of the
consent ceases .
In case of mistake or fraud, from the time of the discovery ot the same.
And when the action refers to contracts entered into by minors or other incapacitated
persons, from the time the guardianship ceases.
ART. 1392.

Ratification extinguishes the action to annul a voidable contract.

ART. 1393. Ratification may be effected expressly or tacitly . It is understood that there
is a tacit ratiiication if, with knowledge of the reason which renders the contract
voidable and such reason having ceased, the person who has a right to invoke it
should execute an act which necessarily implies an intention to waive his right.
ART. 1394.

Ratification may be effected by the. guardian of the incapacitated person.

ART. 1396. Ratification does not require the conformity of the contracting party who
has no right to bring the action for annullment.


ART. 1396. Ratification cleanses the contract from. all its defects from the moment it
was constituted.
ART. 1 3 97. The action for the annulment of contracts may be instituted by all who are
thereby obliged principally or subsidiarity. However, persons who are capable allege
the inC.apacity of those with whom they contracted; nor can those who exerted intimidation, violence, or undue influence, or employed fraud, or caused mistake base
. their action upon these flaws of the contract.
ART. 1398. An obligation having been annulled, the contradicting parties shall restore to
each other the things which have been the subject matter of the contract, with their
fruits. and the price with its interest, except in cases provided by law.
In obligations to render service, the value thereof shall be the basis for damages.

ART. 1399. When the defect of the contract consists in the incapacity of one of the parties, the incapacitated person is not obliged to make. any restitution except insofar as
he has been benefited by the thing or price received by him .
ART. '1400 . Whenever the person obliged by the decree of annulment to return the thing
can not do so because it has been lost through his fault, he shall return the fruits
received and the value of the thing at the time of the loss, with interest from the same
ART. 1401. The action of annulment of contracts shall be extinguished when the thing
which is the object thereof is lost through the fraud or fault of the person who has a
right. to institute the proceedings.
If the right of action is based upon the incapacity of any one of the contracting parties,
the loss of the thing shall not be an obst acle to the success of the action, unless said
loos took place through the f raud or fault of the plaintiff.

ART . 1402. As long as one of the contracting parties does not restore what is virtue of
the de'crees of annulment he is bound to return, the other cannot be compelled to comply with what is incumbent upon him.

ART. 1403.

The following contracts are unenforceable, unless they are ratified:

1) Those entered into in the name of another person by one who has been given no
authority or legal representation, or who has acteq beyond his powers;

21 Those that do not comply with the Statute of Frauds as set forth in this number.
In the following cases an agreement hereafter made shall be unforceable by action, unless the same, or some note or memorandum thereof, be in writing, an
subscribed by the party charged, or by his agent; evidence therefore, of the
agreement cannot be received without the writing, or a secondary evidence of its
a) An agreement that by its terms is not to be performed within a year from the
making thereof;
b) A special promise to answer for the deot default, or miscarriage of another.
c) An agreement made in consideration of marriage, other than a mutual promise
to marry;
d) An agreement for the sale of goods, chattels or things in action, at a price not
less than five hundred pesos, unless the buyer accept and receive part of such
goods and chattels, or the evidence, or some of them, of such things in action, or pay at the time some part of the purchase money; but when a sale is


made by auction and entry is made by the auctioner in his sales book, at the
time of the sale, of the amount and kind of property sold, terms of sale, price,
names of the purchasers and person on whose account the sale is made, it is
a sufficient memorandum;
e) An agreeQ'lent for the leasing for a longer period than one year, or for the sale
of real property or of en interest therein;
f} A representation as to the credit of a third person.
3} Those where both parties are incapable of ghting consent to:a contract.
ART. 1404. Unauthorized contracts are governed by article 1 31 7 and the principles of
agency in Title X of this Book.
ART. 1405. Contracts infringing the Statute of Frauds, referred to in No. 2 of article
1403, are ratified by the failure to object to thEt presentation of oral evidence to prove
the same, or by the acceptance of benefits under them.
ART. 1406. When a contract is enforceable under the Statute of Frauds, and a public
documents i.6 necessary for Its registration in the registry of deeds, the parties may
avail themselves of the right under 1 3 57.
ART. 1407. In a contract where both parties are incapable of giving consent express
or implied ratification by the parent, or guardian as the case may be, of one of the contraction parties shall give the contract the same effect as if only one of them were incapacitated.
If ratification is made by the parents or guardians, as the case may be, both contracting parties, the contract shall be validated from the inception.
ART. 1408.

Unenforceable contracts cannot be assailed by third persons.


ART. 1409.

The following contracts are inexistent and void from the beginning:

1 ) Those whose cause. object or purpose is contrary to law, morals, good customs,
public order or public policy;
2) Those which are absolutely simulated or fictitious;
3) Those whose cause or object did not exist at the time of the transaction;
4) Those whose object is outside the commerce of men;
5) Those which contemplate an impossible service;
6) Those where the intention of the parties relative to the principal object of the contract cannot be ascertained;
7) Thase expressly .Prohibited or declared void law.
These contracts cannot be ratified. Neither can the right to set up the defense of illegality be waived.
ART. 1410. The action or defense for the declaration of the inexistence of a contract
does not prescribe.
ART. 141 1 . When the nullity proceeds from the 1\\egamtv oi the cause or object ot the
contract, and the act constitutes. a criminal offense, both panies being in pari delicto,
they shall have no action against each other, and both sha.ll be prosecuted . Moreover,
the provisions of the Penal Code relative to the disposal of. effects or instruments of e
crime shaH be applicable to the things or the price of the contract.
This rule shall be applicable when only one of the parties is guilty; but the innocent one
may ctaim what he has given, and shall not be bound to comply w ith his promise .


ART. 1412. If the act in which the unlawful or forbidden cause consists does not constitute a criminal offense, the following rules shall be observed:
1) When the fault is on the part of both contracting parties, neither may recover
wh&t he has given by virtue of the contract, or demand the performance of the
other's undertaking;
2) When only one of the contracting parties is at fault, he cannot recover what he
has been promised him. The other, who is not at fault, may demand the return of
what he has given without any obligation to comply with his promise.
ART. 1413. Interest paid in excess of the interest allowed by t he usury laws rnay be
recovered by the debtor, with interest thereon from the date of payment.
ART. 1414. When money is paid or property delivered for an illegal purpose, the contract
may be repudiated by one of the parties before the purpose has been accomplished, or
before any damage has been caused to a third person. In such case, the courts may, if
the public interest will thus be subserved, allow the party repudiating the contract to
recover the money or property.
ART. 14'1 6. Where one of the parties to an illegal contract is incapable of giving consent,
the courts may, if the interest of justice so demands, allow recovery of money or pro
party delivered by the incapacitated person.
ART. 1416 . When the agreement is not illegal per se but is merely prohib~ted, and the
prohibition by the law is designed for the protection of the plaintiff, he may, if public
policy is thereby enhanced, recover what he has paid or. delivered .
ART . 1417. Wt)en t he price of any article or commodity is determined by statute , or by
authority of law , any person paying any amo\Jnt in excess of the maximum price allowed may recover such excess.
ART. 1418. When the law fixes, or authorizes the f ixing of t he maximum number of
hours of labor, and a contract is entered into whereby a laborer undertakes to work
longer than the maximum thus fixed, .he may demand additional compensation for ser
vice rendered beyond the time limit.
ART. 1419. When the law sets, or authorizes the setting of a minimum wage for
laborers, and a contract is agreed upon by which a laborer accepts a lower wage, he
shall be entitled to recover the deficiency.
ART. 1420. In case of a divisible contract, if the illegal terms can be separated from the
legal ones, the latter may be enforced.
ART. 1421 . The defense of illegality of contracts is not available to third persons whose
interests are nbt directly affected.
ART. 1422. A contract which is the direct result of a previous illegal contract, is also
void and inexistent.
ART. 1700. The relations between capital and labor are not merely contractual. They are
so impressed with public interest that labor contracts must yield to t he common good.
Therefore, such contracts are subject to t he special laws on labor unions, collect ive
bargaining, strikes and lockouts, closed .shop, wages, working conditions, hours of
labor and similar subjects.
ART. 1701 . Neither capital nor labor shall act oppressively against the other, or impair
the interest or convenience of the public.
ART. 1702.

In case of doubt, all labor legislation and all labor contracts shall be con-


strued in favor of the safety and decent' living for laborer.

ART. 1703. No contract which partially amounts to involuntary servitude, under any
guise whatsoever, shall be valid.
ART. 1704. In collective bargaining, the labor union or members of the board or committee signing the contract shall be liable for non-fulfillment thereof.
ART. 1706.

The laborer's wages shall be paid in legal currency.

ART. 1706. Withholding of the wages. except for a debt due, shall not be made by the
ART. 1707.

The laborer's wages shall be a lien on the goods manufactured or the work

ART. 1708. The laborer's wages shall not be subject to execution or attachment, except
for debts incurred for food, shelter. clo'thing and medical attendance.
ART. 1709. The employer shall neither seize nor retain any tool or other articles belonging to the laborer.
ART. 1710. Dismissal of laborers shall be subject to the supervision of the Government,
under special laws.
ART. 1711. Owners of enterprises and other employers are obliged to pay compensation
for the death or injuries to their laborers,, mechanics or other employee,
even though the event may have been purely accidental or entirely due to a fortuitous
cause, if the death or personal injury arose out of and in the course of the employment.
The employer is also liable for compensation if the employee contracts any illness or
disease caused by such employment or as the result of the nature of the employment.
If the mishap was due to the employees own notorious negligence, or voluntary act. or
drunkenness, the employer shall not be liable for compensation. When the ernployee's
lack of due care contributed to his death or injury. the compensation shall be equitably

ART. 1712. If the death or injury is due to the negligence of a fellow~ worker, the latter
and the employer shall be solidarity liable for compensation. If a fellow-worker's intentional or malicious aet is the only cause of death or injury, the employer shall not be
answerable, unless it should be shown that the latter did not exercise due diligence in
the selection or supervision of the plaintiff's fellow-worker.
ART. 1 713. By the contract for a piece of work the contractor binds himself to execute a
piece of work for the employer, in consideration of a certain price or compensation.
The contractor may either employ only his labor or skill, or also furnish the material.
ART. 1714. If the contractor agrees to produce the work from material furnished by him,
he shalt deliver the .thing produced to the employer and transfer dominion over the
thing. This contract shall be governed by the following articles as well as by the pertinent provisions on warranty of title and against hidden defects and the payment of
price in a contract of sate.
ART. 1715. The contractor shall execute the work in such a manner that it has the
qualities agreed upon and has no defects which destroy or tessen its value or fitness
for its ordinary or stipulated use. Should the work be not of such quality, the employer
may require that the contractor remove the defect or execute another work. If the contractor fails or refuses to comply with this obligation, the employer may have the
defect removed or another work executed, at the contcactor's cost.


ART. 1716. An agreement waiving or limiting the contractor's liability for any defect in
the work is void lf the contractor acted fraudulently.
ART. 1717. If the contractor bound himself to furnish the material , he shall suffer the
loss if the work should be destroyed before its delivery, save when there has been
delay in receiving it.
ART. 1718. The contractor who has undertaken to put only his work or skill, cannot
claim any compensation if the work should be destroyed before its delivery, unless
there has been delay in receiving it, or if the destruction. was caused by the poor quality of the materia!, provided this fact was due time to the owner, the
contract is extinguished.
ART . 1719. Acceptance of the work by the employer relieves the contractor of liability
for any defect in the work unless:
1) The defect is hidden and the employer is not, by his special knowledge, expected

to recognize the same; or

2) The employer expre.ssly reserves his rights against the contractor by reason of
the defect.
ART. 1720. The price or compensation shall be paid at the time and place of delivery of
the work. unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. If the work is to be delivered partially. the price or compensation for each part having been fixed, the sum shall be paid
at the time and place of delivery, in the absence of stipulation .

ART. 1721. If, in the execution of the work, an act of the employer is required, and he
incurs in delay or fails to perform the. act, the contractor is entitled to a reasonable
The am6unt of the compensation is computed, on the one hand, by the duration of the
delay and the amount ofthe compensation stipulated, and on the other hand. by what
the contractor has saved in expenses by reason of the delay, or is able to earn by a different employment of his time and industry.
ARl'. 1722. If the work cannot be completed on account of a defect in thematerial fur-.
nished by the employer. or because of orders from the employer. without any fault on
the part of the contractor, the latter has a right to an equitable part of the compensation proportionally to the work done, and reimbursement for proper expenses made.
ART. 1723. The engineer or architect who drew up the plans and specifications for a
building is liable for damages if within fifteen years from the completion of the structure, the same should collapse by reason of a defect in those plans and specifications,
or due to the defects in the ground. The contractor is likewise responsible for the
damages if the edifice falls, w'ithin the same period, on account of defects in the construction or the use of materials of inferior quality furnished by him, or due to any
violation of the terms of the contract. If the engineer or architect supervises the construction, he shall be solidarily liable with the contractor.
Acceptance of the buildings, after completion does not imply waivar of any of thtiJ
causes of action by reason of any defect mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
The action must be brought within ten years following the collapse of the building.
ART. 1724. The contractor who undertakes to build a structure or any other work for a
stipulated price, in conformity with plans and specifications agreed upon with the
landowner, can neither withdraw from the contract nor demand an' increase in the
price on account of the higher cost of labor or materials, save when there has been a
change in the plans and specifications, provided:


1 ) Such change has been authorized by the proprietor in writing: and

2) . The additional price to be paid to the contractor has been determined in writing
by both parties.

ART. 1725. The owner may withdraw at will from the construction of the work,
although it may have been comm4!nced indemnifying the contractor fOI' ell the latter's
expenses, work, and the usefulness which the owner may obtain therefrom and

ART. 1728. When a piece of work /ras been entrusted to a person by reason of his per
sonal qualifications, the contract is rescinded upt)n hjs death.
ln.this case the proprietor shall pay the heirs of the c6ntractor in proportion to the price
agreed upon, the value of the part of the work done, and of the materials prepared pro
vided the latter yield him some benefit.
The same rule shall apply if the contractor cannot finish the work due to circumstances beyond his control.
ART. 1727.

The contractor is responsible for the work done by persons employed by

ART. 1728.

The contractor is liable for all the claims of laborers and others employed by
him, and of third persons for death or physical injuries during the construction.

ART. 1729.

Those who put their labor upon or furnish materials for apiece of work
undertaken by the contractor have an action against the owner up to the amount owIng from the latter to the contractor at the time the claim is made. However, the
following shall not prejudice the laborers, employees and furnishers of materials:
1) Payments made by the owner to the contractor before they are due;
2) Renunciation by the contractor of any amount due him from the owner .
This article is subject to the provisions of special laws.

ART. 1730.

lilt is agreed that the work shall be accomplished to the satisfaction of the
proprietor, it is understood that in case of disagreement the question shall be subject
to expert judgment.


The United Architects of

the Philippines and
Related Professional
The first Engineers and Architect's Law Act. No. 2985, was passed by the National Assembly
in 1 921 where the Maestros de Obras or Master Builders are required to register as Architects.
As the number of practicing architects began to increase, the need for establishing and controlling professional standards and conduct of ethics became necessary.
In 1933 the Philippine Architects Society tPAS) was organized. The Society drafted the con~
stitution and by-laws and the adoption of a Code of Ethics and Standard Professional Fees.
On Sept. 2 , 1945, the .name of the society was amended to the Philippine Institute of Architects and Pfanners (PIAP) which was subsequently changed to PIA.
In 1950 the League of Philippine Architects ILPAl was formed as the second architectural
organization. During this year, the profession of Architecture was given its first separate
statute with the enactment of Republic Act 545, " An Act to Regulate the Practice of Architecture in the Philippines."
A third organization of architects, called the Association of Philippine Government Architects
tAGPA) was formed in 1958 .
His excellency President Ferdinand Marcos issued PD 223 in June 1973 creating the profes
sional Regulation Commission !PAC) with the duty of regulating atl the professions and accrediting only one professional organization lo represent a profession .
Recognizing the need to formally integrate, the three architectural associations, APGA. LPA
and PIA each appointed three representatives to f9rm the Panel of Negotiators in May 1973
with the Board of Examiner for Architects as consultants.
One year later, the respective Board of Directors of the three organizations on Dec. 12, 1974
unanimously approved the constitution and By-Laws, and the Ad Hoc Commission was
authorized to sit as an Interim Board to administer, implement and coordinate the various ac
tivities of the new organization until the first regular Board of Directors and officers was duly
The new integrated society was called, the United Architects, of the Philiwt(les (UAP). And
became the first accredited professions\ organization when on~ay 12, 1 97~Jthe fRC issued
Certificate No. 001 to the UAP as the duly accredited professional organization for architects in
the Philippines.
In the process of consolidating all the documents of the three organizations, the UAP saw the
need to review and update them in order to be more responsive to the practice of the profession


in the Philippines. The first draft of the revised National Code was divfded into two divisions,

1 . Code of Ethical Conduct

-and -

2. Standards of professional Practice



1 . Pre-Design Services


Design Services
Specialized A llied Services
Construction Services
Post-Construction Services
Comprehensive Architectural Services
Design-Build Services
8. Selection of Archite.cts and Methods
of Construction
9. Competition Code

UAP Doc.
UAP Doc.
UAP Doc.
UAP Doc.
UAP Doc.
UAP Doc.
UAP Doc.


UAP Doc. 208

UAP Doc . 209

The Final form of the Architect's National Code was approved by the UAP National Board of
Directors and Professional. Regulation Commission for compliance by the practicing Architects
in the Philippines on July 2 1 , 1 9 7 9.

Vice Chairman

Felipe M . Mendoza, FUAP

Froilan L. Hong, CUAP
Otillo A. Areilano,' FUAP
Canchela, FUAP
Antonio S. Dimalanta, FUAP
Cristina R. Fugoso, UAP
Geronimo V. Manahan, UAP
Norberta M. Nuke, FUAP
Rebecca V. Tobia



The Architects of the Philippines, aware of the need of integrating the architectural profession
in order to better project the value and importance of the role of the architect in nation building
and public service, hereby adopt the following objectives:
a. To unite all registered architects of the Philippines.
b. To establish and promote the highest standards of ethical conduct and excellence ln the
practice and service of the architectural profession; .
c. To uplift the standards of architectural education, conduct researches, accumulate and
disseminate information and ideas in architecture, environmental design, ecology,
technology, culture and other related fields.
d. To cooperate and coordinate with other allied professions, trades and industry;
e. To participate in matters concerning national develo-pment of the country.
f. To cooper.ate_with the ~oard of Architecture and other government agencies:
g. To cooperate and coordinate with international organizations in the field of architecture, environmental design.and other fields of arts, science and technology; and


h. To render any lawful and appropriate assistance to any of its members .

1. CORPORATE MEMBERS- any duly registered architect in t he Philippines is qualified
to be a corporate member and thereby print after his name, the initials "UAP". Every
aorporate member shall be a UAP Chapter ort the basis of residence, place of work or
place relevant to his practice. He shall pay his yearly dues to be in good standing .
2. CHARTER CORPORATE MEMBER - All corporate members of the three organizations, APGA, LPA, PIA, who registered with the UAP on or before December 31,
1975. He shall have the right to a document evidencing his membership thereto,
receive and abide by this By-Laws, use and print after his name, the initials "CUAP".
representing " Chapter Member" UAP.
3 . FELLOW - any corpor~te memtMtr upon his formal bestowal of the title fellow shall
have the right to use and print after his name the initials "FUAP" representing
"Fellow, UAP."
a. Qualifications - corporate members, to qualify for nomination to fellowship must
have been in good standing with the UAP continuously for at least ten ( 1 Ol years
at the time of his nomination and must have rendered notable contribution to the
advancement of the architectural profession be it is design, construction, journalism, education or public service for which the jury fellows nominated him as
fellow and confirmed by three-fourths 13/4) affirmative vote of the National Board
of Directors in secret Ballot.
b. Nomination - this shall be made through a written-petition by at least twenty corporate members in good standing belonging to the same district signing as
nominators, or by a group of at least ten (10) Fellows in good standing excluding
the jury members .
c. Rights and Priveleges - Every corporate member who has been conferred
fellowship continues to enjoy all the rightsand priveleges of a corporate member,
but as a mark of distinction and honor has the privelege to use the title "Fellow",
print after his name the initials "FUAP" and wear his fellowship medallion at all
formal social functions of the UAP and the right to a diploma evidencing his
fellowship, to attend aJI meetings of the collegeof Fellows and set with the jury of
d. College of Fellows - The College of Fellows shall be composed of all corporate
members who hold the title of "FELLOW, UAP". Any corporate member, upon his
formal bestowed of the title "FUAP", automatically becomes a member of the
College of Fellows .

. e-. Likha Award - the highest distinction that may be bestowed by the National
Board. This award shall be given as a recognition of his having achieved the
highest standards of ethical conduct and excellence in the practice and service in
the different fields of the architectural practice and for his distinguished contribution Qnd service to the UAP organization and to his community, his government
and country.
4. MEMBER EMERITUS - a corporate member who has been in good standing, with the
association continuously for at least fifteen ( 15) years, and retires from the practice
of architecture. He shall continue to enjoy all the rights and priveleges of a corporate
member and has the privelege to use the titte "Member Emeritus" print after his name
the initials "EUAP", and Is exempt from the payment of all fees and dues.


5. HONORARY MEMBER - conferred upon any person who is not an architect, but who
is nominated by at least ten I 1Ol UAP Fellows in good stand ing, who has distinguished himself to be of high reputable character, has contributed and given special service
to the architectural profession, arts or allied sciences, journalism and public service, is
elected by the National Board of Directors oi the UAP upon recommendation oi the
committee on Membership as honorary member.


conferred upon foreign architects of high and

reputable character , who, having contributed to the advancement of the architectural
profession, is nominated by at least ten ( 1Ol corporate members in good standing and
elected by the National Board of Directors of the UAP.


The UAP shall levy initiation fee and annual dues as follows:

1 . Initiation Fee
2. Annual National Due

,. 40 .00
,. 150.00


The National Board of Directors shall be composed of seventeen ( 1 7 l members distributed as

follows: Five (5 ) di rectors at large and twelve { 12) directors are tepresenting the twelve
regional districts.

Bengu et- B~guio

2. Pangasinan-Dagupan
3. llocos Norte
4. !locos Sur

5. Abra
6. Batanes
7. Cagayan

8. lfugao
9. lsabela

10. Kalinga-Apayab
11. La Union
1 2. Mountain Pr ovince
1 3. Nueva Viscaya
14. Quirino

District II (Central luzon)

1 . Bataan
2. 8ulacan
3. Nueva Ecija

4. Pampanga
5. Tarlac
6. Zambales

District Ill
Area of the City of Manila North of Pasig River
District IV
Area of the City of Manila South of Pasig River
District V
Quezon City North of Quezon Boulevard and Don Mariano Marcos Avenue
District VI
Area of Quezon City South of Quezon Boulevard and Don Mariano Marcos Avenue
District VII
Area compromising Caloocan City and the municipalities of Valenzuela, Malabon, Navotas,
Marikina, Pasig, Mandaluyong, San Juan and Taytay, Rizal.


District VIII
Area comprising the City of Pasay and the municipalities of Makati. Paranaque. Las Pinas .
Muntinlupa, Tagu\g and Pateros.
District IX (Southern Tagalog and Bicol)
Areas comprising the provinces and cities in the Southern Tagalog and Bicol regions.
District X (Central and Eastern Visayas)
Areas comprising the provinces and cities in the islands of Cebu,-Bohol, leyte, Samar, and
Siquijor and the province of Negros Oriental.
District XI (Western Visayas)

Comprising the provinces of Iloilo. Capiz, Antique, and Negros Occidental.

District XII (Mindanao)
Comprising the provinces and cities in the islands of Mindanao Sulu, Basilan, Tawi-tawi
and Camiguin.

Nat\onal President, Vice President Operations, Vice President Programs and Development,
National Secretary and National Treasurer.

President, Vice President for Operations, Vice President for Programs and Development,
Secretary, Treasurer and two (2) directors.
The members of the Board of Directors shall serve for or.e I 1 I year starting on January 1st up to
December 31st of the Calendar year, or until their successors shall have been duly elected and
qualified. No member of the Board o f Directors sh.all hold office for more than three (3) consecutive terms.

al Committee on Private Pract\ce - This embraces the functions ot the following:

1 . Professional Practice

2. Ethics
3. General Welfare
4. Allied Profession
5. Competition
bl Committee on Governl')'lental and External Affairs following:

this e.mbraces the functions of the

Internal Affairs
National and Civic Affairs
Public Relations


c) Committee on Education - this embraces the functions of the following :



Architect's Continuing Education (ACE)

Pilipino Architectural legacies (PAL)
Academic Institutions

d) Committee on Internal Affairs - This embraces the functions of the following:

1 . Chapter Organizations
Ways and Means
G~neral Information



ACE is the acronym for Architect' s continuing.Education. It is a renewal process to prepare the architect for the comprehensive practice of architecture. The United Architects of the Philippines
(UAP} is undertaking this program which is designed to systematize the wealth of information. The
architect needs in his practice not only for today but for tomorrow.

Simply because it will prepare the architect to practice his profession with the highest level of competence. Architecture differs from the other major cut forms in that it is created in response to a
need. But the needs today and that of tomorrow differs from what the needs were a generation
ago. In this age of accelerated social and technological change, we must be ready to challenge the
corresponding changes in the profession. Therefore, the challenge posed is to study, understand,
anticipate and use change as an opportunity to further the values and objective of the profession,
and to increase its skill and effectiveness.
Enroll in the ACE program. The limited time available for formal
enroll in an academic institution.


inhibits the architect to

1. Complete a learning "module" (a standard unit of measure) by attending ten I 1OJ contact
hours spread in different sessions.
2. Submit a case study report forty five (45) days after the completion of the ten ( 10} contact
hours. This is a pre-requisite to this program .
3. A continuing Education Unit ICEUl is equivalent to ten

11 0) contact hours of participation.

4. Attendance and successful completion of the program is equivalent to one (1} CEU.
5. Reading materials will be distributed one w eek prior to the sessions (or given before 8
A.M . on the scheduled day)
The ACE program will be a roving educational package. From time-to-time, the educational package
will be brought to the regional center in the country. It will tie up with the leading educational institutions of the country to provide administrative support in collaboration with the regional
chapters of the United Architects of the Philippines. (In Metro Manila. it is usually held at the Eng'g
Center, U.P. Diliman, or at a five star hotel and la1ely at Ramon Magsaysay Bldg. at Roxas Blvd).

It depends on the venue and the lecture hours. However as of 1986. a one-day module would
cost 1'160.00 for a UAP Member which includes all handouts, two 121 snacks, lunch, Cer
tificate of Attendance and Certificate of Credits earned .



Project Development

Construction Administration
Project Feasibility Studies
Guiding Administration and Management
Energy Management in Buildings

Initial Environmental Examination (IEEl
Environmental Impact Statement lEIS)
Site Analysis & Climatology

Space Planning
Market Analysis
Process of Programming
Behavioral Consideration

Architectural Design Process

Urban Design & Community Architecture
Building Interiors
Landscape Design and Site Planning

Building Utilities
Building Materials
Construction Technology
Building Structures
Building Environment
Computer Aided Design
Structural Visualization for Architects
Architectural Engineering - Applied Structural Design


Cost Estimating
Cost Planning and Cost Control
Life Cost Analysis
Real Estate
Project Financing
Marketing Architectural Services
Office Administration
Architecture and Law
Educational Administration
Practical Specifications Writing


(As approved by the National Board in
Resolution 35-85 on March 23, 1985)
Rationale: Outlined below is the Restructured ACE Course Module arrived at after a rigid
strategic planning process designed to establish clearcut and well-defined interrelated
tasks in the profession of Architecture. It will serve as a framework for continuous and
efficient management of the program. It will also provide for the methodical and
systematic operations of the program.

The outline shows a broadscope perspective of the various areas in which all programs
can be derived and expanded. These programs, will then be subject to further development and adjustments, as the need arises.

101 Architect as a Designer

1011 Architectural
101 2 Interior Designer
1013 Landscape Designer

102 Architect as a planner

1021 Urban Planning
1022 Town Planning
1023 Community Planning
103 Architect as a Manager/Administrator
1031 Construction Manager
1032 Project Manager
1 033 Facility Manager
1034 Building Administrator
104 Architect as an Educator
105 Architect in Gov't Service
106 Architect as a Developer
107 Architect as Arbiter
108 Architect as a Contractor
109 Architect as a Businessman

2023 Programming
2024 Construction Cost Control
2025 Regulations Control

301 Presentation
3011 Rendering and Illustration
301 2 Model Making
302 Design Decision Making Process
3021 Project Program Planning
3022 Conceptual E:valuation
3023 Design Development Process
303 Cost Planning
3031 Budgetary Cost Planning
3032 Quantity Cost Planning
304 Design Documentation
3041 Working Drawings
3042 Specifications
305 Building Components
3051 Building Materials

201 Business Management

2011 Marketing
2012 Compensation Management
2013 Finance Management
2014 Personnel Management
2015 Insurance Management

306 Architectural Engineering

3061 Structural System
3062 Electrical System
3063 Mechanical System
3064 Sanitary System
3065 Fire Safety System
3066 Auxiliary System
3067 Energy Efficient System
3068 Acoustics
3069 Lighting System

202 Project Management

2021 Project Management Principles
2022 Budgeting & Scheduling

307 Tools and Aids

3071 Office Equipments
3072 Photography

110 Architect as a Researcher



401 Introduction Programs
4011 Computer Literacy
40 2 Appreci ation PrOQram s
4021 Effective Use of Micro
402 2 M aximum Use of M icro
403 Application Programs
403 1 Spreadsheets
4032 W ord Processing
4033 Data Base Manag ement

501 Leadership Dynamics

Architects Code
of Ethics
The Architect is engaged in a profession which carries with civic respon1 . STATEMENT:
sibilities towards the public, whether such responsibilities are the natural outcome of

good citizenship or of his professional pursuit or wh'ether they partake of informative and
educational matters or of his normal , good public relations .
a The Architect shall seek opportunities to be of constructive.service in civic and urban
affairs and to the best of his ability advance the safety, health and well-being of the
people and the community as well as the promotion, restoration or preservation of
the general amenities and other examples of historic and architectural heritage of the
b The Architect shall promote the interest of his professional organization and do his
full part of the work to enhance the objectives and services of the organization. He
should share in the interchange of technical information and experience with the
other design profession and the building industry.
c The Architect as a good citizen shall abide and observe the laws and regulations of
the government and comply with the standards of ethical conduct and practice of the
profession in the Philippines. He shall at no time act in a manner detrimental to the
best interest of the profession.
d The Architect shall not use paid advertisement nor use self-laudatory, exaggerated or
misleading publicity. However. the presentation of factual materials, verbal or vist1al.
of the aims , standards and progress of the profession through literature or by' in
dustrious application of his work and services which tend to dignify the professional
or advance public knowledge of .t he Architect's function in society may be presented
through any public communication media.
e The Architect shall not solicit nor permit to solicit in his name, advertisements or
other support towards the cost of any publication presenting his work. He should
refrain from taking part in paid advertisement endorsing any materials of construction or pui!ding equipment.

f The Architect shall .not mislead the public through advertisements, signs or printed
matter citing his professional specializations unless such qualifications are well
known facts or sanctioned by professional consensus and years of experience.



The Architect's relation to his Client is depended upon good faith . To insure the continued existence of such state of good relationship, the Architect' s position
carries with it certain moral obligations to his Client and to himself.
a The Architect may introduce to a prospective Client the professional services he is
able to perform provided it is limited to presentation of examples of his professional


experience and does not entail the offering of free preliminary sketches or other services without the benefit of an agreement with the Client for legitimate compensatior'l.
b The Architect shall acquaint or ascertain from the Client at the very inception of their
business relationsh_ip, the exact nature and scope of his services and the corresponding professional charges.
c The Architect shall advise a. Client against proceeding with any project whose practicability may be questionable due to financial. legal or arresting or exigent conditions , even if such advice may mean the loss of a prospective commission to the Architect.
d The Architect shall explain the conditional character of estimates other than
estimates submitted in the form of actual proposals by contractors and in no case
shall he guarantee any estimates or cost of the work. Neither shall he m islead his
Client as to probable cost of the work in order to secure a commission.
e The Architect shafl consider the needs and stipulation of his Client and the effects of
his work upon the life and well-being of the public and the community as a whole,
and to endeavor to meet the aesthetic and functional requirements of the project
commensurate with the Client's appropriation.
The Architect shall charge his Client for services rendered, a professional fee commensurate with the work involved and with his professional standing and experience
based upon the Basic Minimum fee prescribed under the "Standards of Professional
Practice" of the "Architect's National Code"
g The Architect shall not undertake, under a fixed contract sum agreement, the construction of any project based on plans prepared by him. He may in certain cases,
undertake the construction of a pl'oject even when the plans were pr.epared by him
provided it is undertaken in conformity with the conditions set forth under sections
covering "Construction Services" "Comprehensive Services" or "Design-Build Services" of the document on "STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE."
h The Architect shall be compensated for his services solely through his professional
fee charged directly to the Client. He shall not accept nor ask for any other returns in
whatever form from any interested source other than the Client.
The Architect shall be free in hi.s investments and business relations outside of his
profession from any financial or personal interests which tend to weaken and
discredit his standing as an unprejudiced and honest adviser. free to act in his
Client's best interests. If the Architect has any business interest which will relate to,
or affect the interest of his Client! he should inform his Client of such condition or
situation .
The Architect shall include in his agreement with the Client a clause providing for
arbitration as a method for settlement of disputes.


STATEMENT: The Contractor depends upon the Architect to safeguard fairly his
interests as well as those of the Client.
a The Architect shall give the Contractor every reasonable aid to enable him to tully
understand the contents of the Contract Documents by furnishing clear, definite and


consistent information in all ~tinent contract documents to avoid unnecessary

mistakes that may involve extra costs to the Contractor.
b The Architect shall not knowingly call upon the Contractor to correct or remedy oversights or errors in the Contract Documents to the Contractor's financial disadvantage.
c The Architect shall immediately upon his personal knowledge Qnd inspection, reject
or condemn materials, equipment or workmanship which are not in conformity with
the Contract Documents in ordernot to cause unnecessary delay and additional ~x
pense to the Contractor.
d The Architect shall not, at any time or circumstance, accept free engineering ser
vices, or receive any substantial aid, gifts, commissions, or favors from any Contractor or sub-contractor which will tend to place him under any kind of moral obligation.
e The Archi.tect shall upon request by the Contractor promptly inspect each phase of
the work completed and if found according to the terms of the Contract Documents
issue the :;orresponding Certificates of Payment and the Final Certificate of Completion, respectively, to the Contractor.




An exchange of technical information between Architects end those who

supply and handle building materials or equipment is necessary and therefore encouraged
and commended. However;
a The Architect shalt not avail or make use of engineering or other technical services
offered ~y manufacturers, or suppliers of building materials or equipment which may
be accompanied by an obligation detrimental to the best interest of the Client or
which may adversely affect the Architect's professional opinion.
b The Architect shall not at any time receive commissions, discounts, fees, gifts or
favors from agents or firms handling building materials or .equipment which may
place him in a reciprocal frame mind. He may however, accept market discounts
which shall be credited to the Client.




STATEMENT: The Architect has moral responsibilities towards his profession, his colleagues and his subordinates.
a The Architect shall not render professional services, without compensation except
for small civic or charity projects. He shall neither offer nor provide pre!iminary ser~
vices on a conditional basis prior to definite agreement with the Client for the com~
mission of the project .
b The Architect shall not knowingly compete w\th other Architects on the basis of dif
terence of professional charges, nor use donation as a device for obtaining com~
petitive advantage for worthy civic or religious projects. Neither shall he submit solicited or unsolicited sketches or drawings in competition with other Architects

2 18

unless such competitive arrangements are conducted substantially under the

of the UAP Architectural Competition Code.


c The Architect shall not under any circumstances nor through any means seek commissions already known to him as previously endowed to another Architect, whether
such endowment has been definitely agreed upon or still in the process of negoatiation.
d The Architect shall not, in any case, enter as a competitor in any Architectural Competition when he has direct relations with the formulation of the Program thereof or
when he has been engaged to act as Professional Adviser or Juror for such competition. Neither shall the Architect accept and act as professional adviser or juror in any
architectural competition when he has had any information or has reviewed or
assisted in the preparation of any competition design entered. Nor shall an Architect,
retained as professional adviser in a competition, accept employment as an Architect
for that competition project except as Consulting Architect.
e The Architect shall not undertake a commission for which he knows another Architect has been previously employed until he has notified such other Architect of the
fact in writing and has conclusively determined that the original employment has
been terminated and has been duly compensated for.
f The Architect shall not undertake a commission for additions, rehabilitation or
remodeling of any erected structure undertaken previously by another Architect
without duly notifying him of the contemplated project even when the Owner is no
longer the same. When the greater mass, area or design of the original structure is
substantially maintained the new Architect should limit his advertisement or claim
only to the extent .o f the work done to the structure. Architects are enjoined to
preserve or restore as much as possible especially the few and remaining historic examples of our architectural heritage affecting this phase of practice.
g The Architect shall not knowingly injure falsely or maliciously, the professional
reputation, prospects or practice of another Architect.
h The Architect shall refrain from associating himself with or allowing the use of his
name by any enterprise of doubtful character or integrity.
The Architect shall not affix his signature and seal to any plans or professional
documents prepared by otper persons or entities not done under his direct personal
The Architect shall inspire the loyalty of his employees and swbordinates by providing
them with suitable working conditions, requiring them to render competent and efficient services and paying them adequate and just compensation therefore. He shall
tutor and mentor the young aspirants towards the ideals, functions, duties and
responsibilities of the profession.
k The Architect shall unselfishly give his share in the interchange of technical information and experience among his colleagues and young aspirants and do his part in
fostering unity in the fellowship of the profession.
He shall unselfishly give his time and effort to the advancement of the profession thru
his active and personal commitment and involvement with the accredited professional organization for Architects.


Selection of the Architect

and Methods of
There are three (3) basic methods of selection available to

a client seeking the services of an

1 . Direct Selection is most often used by an individual person undertaking a relatively

small project.

2 . Comparative Selection is most often employed by committee representing institutions.

' corporations or public agencies.

3. Design Competitions are frequently used for Civic or monumental projects and
prestigious private buildings.
In this method, the client selects his Architect on the basis of:

1. Reputation

2. Personal acquaintance or Recommendation of a friend.

3. Recommendation of a former client
4. Recommendation of another architect
In essence. one Architect is compared with others and the client makes a selection based
upon his judgment of which firm is most qualified for the successful execution of his
Usually, a system is established whereby architectural firms must first qualify for an inter
view by submitting information describing their iirms. The client reviews these submis
sions and determines that perhaps six or seven might best serve his needs. Represen
tatives of these firms are then asked to present personally the qualifications of their
organizations at an interview session.
1 . The Architect is usually given the opportunity to explain his background and particular

qualifications for the project under consideration and his approach to the proposed
project. He is then asked to respond to questions from the selection committee.

2. It is customary for the following information to be solicited from the Architect:

a. Date of organization of the firm
':> . References from former clients and from some financial institutions.
c. Number of Technical staff members
d. Ability to undertake the project under consideration with due recognition of other
work in the office.

e. A list of similar projects built in recent years covering such points as:
project cost - - - - Efficiency factors such as square meter costs , per pupil costs for
schools, per car costs for parking garages, or per patient costs for hospitals --------unique solutions to pr ior commissions - - - - - Names of consultants normally used
for servkes not provided by the Architect himself.
3. The selection committee established by the Client may consist of experience laymen;
it may have on it representatives of other professions or the construction industry
and it may include other concerned persons w ith related expertise, including Architect s and Engineers.
The Archi tect should attempt to ascertain the composition of the selection committee so that his pfesentation can be given at the appropriate technical level. He should
also learn il) advance the general scope of the project and the location of the site.
This information should be readily available from the prospective client.

4. After the selection committee has interviewed each of the applicants, checked
references and possibly visited actual buildings designed by each Architect, it forms
its opinion of the most capable firm and then undertakes the negotiations of the
Owner-Archi tect agreement and the compensation to be paid for architectural services.

5. The client, in order to be prepared for this negotiation, may undertake an inquiry into
the method s .of compensation used for similar projects.

6. The Architect should be prepared to discuss the nature of the compensation. He

should be able to explain to the client the scope of services of the Architect and the
minimum Basic Fee. as prescribed by the Architect's National Code, which is mandatory.
Throughout each discussion, the Client must remember that the purchasing professional services, that the cost of these professional services is very minor compared
to the total cost of his contemplated project, and that often more extensive architectural services can resul t in th.e lowest total project cost. The client is buying personal
services and expertise and should not be misled by the lure of the lowest compensation amount.

7. It is important for the Architect to be aware of the standards of Ethical Practice, concerning solicitation of a Client when another Architect has been retained for a project. An attempt to supplant another Architect who is in the process of negotiating
for a commission should be viewed as detrimental to the selection process .

8. The client, while obviously interested in retaining a firm which has done similar types
of projects. should be aware that many firms have done outstanding projects in their
first attempt in a field, in which they have had little or no experience. Similarly, many
young and/or small firms have been known to do outstanding work and should be
given serious consideration.

9. Some other factors which should be considered in retaining an Architect include h is

ability to establish realistic construction costs and his success in producing a design
within that framework; his ability to maintain.. as appropriate time schedule and his
success in administering construction contracts.

10. Of interest to some clients is the number of technical employees who will be assigned to their projects. With work of significant magnitude, size of the technical staff
plus the staff of consultants is extremely important: Execution of multi-million dollar
projects in a limited span of time requires a significant concentration of capable
technical employees.



Design competitions are based on the process whereby various architectural firms submit
solutions to a particular problem and are judged on the comparative excellence of their
submissions as evidence of their imagination and skill. The successful architect is then
awarded the design of the actual project. Competitions offer many advantages to both the
Architect and the Owner.


a. firms might not otherwise be considered for the project are encouraged to compete for
the commission.
b. In particular, the opportunity to compete tor a commission is offered to those young
firms or those not previously having extensive experience w ith the type of project
under consideration but are willing to spend the time necessary to enter the competition.

a. Although some competitions have resulted in the construction of outstanding
buildings; some have produced disastrous results.
b. The client contemplating the selection of ~n Architect by this means, should discuss
this matter with other organizations who have conducted similar competitions so that
he is well aware of the pros and cons. This method of selection is usually the most -expensive and time consuming and, for these reasons. its use generally limited to very
large or historically important civic or commercial projects.
If a client is considering conducting a design competition, he shou\d first seek the
assistance of the UAP or one of its local components. UAP Qoc. 209 competition Code
sets forth the procedures under which such competitions should be held, with a view
toward producing the most satisfactory selection of an Architect.
One of the first steps will be the selection of a Registered Architect as the professional Adviser. He assists the client, writes the program, advises on the choice of the jury, answers
questions, and conducts the competition so that all competitors receive equal treatment,
and so that strict anonymity is observed to the end that neither the OWNER, the Advisor,
nor the jury will be aware of the identity of the author of any design until after the jury
makes its report.
At least a majority of the jury is composed of practicing Architects and the jury examines
the rates and completion drawings. The drawings are as few in number and as small in
scale as will express the general design of the building . The program specifies the limits of
the cubical contents or square meter area and the total construction costs. Normally,
the program must include a guaranteed contract on usually acceptable terms between the
OWNER and the Architect selected by the jury, assuring that the winner of the competitions will be offered the assignment as Architect.
Special provisions to substitute for this requirement are made for public Owners. Adequate cash prizes to compensate for the costs of submitting the drawings must be
assured to a reasonable number of competitors. In addition to the prizes, fees and expenses should
paid fo the advisor and to the members of the iurv. A considerable variation is possible in the size, complexity, and objectives on design competitions.




The experienced Architect knows that a fair margin of profit in the practice makes it easier
to serve the client's interest more effectively. Furthermore, the work of a successful
Architect enhances the images and reputation of t he profession.
The criteria for computing the Architect's compensation should be based on mutual
evaluatioK of the amount of the architectural firm's talents, skill, experience, imagination,
effort, and time available for. and reQuired by the project.
The Method of Compensation should:
1 . Be fair to the Architect in that it should permit him to recover his costs and net him an
adequate profit, provided he is reasonably effiCient.

2. Be fair to the Client and the Architect by (eflecting the value of the Architect's ser
3. Be flexible to protect the Architect from cost increases because of changes or the
scope of the commission.
4. Not create legal problems for the Arch itect.
5. Encourage the client to be cooperative and supportive.
6. Provide incentive for the Architect to produce the highest design quality.
7. Be easy to understand and simple to use.
8 . Provide a basis for the client to predetermine his costs for architectural services, and
be otherwise acceptable
. to. him.
9. Encourages the Architect to develop a solution which w ill result in the lowest possi
ble construction cost consistent w ith t he client's requirements.
1 0. Not focus the Client's attention on "PRICE" but rather on the quality and perfor
mance of the Architect's services.
11 . Protect the Architect against the rising costs. of providing services during the course
of a commission.
This method is fair to both the client and the Architect as the fee is pegged to the cost of
the projec t the client is willing to undertake . The amount of the percentage is related to
the size and the type of the Project.
It is flexible and easy to apply since if there will be changes, additions or deductions of the
work demanded by the Project or required b~' the Client, the Owner-Architect Agreement .
need not be supplemented.
This cost-based method of compensation is applicable only to non-creative work such as
accounting, secretarial, research, data gathering, supervision, preparation of reports and
the like. This method of compensation based on technical hour expended does not ac
count for creative work because the value of a creative design cannot be measured by the
length of time the designer has spent on his work.
This mett)od may therefore be applied only on pre-Design Services, Supervision work and
other works which the Architect may perform other than the Regular and Specialized


Allied Design Services. The completion is made by adding all costs of Technical services
(man-hours x rate) and multiply it by a multiplier which range from 2 to 2.5 to take care of
o'verhead and profit. This multiplier depends on the office set-up, overhead and experience of the Architect and the complexity of the Project .
Other items such as cost of transportation, living and housing allowances of foreign consultants, outof-town living and housing allowances of local consultants , and the like, are
to be charged to the client and reimbursed to the Architect. At the start of the commission, the Architect shall make known to the client the rate of professionals and personnel
who will be assigned to the Project and .the multiplier that has to be applied before agreeing to this method of computation.
Assume: A


Architect's rate/hour
Consultant's rate/hour
Rate per hour of Technical Staff, researchers and otMrs involved in
the project.

N 1 , N2 , N3

Number of hours spent by Architect, Consultants and Technical Staff

Multiplier from 2 to 2.5
Reimbursible expenses such as transportation, housing and living
allowance of foreign consultants, per diem, transportation, housing
and living allowance of local consultants and Technical Staff if assigned to a place over 100 km . from area of operation of the Architect;

Cost of printing of extra sets of drawings, reports, maps, contract

documents, etc. over the five (5) copies submitted to the client;
overseas and long distance telephone calls; Technical and laboratory
tests; licenses, fees and taxes, etc. needed by the project.




+ TN3

Direct Cost x Multiplier

Total Cost of
Service Charged


To the Client
This method of compensation, frequently used where there is a continuing relationship on
a series of projects. It establishes a fixed sum over and above reimbursement for the Architect's Technical time end overhead. An agreement on the general scope of the work is
necessary in order to set an equitable fee.
Some governmental agencies sometimes requests a form of contract which establishes a
fixed sum for architectural and engineering services .
The disadvantage of this method is that it represents a risk situation to the Architect,
since his costs may exceed the agreed amount. Secondly, as there are often changes
made by the Client either during the design or construction stages it adds cost not only to
the construction but also to the work of the Architect. This will mean that for every
change in the work, the Architect end the client will have to supplement their contract to
stipulate the additional fee and time involved:


In the bureaucratic system of the government this will entail more paper work and timeconsuming efforts on computations, haggling of the tee for extra work and arduous proces-sing for the approval oi the supplementary work within the dient' s agency and the
Auditing agency.


In some cases a client may request an Architect to do work which w1h require his personal
time such as:
a. Attend board meetings or conferences
b. Occu!ar inspection of possible sites
c . Confer with others regarding prospective


or ventures and the like.

For these particular activities. the Architect may be paid on a per diem basis plus out-ofpocket expenses such as travel, accomodations and subsistence, long-distance telephone

calls, secretarial service, etc.


Architects and Engineers form the basis tor the design professions assisted by helper personnel
of varied experience and skills. The ARCHITECT functions as the coordinator of the building
process; he designs the structure; is responsible for the drawings and specifications, employ
the consulting engineers or others who work as consultants, is the general administrator of the
construction, and provides opportunities for assistance with many related problems that may
arise. Architects must pass a rigid examination in various fields including structural, mechanical
and electrical, as well as design and drawing, in order to be registered and legally use the title
The combination of architect and his own office personnel, plus the engineer-consultant and
his office force, plus any special consultants, usually forms the design team. With this combination, the architect provides the expertise to plan the project and to develop the construction documents (working drawing and specifications).
The STRUCTURAL ENGINEER calculates the structural requirements, the MECHANICAL
ENGINEER designs the air conditioning, and ventilation and heating system, the SANITARY
ENGINEER designs the plumbing systems, the ELECTRICAL ENGINEER designs the electric
loadings and wiring systems. With many offices, the specifications are also "farmed out" to a
CONSULTANT, such as unusual requirements for food service, material handling, acoustics,
and other specialized needs . .As the Architect is most often the prime mover in. this process,
with a direct contract with the client, he is also ~esponsible for the quality of all work issued .
from his office including all work done by those also act as consultants to him .
Obviously, the architect or engineer cannot normally produce all the required documents by
himself, so he is assisted by other technical personnel. Designers, Draftsman, Estimators,
Landscape Architects. Decorators, or Artists.
Not often considered a part of the design team are hundreds of clerical personnel who also are
necessary to complete any project. Almost any office must have several typ.i sts, perhaps a
receptionist, a bookkeeper, a librarian, and secretaries, all trained in specific expertise. Nonskilled. employees include "Office Boys" , trainees, and general help in the reproduction rooms.
In an. office that customarily includes additional services, there are planners, economic experts,
real estate and Title personnel. legal assistants, and so on.


The construction forces of all sorts thread through the construction field in a manner similar to
t he b lood stream in a living being. The major arteries are the General Contractors. supplied by
many contractors, who in turn are supplied by a myriad of material suppliers. In every phase
there are hundreds and thousands of individual, Trade-craft mechanics, Salesmen and
representatives . The entire process requires utmost coordination . The general contractor
usually has the prime contract but occasionally some sub-contractor, mechanical or electrical
perhaps, with a large portion of the project work, may be termed the prime contractor. A prime
contract is one of the agreement between the owner and any contractor . In normal construction procedures, the numerous sub-contractors are not prime contractors since they usually
have a contract with a general contractor, who has the prime contract w ith t he Owner.
The Philippines have requirements for licensing of contractors . The agency in charge is the
PCAB or Philippine Contractors Accreditation Board. Contractors are classified as:
a) Engineering - licensed to do civil engineering work, roads. dams, irrigation systems,
and the like.
b) General Building - licensed to construct almost any type of building project.
c) Specialty Contractors - one with specific expertise in a limited f ield such as plumber,
painter, electrician, roofers, waterproofers, and other who normally work as " subs"
for a prime contractor.
The term Contractor is also known as Builder or Constructor. The Licensed Contractor is also
categorized depending on his length of experience, projects made, equipment owned and
financial capability as follows:
Category "A"

very large and complex projects

Category "A"
Category " B"
Category "C"

large projects
medium large projects
medium size projects

small projects
Category " D''
Specialty Contractors - indicate expertise, such as waterproofing and painting
The building trades such as mechanics, carpenters, welders, masons, steelmen, roofers,
painters, electricians, plumbers, and many others are also necessary for the construction of a
project . Many tradesmen are represented on a project but have little direct contact with the
architect or engineer. They are employed by the c ontractor or sub-contractor .
Every mat~rial or processes must have a starting point and this is the function of the manufacturer. Many of the raw materials are of such a nature that the architect may have only slight
contact w ith their producers. Most of the direct contacts that an architect has with material
producers is through the MANUFACTURER'S REPRESENTATIVE who periodically c alls upon
the architect. These very capable people know all about their own companies products. advantages, disadvantages, costs, availability and similar factors. In addition, most good representatives are also familiar with their competition.
The manufacturer's "rep" should be very important to the AiE and usually Is. Catalogs, data
sheets, samples, technical knowleldge and other valuable information is provided through this
individual. Most ~ reps" visit AlE offices on some schedule which may vary from as often as
weekly to as seldom as once per year. These visits are greatly influence by office locat ion,
amount and type of work the office handles, product manufactured. and the en efgy or interest
of the manufacturer's representative. Some AlE offices have definite times when they will talk
to manufacturer's "reps" and usually have closer relations~ips with some than with others. A

good relationship, however, is usually very beneficial to the A/E, since it provides a valuable in
formation source.
Fabri cators may be classed by some as the .same as manufacturers, however, there j s a little
difference. Manufacturers usually produce a single materials or a group of materials in the same
general area. With some of the very large companies there may be several of these groups,
each with a number of related products also, but their products are a combination of materials
from a number of sources. They too may have representatives similar to major manufacturers
of raw materials and their "reps" operate in a similar manner . To the A /E there is little dif
terence since either or both may be providing materials for a project that the A/E has in the planning stage or under construction.
Still further along the product line is the local materials distributor. These firms normally represent a number of manufacturers and handle several related products. Subcontractors buy their
supplies from such firms when quantities or other circumstances make it uneconomical to purchase directly from the manufacturer. While t he distributor is vitally interested in sales, and the
A/E actually buys very linle, good contact with a local distributor may provide good information
as to availability, cost, or related problems. Occasionally such contacts may even lead to new

The Building Official, who shall be appointed by and under the direct supervision of the Minister
of the Ministry of Public Works, shall be primarily responsible for the enforcement of the provisions of the National Building Code of the Philippines (P.O. 1 096) as well as the Implementing
Rules and Regulations issued therefor.
He shall have overall administrative control and/or supervision over all work pertinent to
building within his area of responsibility and shall have direct charge of processing of all building permit applications on the basis of land-u se and architectural , structural and geodetic {line
and grade), sanitary and plumbing, electrical, mechanical and fire as w ell as other standard requirements, rules and regulations promulgated in accordance with the National Building Code.
He shall review and evaluate the design, plans and programs with the corresponding specifications, estimates and other necessary building documents of all building projects under his
He shall inspect the construction, repair, addition, renovation and/or demolition of all buildings

in accordance with the National Building Code and approved Land-Use or Master Development
Plan of the City or Municipality and shall have the right to enter into any building, building site,
or its surrounding premises and into any new or unoccupied building or building complex. The
owner of said building or building complex and building site, shall be duly informed of the findings and recommendations by the Building Official within a reasonable period of time.
The inspections are simply to assure that the actual construction is in accordance with the approved construction documents. After construction has been completed, an additional check is
required and a permit of occupancy especially of living accomodations is enforced.

In addition to building official' s checking, there may be quite a number oi others that need to
review and approve construction documents. Fire departments check the fire code requirements. There 6s also the new Environmental control organizations to check the conditions
on the effect of pollutions. etc. and of course for any other factors that may affect the health or
safety of the publ ic.
Deed restrictions, usually written by the original land developer, control such thing as minimum
area of floor space, type of roofing, or wall surfaces, fences and even landscape work. The
restrictions go with the purchase of the land and usually are enforced by a committee of people
selected by local property owners.


Planning Commissions or departments review documents for compliance or conflict with

predetermined area planning and may issue pefmits or variances as occasion requires. The NHA
or National Housing Authority is the construction agency of the Ministry. It is responsible for
undertaking housing development and resettlement and for prescribing guidelines and standards for the reservation, conservation, and utilization of public lands identified for housing and

In addition to those actually engaged in various phases of the construction of a project there are
many others "behind the scenes" who are vital to the industry. These are so-called support
operations. They include financial, real estate, insurance, economic surveys. topographic
surveys, testing end a possible tong list of others.
Financing of a project is seldom accomplished by tote\ "cold cash'' supp\ied by the owner.
Even with tax-supported projects it is often necessary to supply construction money by them
than "cold cash". Banks and savings and loan organizations lend money by mortgage on the
property savings accounts which they lend at a profit. Savings and loan organizations obtain
their money by reinvesting in real property via the loan plus Interest route. Some financial
organizations or real estate firms also make sources who wish to earn more interest than is
generally possible through other investments. Insurance companies and similar organizations
also have money to lend through various channels so they are also in the financial business
related to construction.
The matter of finances actually controls almost any project. Fjrst there is a construetion budget
that the A/E firm must meet and by which the contractor's bid is judged. Quite often, even
before the Al E or contraCtor enters the picture, the financier may have made some commitment
to the owner. During construction it is not unusual for payments to be made to the contractor
by a voucher system from the lender, and of course a large ma}ority of construction, especially
residential, is financed by long-term mortgages. The phrase "money talks" is certainly true in
the construction field, but perhaps "money controls'' should be substituted instead.
Insurance companies, in addition to being a possible sources for financing, are interested in,
and can advise on, various materials that may influence insurance premiums after the project is
constructed. In some cases, primarily industrial projects, the new plant is planned with the
same cere in regafd to insurance requirements as it receives in regard to building code requirements. Perhaps a less obvious relationship is that of the casualty insurance carried by the
architect, engineer, and contractor. In most states some state-sponsored or approved insurance is mandatory even if the firms involved do not think such coverage necessary. Another
contact by the A/E with the insurance company may be in connection with his own errors-and
omissions insurance, or with processing of contractor's bonds If the cQntractor has trouble in
completing .the project properly.
Real estate organizations of several types may also be involved. In relation to smaller projects
the real estate contract may be only for completion of purchase of a parcel of property and the
proper processing of the deed by title insurance or abstract. In some cases the reaJ estate firm
is engaged in finding the right property wi~hin parameters established by the owner. In a few
cases larger real estate firms are the owners and developers. And in some office building projects the real estate organization carries considerable weight in decisions which may affect
their handling of leases for space. Some real estate firms are also directly or indirectly involved
with management or building construction projects. Very few A/E firms are directly involved as
actual real estate operators, although several may be Indirectly Involved by their members also
belonging to land development firms.
Developer organizations ere involved in all the facets of the construction process. Such
organizations buy the land, plan the development, provide construction documents, build the
project, sell the project, and perhaps continue as managers or at least as advisors. They either
have all of the personnei and facilities "in-house" or they operate as brokers and employ firms
with the desired expertise.


Project Classification
Architectural work varies in complexities and in the creative skill required to successfully meet
the requirements of the client w it hin the constraints of the technical, functional, economic,
aesthetic and other considerations. The following groups of buildings are attempts to classify
design projects in accordance with the degree of complexity of each project.
The architect's fee includes the normal structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary, and
mechamcal engineering services and is determined by getting the percentage indicated in the
scheoule of Fees and multiplying it w ith the Project Construction Cost.


Group- 1
Structures of simplest , utilization character which are without c omplication of design or detail
and require a minimum of fini sh, structural , mechanical and electrical desig n.
Farm struct u res
Freight facilities
Industrial buildings
Manufacturing/Industrial plants
Packaging and processing plants

Parking structures
Printing plants
Public Markets
Service garages
Simple loftt ype struct ures
Other similar utilization types of buildings




50 Million and less .................. ............ ............ .

Over tt 50 Million t o I' 100 M illion ....... Million ..... . .

6 Percent


100 Million to~ 200 M illion

1' 5, 50 0 ,0 00 plus 4 percent of

excess of

Over I' 200 Million to Jl' 500 Million

I' 9 ,500,000 plus 3 percent of

excess of Ill 200 Million

Over ft 500 Million to Jl' 500 Million

,. 9 , 500,000 plus 3 perce nt of

excess of Ill 200 M illion
I' 1 8 , 500,000 plus 2 percent of
excess of ,. 500 M illion
ft 28,500,000 plus 1 percent of

Over Jl' 500 Million to 1' 1 Billion . ... ......... .... .......... ..
Over P 1 Billion

I' 3 ,000,000 plus 5 percent of

excess of 1' 50 Million

excess of P 1 Billion

Group- 2

Structures of moderate complexity of design requiring a moderate amount of structural,

mechanical and electrical design and research
Art galleries
Banks, Exchange and
other financial
Bowling Alleys
Churches and Religious
City HaHs
College buildings
Convents, Monasteries and Seminaries
Correctional and Detention Institutions
Court Houses
Exhibition Halls and Display structures
Fire Stations
Motels and Apartels
Multi-storey apartments

Nursing Homes
Office Buildings
Park, playground and open-air
recreational facilities
Police Stations
Post Offices
Private Clubs
Publishing Plants
Race tracks
Retail Stores
Shopping centers
Specialty shops
Welfare Buildings

And other structures of similar nature or use



P 50 Million and less ......................................... .

7 Percent

Over P 50 Million to P 100 Million ..................... ..

P 3,500,000 plus 6 percent

of excess of P 50 Million

Over II' 100 Million to II 200 Million

P 6,500,000 plus 5 percent of

excess of P 100 Million

Over P 200 Million to P 500 Million

P 11,500,000 plus 4 percent of

excess of P 200 Million

Over P 500 Million to P 1 Billion

P 23,500,000 plus 3 percent of

excess of P 500 Million

Over P 1 Billion ................................................ .

P 38,500,000 plus 2 percent of

excess of P 1 Billion

Group- 3

Structures of exceptional character and complexity of design or requiring comparatively large

amounts of structural, mechanical and electrical design and research.
Atomic facilities
Cold storage facilities
Communications buildings
Convention Halls

Medical Office facilities & Clinics
Mental Institutions
Public Health Centers
Research facilities


Hospitals and Medical buildings


Theaters and similar facilities

Veterinary Hospitals

And other structures of similar nature or use



P 50 Million and less ................ ; ........................ .

Over P 50 Million to P 1 00 Million .... ... ..... .......... .

8 percent
. P 4 ,000 ,000 plus 7 percent of
excess of P 50 Million
P 7,500,000 plus 6 percent of
excess of P 100 Million
P 13,500,000 plus 5 percent of
excess of P 200 Million
P 28 , 500,000 p lus 4 percent of
excess of P 500 Million
P 48, 500,000 plus 3 percent of

Over P 100 Million to P 200 Million ................... ..

Over P 2 00 Million P 1 Billion .......... .. .............. .. .
Over P 500 Million to P 1 Billion .. ..... .. ...... ... ....... .
Over P 1 Billion ............................................... ..

excess of P t Billion

Group - 4
Residences (Single Detached or Duplex), small apartment houses and town houses.

10 percent of Project Construction

Minimum Basic Fee


Group- 5
Monumental buildings and other facilities requiring consumate design skill and much precise
Exposition and Fair Buildings
Mausoleums , Memorials Monuments
Minimum Basic Fee .. .. ...................... ... .

Group -

Specialized decorative bulldings

And structures of similar nature or use

1 2 percent of Projec t Construction Cost

Repetitive Construction of Building

When the design of the Architect is used again tor the repet itive construction of similar structures. without amending the drawing and the specifications, the Architect's fee is computed as
First Structure ...... ................................ ... ...... ..
Second Structure ........................................... .
Third Structure ............. .. .............. .. ................ .
Succeeding structure

Group - 7

Minimum Basic Fee

80% of Basic Fee
60% of Basic Fee
40% of Basic Fee

Housing Projects

When the Architect ia engaged to undertake a HOUSING PROJECT involving the construction
of several residential units on a single site with the u~e of one basic plan and specifications, the
MINIMUM FEE chargeable thereunder. shall conform with the following:


First Unit . .. ............. .. .. .. .. ...... ... .... .. ... ..

1 0 Percent of the Const ruction Cost of

one unit as Basic Fee

From two to ten units .... .... ..... .. .......... ..

Fee of one unit plus 60% of Bas ic Fee tor

each additional unit

Eleven units and above .... .. ........ .......... .

Fee for 1 0 units plus 30% of Basic Fee for

each additional unit.

Group - 8
Projects involving extensive detail such as furniture design, built-in equipment, special f ittings,
screens, counters, interiors and other detailed. parts of appurtenances of buildings or structures
and landscaping designs.
Minimum Basic Fee ... ...... ................... ..

1 5 Percent of Project Construction Cost

Group- 9
For alterations and additions of existing structures belonging to Group 1 to 5 enumerated
above, compensation for services should be increased by 50 percent or a total of 1 50 percent
of the Basic Fee.

Group -

10 Consultations and Arbitrations

Where the Architect is engaged to render opinion or gi ve advise, clarifications or explanation on

technical matters pertaining to his profession, the Minimum Fee chargeable thereunder shall
not be less than Two Hundred Pesos (P200.00) * per hour subject to increase depending on the
extent and coverage of service required. When rendering service as an expert witness, the Architect's Fee shall not less than Five Hundred Pesos {P500.00)* per appearance irrespective of
whether the scheduled hearing took place or not.
"All references to f ixed amount shall refer to the value of the Peso as of November 1979. Adjustment of the price shall be made at the t ime of the contract .


Spectrum of the
The Spectrum of the Architect's services extends over the entire range of activities that proceed from the time the idea is conceived, perfected , transformed into sets of spacei des ign requirements, translated into str~cture through design, built used and become a permanent
feature of the man-made environment.
The Architect's services consist of the necessary conferences, deliberations, discussions,
evaluations, investigation s. consultations, advise on matters affecting the scientific , aesthetic
and orderly coordination of all the process of safeguarding life, health and property which enter
into the production of different levels and sophistications of man-made structures and environment.
The entire range of the Architect's services are divided into seven (7\ ma)or services as follows:
1 . PRE-DESIGN SERVICES .................... ................ ........ .. .
This include Architectural Programming , Feasibility, study ,
site study, cost effectiveness study and others.

UAP Doc 201

2. DESIGN SERVICES ............. ... .................................... .

UAP Doc. 202

The Architect's Regular Services

3. SPECIALIZED ALLIED SERVICES ..... ...... ................ ...... .

UAP Doc. 203

This include Planning, Interior, landscaping, Acoustics,

communications and Electronic Engineering .
4 . CONSTRUCTION SERVICES ... ..... .. ...... ......... .... ......... ..

UAP Doc. 204

Full-time supervision, construction Management.

5. POST CONSTRUCTION SERVICES .............................. ..

UAP Doc. 205

Buildings and Grounds Administration


UAP Doc. 206

Project Management Service

7. DESIGN-BUILD SERVICES ......................................... ..

UAP Doc. 207

Administering the Construction.

DOC. 201


There are many instances where the Architect is called upon by the client to perform services
other than purely architectural or designing services. For the Architect to effectively assist and
serve his client in Pre-design services, special training will be required leading to a broad
background in real estate, finance, business, taxation, human behavior, space programming,
and others, to supplement the architect's sk.ilt as a researcher, space activities organizer, coordinatOf and manager of the various activities of professionals and tradesmen.

It would not be expected however, that the architect would actually perform services in all
such fields, but rather~ he would act as the agent of his client in producing some of the
necessary services that he and his staff cannot provide . It is his task to coordinate these ser-


vices so that acting for his client, he can retain the degree of control and coordination of activities necessary to assure the client of a more unified result.
The several activities that fall under the pre-design services are as follows:

1 . Economic Feasibility Studies. A study to determine the viability of a project such as

its cost of development versus its potential return to the Owner. A detailed costbenefit analysis can guide the client and the architect in selecting a more viable alternative plan. (See page 426)

Architects assist in the determination of requirements of lending agencies, incomeexpense relationship and relative demand for different building types in actual financing negotiations.

Investigating, identifying and documenting the needs of the client for use in the
design of the project.


Assisting the client in locating sites for the proposed project and evaluating their adequacy with regards to topography, subsurface conditions, utilities, development
costs, climate. population. legal considerations and other factors.
A detailed analysis of the site to develop its potential through the proper utilization of

Analysis of the space requirements of the project based on organizational structure
and functional set-up. One method is to use human behavior and transaction analysis
to pinpoint Linkages and interactions of spaces. The services cover space use and
space character analysis, work station and space module design and a space program
to serve as basis for architectural design.

In some cases, the project would require promotional activities in order to generate
financial support and acceptance from governing agencies or from the general public.
The Architect with his own staff. can accomplish many of these activities including
preparation of promotional designs, drawings, brochures and the like. As the agent of
the Owner, the Architect can produce and coordinate the additional activities
necessary to complete the services.


The Architect's services for the Pre-Design Phase were creative designing is not included are
often compensated for on the basis of multiple of direct personnel expense. This cost based
method of compensation is directly related to the Architect's and his consultant's effort where
they are compensated for every technical hour expended on the project with a multiplier to
cover overhead and a reasonable profit. This method is suitable for projects in which the scope
of work is indefinite, particularly for large complex projects.
Progress Payment for Services shall be made based on the accomplishments of the work of the


DOC. 202



The architect, in regular P.ractice normally acts as his client's or the Owner's adviser. He
translates the Owner's needs and requirements to spaces and forms in the best manner of
professional services, he. can render.
The Architect's work starts at the very inception of the project when the Owner outlines his
requirements to him. It renges through his study and analysis of the various aspects of the
project, goes through the preparation of the necessary instruments of service and through
the multitude of construction problems and does not terminate until the project is completed.
In effect, the Architect renders services whose sequence come in four phases as follows:

a. Schematic Design Phase

b. Design Development Phase
c. Contract Documents Phase and
d. Construction Phase
Phaae 1


a. Consults with the Owner to ascertain the requirements of the project and confirms
such requirements with him.
b. Prepares schematic design studies leading to a recommended solution including
general description of the project for approval by the Owner.

c. Submits to the Owner a Statement of Probable Project Construction Cost based on

current parameters.


a. Prepares from approved Schematic Design Studies, the Design Development
Documents consisting of plans. elevations, and other drawings, and outline
specifications, to fix and illustrate the size and character of the entire project in its
essentials as to kinds of materials, type of structure, mechanical, electrical and
sanitary systems and such other work as may be required.
b. Submits to the Owner a further Statement of Probable Project Construction Cost.
Phase 3

CONTRACT DOCUMENTS (see pp. 47-52, p. 460)

a. Prepares from approved Destgn Development Documents,the complete Construction Drawings and Specifications setting forth in detail the work required for the architectural, structural, e4ectrical, pfumbing/sanitary, mechanical and other serviceconnected equipment.
b. Prepares specifications describing type and quality of materials, finish, manner of
construction and the general conditions under which the project is to be constructed.
c. Furnishes the Owner not more than five (5) complete sets of all construction drawings, specifications and general conditions for purposes of bidding.
d. Keeps the Owner informed of any adjustments to previous Statements of Probable
Project Construction Cost indicated by changes in scope, requirements or market

e. Assists the Owner in filling the required documents to secure approval of govern
ment authorities having jurisdiction over the design of the Project.


Phase 4


a. Prepares forms for contract letting, documents for construction, forms for invitation and instruction to bidders, and forms for bidders' proposals. (see p. 477)
b. Assist the Owner in obtaining proposals from Contractors, in preparing abstract of
bids and in award.lng and preparing construction contracts.
c. When required in the qontract, makes decisions on all claims of the Owner and Contractor and on all other matters relating to the execution and progress of work or
the interpretation of the Contract Documents. Checks and approves samples,
schedules, shop drawings and other requirements subject to and in accordance
with the descriptive information and provisions of the Contract Documents,
prepares change orders, gathers and turns over to the Owner written guarantees required of the Contractor or sub-contractors.
d. Makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize himself w ith the general progress and quality of the work and to determine whether the work is proceeding in
accordance with the Contract Documents. He shall not be required to make exhaustive or continuous 8-hour on-site supervision to check on the quality of the
work involved and he shall not be held responsible for the Contractor's failure to
carry out the construction work in accordance with the Contract Documents.
During such project site visits and on the basis of his observations he shall report to
the Owner defects and deficiencies noted in the work of Contractors, and shall condemn work found failing to conform to the Contract Documents.
e. Based on his observations and the Contractor's Applications for Payment, he shall
determine the amount owing and due to the Contractor and shall issue corresponding Certificates for Payment for such amounts. These Certificates will constitute a
certification to the Owner that the work has progressed to the state indicated and
that to his best knowledge the quality of work performed by the Contractor is in accordance with the Contract Documents. He shall conduct the necessary inspection
to determine the date of substantial and final Certificate for Payment to the Con

f. Should more extensive inspection or full time (8-hour) construction supervision be

required by the Owner a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and agreed
upon by the Owner and the Architect subject to the conditions provided in the UAP
Document on Full-Time Supervision. When the Architect is requested by the Owner
to do the full time supervision his services and fees shall conform to the same UAP
1. Payments on account of the Architect's basic services shall be as follows:
a. Upon the signing of the Agreement a minimum payment equivalent to five percent .
(5%1 of the compensation for basic services.
b. Upon the completion of the Schematic Design Services , but not more than 15 days
after submission of the Schematic Design to the Owner, a sum equal to. fifteen percent ( 1 5%} of the Basic Fee, computed upon a reaaonable estimated construction
cost of the structure .
c. Upon the completion of the, Design Development Services but not more than 1 5
days after submission of the Design Development to the owner, a sum sufficient to
increase the total payments on the fee to thirty-five percent (35%) of the basic fee
computed upon the same estimated construction cost of the structure as in (b).


d. Upon the completion of the Contract Documents Services but not more than 1 5
days after submission of the Contract Documents to the Owner. a sum sufficient
to increase the total payments on the fee to Eighty-five percent (85%) of the Basic
Fee computed upon a reasonable estimated construction cost of the structure as in

e. Within 1 5 days after the awards of Bids, the payment to the Architect shall be adjusted so that'' w ill amount to a sum equivalent to eighty-five percent (85%) of
the Basic Fee, computed upon the winning Bid Price.
f. Upon completion of the construction work, the balance of the Architect' s fee,
computed on the Final Project Construction Cost of the structure shall be paid.

2. The Owner shall make partial payments during each of the various stages of the Architect's work, upon request of the Architect, provided that such payments are within
the framework of the manner of payments outlined above.
1. Provide full information as to his requirements for the project .
2. Designate when necessary, representative authorized to act in his behalf. Examine
documents submitted by the Architect and render decisions pertaining thereto prompt ly, to avoid unreasonable delay in the progress of the Architect's work. Observe the
procedure of issuing orders to contractors only through the Architect.
3. Furnish or direct the Architect to obtain at the Owner's expense, a certified survey of
the site, giving as may be required, topographical surveys, grades and lines of streets,
alteys, easements. encroachments, zoning, and deed restrictions, boundaries, with
dimensions and complete data pertaining to existing buildings, and other improvements and fult information as to available utility service lines both public and
private; and test borings and pits necessary for determining subsoil conditions.
4 . Pay tor structural, acoustical, chemical, mechanical, soil mechanics or other tests and
reports as may be required for the project.
5. Pay for design and consultancy services on acoustic, communication, electronia and
other specialty systems which may be required for the project.
6. Arrange and pay for such legal, auditing, and insurance counselfing services as may be
required for the project .
7. Pay for all reimbursible expenses incurred in the project as called for in Section 6
"Other Conditions on Services" and all taxes (not including income tax) that the
government may impose on the Architect as a result of the services rendered by the
Architect on the project whether the services were performed as an individual practit ioner, as a partnership or as a corporation.
8. If the Owner observes or otherwise becomes aware of anything that may impair the
successful Implementation of the project, he shall give prompt written notice thereof
to the Architect.
1 . Conditions for Minimum Basic Fee
The "Minimum Basis Fee" referred to in Section 3.0 applies to construction work
done by a Contractor on the basis of a Lump Sum Contract. Construction works that
are let on cos.t-plus-fee basis, or on any basis other than the Lump Sum Contract,
where the Architect has to render additional services shall be subject to additional


compensation commensurate with the additional services required. Such additional

compensation shall be in addition to the minimum Basic Fee .
2. Other Professional Services
The Architect's fee includes normal structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary and
mechanical engineering services. Other services that may be needed in order to complete the project such as services of acoustic and illumination engineers , mural
. painters, sculptors, interior decorators and landscape architects are to be recommended by the Architect for the Owner's approval and costs for these services are to be
paid for separately by the Owner.
3. Miniature Models
The Architect may make and include miniature models of his design studies as part of
his preliminary work if he so deems it to be necessary but no extra charge for such
miniature models shall be made by the Architect. However, if the Owner desires to
have a miniature model of the final and approved design for exhibition and display purposes, the Owner shall pay for the cost of said miniature model.
4. Per Diem and Travelling Expenses
A per diem of not less than P500 .00* plus traveling and living expenses shall be
chargeable to the owner on any occasion where the Architect or his duly authorized
representative shall be required to perform services at a locality beyond the radius of
100 kilometers from his established office.
*All references to fixed amount shall refer to the value of the Peso as of November
1979. Adjustment of the price shall be made at the time of the contract.
5. Extra Sets of Contract Documents
The Architect shall furnish the Owner five (5} sets of Drawings, Specifications and
other contract documents. Cost of printing or reproduction of extra sets of Contract
Documents when required by the Owner or his representative is to be charged to and
paid for by the Owner.
6. Changes Ordered by Owner
If the Architect is caused additional professional services, extra drafting or other office
expenses due to changes ordered by the Owner after approval of the Qesign Development Documents, he shall be paid for such expenses and services involved. The
amount. of compensation and the extension of time for the completion of the
documents shall be upon mutual agreement of both parties .
7. Work Suspended or Abandoned
If the work of the Architect is abandoned or suspended, in whole or in part, the Architect is to be paid by the Owner for the services rendered corresponding to the fees
due at the stage of suspension or abandonment of the work.
The primary service of the Architect is the preparation of plans, specifications and
other building construction documents which are actually sets of detailed instructions
that shall serve as the basis for the Contractor to build the Project. Once the Architect
has prepared all these documents he has completed the Contract Documents Phase of
his services which is equivalent to EIGHTY FIVE PERCENT (85%) 'of his work. Theremaining FIFTEEN PERCENT (15% of his work is broken down as follows:
TEN PERCENT (t0%i for the Architect's liability under the Civil Code - and FIVE PERCENT (5%) for the construction phase service which includes preparation of
contract documents forms and periodic visits during the construction .

When the OWNER therefore fails to implement the plans and documents for construction as prepared by the Architect, the Architect is entitled to receive as compensation
t he sum corresponding to EIGHTY FIVE t85%) PERCENT of his fee.
8. Different Periods of Construction.
If portions of the buildings are erected at different periods of time, thus increasing the
Architect's construction phase period and burden of services, the charges pertaining
to s.ervices rendered during the construction phase shall be doubled. A suspension of
construction for a period not exceeding six (6) months shall not be covered by this
9. Services of Consultants
If the Owner desires to engage special consultants, such consultants shall be with the
consent of the Architect and the cost of their services shall be. paid for separately by
the Owner and shall not be deducted from the fees due the Architect.
10 . Separate Services
Should the Owner require the Architect to design or plan movable or fixed pieces of
furniture, cabinets, covered walks, grottos, pools, landscaping and other items of
similar nature, the Owner shalf pay the Architect in addition to the Minimum Basic Fee,
a compensation in the amount of Fifteen Percent (1 5%) of the Construction Cost of
the above work . .
1 1 . Fuil-Time Supervision
Upon recommendation of the Architect and with the approval of the Owner, full-time
construction inspectors as will be deemed necessary shall be engaged and paid for by
the Owner. The full-time construction inspectors shall be under the technical control
and supervision of the Architect and shall make periodic reports to the Owner and to
the Architect as to the progress and quality of the work done.
1 2 . Estimates
Any Statements of Probable Construction Cost, or any Semi-Detailed or Detailed Cost
Estimates submitted by the Architect is accurate only up to e certain degree. Tt1is is so
because the Architect has no control over the cost of labor and materials, or the many
factors that go into competitive bidding.
13. Government Taxes on Services
The Architect's Fee as stipulated in Section 3 "Minimum Basic Fee" is net to the Architect. Any tax that the government may impose on the Architect as a consequence
of the services performed for the Project (exclusive of income tax) shall be paid by the
14. Ownership of Documents
All designs, drawings, models specifications and copies thereof, prepared and furnished by the Architect in connection with any project are instruments of professional
service. As instruments of service they are the property of the Architect whether
work for which they were made may be executed. or not, and are not to be reproduced
or used on the other work except with a written agreement with the Architect.
This is in pursuance with the pertinent provisions of Republic Act 546 promulgated
on June 17, 1950 and of Presidential Decree No. 49 on the "Protection of Intellectual
Property" Issued on November 14, 1972.

1 5. Cost Records
During the progress of work the Owner shall furnish the Architect two (2) copies of
records of expenses being incurred on the construction, upon completion of the project, the Owner shall furnish the Architect two (2) copies of thoe summary of all cost of
labor, services, materials, equipment, fixtures and all items used at and for the completion of the construction.

16. Design and Placement of Signs

All signboards of contractors, sub-contractors, jobbers and dealers that shall be plac-

ed at the project site during the progress of construction shall be approved by the Architect as to size, design and contents. After the completion of the project, the Owner
or his building lessee shall consult the Architect for the design and size of all
signboards, letterings, directories and display boards that will be placed on the exterior or public areas attached to the building, in order to safeguard the Owner's interest that nothing will be installed inside or outside of the building that would man the
safety and aesthetics of the structure.

1 7. Project Construction Cost

Project Construction Cost as herein referred to, means the cost of the completed
structure to the owner including plumbing and electrical fixtures, mechanical equipment, elevators, escalators, air-conditioning system, automatic fire sprinkler system,
alarm and clock system, communications and electronic syGtem, elements attached to
the building and all items indicated in the drawings designed by or specified by the Architect and his consultant. Other items if designed and planned by the Architect, such
as movable or fixed pieces of furniture, cabinets, covered walks, grottos, pools, landscaping and other items of simitar nature are to be p~id for separately by the Owner to
the A rchitect as stipulated in Section 6.10 (Separate Services)
The Proj ect Construction Cost does not include any Architect's fee or Engineer' s fee
or the salaries of the construction inspectors. When labor or materials are furnished by
the Owner below its market cost, the cost of the work shall be computed upon such
current market-cost.

DOC 203


Architecture - the blending of aesthetics, functions, space and materials-results from the
application of the skills of many people. Time and Technology have moved to a level where
other allied professions are needed to complete, complement or supplement the necessary
services for a building project. Today, the environmental design professions, of which architecture has a lead part, are inv~lved with a total commitment to i'mproving the way we
The Architect's main responsibility to his client is to produce a structure that will house the
actiyity it was intended for that is well-planned, soundly constructed, aesthetically satisfying and within the financial limitation of the project.
The Architect's responsibility to society is to make sure that not the structure alone but
also its physical environment can enhance the lives of all the people. He relates riot onty to
purely design and build professions but to allied professions as well, to achieve totality in
The design of the structure proper falls under the Architect's Regular Services (UAP Doc.
Design services needed within and outside the building which require specializations fall
under "specialized Allied Services" namely:


a. Interior Design.
b. Acoustic, Communication and .Electronic Engineering.
c. Landscape Design
d. Physical Planning
e. Comprehensive Ptanning

Depending on the complexity of the project, the Architect may get antatance from Consultants whose expert advice may be needed in the detailing of interior.elements.

1 . The Architect, upon designing a structure, tpeeific activities by controlling the
spaces where these activities ere to take place. The various spaces are designed to
make the space fit the specific mood and the required activity.

Due to the discovery of new products and equipment, interior design has become a
field of specialization . As such it offers the following services:
a. Prescribes furniture and interior des\gn finishes 'appropriate for different activities

and spaces and prepares furniture and futntahing layout.


b. Prepares the design and schedule of furniture giv'ing their dimensions, specifications and locations.
c. Assists the client in conducting bids or negotiations with furniture fabricators and
other suppliers.
d. Checks and approves samples of materials and shop drawings of furniture, furnishings, fixtures and decor items.
e. Conducts final inspection and approval of furniture and other items.

, . For projects including extensive detailing such as furniture design built-in equipment
and special fittings, the Architect is paid 15% of the cost of the work . The fee may
however vary from 12% to 20% depending on the complexity of the work to be
2. The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the Consultant working with the Architect.
3 . Should the Client hire separately the services of the Consultant, the fee of said Consultant shall be on the account of the Client and paid directly by the Client. In such a
case, the fee for the Architect for coordinating the work and relating the work of the
Consultant to the design concept of the Architect will be 5% of the cost of the work .
4. " Cost of the Work" means the total cost of the items which were either designed,
speclfied or procured by the Architect and his Consultant for the Client, that were
used or installed in the interiors of the building.
5 . The Architect shall be paid on the following schedule:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design - 30% of the fee.
b. Upon submission of the final design - 50% of the fee.
c. Upon compl.etion of the project- 20% of the fee.



Due t o the continuing evolution of products and techniques in sound control. communications and electronics, there is a wider flexibility in the design of the interior environment .
The Architect is the prime professional commissioned by the Client to design the structure
and all its utilities and to coordinate the works of all allied design professionals involved in
As acoustic, communication and electronic engineering are fields of specialization , the
allied professionals who wilt perform these services will serve as consultants to the Architect and the Client.
The Architect shall coordinate their works and make certain that their inputs will comply to
the requirements of the project and shall be compatible with the architectural design concept of the Architect.

The Architect and the Consultant offer the following services:

a. Prepare the drawings and specifications for acoustic designs, acoustic treatment,
sound control, sound reinforcement, sound insulation and communication system.

b. Prepare specifications of electronic equipment.

c. Assist the client in the bidding or negotiation of the work.
d. Check and approve samples of materials and equipment.
e. Conduct final inspection of work and equipment.

f. Assist the Client to evaluate the amount due the Contractor.


1 . The fee for acoustic, communication and electronic engineering services shall be f rom
10% to 15% of the cost of tlie work depending on the magnitude and complexity of
the work required by the project.
' The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the consultants work
ing with the Architect.

3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the consultants, the fee of said consultants shall be on the account of the Client paid directly by the Client. In such a case,
the fee of the Architect for coordinating the works of Consultants and relating their
works with the design concept of the Architect will the 5% of the "Cost of the

4. " Cost of the Work" means the total cost of all equipment, utilities and other items
which were either designed, specified or procured by the Architect and his Consultants for the Owner, that were used or installed in the project.

5. The Architect shalt be paid on the following Schedule :

a. Upon submission of the preliminary design- 30% of the fee

b. Upon submission of the final design - 50% of the fee

c . .Upon completion of the project - 20% of the fee.



Arising from his concept of the total environment, the Architect is not merely concerned
with the structure he created but the surround ing space as well. He studies the structure in
relation with the existing environment and then consequently designs the surrounding
areas of the structure so that the environment act as one
Normally, landscaping of small projects can be done by the Architect and his staff.
If the project, however, is big in scale, the Architect may hire other professionals Con


In order to come up with a well-balanced design of the environment, the Architect offers
the following services:
a. Prepares the general ground modelling plan and planting layout.

b. Prepares drawings and specifications of needed utility lines.

c. Prepares schedule of shrubs, trees and other plants.
d. Prepare details of landscaping elements.

e. Assists the Client to evafuate the amount due the Contractor.


1 . The fee for landscape design services shall be from 1 0% to 1 5% of the cost of the
work depending on the magnitude and complexity of the work required by the project.

2 . The fee of the Architect as sti pulated above includes the fee of the Consultants work
ing with the Architect.

3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the consultant, the fee of said Consultant shall be on the account of the Client and paid directlv by the Client. In such a
case, the fee of the Architect for coordinating the works of the Consultant and relating
his work with the design concept of the Architect will be 5% of the "Cost of the
Work" .
4. "Cost of the Work" means the total cost of all landscape work including the cost of
utilities , landscaping materials and development of the site.
5 . The Architect shall be paid in the following schedu\e:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design - 30% of the fee
b. Upon submission of the final design -

50% of the fee

c. Upon completion of the project - 20% of the fee

The Architect is not merely concerned with a structure. He is concerned with its relation
with the immediate surroundings as well. In planning for building sites {industrial estates,
shopping centers, etc) he studies the possible structures that will be sited there and their
relation to other structures, the surrounding environment, and their effect and impact on
the neighboring areas.
If the Architect is commissioned to do physical plans for a specified site, he has to study
human behavior and activities, look into the city's economic systems , its laws and regulations, tax structure, the city's infrastructure, utilities and on the whole, everything that will
have a bearing on the project. When the Architect is exposed to all these aspects in suffi-


cient detail he is engaged in the practice of a specialized service - that of Physical Planning.

Physical Planning is the art and science of ordering the use of land and siting of building and
communication routes to secure the maximum practicable degree of economy , social
amefllt ies, convenience and aesthetics.
It is approached through a mechanism which integrates in time and space the following
a. Physical, pertaining to the world of material things, the tangible and aesthetics.
b. Social, concerned with the condition of people.
c. Economic and administrative - including the science of management and resources.
These components are used in reference to a smaller scale the siting of buildings and its
influence on the neighboring areas to be affected.

1. All ideas, concepts. needs and data eventually have to be translated into physical
plans before they can be implemented. It is the Architect who provides a
3-dimensional perspective to 2-dimensional plan. By virtue of the Architect's training
and experience in coordinating the works of a multi-disciplinary team, the Architect
becomes the logical prime professional responsible for the direction of the team efforts to deal with the planning work.
2. The physical planning services of the Architect is separate and distinct irom the Architect' s regular services . The latter being concerned w ith the production of a structure of building with all its attendant sophistications and complexities while the former
is concerned with the general quality of the setting for people, activities, buildings and
other natural and man-made phenomenon.
3. Depending on the complexity of the project the Architect may hire additional Consultant whose expert advise may be needed to validate certain feature of the physical
plan. The fee of any additional Consultant needed in the project must be paid for
separately by the Client.

When the Architect is commissioned to do physical planning for building sites such as Industrial Estates. Commercial Institutional and Government Centers. Sports Complexes.
Tourist Centers . Resorts. Amusement Parks. Educational Campuses . Housing Subdivisions
and the like, the services are as follows:
a. Confers with the Client on project requirements and secures and/ or generates sufficient
data base. from which reliable projections and/or analyses can be made for translation to
physical design.
b . Examines laws ordinances, rules and regulations affecting the project.
c. Prepares concept development plans and report from relevant information gathered by
other disciplines.
d. Prepares scaled preliminary plans showing physical allocation of areas, roads and
pedestrian arteries, basic utility layouts and building envelopes.
e. Prepares' budgetary estimate of cost of physical development.


f. Undertake modifications, revisions and changes as may be required.

g. Prepares Final Pfans, Report and Specifications needed for approval by the proper
government agencies concerned.
Type 1.

Physical Planning for building sites such as Industrial Estates, Commercial Centers, Sports
complexes, Resorts, Tourist Centers, Amusement Parks, Educational Campuses, Institutional and Government Centers end Site Planning of any complex consisting of several
structures within a contiguous site.

Basic rate for

the first 50
hectares or less
* Over 50
hectares up to
1 00 hectares

P 6,000 per hectare

P 250,000 plus
4,500 per
per hectare in excess
of 50 hectares

* Over 100

P 475,000 plus
4,000 per
hectare in excess

hectares up to
200 hectares

Over 200 hectares

P 875,000 plus
3,000 per
per hectare in excess
of 200 hectares.

* AU References to fixed amount are based on the 1979 purchasing value of the Peso. Adjustment of the fee shall be made at the time of the contract due to inflation and other
factors .

Type 2
Subdivision Planning for housing on properties within Metro-Manila, cities regional centers
and provincial capitals .
* Basic rate for
the first 1 00 hectares
or less

3,000 per

* Over 100 hectare

P 300,000 plus
2,300 per


to 200 hectares

hectare in excess of
100 hectares
Over 200 hectares


P 550,000 plus
2,000 per
hectare in excess of
200 hectares

Type 3
Subdivision Planning for housing on properties located on other localities beside those
under Type 2.

* Basic Rate for the

first 1 00 hectares or

* Over 100 hectares up

to 200 hectares

2,000 per


P 200,000 plus
1,500 per
hectare in excess
of 1 00 hectares

* Over 200 hectares

P 350,000 plus
1,000 per
hectare in excess
of 200 hectares

The rate stipulated under Article 5 above is based on the assumption that the land to be
developed is moderately flat. If the land is rugged with steep terrain the fee shall increase
by thirty percent (30%).


1 . The Architect may undertake the site planning of a project requiring a composite arrangement of several building envelop on a contiguous site of a moderate size of three
(3) hectares or less. Any commission on physical planning of a larger magnitude or a
complex nature, should be done by the Architect with several years of experience in
planning or has had additional academic training in planning. He should most importantly possess administrative, technical and managerial ability aside f rom an equitable
social commitment.

2. Should other services be required by the project, such as environmental studies,

feasibility study, market analysis, movement systems, impact analysis and others,
said services should be performed by an Architect acting as the prime professional of
the team.
3. The cost tor environmental studies surveys, site investigation and titling of the parcels
of land shaU be on the account of the Owner.
4. The detailed design of the building and landscaping elements is not part of physical
planning services and shall be treated separately under the Architect~ Regular S9rvices" or "Specialized AJiied Services."

5 . For the preparation of detailed engineering drawings and ~pacifications on roads,

drainage, sewerage, power and communication system an additional fee of four percent (4%) of the cost of the development is to be charged.



Planning calls for the detailed study of physics!, social, economic and administrative component$ and as such requires the expertise and knowledge of other specialists.
Comprehensive Planning Services is the range of all services offered by the environmentalp~anner from data base gathering to environmental impact statements up to the formulation
of the Master Development Plan .


In the formulation of the Master Development Plan, the following components are to be

a. Physical Component
Concerned with land use and the changes which occur w ithin the phyaice\ environment
(within the space where these activities take place).
b. Economic Component
Concerned with the nation's assets and its management.

c. Socio-Cultural Component
Concerned with the people their living conditions and the seeking of ways to ameliorate
d. Transport Component
Concerned with the movement of people and goods from one place to another .



and Administrative Component

Concerned with the relationship of policies to the existing laws.


The Architect' s ability to synthesize and organize into a whole, various information relating
to the user's needs, user's perception and expectations, site and climatic factors, construction technology, materials, cost and other information has qualified him to take the lead ro\e
in any undertaking that cut across various disciplines.
The Environmental Planner is concerned with the management and use of land as weil as
conservation and upgrading of the human environment. Since the Architect, with experience in planning has the social commitment end technical experience as coordinator of
several disciplines, he is qualified as the Environmental Planner and leader of the multi
disciplinary team to offer Comprehensive Planning Services.


When the Environmental P1anner is commissioned to do town and regional planning or urban renewal projects, he performs the following:

a . Identifies existing la{ld use, resources. social behavior and interaction.

b. Undertakes environmental analysis feasibility studies, demographic analysis.

c. Examines existing laws, ordinances, political/Social constraints.

d. Prepares concept development plans, policies. implementing strategies to arrive at the
Master Development Plan .

As a specialized service, the Architect shall be compensated for by the following methods:

a. Professional Fee plus Expenses

The fee of the Architect-Planner for the Physical planning component is basad on the
schedule prescribed under UAP Doc. 203~d "Physical Ptanning Services" while the fee
for consultants, researches and oth8f' out of pocket expenses are reimbursable to the

b. Multiple of Direct Personnel Expense

Refer to UAP Doc. 208-b "Methods of Compensation" for details.


Office Organization
Completion of registration as an architect seems to inspire the new architect into considering a
practice of his own. In many cases he may have been employed by a firm for several years, and
while having been periodically promoted, may not entirely be satisfied with the prospects of his
future. He may have been offered a commission to do a project on a "moonlighting' ' basis or
the office in which he works may have passe.d along a small project which they could not handle for some reason. Probably everyone dreams of someday being "the boss" and young architects are no exception. In addition, the actual cash or equipment required to start an office
for the practice of architecture or engineering is quite minimal.
For young people, the starting of an office should not be too difficult, considering the possible
workload that may be available. The young architect has, by this time, been an employee of a
larger firm and should been able to observe quite a bit of the requirements.
He should be familiar with most of the operations necessary for the production of contract
documents. He may not be too familiar with the business end, the cash flow .or the process of
finding clients. One of the biggest surprises may be the number of hours that are worked per
week. As an employee he probably worked a standard 40-hour week and had vacation or sicktime lei!lve. With a beginning practice, and perhaps for quite a while after starting, the 40-hour
week will he a forfeited pleasure, and the new architect will work days, nights, and weekends
to keep his office open.

General experience may be difficult to come by in the larger office, but any experience is better
than none at all. Fortunately, the two years required between college graduation and possible
registration allows for the gain of much experience. Some people will have been project
the larger offices and will have actually run jobs from client contacts and conferences, handling the design, supervising the preparation of contract documents, and all of
the details of construction. Others may not have been so fortunate in having a varied
background, but may have been excellent in one of perhaps two phases of the complete process. Too often this is just not enough.


Quite often also, two people, working side by side or in different offices, decide to start
together. If both these individuals have the same expertise or specialty the joint arrangement is
almost predoomed to failure unless one or the other changes. A union of two designers quit e
often results in both wanting to design but neither "keeping the store open" by handling the
business or production end. The same situation may result when the expertise or experience is
in some other area of the business. Perhaps the best preparation for successful office where
employees customarily are continualfy exposed to most all phases of the business. By this exposure they may develop a special interest or ability which could be most helpful.
In a good many cases the person with limited experience is resttess enough to trv his own office, but after a few months or years find that the business ;end is not for him and returns to
working for someone else. Others may team up with someone else to handle the portion of the
work that they don't like or can't do. Perhaps one of the best activities in which the budding
architect can engage is_li quick course in business methods at a local college, if they have not
previously had that opportunity. Despite the feeling that architecture is an art, It ,also Is a
business and must shovv a profi t if the architect expects to continue a practice.




The individual owner or single proprietorship type of operation is still alive and going well
in many cases. The Primary advantage, of course;
that the proprietor is his o.wn boss
and can accept or reject any clients as he feels inclined. This may be good or bad. If there
are enough clients with the right kind of projects, the new firm should not have much trouble. However. if the proprietor is a little particular about the type of work he does, and
there isn't enough of that available, the going may be a bit more difficult. There is a considerable satisfaction in doing only the interesting and challenging projects, but many
young offices fi nd that some compromise is usually necessary.


The disadvantages seem to outweigh the .advantages. While the architect m.av be a good
aesigner and like
'this'part ot the-totai wo-rk, someone must be out finding more work to
keep the office alive. The same is of course frua
other phases of the project.
Finances to operate the offices are available through only one source - the owner. When
the architect is out of the office, too often the office Is closed, with the possibility of missing important telephone calls manufacturer's. representatives, or prospective clients. A
small office usually does small work-perhaps better quality, but nonetheless small in size
or peso .. value. If draftsmen are employed. there Is always the problem of keeping them
busy if projects are not available, and the additional lack of ability to do all phases of the
project may cause some problems . Smaller offices seem to employ less experienced draftsmen, probably because salary outlay is lower, so the draftsmen may not be as thoroughly
trained or able to make decisions without approval from the "boss". And certainly, if any
trouble arises on a project or a court decision is given against the office, the single proprietor is the one who a5sumes the entire load-perhaps to bankruptcy.

to do


For those who like to have the entire responsibility, and can handle the financl.aland other
aspects that go with it, single proprietorship is certainly rewarding. There is a pride in being able to feel that you, and you alone, operate a successful business doing quality work.
There is also a responsibility to any employees to keep them happily employed and of
course to the architect's family. The latter can be a major problems since.. many more
hours, nights, and weekends will be used in finding work and processing it properly. Until
a single-proprietor office really develops, there is usually a minimal chance that multi
million pesos projects will be offered, due strictly to office size, but as the office continues
to grow this deterrent mav be gradually eliminated.
The principal disadvantage of the small office is the simple fact that the office is small.
Work that requires more facilities than are available in this size office may go elsewhere
simply because of this fact. One method that may be used is, of course, to increase the of
fice force as occasion warrants. This means violent changes in operation and additional
paper work . Joint-ventUres with other offices mf)y also be the answer, but limit the
freedom experienced by the single proprietor . The fact that an office is led by a single proprietor also does not necessarily mean that it has to be small. Quite a few iarge offices.
. started as a small single-owner operations, but grew by good management and still main
tained the single-owner status by employing the expertise necessary.

This form of office organtzation may be considered in two major styles: two or more equa
active partners, or a senior or a junior partner. Each condition may also involve associates.
Partnerships exist where all partners are registered architects, where partners are ar
chitect or engineers, or even where only one person is a registered architect but other
partners are contractors. lawyers, or good businessman in related fields. Which is best
depends greatly upon the qualifications. financial status, capabilities and interest of those


The.moat obvious advantage of a pannerahlp h the feet that more than one practitioner
me~~ne more cash-backing more ectual hands or bodies to do the work, more minds to
think out the problema, and more client contact& that may be made. In a well-developed
partr:terahlp, the varloue phases of th~ work are as equally divided as Is possible, each
responalble of the portion delegated ta him. The partners may be aqua\ by v1rtue of equal
Investment& In the bualne8s, or may be unequal due to unequal investment. Regardless of
the amount of .lnvt~&tment, unlesa special responsibility Ia agreed.UJ)on, all partners ere
~naible for the debtS of the partnership, and a contractual agreement by one partner
blnde all partnenl. Certainty without good agreement or confidence in partners, it might
be an undeelrable situation at times.


In a good working panneqhlp aomeone needs to be

bualneaa.getter, the "front-man"
10meone to handle the caeh flow and general busineaa phaees. Different persons need the
ablllty to dealgn, and to eu~H the production work and field construction. Each partn. could belong to a different club or service <Wganlzatfon In order to have diverse contaCt. for poulbte buatneaa and probably should live In a different suburban area for the
same reuon. TheM things may requtre some adjustment but probably will benefit the
partnership In the end.

Now let' a take a look at the poa8lbUltlea of aenlor-junior partnership. This type of arrangement ..........y ltan. when an older, estabtllhed architect begins to feel that he is working
too hard, that he has a bright energetic employee, Of that he would like to retire in a few
yura. Mcm often the younger partner Is a longtime offk:e employee who supposedly
knowt the operation of the office, complements the architect'a abilities, and is .,itchy" to
be on hla own. The aenior partner la the one with the investment. Agreement regarding
returna may be varied, but the tenior partner will retain control. If the idea Is to provide for
ultimate retirement of the otder partner, there may be a gradual increase In percentage for
the .y ounger partner with a corresponding decrease in the percentage for the one. until, at
Ultimati retirement, the office belongs .to the younger. This may take a considerable
J*iod of time of courae. While this Ia often an arrangement between only two men, there
Ia no reaaon that more than one junior partner cannot be Included.
Sopartner8hlp sounds better than moat ainglaproprietorships. The advantages are that,

when properly constituted, the partners expertise complements each of the others. The
flnanclal baN may be more broad end In greater depth aeeachpartner has some money.
The partners will pro~bly live In different client contacts. And what more partners to
there the required work neceSHry for best operation, the amount of extra work time,
beyond a normal week, may be shortened. The primary diaadvan1age is that partners may
not agree about business after an Initial periOd of "togetherness." The one who attends
meetings, play golf, has client Oriented lunches, may be considered by the others as havIng too enjoyable a time. Unless strict control over contract signatures and cash flow is
maiotarned, 'ft Is possible that unwelcome work situations may result. Several partners
may want to work on design with no one Interested In production .documents or contract
In the senior junior pertnerahip, the older partner may be very set ln. this methods, design
criteria, or type of projects. He may not be Interested in change and, since he has majority
control, may not agree with hit junior partner. A major disadvantage if tun partnership is
that each partner Is professionally and financially responsible for any or all business actions of other partners.

The term aeeoctates may mean something or relattvety nothing. When younger empiQyees
reach an advanced stage of value to the office, they may conalder thefr own office. They
mey have skills to replace and not really want to leave. They may simply want recognition.
Enter the auociate statue, name on the door and letterhead, with no change in financial


situation, or office responsibility may be the answer. If this arrangement continued, an additional raise in pay or a part of the profits may result~ In larger firms there may be quite as
many associates as numbers of partners. Associates firm members expect to ultimately
become partners and usually do or they use that status symbol to negotiate for a beUer
situation elsewhere. Generally speaking, however, the office gets the bauer of the deal as
the associate feels a greater responsibility since he is now a part of management and
perhaps someday may become a partner. As a result he often takes on additional responsibUity and works more diJigentty. It's not really bad for the employee either since it inflates J'lis ego and indicates to the public that his firm considers him a cut above some
others in the such recognition. Some firms avoid the word associate but cre~te
directors of this or that, which usually amounts to the same as associate.

In many cities a corporation may be formed by architects. SimP,Iy explained, the corpora~
tion is a theoretical employer organization and all members (stockholder~) are employees
with financial responsibility limited by the amount of their investrnef!t. When a partnership
becomes so large or unwieldy that efficient operation becomes difficult, the partners may
decide that a corporation type office with its benefits, would be very interesting. A cor
poration is formed by obtaining approval of articles of incorporation, a charter from the
city, establishing a board of directors, and electing a slate of controlling officers. A stock
issue is provided and may be common stock or preferred stock, the latter having priority or
preference when dividends are declared. Stock may have an initial par value or no value
and the investors either buy shares, or acquire them by their monetary interest in the off ice. This cash inflow provides the starting f inances for the c orporation. The board of
directors and elected officer s .are responsible for the efficient operation of the corporation
and all persons work for the corporation as em~loyees and receives a.salary, plus stock
dividends , plus a bonu. if profits are more than those expected . Market value of stock
fluctuates up or down from issue price depending upon amount of dividend or other indications of profitabte operation and may or may not be indicated in stock market quotations.
Financial and size advantages are more rather obvious . With a greater number of
stockholders there ls more money with which to work. As a large organization, it is possi
ble to have more emptoyees and more or bigger work. Diversification of skills o.r abilities is
also more possible. Departmentalization may also result, again bringing larger and more
varied types of projects.
Proper business methods may bring a good return on any investment. All of this larger
work, larger office, and less personal in-office contact may lead to a feeling of "factory
wor~ers" and stifled ambitious younger people. With a larger group of principals it
generally works out 1hat individuals develop considerable personal skills in a particular
area rather than improving over the entire field, and while some p.e ople do not object to a
human boss they do not like to be supervised by a corporation:

Bigness as related to a c.orporation, has its advantage and its disadvantage. From the
standpoint of the client, the large corpofate office generally has the advantage of being
able to provide expert knowledge in a number of fields, a client wishing to build a special
manufacturing plant probably wm have better results with a large office with specialized
interests, and most such offices are organized a corporations. From the standpoint of the
employee, exposure in a large corporate office will give him a much different feel for projects than is generally possible in a smaller office. This may be good or bad depending
upon the individual. A by-product of a large corporate . office may be the better
understanding of business as it relates to the design professions.



Regardless of the basic structure of a professional office, there are times when it may
become expedient to combine offices or reorganize to better advantage. When several
small offices feel that it may be advantageous to combine forces they may joint-venture
the same as many other groups. This usually results in a form of partnership since each office functions as an individual, so joint-venture is to contil'!ue for a rather extended period
of time, a corporation agreement may be best for the participants.
Sooner or later most architectural offices consider Inclusion of full services (structural,
mechanical, and electrical) within their organization. Depending upon the amount or work
in these specialized fields, this may be an advantage, but in many cases the amount of architectural work is far greater than the engineering work. This immediately poses the
question of separate but interlocked offices, one for architecture, and ~nother for
engineering . In most of such cases the corporation form or limited partnership is more
The developer 1'\es appeared on the construction scene in the past few years. This is usually a corporation-type organization or a conglomerate of several corporations . Unlike the
architectural office or that of the consulting engineer, the developer office includes real
estate purchase (and possible resale oi raw \and}, development oi plans, construction ot
buildings, roads, and other facilities ,- sales, and perhaps maoagement. Any one of these
activities could "go sour", even with the most expert advice, so particip~nts need to protect themselves as well as the interlocked activities.
When we consider formation of an architecturaf office we normally consider only
registered architects. There are many other combinations that may be considered,
however, present day development and constructton practices indicate the serious con
sideration should be given to association in one form or another with contractors, land
developers, or others in near-related fields. The old taboo on architects also operating as
contractors for the same client has been removed. Assistance in profitable development
of vacant land or urban reconstruction is also a possibility.
Project management in cooperation with other businessman is an area of increasing in~
terest. Most .city laws relating to use ot the title "Architect'', in any of these associations
require that a clear indication be made as to exactly who is the architect. Where architectengineer combinations are arranged, each professional must usually sign or take responsibility for the entire project. Each type of arrangement should be carefully investigated
before starting a new office and the one which seems to present the most advantages and
fewest disadvantages considered.

One of the first questions that arises in starting any type of business Is the one of location. This
is as true for the prospective A/E office as any other. There are a number of major issues that in
fluence the consideration of locations; some that are made or controlled by the proprietor, and
some that are by~product of the society in which we live and work. In this chapter we will consider the major reasons involved but since every case, and every location has advantages or
disadvantages the owner mus~ evaluate them himself. Whet will be acceptable or satisfactory
in one case, may not be in another. Size of the office, type of work done, convenience of access, parking, services, as well as rent and utility costs, all contribute to consideration of any

Most every architect or engineer, ready to open his own office has work in another office
before feeling the urge to be on his own. While working in that other office he must also


have had some f eeling in regard to the location, its availability to clients, proximity to supply sources, parking facilit ies, cost per square meter of fi>ace, utilization~ and many other
factors . A great many t imes actual cost information may not be available, but physical
size, parking, and other conditions directly related to personal employment may provide
some ideas. In addition, the budding architect probably has visited other offices on one
occasion or another and can mentally note items that he thinks are advantageous or disadvantageous. He undoubtedly knows other people in other offices and obtains some "feedback" when they discuss a new feature in their offices or "gripe" about some conditions
that they feel, could be battered. Every draftsman has his own ideas of the relationship
between his drafting table and layout space, amount of drawer or shelf space desired,
lighting conditions, convenience of various office services, and the desirability of conference rooms, library, print room, and clerical area. These bits and pieces of stored information plus good common senses will go a long way in helping the new architects to
select a good location .


Before we consider the separate oifice, perhaps just a few words in regard to the at home
office may be in order. Many young architects "moonlight" after office hours, using a
space room as an office. This may be a temporary expendiency to make a little extra
money, but as a starting point for a full-blown business it is not very good. First, the dwelling is a residence used to bring up a family, with all of the children, the TV, the telephone
ringing, cooking . Those distractions are not conducive to architectural thinking or creative
work. Very few manufacturer's representatives will call at a residential address, so probably the architect wilt not be able to build up a library or perhaps even know the representatives. There may be some clients who will not object to coming to the "office" in the
rear bedroom at a residence, but a great many more will probably not be enthusiastic
about it. And even if all of these reasons may not be sufficient, city regulations and
business license rules may prevent this type of oJ)eration. Judgment of appropriate costs
is also a big factor in the home office. Telephone 'companies questions the use of a
residential phone indicated as a business phone and the rates for use are considerably different. The Internal Revenue Service may make some embarrassing Inquiries about rent,
utilities, and other items charged off a residence as business. Most residences are not on
main streets or may not be a neighborhood easy to firid, so additional searching for ad
dresses may be an inconvenience. A1l-ina11, the residential or "at home" office is not the
best solution and may tend to create a negative feeling that a separate office does not.

If we can theri consider other arrangement than the family residence, we first should try to
determine the floor space desirably. Rented areas will have a direct relationship upon the
number of people that are expected to occupy it. Depending upon the physicaA arrange.rpent of drafting table and layout board, the average space is two by three meters: six
square meters. Additional space for circulation, conference, storage, and o1her desirable
areas brings this up to approximately 1 5 square meters per person. A recent survey indicated that about one-half the total floor area is devoted to administration: about 20% to
production, 12% to storage, and 10% to service. With a minimum-sized office these
figure do' not mean much, however, r a 55 to 60 square meters are minimum for a oneman office and about 1 00 square meters for the average office of seven or eight persons.
The area requirements may vary but their functions may be divided into the following


Reception area and waiting room.
Principal's office
Conference room. (Room for at least a
Secretarial apace, bookkeeping.



Production AI'H.
Drafting space, project managers
Office space for specifications, engineers.
Model making apace (Optionat)
Library and sample room.
Estimating (Optional)


Dead project storage.

Correspondence storage.
Vault (Optional}

Toilet area.
Staff lounge (Optional}
Items followed by (Optional) may not be needed in the smaller office or may be in com
bination with other spaces. tn the larger offices, separation office accomplishes the divi
sion by simply defining the areas in a great many cas~s.
Careful con~ideration in regard to noise and traffic is essential. Clerical work sets up a
chatter from typewriters; reproduction equipment is often noisy but doesn't generate a
uniform background souna; telephones and related conversations are distracting; and the
simple passage of people causes an undesirable pause in the work schedule. Certain
background sound may be desirable, however. Radio or piped music, playing at low
volume and without news breaks, tends tC) aid in working pleasure~. Even steady outside
traffic noises are not distracting. In trying to layout the office, however, it may be
necessary to fully consider separation of noi68 sources in order to have best operation.
Another Item that may want to be considered when planning for required space is the at
titude toward the client. Some offices have no objection to the client wandering into the
production drafting area "to see what you're doing on my project. This could be an embarrassment if the production crew is not working on the particular client's work and
usually disrupts the draftsman's train of concentration. Physical space may be such that
the addition of the c\ient's bOdy prevents desired circulation or interferes with other draft
amen. A majority of offices prefer that the client does not circulate in the drafting room
but instead all reviews of documents are made in an office or conference room .

One of the most Influential public relations devices that an architect can have is an office
that reflects his interest and feeling toward certain types of architecture or materials.
Clients form an opinion of the ability of the architect from his surroundings and often even
select an idea due to those office and quite often this is achieved by his arrangement ana
deCoration of it. Employees also react to this. A warm atmosphere that reflects the interest in a project. In most cases the architect will have generated a particular channel or


design concept that he likes, and this should be a major factor in selection of new offica

Location .in a downtown area has a number of advantages for a new office, as well as a
number of disadvantages that should also be considered . If the past employment has been
in a city location, a natural tendency may be to consider a downtown location as being the
best for the new office. Some idea of available space and cost may be available from the
old office. At any rate , the square meter cost will, in all probability, be higher than in most
other areas. Another readily apparent consideration will be availability and cost of parking,
both 'for office personnel and clients. Does parking space come with the office lease
covered, or an open lot? All of these questions need good answers to be used to advantage. How about proximity for supplies? Are suppliers and blueprinting firms near? And of
course there is the question of the client . If the new office expects to be doing a great of
residential work perhaps city location will not be so advantageous to clients as one
located out of the business district. On the other hand, many industrial and commercial
clients will have their office in business districts. With some types of clients the office
location will not matter. since the architect will go to them for conferences and discussions.
There is a certain amount of prestige connected with a downtown office, also. People
who have offices in the central business district are expected to somehow have better of
fices, better knowledge, better employees, better projects, and to do a better job overall.
Mere location cannot and does not provide automatic skill, but the location may provide
better clients . Larger offices tend to have larger projects, which in turn attracts better
employees and probably better expertise in many areas. These accumulated factors do
not in themselves make a better office but location just may be a help.
A suburban location doesn't mean that the office is "out in the sticks." It is true that it
isn't downtown but most cities have shopping centers or neighborhood business districts
that may be very suitable for location of an architectural office, so let's consider a few
reasons for such a move. To do this, perhaps we can parallel some of the reasons for a city
location. In a neighborhood business district, there are often fair-sized office buildings as
well as many smaller one. Due to the location away from the central business district, rental rates are generally tower and there are more spaces available. There may also be a better selection of related business tenants such as contractors, real estate offices,
engineers, or others who may be of some assistance . And the fact that the location is
away from the crowded areas also means that more, and perhaps less expensive, parking
will also be availab\e. Quite often this parking is very convenient and at no additional cost
to office personnel or clients. Suburban business districts usually have stores able to provide office supplies and if a blue-printing firm is not in the immediate area, they may often
have delivery service.
As far as the client is concerned, a great deal depends upon the type of business expected. A Suburban location may relate better to residential work and clients may be less
reluctant to come into a tess busy area. It office client-prospects are not close by, or if they
are of the type where the architect meets them in their own offices, the location of the architects' office is of little consequence. In an earlier paragraph, reference was made to
related-business tenants in the same building. In a good many cases clients of real-estate
firms may be referred to architects by them. This also holds 'true for contractors,
engineers, and others. An additional advantage may be that the office may be nearer the
architect's home and that of his employees, thereby shortening driving time and freewav

Office prestige may also be achieved in this type of location but perhaps by a different
route. Smaller or separated office buildings provide an opportunity to redesign some
structures to more advantageously display the office abllity . In many areas there are vacant lots upon which an office may be built. Also in some areas, the gradual changeover
from residential houses that may be remodeled into interesting office space. In these
cases, the public may have the opportunity to judge the ability and evaluate prestige by
the exterior appearance of the office. Many interesting projects may come to the suburban
office that the big downtown office doesn' t even hear about or isn't organize to handle
properly. Personnel may be a little different because in many cases the employees ere
more interested in "doing everything" in a smaller office.
With all of the crowing, higher costs, ecological problems, and inconveniences of the city,
a great many people, including architects, are leaving the urban sprawl for the smaller
towns. Such move may change the entire picture. Office space may again be more
reasonable, but may also be less available, particulady space that reflects previous architecture. If the architect is fairly confident of success in his move he may want to design
and build perhaps even with a rental space or two . Such action would allow him to
demonstrate his design concepts and show the people what can he do. His residence will
also be nearer the office. Parking nearby is usually readily available and at low cost or
perhaps free. Supplies may be 8 bit of 8 problem, particularly reproduction work so some
additional expense for duplicathig equipment may be necessary and supply may have to
be ordered in larger quantit ies.
An entirely different approach for clients may be developed . A move to a smaller town
most often means that any earlier contacts probably are lost. local clientele will develop
as the architect takes part in the community activities, and demonstrate his ability in the
design of his own office or building. Practice may include considerable work of a residential nature, some commercial work of smaller size, a bit of governmental work, and con
siderable promotional work . This promotional work includes reworking of run-down areas,
new or remodeling work, retail stores, and occasional school bond-determined work.
Chances to be selected for the multi-million dollar new industrial plant will be very remote
as this work will go to'the city firm nearest the industrial owner. All of this change may
have a nonapparent factor in reducing tension, providing a more relaxed work at
mosphere, and a smaller office staff. After a session in a big office such change may be
very desirable.
The strictly rural location is really not very practical for a full-time architectural office, and
even less so far a consulting engineer's office. Office spaces as such may be nonexistent,
so remodeled barns or addition to residences may be the answer. Again such design and
construction may be regarded as a demonstration of ability. Parking will usually be plen
tiful . Supplies must be carefully purchased in quantity, and duplicating equipment
must be a part of office furnishings. In general, the work coming into the office will be
small and probably infrequent. A few locations may provide desirable work in cooperation
with large land development, but the strictly rural office must be considered as a part-time
operation in most cases.

Now that we have investigated the various general areas in which an office may be
located, let us look at a closer comparison of them. The ratings may differ in .different
parts of the country, but the general idea will remain about the same. From a casual
review.of the accompanying chart, it would seem that the city office has all of the advan
tages. For the large office .


Space available
Rental Cost
Mfg. reps.
Duplicating service
Residential clients
lndust./Comm. Clients
Governmental clients



Small Town




Strictly Local

Very Low
Very Poor
Very Poor

This certainly is true, but tor the beginning smaller office the suburban-type location may
be more desirable. Again the individual preference for surroundings must be considered
when the office personnel is limited to two or three or even a one-man office. In these
cases some very successful operations are carried on in small town situations and even a
few in rural areas.


Despite any comparison of locations or other considerations, the location of an office
depends a great deal upon the individual. Each person has some feeling toward the type or
work he would like to do and this in turn influences location. After working in a city office,
many young architects want to get away from the hustle and bustle when they get on
their own . This means that they will migrate to the suburbs or smaller towns . On the other
hand, some people like the feeling of being in the mainstream of city business or have
some initial project which is best processed in a downtown location. A similar preference
seems to be a prevalent in s!lburban and small-town offices. People who have put in an internship in office in these locations often have done so to avoid the rigors of the city, and
have a tendency to try to continue in a similar area. As in most everything else, there is no
stock answer best locations.

Up to 'n ow we have only considered relocation in a definite area in which the architect may
have already been working, but what about new city? Occasionally the old location, citywise, may not seem to present the best opportunities for a new office. This i a big step
since, in most cases, it means practically starting over. The architect loses all previous
contacts, both with prospective clients and with contractors, suppliers and even
manufacturers' representatives. A good review of construction starts, possible future pro
jects, the existing competition or any new offices, supply of qualified personnel, and
many other things, including additional finance arrangements, needs to be made.
A leisurely survey of the proposed new area should be made and if possible congenial cQntacts formed with some of the firms operating in the area . Another important factor may
be search for proper housing , markets, schools, and other living facilities. Supply, or lack
of such facilities. may indicate some prospective clients overlooked by the local firms who
have taken existing conditions in stride without thinking about them. In any case, change
to another city is a major step and should be.thoroughly considered in all of its aspects.
Perhaps not strictly a location, but certainly closely related to location and definitely influenced by location, is the question of the AlE's own building. Sooner or later the ques-


tion of rent, lease, or ownership arise and the A/E must determine in which he is most interested for the present as well as the future. If the general location is right, the next question is to buy and remodel an existing building, or to design and build a new building from
scratch. Existing buildings may not be properly arranged for the use intended, and may re
quire considerable time and money to rearrange . They may be obsolete also in regard to
code requirements for plumbing and electrical fixtures, or may be structurally unsound.
Remodeling work on old houses can be risky but if a good results. it can also be one of the
best advertisements or public relations items possible.
A new building is really a challenge. The A/E is not only designing a project which must be
within the budget but must function 100% for its intended operation and must be
esthetically pleasing to the public. The shape, material, and appearance of the city will
generally indicate some favoritism by the A /E in one way or another. If this appearance is
pleasing to the general public, it is likely that business may be a bit easier to obtain. If t he
building is outstanding either as a great building or a& a monstrosity, the public will also
know about it and will have varied opinions. In a number of cases an A/E may determine to
build his own office, plus rental space, to help carry the load. Under these circumstances.
it is probably a good ideas to plan for related organizations such as realtors, insurance or
engineering firms, and to keep in mind the possibility of future expansion. Your own
building is a major investment and a visible advert isement that should be carefully considered from all angles .

large office have some ot the same problems regarding the personnel required. Each must have
a leader or manager, and a number of others to produce the work. Not all offices have the same
titles for t heir employees, and not all with t he same t it les have the same job. A great deal
depends upon the size of the office which in turn depends upon the clientele of the office. In the
next few pages let us consider the position, education required, responsibili ties, and relative
r~numeration, for .the several possible positions. Positions are not necessarily listed in the order
of importance in an office as we shall see later.
As an example, we must consider the positions in an office of perhaps twenty-five persons . In
the smaller office many of the positions may be combined or nonexistent. In the very large of
fices there may be a number of persons with the same titles and the same responsibilities. From
a salary position the Architect is, or at least should be , the top of the pile. The project manager,
specifications writer. chief. designer, and contract administrator are next in line with approximately the same salary expectations. The titles of other positions, plus the chart in this
chapter, indicate the relationship of the remainder.
The architect-engineer is usually the boss. He is normally college educated in the field of
architecture and registered by examination in the country in which his office does business. He has at least four or fiv~ years experien,~e in other offices. and may have been
in his own office tor many years. He has the ability to meet and talk to clients as well as
others in the community, and probably belongs to one or more clubs, primarily for possible
client contacts. Despite the fact that he is essentially a businessman, he knows his profession and can probably "double" in any position in the office.
Although most of the principals in an office have had a format education in their particular
iield, there still seem to be quite a few whose formal education may have been ln a related
field. A number of architects have education in planning, construction management, indu~trial science, and a few in chemistry or other sciences. The same is true of engineers.
There are also quite a few "mustangs", people who have little formal education but years
of experience, who have taken and passed the registration examination. Additionally,

some have multiple degrees in design, business administration, and an increasing number
have law degrees. While the architectural or engineering graduate usually starts out in his
chosen field, it is certainly an advantage to have additional education or experience in a
business field when the principal becomes involved in the management or administration
of an office.
In partnerships or corporations organizations, there may be many combinations or expertise included in t he abilities of the principals. Not all architects are good designers or good
production people. In these situation it may be very advisable to have persons in charge of
design, production or field work, as well as business or office management. What is interesting and challenging to one person may not have the same appeal for another, and a
good combination may spell the success of the office . The actual arrangement of duties
also other office personnel to know who is the boss in certain areas and this is particularly
important for smooth office operation.

A person with experience in all aspects of architecture and engineering and project management, the project manager may be registered as an architect or engineer, or it may be
simply a title, to forestall any question of registration. Experience is relative, but would
probably be in the area of five to twenty years in various positions. He manages the total
project, and typical responsibilities normally include: obtaining and analyzing client requirements, establishing concepts for structural, mechanical and electrical systems,
developing design concepts, checking project development against budgeted time,
representing the client at public hearings and/or governmental agencies, and the general
supervision of progress of the entire project. He may be a partner or associate in the firm .
In a larger offices, t he proj ect m anager handles almost all of the phases of a project after
the owner-architect contract is signed. In most cases the project manager, then , is t he
leader of a t eam composed of design, production, and field personnel and directs all consultants who may be needed . In some cases the project manager may even '"sit-in" on
these contract negotiations. Under his supervision the schematics are prepared,
preliminary documents and design concepts are produced, and, after client approvals, an
of the construction documents (drawings, t.;OSt estimates, and specifications) are provided. Also under his general supervision, the bidding procedure is carried out and all of
the field observation. A possible ego-building item is the fact that, in addition to the office
name, the name oi the project manager is often also prominently displayed on job signs
and in project promotion items in newspapers or magazines.

The job captain may or may not exist in many offices. In the smaller offices this position
may roughly correspond to that of project manager while in larger offices he is an assistant to the project manager. As an assistant to the project manager, the duties of the job
captain are primarily concerned with the production of the working drawings. While the
project manager handles the general affairs to a project, the job captains plans the sheet
arrangement, assigns the various forms of drafting to the crew, helps coord ination with
consultants , and compiles notes and other information for the specifications department.
In some offices he may be t ermed a chief draftsman although his position is more than.
that of a lead draftsman. As with many others in an A / E office, the education of the job
captal n may be formal or based upon years of experience and he may or may not ba

A person with substantial knowledge and experience or in younger men, a college
graduate, may be a senior draftsman, but older men may be from the "school of harC1

knocks." Usually this person has at least eight to ten years experience. Major responsibility for him is in coordinating details and dimensions: checking working drawings for omissions or conflicts prior to bid time; checking for code compliance; controlling design continuity in detailing; and in smaller offices he does major drafting such as floor plans and
In architectural Qffices this person is fully capable of interpreting any sketches from the
design department completely through the finished drawing stage. The designer seldom
sketches all door or window details, roof flashings, railing details, and similar parts . The
senior draftsman is able to select proper details or draw them from experience. In a similar
manner, the senior draftsman ln an engineering office should be capable of also detailing
structure; connections, piping layouts, electrical circuits, and other required details. With
proper experience many senior draftsman in architectural offices are also capable of doing
a limited amount of engineering drafting from rough sketches by the engineer. His experience also makes him a good advisor and supervisor for less qualified or younger draftsmen in the crew.
Education for an intermediate draftsman probably includes graduation from a college of
architecture or engineering plus three to five years of progressive experience. If not
already registered this employee may be nearly ready for the final examination for registration. With less experience than the senior draftsmen, the intermediate draftsman prepares
working drawings, coordinates details with plans or elevations, and works with the senior
draftsman. In some cases the intermediate draftsman is proficient in executing presentat ion drawings, graphics, or renderings.
A person w ith limited experience in architectural drafting, normally less than two years
experience, and without a degree in architecture, is a beginning draftsman. He helps to
prepare working drawings, helps prepare presentation drawings, does more correcting of
drawings under supervision of others, and traces details. In small offices he may replace a
trainee in this work .
With little or no architectural education or experience beyond high school, a trainee often
starts as the blueprint machine operator. In addition, he files drawings, delivers office
material and drawings, and is generally "handy" around the office. He may do some.basic
drawings or tracing of details with supervision.
With a major position in the firms, the construction administrator should have a total
knowledge of construction methods, codes and contracts. He may be a graduate of college with a degree in architecture, construction engineering, construction management,
or may have come from the ranks of construction superintendents. His responsibility includes actual administration of all projects under construction, periodic inspections of the
onsite work, review and decision on shop drawings, communication w ith the contractor
regarding change orders and payment reque$ts, some contact with manufacturers
representatives regarding proper materials and supervision of field inspectors in larger offices. This individual may also act as the checker of contracts, plus the fact that he has not
worked on the drawings or specifications, makes it easier for him to spot errors or omis
sions. He is also a ready source for information regarding qualification or ability of general
contractors and 'Subcontractors and by his field contacts usually knows about availability
of materials. In small offices this position may be filled by the principal, and in other offices it may be a combination with the project manager spot.


The specifications writer must have substantial knowledge of the use of materials and
construction methods and may or may not be registered as an architect or engineer.
Responsibilities include preparation of prdiminary and final specifications, checking working drawings for compliance with specifications, evaluating and recommending new
materials and construction methods. dealing with manufacturer's representatives, and
advising other office personnel on materials or methods. This person may also be in
general charge of the library and~ room.
Great literary ability is not a requifements but the "spec" writer must be able to clearly
and concisely describe materials and methods to be used in the project . Sound knowledge
of actual construction methods is a must, and with a bit of experience a better-thanaverage idea of labor and union procedures wilt become second nature. The "spec" writer
wilt be a major office contact for most manufacturer's representatives and must have, or
develop, the ability to compare equal products to determine if they are indeed essentially
equal. Through his constant comact with produaers, the "spec" writer is in a good position also to advise the designer in regard to availability of materials and their relative costs.
Many designers do not considet this possible help, and costly revision of design
sometimes results due to pooriy selected materials or difficult and expensive installation

Location of the designer in this discussion order does not imply that the designer holds a
less important position than others in the ofiice. In fact, this position is one of the most important and quite often is he'd by one of the principals of the office. College education is
normal, and registration may or may not be coincidental but is not mandatory. The
designer is responsible for the layout a,d appearance factors of the project and works
with the project manager to provide proper facili ties for the client. Work includes preparation oi schematics, prehrninary layouts, renderings, and sometimes interiors or special
phases of the work. In en engineering office, the designer works out the system to be
used, makes the ....;or caku&ations required , and roughsout diagrammatic sketches to be
further developed br 1he dnlftsmen .
While the percentage of the design personnel in an office is quite small , 3% to 5% of all
projects begin here. Those covered by the designer is not simply to provide a pretty picture, as is quite often suggested, but to carefully and accurately plan the work in accordance with applicab6e code requirements and the client's needs. Most designers are not
completely trained. adept. or interested in structural or other engineering systems, and
may be limited in their knowledge of materials available. Once the basic idea has
materialized into some form, experts in the engineering and materials field should be used
to redesign any ponious that may be impossible to provide or that may be excessively expensive and will e~ 1he ewoiect budget. If a project cannot be constructed within the
budget, the destgn _..... il good place to start revising or even stopping.

The librarian does no1 .... ,.,.., exist in most offices with less than fifty to seventy-five
employer, but is v.y
when an extensive library has been acquired and a large
drafting force is ~ Uling reference material. In smaller offices, the "library" is
often scattered 1hroughout the office in several different bookcases and most employees
know the general wt.Mbou1s of specific material or will ask a fellow employee. The A/E
librarian does not t.w tonn.llibt"ary training. In tact such training may be a detriment.
Filing and retrieval of AlE efaence consists almost entirely of arranging catalogs and
other material in P'OC*' Cpreferably in the sixteen Divisions of the Uniform System)
and in dating and updating new materials .


A simple check-out system helps keep track of references and a limited ability to type is
helpful in writing to manufacturers for literature . Some prior exposure t o building products
via manufacturer, distributor, or contractor is helpful. The librarian's position, in a number
of cases, has been the starting spot for specifications writers since constant handling of
catalogs and samples often creates an interest in specifications. Split-job responsibility
such as secretary-librarian , or office trainee-librarian , do not usually w ork out so an office
should arrange for a full-time position in most cases, or none at all.

In some larger offices the special fields of mechanical an9 electrical design for projects is
done "in-house" , that is in the A/ E office rather than being "farmed-out" to consultants.
This then requires education and registered engineers to design the various system . and
different 1evels of draftsman to produce their working drawings. These engineering positions parallel the architectural positions very closely. The same is true of those resp onsible
f or the structural design of a project.
An increasing number of engineering offices are including some architectural work and
reverse of the above is obviously true. Contractors also employ design personnel and a
drafting force, so some positions may be comparable in the larger contracting offices . As
w ith the A/E office, some public organizations such as large school districts, federal,
state, and city-county governments also maintain A/ E depart ments and t heir operation
and personnel may be similar, even if called by other names to suit civil service
Almost all offices require the normal complement of secretaries office accountants, file
checks, receptionists, and other nonarchitectural personnel. The customary requirements
for taking dictation , typing, filing, etc. are necessary and a great variety of education and
experience may need to be considered. Smaller offices may need a combination-type person who can handle reception typing, filing , and perhaps even the accounting. In larger
organizations, a number of very specialized positions may be needed: typists with training
on special machines, acc.ountants with special tax, knowledge , and private secretaries
with good organizational ability. And in some large offices even people trained in food
handling or processing may be necessary.


Most offices are not organized w ith only one project manager, one designer, and one production group. Such a singular arrangement would mean that, in general , only one project
would be processed at a ti me and this would not be economical or feasible except in very
small offices. Therefore, two principal systems may be used. The following Figure indicates an office with two or more project managers. The specialty personnel (design,
consultants, specifications, and construction manager) each contribute their skills to each
group as needed. This allows the office to operate properly with a minimum number of
specialty people who may work only part of their time on one project and can therefore
spread their skills.
Many offices operate with some combination of either possibility. The average office
employee approximately 3% to 5% of its entire force in a design capacity. The production
force of production manager and the various draftsmen may total approximately 70%,
with the remaining 25% to 27% serving as specialty or supporting personnel.



























Fl G.






The arrangement of the next Figure indicates a parallel type arrangement in which each
manager essentially operates a small office. Here a design team, consultants, specifications personnel. and construction supervisor are assigned to one ground and work
satisfactorily but it tends to waste manpower since complete utilization of skills on a fulltime basis is rarely possible in all phases of work. It also practically eliminates cooperation
between groups or specialty people since they may not even work close together





























FIG. 8 -













Very few architectural-engineering office have the personnel capabilities or other facilities to
handle all phases of a project within their own organization. There is no stigma attached to this
inability since it simply stems from diffecences in educ8tion of personnel, size of office, type of
projects usually worked on, specialization if FJny. ~many other things. The average small to
medium-sized architectural office ncAof88 consuttants to fill out where their own
facilities or personnel do not covtw.
The fields covered by consultants are wide. and few or many may be used by an office. Usually
about at least two types of consuttants . . ~by most offices: structural and mechanical
electrical. The latter may be two
c:onalttants: one for mechanical work and one for
electrical work. Cost estimating seNic:es 1n
most commonly used where that capability is
not present in an office. In tair1y recent,....another consultant has appeared :..... the specifications consultant or material rese chel. eor.uttants may also be used to provide information
regarding required for good preparetiolt and equipment; for product handling of all types; for
fire protection and sprinkler systema for a mi8ceffany of special items,materiels, or processes.
In an engineering office where erchitlectunl WOfk is not normally done, the architectural work is
not normally done, the architectw81 firm may be employed as a consultant. Infrequently, experts in finance, real estate,~ timitaf fields may be employed but are not usually considered as consultants .



Most consultants require a fee tor their serices and the amounts of such fees are included in the
architect' s fee . Some consultams provide services without charge, but these depends a great
deal upon local conditions 8Rd customs. Fees may be arranged in the same manner upon local
conditions and customs. Fees may be arranged in the same manner upon which the fees of the
project AlE are: Fee arrangement might include percentage of work provided, hourly rate, time
or material agreement, lump sum. ot any other method that is mutually agreeable.
Services provided by venou. consultants very nearly as much as do the consultants
themselves. Basic engineering -.rviCes may be limited to structural, mechanical , or electrical
calculations providing only mir*num rough sketches . This arrangement requires that the
employer of the consultant does ell of the finished drafting and other detailing. Probably a more
satisfactory agreement one in which the consultant provides iinished drawings as well as
presentation calculations~ proper specifications section . With this type of agreement, there
must be good cooperation
the two parties in order to assure that the drawings are on
the same type sheets. tt.I..,.Ofications are provided with proper typing, section indicators,
and on the same type n 11 s.



The architect normalty cillecdw ~.s his own consultants, in which case he also assumed
major responsibility tor their work as his own. In some cases , various consultants are engaged
by the owner and direc18d to woltt with the architect, and vice versa . This condition leads to
some confusion and ~-difficulty. Most of the time the owner e!Tiployed consultant
is not a structural. mectliclll. or electrical engineer doing a major portion of the object work.
The consultant is more ofMn.,. ~tor, researcher, or advisor who makes surveys regarding srte, placement, tnffic .,... or other feasibility-type requirements. In connection with
industrial projects, the
c:anaJitant maybe the plant engineer who may be a great help
to the E/E unless he tries 1D becoiM .,_designer of the project. With this type of consultant the
responsibility must be deerty dilfill8d as some ideas or recommendations of the consultant may
not mesh wlth the overall-- of the AlE.


The project development is e-n effort requiring the best talent within the least time. Many
offices feel that their own sqft' ia fuly capable of doing all of the work required, and perhaps
they may be - but can they do good a job in the same time or less than the expert specializ-


ed consultant? It's doubtful the architect's office must be aware of the capabilities of both iU
own staff and the consultants and must cooperate fully to benefit by the employment of outside assistance.
In the smaller office, there is usually a shortage of time for the few employees to do all of the architectural, structural, mechanical, and eletrical work involved in producing a pro}ect, even if
they had the capabilities. In the larger office, the tendency to have specialists, or at least those
specifically . assigned certain portions of a project, is greater. With the increase in types of
materials, methods of installation, environmental qualifications, code requirements, and the
hundreds of other factors, it may be expected that we will continue to require more and more
specialist or consultants.



Structural consultants to an architect are most always registered civil or structural

engineers. Their training and experience have been slanted toward calculating requirements for size and strength of beams, columns, footings, walls, etc. In some areas
where earthquakes occur, structural engineers also will do all seismic calculations for the
proposed project. The same general arrangement holds for areas where huiTicanes, tornadoes, or cyclones and prevalent. The engineer also generally has a staff of draftsmen
who are capable of providing working drawings for the structural work. Few engineer's
offices however ere staffed to provide properly organized structure! specifications. This is
en unfortunate situation which may be the end result of inadequate instruction, or none at
ell, in the education of the engineer. When the agreement for services only includes rough
sketches from the engineer, they may or may not be provtded to scale and usually are on
various types of paper and not very coordinated. The architect then needs to arrange
these sketches in proper order, affix designators, coordinate them with his other drawings. and of course provide specifications from the engineer's notes. Calculations are normally provided on sheets that may be duplicated and passed on to building review depart
When the structural engineer is required to provide the working structural drawings, there
Is an additional burden on the architect to supply information materials. Initially the architect must supply "dummies" of the floor plans upon which the structural columns and
beams wit! indicated. In some cases only the standard bordered sheets are supplied and
the engineer makes the " dummies" from a line print supplied by the Architect. Along with
the other drawings the engineer usually provides standard details in several forms. Quite
often these standards are assembled on a single sheet and may be repeated over and over
on different projects. Structural sections of the construction, special details, and copious
notes relating to the strength of the materials are a part of the structural drawings.
The engineer is a\ao responsible for providing the calcutations by which the structural
members are designed. Each portion of the building must be proper-designed to meet the
building codes and the total structure must be designed for eanhquakes, hurricanes, and
other acts of God. These calculations must be in producible form in order to make copies
for the building department review, as well as review by the architect. The specifications
may or may not be developed by the engineer. The format for the specifications is
established by the architect. The architect also detefm\ned the proper section numbers for
the structural sections of the specifications. The actual information, the words and
phrases, may be types in the engineers office and incorporated into the final specifications
by the architect's specifications writer, or the engineer may supply adequate notes and
the actual writing is done In the office of the architect. The latter is perhaps more satisfactory as tha architectural specifications writer can separate structural concrete from
miscellaneous concrete (walks, gutters, fence foundations, machinery bases} and


perhaps structural stee! from ornamental metals. Uniformity of appearance and

paragraphing is easier also since the same team of writer and typist work together.


Consultants for mechanical work and electrical work may be from separate offices or may
be from one office which has facilities to perform both. Before we go further let's be sure
or what we mean by mechanical. This term usually includes plumbing work, heating
systems, ventilating air conditioning, and perhaps some more specialized phases such as
special piping, solar systems, or even nuclear work. Any of these must be designed
specifically for the project and requires a thorough knowledge of the requirements as well
as a thorough knowledge of materials available, codes, and the project area temperatures,
rainfall, solar conditions, etc. The electrical consultant must have approximately the same
qualifications, oriented toward electrical work, of course. He knows the utility company
rules and the local conditions. as well as suppliers and electrical contractors.
The same requirements for drawings, calculations and specifications holds for mechanical
or electrical consultants. However, education and experience here seem to favor the
engineer's personnel. For the most part, architectural people are not trained adequately in
mechanical or electrical working drawings and probably would normally not be able to
properly transfer rough diagrams, often partially indicated, to finished working drawings.
A pipe or wire shown incorrectly connected may give some interesting results . Specifications written for mechanical or electrical work also are different. Since these installations
operate a system most engineers write their project specifications as a system rather than
as separate materials ptus installations. To do this they must be familiar with the assumed
operation oftheir systems. something the average architect doesn't know about.
If the project cannot be built ~ithin the budget, the designer is in trouble . One of the
methods to avoid this trouble is to do cost-estimat~ng before the project goes to the contractor for a bid. Only larger offices normally have in-house cost estimators so consultants
are regularly used. These consultants often do work for contractors as well. so are familiar
with material and labor costs. Cost estimates are quite often provided at the preliminary
stage, partway through the working document stage, and a final estimate is made just
prior to the distribution of documents. The competent consultant can give a reasonable
estimate even at the preliminary stage since his experience allows him a very good idea of
the amount of reinforcement required in concrete work, average in-place costs for various
items, and the going rate for labor and profit. When drawings are more complete, the
estimator of course, can make an accurate quantity take-off and p1'lce estimate.
Close cooperation is as necessary with this consultant as it is with any other. A change in
size, or quality usually means a change in costs. Adequate drawings, including structural,
mechanical, and electrical are required . In some cases the cost estimates for mechanica lelectrical work may be provided by the engineer consultants "who have designed that
work. When this happens, the cost consultant needs this Information to incorporate into
his work. Estimates are usually provided for the architect as a series of pages of calculations w ith a final recap . There is no reason for this information to be duplicated, but it
should be provided in a form intelligible to the architect. A review with the estimator.
should be a part of the agreement.
The specification of the finishing hardware is as specialized as moat any other part of a
projeet. Finishing hardware includes all of the locks, latches, butts, hinges, pulls, closers,
stops and other metal, wood, plastic, or combinations of materials and products that are


necessary to operate doors, windows, and cabinet work. tn some cases the additional
items of medicine cabinets, toilet and bath accessories, or specialized hardwares are also
included. While not often registered or licensed, hardware consultants most generally are
certified members of the American Society of Architectural Hardware Consultants. This
society has a training and certificate program which qualifies its members to specify
almost every type of finishing hardware that may be required. These consultants know
the code requirements for openings of all types and may eliminate costly errors of all types
and may eliminate costly errors or omissions. In many cases these consultants are
employed by a hardware supplier or manufacturer and provide free services. In other in
stances the consultant is free lance, and works for a free similar to other consultants.
One of the often-voiced objections to the use of an employee of a hardware distributor or
manufacturer is that this sets up a closed specification in favor of the brands carried by
the employer. There may be some slight advantage to the consultant's firm but this is real
ly not as great as it might seem since each consultant firm but this is really not as great as
it might seem since each consultant is thoroughly familiar with the products and stock
numbers of his competitors. The use of a definite series of identifications or brand is the
easiest and the best way to small out requirements, and is readily transposed by other
hardware consultants consist of a review of the drawings and the provision of a typed
listing of hardware required. Final inclusions in the list, together with other specifications
information, are the responsibility of the architect.

The specifications consultant is a relatively new addition to the list of specialists. In the
early days of architecture and construction a small variety of well-known materials and
methods of installation were in common use. Todey the variety of materials reaches into
the hundreds of thousands and the architect simply cannot keep up with all of them in ad
dition to his other work. The specifications consultants, by virtue of his specialization, is
able to know more about the qualities of materials, advantages, or disadvantages of use,
availability, and some idea of cost. By working from the architect's drawings and attending conferences, he is able to develop a better specifications. In large offices the normal
specifications writing force may become overloaded and can be assisted by a freelance
"spec" writer. In many cases this consultant is employed as a researcher or materials for
certain uses and does little or no writing other than material reports.

The landscape another specialist that may be retaineo as a consultant by the
architect. In a few cases, the normal situation, the landscape architect is usually the consultant and provides drawings and specification for his specialty. Arrangements for this
work should include all of the requirements discussed earlier. Layout for planting locations
may be provided in sketch for final inclusion by the architect or may be completed by the
landscape architect. Specification, specially when they include the botanical names of the
plants are perhaps best produced by the landscape architect is the fact that he knows, or
certainly should know, exactly which plants grow best and provide the best appearance
for a given location. Some exotic varieties_of plants look good initially, but are not comJ)Itlbte with the soil or climate.

Sooner or later. nearly every office has a project which includes a condition or installation
almost completely foreign to the general practice. Special requirements for food service,
cooking, serving; storage, or handling, may require the expertise of a consultant who
knows food handling methods and the equipment required. Transportation or conveying
equipment is rather commonly used in industrial and manufacturing plants and usually re


quires a consultant familiar with this type of equipment. Water proofing, acoustics and
lighting are two very common specialized fields in connection with theatres, TV installations, and similar projects, and most often require a consultant's service. There are many
others that we could consider (surveyors, finance people, insurance consultants, fire con
trollers, video-audio experts) who may be necessary when the project is too complicated
or the in-house force may have to spend too much research and development time to be
Up to now in this chapter, the consultant has not been the architect. This Is becoming less
true as the construction business rapidly changes. In a number of cases there may be a
construction management identity employed by the owner to provide all required services
from purchase of land to completion of construction. Another process is the employment
of a general contractor who contracts for all of the design and construction a "turn-key"
job. In either of these cases, the architect may be employed as the consultant and provide
his specialty, design, working drawings, and specifications to the construction manager
or contractor. As noted in another chapter of this book, the architect may act as consultant to an engineer who may, under other circumstances, be consultant to the architect. If
this seems a little confusing let's consider a situation where a mechanical engineer is commissioned to redesign a power plant or refinery. The major portion of the work will be piping and machinery, but there may be some changes of floor plan, exterior elevations,
finishes, and other more architectural items. In case of this kind, the architect may easily
be the consultant.

Even the smallest office must at some time or, other rely upon books, catalogs, magazines, or
some other form of reference material. Seldom does an office become so specialized that
similar projects are worked on without some changes, hopefully changes for the better.
Reference material appears and may be retained in many forms. but information sources for architectural offices may be categorized into the following major groups; architectural or
construction-type magazines, manufacturers or materials catalogs, codes of various kinds,
association "how-todoit" manuals, and reference texts.
Each of these references sources should be readily available to all members of the office staff

but the factor of filing and retrieval is one of utmost importance. In the very small or one-man
office, the problem may not be very acute but as the office force grows, so does the difficulty
of proper filing and accessibility of reference material. In the small office, storage may be a
relatively easy matter accomplished by the use of bookcase located at ends of drafting tables or
.at the side or behind the draftsman. With an increase of office personnel, the probability that
reference material will be misfiled and therefore lost is apparent. With an office of ten or more
this often becomes a major problem. At this point it becomes almost imperative that the office
organize a library.

Libraries are varied in size, operation, and personnel required. One of the most simple
organiz~tional methods is to use the sixteen divisions, all materials related to the same
general subject may be filed together. A major problem arises, however, in how to place
individual pieces of informational material within each major division. Two ways present
themsE\Ives: to file alphabetically within the.divia.ion, or to file by subtitle of the division
title. In the first case, it means that libra(y users must have some general knowledge of the
scope of the division and may have to look at several pieces of reference. In the second
case, it means that some catalogs may have to be dismembered in order to separate
various related subsections. In many cases the first condition serves best for bound or


loose-leaf catalogs installed on shelving, while the second condition may be used for filedrawer systems where catalogs are single sheets or small booklets.

A librarian may be employed to oversee the library operation. Since for office employees
will know the exact information source they need when they can come to tne library, it is
recommendend that they be allowed to inspect the material much as in public library
stacks section. once a selection has been made, the material should be checked-out to the
individual by the librarian, using standard library-type cards or by notations in a book kept
by the librarian . Retrieval is a bit more difficult. By retrieval we must include all phases
necessary to return the information material to its proper place on the shelf or in the file.
The librarian alone should do this! A box or basket at the librarian's station should receive
all returned material. If it has been properly marked originally for division etc., the librarian
should have little or no trouble in replacing it properly. A book or catalog replaced on a
wrong shelf, or in a wrong division, by an office member is a lost reference until accidentally found at some later date. Reference information in a lost category is of no value to the
office and simply takes up valuable space.
All shelf-fited catalogs of books should have a readable division number fixed to their exposed bound edge. Self-adhesive plastic strip numbers in contrasting color will do the job
but some individual offices may find that the figures are a bit small tor easy reading. For
larger size figures it may be wise to consider contact pressure-transfer types which can be
purchased in sizes up to several inches high. A disadvantage w ith either of these is the
possibility that darker plastic strips or black transfer letters may not show up well on dark
bindings. In this case, it may be necessary or desirable to provide a white or light-colored
gummed label first , with t he identification applied to it.
Quite often It is necessary to provide binders for loose material or that information which
is separated from a larger cat alog . This brings up a real problem since there usually are a
number of different types of different manufacturers that will be represented in the accumulated collection . The binder may be a post-type or ring-type, but the latter is more
adaptable to changes that need to be made. Each binder needs a table of contents and
some identifying tag on the exposed edge of the binder, indicating the manufacturers contained therein.
Another method for quick identification of filing divisions is the use of separators between
divisions. These may be made of fiberboard or similar material and should prominently
display the division number, possibly the adjacent numbers on opposite faces, and
perhaps the tiles of the divisions . To also help,it may be desirable to apply labels of some
replaceable material on the edges of the shelves. Another time saver in the hunt for a proper catalog is the prominent display of the Uniform System or other filing system.


All literature saved for reference will not be supplied in hard-backed binders for shelf
storage. Many manufacturers with good products, but limited in number, will have
catalogs of only a few pages, usually unbound. Again these should be f iled using the six
teen Divisions of the Uniform System w ith possible subdivisions or sections. If the offices
uses a master system for writing specifications, the identifications used for each
specification section will serve ideally for establishing subdivisions or sections. If no
master system is used, it is suggested that the five-digit separation of the Uniform System
be used. In either case, the small catalog or single sheets should be properly identified
with division and section number for easy refiling.
Standard vertical cabinets with pull-out drawers are used in most offices and provide considerable storage space with minimum f loor space at the line. Five~drawer-high cabinets
have the disadvantage that the top drawer may be too high to provide easy visibility or access to its contents. Some offices have used side-opening file cabinets where the entire


length of the file is exposed when the side is opened. This type allows more free access to
the frames and metaledge folders. Each office will have a preference but in the process of
establishing a workable system they should not overlook methods with which they have
not been familiar before.

Every office and uses samples of materials of construction. When the number is few they
may be easily located on a desk, in a bookcase, in a box, or even in a small ~ile in the
"back room". If the office customarily uses the same materials over and over, minimum
labeling is required to keep track of various items. In many cases small samples of ceramic
tile, resilient flooring, and similars are boxed by the manufacturer so labels are not
necessary. As the office business and personnel grow , so do the number of different
samples. When the products of one producer were adequate for a smaller project, now a
number of-similar or equal products may need to be considered. No longer can samples be
piled on the desk or in a box for one project. Comparison is required for other materials for
other projects and a system must be devised.
Again, call the Divisions of the Uniform System into play . Provide boxes, bins, or some
other convenient containers for each product or similar products. Into the same box file all
samples of resilient flooring for example. If there are too samples divide them into similar
categories, i.e., asphalt tile, vinyl, cork, rubber. etc. Boxes should be sturdy and not too
large to be difficult to handle when loaded. Upon the exposed end or side, put a large division number and a list of the contents by material and supplier. Label each box, carton, or
individual samp le contained in the file box, with division number , manufacturer ' s
representative might also be inscribed to make communications with him more rapid if
Sizes of individual samples sometimes pose a problem. Full size ceramic tile samples may
be 1 % x 4 ~, or miniature (about 1 ~ x 1 ~) depending on the manufacturer's choice.
Most other samples may originally be larger, and consequently harder to store. A good
size for almost any sample is 6" x 6". Pesilient flooring (usually 9" or 12" square),
acoustical material (usually 12" sq. or larger). and many other materials supplied in standard sizes should be cut down to fit the storage module. It is obvious that full-size samples
of doors, windows, skylights, and similar products cannot be expected to be properly
stored. A 6" x 6" comer sample will usually indicate all of the construction adequately.
Bricks, stone, structural steel shapes, roofing, generally may be treated in like manner.
When a larger sample is required it is normally for a particular project and is not a general
office sample. Label each sample properly before storing it in the correct box or bin .

Project samples are acquired and used for one particular project and may be discarded
after the project is completed or may be stored in the general sample file. Selection of proposed materials is generatly made from general samples but the actual color, pattern, or
other feature may be slightly different for project installation. These variations come
about due to batch differences, changes in manufacturing techniques, natural changes in
stone or wood, dropped patterns of colors, and other processing problems. Samples may
be most any size, especiaaly those that are token or small general samples. Upon receipt of
project samples, they should be checked for proper labeling. Labels describing the
material, project identification, supplier, and other data are usually affixed by the provider
of the sample, and project samples are customarily supplied in from two to six or eight
identical units. While only one sampie unit may be retained by the office project manager,
the others are needed for me genera) contractor, hia field superintendent, subcontractor,
material supplier, and possibly the Bf'Chitectural field man .


Project samples, if approved for installation, shoutd be plainly marked as APPROVED and
should have the date and name or initials of the person as approving the unit retained by the
project manager. When the project has been completed, and the project samples are no longer
needed, they may end up in one of two places: the general sample storage, or in a completed
project storage. Ultimate .storage will depend a great deal upon space available. If project
samples go to the {Jenera! sample storage, it is suggested that an additional label be attached
indicating date of completion 'for future reference. If space is available, and the office practice is
to retain project samples for a period of time, they are essentiany dead unless, or until, they
need to be dug out for remodel matching of the project or some similar reason . A good label,
indicating the project and the various samples endosed in the box, may save a lot of time if a
search is made at a later date for a particular sample.
Almost every manufacture's representative engineer, consultant, and many others have
business cards which list company name, representative's name address, and phone
number. These are left with architects or engineers to provide a ready reference. Cards
simply thrown in a drawer have a little or no use and may just as well be thrown in the
.wastebasket. Filing of business cards for easy reference is quite easy. Most cards are of
fairty uniform size. usual!~ about 2' x 2 'h '', and may be filed in the empty boxes that the
A/E office cards come in. Separator cards made from light cardboard and indicating the
sixteen Divisions of the Uniform System are ideal for providing easy card references.
Cards kept by the librarian in this manner are much more usable than when kept by in.
dividual project managers or in books or other manner.
One of the most important details necessary for library information and related samples is
the date received. This also holds true for most all literature that is to be retained, in
eluding business cards of manufacturer's representatives. Put a date on it when it is
received. This may be a simple but legible scribble with a pen on the outside of a catalog or
upon a business card or may be a standard date stamp. Some offices will even have a
catalog register in which all incoming material is listed before it is filed. This may be overdoing it just a bit, but serves as a good and rapid guide to check any material that may be
lost and If organized in the Uniform System makes it easier to find information by divisions. If more than one copy of a piece of literature is carried, each should have a number
to facilitate keeping track of it. Nothing is more useless than out-of-date . inforr('ation
unless it is material without any date.
When does informational literature or general samples become obsolete? Generall.v , when
they are superseded by newer or revised and up-to-date replacements. The normal urge is
to juok the obsolete material but in many cases, this may be the wrong thing to do in an
A/E office. In some cases, remodeling, or additions to a project, may be made easier if
original material is available, especially samples. With the present situation in regard to
responsibnity of a project for years after its completion and use, an AJE may want to, or
have to, prove materials were installed as approved by samples. Space, required to maintain this storage properly may be an important factor.
Many companies carry older copies of Sweet's catalog file in reserve for several years
beyond their current dates. Old copies of the thousands of separate manufacturer's
catalogs would be a virtual impossibility, Otd specifications are usually stored on shelving
and prov\de an easy reference for both materials and style. They should be used as a
reference however and not used to copy "cold" as changes may have occured in


manufacturing or during construction. Depending upon the volume if work done by the
A/E these old "specs" may take up little or lot of shelf room. Filing of drawings of completed projects is another matter. A good clear set, preferably "as-built" set with all job
changes, nine locations and inverts, and other deviations marked, may be stored in rolls
and racks or stored flat in drawers. Each should bear a tag indicating project. date, type of
construction , and other useful data. Rack storage needs to be organized by type of project
of year of construction and a good index !(ept up to date . A similar index is n~ed ed if
drawer storage is used and each drawer should bear a label of its contents. Project
manager's notes, changes orders, etc. are usually stored in file cabinets along with financial information or design criteria and general correspondence relating to the project.

Magazines of all types relating to design and construction will sooner or later become
another problem for storage and retrieval. Current or newly late copies are usually
available in reception rooms. then at project manager's or designers' desk, then at
dratsman's boards, and finally in the "coffee room". Some may disappear as various o1fice personnel feel that they need a certain copy more than the office does. After a period
of time some offices gather up the old magazines, together with old catalogs, and give
them to schools for student references . Other offices file magazines.
Normal filing of magazines by title and month of issue is practically a standard procedure.
Contents may be indexed by duplicating the issue table of contents and keeping these in a
binder for easy reference. This method minimizes the labor involved, but has the disadvantage (perhaps) of including all of the advertising in the magazine. One possible solution is
to periodically tear the various magazines apart, separate interesting articles into
categories lchurches. hospitals, methods, business), bind these into booklets , and junk
the remainder. If property done this will, for a time, provide good reference material for
design and other areas. The J)f"incipal fault seems to be in the fact that the selected
material eventually becomes too old for the value of preparation and storage .

A considerabfe amount of other mat~rial will gradually gather which requires proper filing
to be useful. This information comes in the form of building codes, mechanical or electrical codes, ASTM files, specification guides of various types, "how-to-do-it" manuals,
and trade association sta'lderds. Standards reference books on many subjects may also
form part of the reference library and should be available for check-out the same as
catalogs or other material. Controf over all reference materials must be maintained, as
misfiled or missing unit ant lost units.


How much money does it take to start a new business? There is no firm answer to this question
since one business may start off with a flourish and another start with practi_cally nothing. One
rule-of-thumb indicates there shoWd be enough cash available to sustain a business f9r six
months to a year without furthef income. If we accept this rule, how much does it take in
dollars? or in Pesos? Hopefully. the operators of the new effice have a little "nest egg" and a
client or two with whom they are currentfy working. Until those first proiects are complete,
however, the cash flow is. going out .-.d there may be some slack times in the future when
there is little or no income.
Even before opening the principal(s) should sit down and thoughtfully and carefully consider all possible aspects of the pnt:Sent and future financial conditions. Known factor are

the present income, house or car payments, food, utilities, and other living expenses.
How will a personal business affect medical insurance, is there an existing bank. loan,
what amount of savings, stock, or bonds are available, and what about family recreation?
On the minus side of the new business venture, there is office rent, utilities, furniture, in
surance, office supplies, and a big contingency item. Perhaps on the plus side there is a
project commissions. Make a budget and do not forget that your former check/paycheck
will be a thing of the past. You are now the boss and regular income may no longer be so
Considerable thought should be given to the matter of office size and personnel since
these are two of the most expensive items the budget may show. Most AlE offices start
small , often with only the principal as the sole employee. If this will be the case for the
new office, it is very probable that physical space may also be small, but what may happen if another person is employed? Even a oneman office may need, and want, space for
several positions in the drafting area as well as reception and conference rooms. How
much will the additional space cost o\'er a period of time as compared to the cost of moving each time the office grows? If the new office is to be a partnership, how much cash or
other resources does each of the partners have, what income are they expecting do the
additional person or persons increase required office space and expense? Make a com
prehensive study and a realistic budget before you quit your present job to start your own


In order to know if the office is profiting , the new principal must establish some sort of accounting system: a bookkeeping method which he personalty may maintain or at least of
which he knows the rudiments. It is entirely possible that the expense accounting used for
home and Internal Revenue may suffice for the Office system to a more complex one may
be devised. The most simple is the day journal in which all daily transactions of expense and incomes are reeorded on the same page but in different columns. This method
may work for a time but has a several disadvantages the principal one being the difficulty
of determining the relationship of income versus expense on any one project, except with
much searching and scratch paper calculations . A second major disadvantage is one that
probably is important to any system; posting of accounting items needs to be done when
they happen or are reported. Unless only checks are used to pay expenses, "chits" or
notes should be made out for every transaction .
The next step from the day journal is some form of double-entry system. Here the day
journal may still be used for initial entry of an item and as a quick reference for day-to-day
activities, but is expanded to allow separation of accounts, and information. In addition to
the journal pages, there are pages for a number of accounts such as rent, utilities, equipment, payrolls, and for each client. Operation is relatively simple. As payment for rent is
made, it is noted in the journal for general information and on the page for rent as a
specific item. As time on the Jones project is noted as an expense in the jou~nal, it is also
noted in the pages for the Jones account as expense. If a payment is received from Jones
it is recorded similarly, except as income. Properly kept, this allows a quick check for
items in a day journal and an idea of expense versus income for client accounts .
Beyond these two simple systems the principal(s) may want to consult a qualified and ex
perienced accounting firm. There are several reasons for this suggestion. By the time this
point is reached, the principal no longer has time to actually do the bookkeeping, nor the
time to properly review the work of someone else doing it. In addition, there are probably
items of depreciation on equipment,- notes or accounts payable, accounts past due, convention or educational accounts, payroll deduction of various sorts, insurance {property)
as well as medicai, and a host of others. The accounting firm may set up a different
method or may expand the existing one, may handle the actual book entrles or instruct of-


fice personnel, and may also act as tax consultants or financial advisors. In any case, it
may be to the advantage of the principal to thoroughly understand the system, even
though he may not do the work, since he, partners, banks, or Internal Revenue, may want
to know what it's all about some day.


Credit is the early advancement of money or services against payment at a future date.
There has almost always been credit advanced by someone to someone else but present
day business operated about 90% on credit. Credit-charge-cards, banks notes mortgages, all are credit originated. Sooner or later the A/F will reach a situation in which he
needs more money to operate than he has and will need credit. In many cases this is not
even a matter of having the available money, but one of convenience. Few offices payday- to-day bills for office supplies, blueprinting, automobile fuel, or even utilities on a
cash basis as they occur. When major expenditures are contemplated, it is often
necessary to obtain credit from a lending agency and this process requires certain declarations of financial solvency by the applicant. One of the most common declarations of such
conditions is the financial statement which shows assets and liabilities of the applicant.
Along with any discussion of credit we might also consider the matter of loans. Loans are
a bit different from credit in that loans are secured by some collateral owned by the applicant. Usually a loans arranged through a bank and the bank may accept stocks, bonds,
mortgage, even an unpaid for car. as security for loan. The bank will probably not lend full
value of the security, and quite often may require collateral in the amount of two or three
times the loan amount. Loans have a time factor for payment, and may or may not be
renewed. If the loan is not repaid, the lending agency may sell the collateral and keep their
loan and expenses. all as agreed upon by the person receiving the loan. Any remaining
money is returned to the defaulter.
In order to determine if an A/E is making a profit, or working at a loss, it is necessary to
first have some information or estimate of costs of the project. Larger or older offices have
a basis for costs that they can apply if they actually make up a budget or not. For the new
office a great deal may depend upon an educated guess. The proper budget includes all of
the direct expenses such as design, working drawings, specifications, consultants if any,
and perhaps blueprinting. If possible, the cost of securing the commission is also considered as a direct expense, and an estimate of administrative and field observance costs
needs to be included. In other words all items that can be estimated from previous work
and have a direct bearing on the project need consideration.
Indirect expenses includes variable amounts of the rent, utilities, furniture, secretaries'
pay, office supplies, and similar items that cannot be totally charged to any one project. It
should be fairly obvious that each of these is necessary, but how to charge their costs
equitably is the problem. The total cost of each item is calculated per year or per month
and then the total of all indirect costs calculated. This amount is then developed into
either a percentage or project costs, or an hourly rate figure which can be applied to direct
costs. This total indirect cost varies from as low as 40% to as high as 90%, however,
60% to 70% is more normal.
An additional factor needs to be considered. This is the item of reserves, or money put
aside for a time when business may not be so good and the A/E needs a savings account
to fall back on. The actual amount to be included in a project budget is determined by the
A/E, less the total of direct and indirect costs. When the total budget is calculated; the A/E
may find that his hourly rate is very low or that he may even be operating at a loss. Some
economic writers and some professionals advocate that young, or beginning, A/E' ~ ac-

cept projects which indicate a loss, with the idea that such clients will hetp to build up
goodwill. This may be advisable if the client has other large project, for which the AlE is
fairly certain to be retained, few successful businesses have ever existed that continue to
operate at a loss.


One of the most important records that the A/E needs is the record of time expended to
produce the construction documents. This cards for draftsmen, as well as the principal,
are useful for cost accounting, budget planning, performance of employees, as well as for
payroll, purposes. The time card needs to coincide with the pay period and may be weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly. A time card need not have an excessive amount of information,
but certainly needs the employee's name, space for project names, space each day tor
time worked, pay rate (although this may be entered by the payroll clerk), and in some offices a space for a work code. Wort< codes clarify the type of work done by the employee
and more than one office uses the following symbols.

Securing commissions, conferences, correspondence

Preliminary work of all types, drafting, estimates
Design development, drafting, estimates, renderings
Working drawings of all types, some offices subdivide this category by number into structural, architectural, landscape, heating, ventilating, etc.
Specifications, combinations with P or 0 may be used for preliminary or design
development phases.
Field work of all types
M or A - Management or administration
For the accounting department this allows separation of each work activity for each pro
ject. This, of course, is vitally important if an accurate account of profit or loss is to be
determined of each project. For the A/E principal, these time cards provide a background
for later project budgets. The cards also may indicate, to some extent, the ability of the
employee, either compared with other employees or against some office standard. Ability,
in this case, can only be a judgment of the speed with which the employee works, and can
hardly indicate his skill, which may be more important than speed.

NOTE: The following Sample Documents

are available in Booklet forms
at the UAP Secretariat office.


~~ ,~




DATE : F R O M - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

NAME : -------------------------------DESIGNATION:_._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

















-- --



SIGNATURE: _ _ __ ___








PROJECT NO. - - - - - - - PROJECT

DATE-----------------INVOICE------ - - - -- -

PROJECT LOCATION - - - -- -- - - - -

REF. N O . - - - - - -- - - -- BILLING N O . - - - - - - - - - -

OWNER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Our rec:or<b show that this amount is due at this time

0 Schematic DesigrrPhase
0 Design Development Pl\ase
0 Contract Document Phase
0 Construction PhaSfl
0 Reimbursible Expenses
0 Others

On the lbo>,e sul:>ject/proi'tct, the sum of--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - -

---------------------------------------PESOS (P _______________
The present status of the aec:ount is as follows:







ARCHITECT'S PROJECT N O . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PROJECT _________________________________

PROJECT LOCATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


AEF.NO.-----------------------------PLEASEACKNOWLEDGE : ___________________

{ ) Rei:eipt of enclosure



Return enclosure to us


( I Under separate cover

( ) As per your request


( I Approval
( I Information

) Use

) Revi-/Comments
) Cqly/Recocd

( I Distribution


l Sce<:ifications

l I Drawings

Change Order

( l Shop Drawings

( ) Samples






III No Action Needed


For Signature and Return to Office


For Signature and Forward under Remarks

See REMARKS below

REMARKS: ________________________________________________________________

ARCHITECT : - - - -

















0 For your signature

0 For your information
0 ~=or your files
0 For your approval


0 For immediate action

0 For your comments
0 For typing (Final}

0 Please handle
0 Please note & return

0 Please investiga te & report

0 Please see/call me


Please advice
As you requested
Please make draft



DATE:--- ------------

INPAY.MENTOF : _________________________

Architects' Project N o . - - - - - - - - - - - RECEIVED FROM

Project - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Project l o c a t i o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - THE SUM OF: (amount in words)

Form of Architects' RegulliT Services:

0 Schemati<: Design Phase

0 Design Development Phase
0 Contract Document Phase
0 Construction Phase

0 Reimbursible Expenses

By: __________________
Title:._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

0~'----------~---------------FORM OF PAYMENT:

0 Cash


0 Check No.

















l .















As the office begins to show a profit, there may be consideration to expand or to put the
money into some sort of investment. There are several types of investment that may be interesting but some have built -in chances that the A/E should realite. Except in ext reme national financial depressions, or emblezzlement, savings account in banks or saving in-loan
organizations are safe, guaranteed by the government, and draw interest at a stipulated
rate agreed upon in advance.

Stocks and bonds represent a possibility for investment. Company stocks are issued to initial investors and sold ~ r resold as the company prospers. A stock may be originally
valued (par value) at say , one dollar. The company may then develop a process or product,
make a good profit and the value of the stock goes up and a dividend and a dividend stock
is declared. As the company prospers, noninitial investors are willing to pay more than the
par value of the stock and as more demand is generated, the price of the stock also increases. Stock buying is a gamble. There is no guarantee that the price one day will be
more or less than the next day, nor that there will be a dividend. The A/E who invests in
stock expects to hold those securities until the market price increases to that he may make
a substantial profit by resale. Should the market price drop, the holder may sell at a loss or
hold the stocks until they again rise, maybe tomorrow or maybe in a year or two. Preferred
stocks have first call on company dividends .
Bonds are pledges of a company against their property or equipment, or for payment of
principal and interest. Instead of issuing stock or obtaining a bank loan, companies, cities,
t he federal government, and another organizations issue bonds. Bonds are bought or sold
in units determined by their face value and usually are in amounts of P1 ,000. Most bonds
are some sort of coupon attached, each of which represents, and is negotiable for, certain periods of interest. Discounted bonds are sold at less than face value and are
redeemable with the holder's name, some are not. Nonregistered bonds are transferable
and may be cashed by anyone.
Real estate offers several opportunities for investment. Outright purchase of land or a
building appreciate enough for a number of reasons, but tie up money in rather large sums,
even if loans have been arranged . Other properties, in need of loans, may secure t hese
loans by mortgages .t1ich bear interest and have a due date. Mortgages usually carry
rather high tnterast end often are arranged through realty or savings-and-loan companies.
Occasionally an oppof'tunity may arise in which an A /E may agree to accept part of his fee
as an investment 01' pert--ownership in ' project he design. In general, real estate offers
long-term, large sum investment possibilities that may not be advantageous to the A/E.


Prof it sharing is one fonn of reward often used tn the A/ E office to encourage better efficiency and reduce costs of operation. The theory is quite simple: a profit budget is set up,_
the employees wM a rrttte harder and faster and complete the construction documents at
less than budget estirNte, and additional profit shows on the accounting books, and a
distribution of the savings (or part of them) is made to the employees. The theory is great,
but the practical appkation is a bit more complicated. To begin with, there must be a
reasonable and proven basis upon which to establish the production standards. This may
be determine by reference to similar projects if adequate work records have been kept.
The next problem is to decide who gets what pert of the excess profi+. In most cases a
substantial portion is retained as office reserve, w ith the remainder divided among
employees and princip.t(s) in proportion to their positions or salaries . In many cases there
is a recruitment for n*linun veers of employment within the office, and the payment may
be made at inteJvels of months or upon the final accounting of a project. In addition to the

added money for participating employees, this method tends to promote interest in the office and an effort to reduce production costs.
Retirement benefits are very common in our present business world and many A/E offices
have such plans. Most have requirements for a minimum length of employment in the office plus a retirement age to be reached by the dependable employee. Two major types of
retirement programs are in operation : total participation by the office atone, and a plan of
wages which are matched in some manner by the employer. Either condition needs to be
thoroughly investigated with a good tax counsel and accountant as income tax situations
differ in the manner in which the money Is saved and paid. Retirement funds are usually
deposited in a trust funds or similar account, or may not be invested for their interest earnings. Considerable bookkeeping is likely to be involved, but the system tends to create
longevity in employees and a feeling of belonging that is beneficial to office operation .

More and more the burden or withholding portions of wages for various taxes has become
the problem of the businessman and the A/E is no exception. Major items withheld are for
income tax, social security, medical or health benefits, and possibly for retirement. The
A/E should investigate these requirements as soon as he considers hiring any employees
as there are stiff penalties for failure to comply. Philippine income tax deductions begin
when an employee's pay reaches P6250 and, depending upon marital status and number
of dependence, ranges from 17% to approximately 6% of the gross pay. All of these
deductions must be accounted for in the name of the person involved , and very careful
records must be kept. In addition, the employer is obligeted to provide matching funds for
some types of benefits so the best advice is to consult with the proper authorities before
becoming involved, especially since the methods and amounts are continually being
There are several other; but overlooked, minor expenses that are continually required of
the AlE in business. First probably is the registration fee to practice Architecture or
Engineering. The professional's identification card must be renewed every three years
with the profession&{ Regulation Commission, in accordance with Republic Act. No.
6511. The fee will run up to Seventy five pesos (P75.00} for three years.
Most cities require a business license to be paid by any form of profit-making enterprise
within the City borders. Such a license is. normally subscribed to annually and the fee is
Seventy Five !P75.00) pesos for one year. This is normally called the PTR or Professional
Tax Receipt and is written in the Professional's Plan and Specifications.
Membership in professional organizations seems almost a must in our current society, and
may be Yery well helpful to the A/E in a number of ways. The UAP, which is the accredited
Architects organization usually charges one hundred fifty peso~ (P150.00} per year.
Similar fees are charged by PICE, PAMEE, PIEE, AMIEP, ASEP and others engineering
Professionals should also register his receipts with the Bureau of Internal Revenue and
secure a tax account number. At the beginning of the year, he shall secure also a
residence certificate A and B.
There are many benefits that a professional can get in joining professional organizations.
Social as well as professional benefits through regular meetings, exchange of tdeas, and
educational programs are gained. Most often than not, the large or main distributors or


manufacturers of important materials promote their products through product presentations. The professional gets a first hand infonnation of the latest products where
brochures and samples are give free.

Insurance is defihed as coverage t-"{ coubact whereby a company agrees to guarantee a
customer against loss under specified conditions. Public liability and property damage {Pl
and PDJ are perhaps the most common of insurance policies, excepting life insurara-..:e, and
. provide protection against liability for njury or death of a person or property damage incurred in an accident. Accidents do occur in the office, in connection with automobile
operation, at conferences and construction sites, and are not always limited to office per
sonnel. Even though a c\aim against the AlE may not be granted, the co&t of defense may
be considerable, so adequate inswance should be provided.
The A/E should also consider cm.r general forms of insurance to .minimize loss. Fire in
surance of furniture and ~is relatively inexpensive, but may mean the difference
between continuing or closi."lg business if 8 fire occurs. Along with normal coverage of
furniture and equipment, me AlE may want to consider a special policy or "rider" which
would compensate tor k)a of ~awings and other office records by iire-water damage.
The ideal protection is dupication and remote storage, but this is expensive, time consuming, and very convenient. Office storage in fire proof safe or vallft may also be an answer,
but such devices are also ecpe~lsi'lr'e, may not be available, and are worthless in any prolonged or Intense fire.


W orkmen's compensation insurcJnce protects the A/ E against claims resulting from the injury or death of employaas through industrial accidents. In most accidentS cases there
must be negligence shown by someone in order for the injured party to benefit. This is not
true in industrial accidents. Many states now have compulsary workmen's compensation
insurance, either carried by employers or through companies on the approved list of state.
Along with this type of insurance, a number of states also have systems for unemployment paymems or disability compensation, paid fully or partially by the employer. Since
each state have diffetent requirements, it would be impractical to list all conditions her.e
but the AlE has ecords to keep and, in most cases, money to pay out, so thorough investi-gation shoukl not be amiss.

Almost every business CXMISidafs means by which they can create a good impression on the
general public or influence IP8Cial groups of individuals to patronize their businesses. Architects and engineers_.. no different than any other businessman. By the use of public rela
tionship the AlE may promote his own business and increase the stature of his profession in
g~neral. To be effective in eny public relation to public needs, and to communicating the office
position to the pu~ic.
The evaluation of the posi1jon of the firm should include what the firm currently has that t l)e
public needs , or can provide, if or when a new service is wanted. This opinions in regard to
community activities. To communicata ~ office position requ ires 8 good interpretation of services available and an effective WfiY to present the information to the public. Selection of the
proper medium is most impootant .Swell as proper timing. Quite often the anticipated pub.lic
relations release or activity is almost literally cancelled due to poor timing although considerable money and effort may heve beenspent to produce it. The A/E must choose a proper
medium, time, and content for any public relations program .


A very great deal of the profession of architecture or engineering involves public relations of
one sort or another . Professional services must be "sold" to clients the same as any other product or service. This may not be the idealistic way to look upon a profession, but it is the truth
nonetheless. Public relations includes adyertising, and although the major architectural society
in the United States and in the Philippines frowns on advertising as such, there are a number of
ways to obtain this advertising in the guise of. public relations also includes membership in
various organizations, public speeches, project signs, magazine or newspaper stories, architectural compet!tions, office brochures, entertainment, and a variety of similar approaches . Public
recognition of the architect or engineer and his work is a natural desire.
Architects or engineers belong to organizations, professionals, social, or civic, for a
number of reasons. They belong to professional organizations for the prestige involved for
interchange of professional ideas, and perhaps for a few contacts that may be made.
Membership in social or civic organizations may provide direct contact possibilities to
become influential committee members while diligently working for worthwhile projects.
In the case of civic organilations. These contacts may be the supervisors, attorneys, and
others who are important in determining who is considered for architectural or engineering
work for the city or other political body. In the case of service organizations, the selfsatisfaction gained by working on club projects is complemented by some business contacts that may teed directly or indirectly to architectural work . Strictly social clubs, yacht
clubs, tennis clubs, and the like, serve a dual purpose in providing recreational facilities in
addition to possible contacts with future clients. Social clubs also provide opportunities
and comfortable accomodation for entertainment of clients or prospects.
Personal activity in professional organizations often adds prestige to the image of the

A/E. Holding the office of president, or other administrative office, indicates to the general
public that the person is held in rather high esteem by his fellow and that they look to him
for leadership. On a national basis the same is true except that local opinion is now greatly
reinforced by the support of members in other areas, some of whom know the person
only by his local reputation as a good leader . A similar but less important status may be
achieved by elected leadership in service or social organizations. A certain amount of
prestige is provided by being an officer of one of these clubs and interchange of club activities may provide contacts that could be advantageous. A word of advice at this point
may also provide valuable. Oo not be carried away by the honor of being elected an officer
of any organization to the extent that it threatens the business operation or the AlE's family life. In a number of cases, especially if the individual operates one-man office, the
amount of effort, time, and money used to attend to responsibilities of club office, drains
the professional office of required leadership and creates problems with the family. Money
expended may be directly out of the AlE's pocket since most organizations have only
token reimbursement for expense incurred for attending meetings and other activities.
Time away from the office is another major consideration . If the principal in a smal\ office
is gone a great deal of the time, client contacts, as well as offjce supervision usually suffers. Continued absence from the family, due to club activities held at night, weekends, or
in a distant city, also may be a cause for discord. The A/E should consider all of the advan
tages as well as the disadvantages of being an officer of a club before he accepts nomination.

Architecture and engineering are interesting subjects to the general public and of special
interest to certain groups. Opportunities continually occur to speak before organizations
of all types and the accomplished spe~ker is invited on more and more occasions. Each
speech not only reaches the immediate audience, but may be picked up as newsworthy by


newspapers, magazines, radio reports, or television. The latter may also develop into additional public appearances for the speaker.
Speeches must be organized to be informative and interesting to the audience and should
be well enough rehearsed to eliminate reading of a text, although infrequent reference to
notes is acceptable. At projec!-opening ceremonies or dedication activities, the architect
may not be called upon to speak but tnis visible appearance probably would seldom hurt
him. In many areas the local schools have career days inVolving various occupation, and
this. is also an opportunity for the architect or engineer to speaR to be seen.
Both architecture and engineering expose the practitioners to more direct contact with a
questioning public than most any other professions. There is a continuous quest for new
clients that is not present in the medical field, and in many businesses the client or
customer returns again and again due to economic rather than professional reasons. Each
AJE will be expected to represent that group at 'pulse-feeling" meetings of city, county or
planning commissions and should be able to express himself adequately, without the
presence of stage fright, is a bid advantage in doing business and influencing others.

Project signs are one of the most inexpensive yet most effective means of advertising or
public relations. These project signs may be single units indicating the name of the architect responsible for the project. or may be billboard size with colored rendering of the
project, names of owner, architect. consultants of various kinds, contractor and list of
subcontractors, financial lender. and other related information. Most offices have an
established format and original for project signs: usually one for wood or metal signs
' which may be fastened to the building or support and one made on paper by printing or
blueprint process to be attached to the glass in windows on stores or remodeling work.
Some communities or clients have special requirements regarding project signs. so care
must be exercised to avoid complications.
Project signs should be large enough to be easily read at a little distance usually from the
adjacent street. They should be well d~signed with a good clear indication of the name of
the architect, the word architect. and office location.
Fancy backgrounds, intricate lettering or office logo~, or clashing color combination
should be avoided. If billboard type projects signs are to be used, the size, name sizes and
arrangement, colors and other design detailing should be done by the.architect and a com. ponent sign painter engaged to do the work. Quite often the contractor and several subcontractors also will want to put up their project signs on the job so instead of a clutter of
individual mismatched signs, the architect may specify a billboard project sign as a part of
the contract.


This type of public relations or office publicity has certainly had its ups-and-downs over
the year~ and probably will continue to have them in the future. In either case a published
article accompanied by photo reproductions is good public relations, but there are both
policy and personal problems connected with each attempt. In order to be publishable a
building designed by an architect or engineer ml!st solve a community problem, be an
award winner, be timely in regard to ~ new trend or method, or have some unusual
qualities of size, shape or location. Publication may occur at the start of a project, at the
completion years after because of special conditions or interest, upon receiving an award.
or at some extraordinary point during the construction.


Newspapers are interested in what is happening now and therefore have a different interest in the work of an architect or engineer. Newspapers are interested in projects affecting the community, the environment, or other current events. Often the A/E may prepare
good copy for an artlcre about his project, describing the solution for a particular problem,
or the Introduction of a new concept. Most newspapers are eager to have such news articles, but occasionally a paper adopts the attitude that since architects do not advertise,
the newspapers w\U not give them free advertising by printing their articles, their names in
the article or even their names on delineations. While this attitude may be quite rare, it is
also a challenge to the AJE to prove to new ~itors, via lunches, professional meetings, invitations to "open house" activities, that AlE's do have newsworthy projects for publica
tion. The A/E who desires newspaper publicity must remember that time is of the essence
for newspaper st ories, so delay of article preparation, wrong size or type of photographs,
or similar factors missing a deadline by a day or an hour, may mean no publication at all.
Magazines operate in a different manner than newspapers, so a different approach is
necessary. Most magazine articles are placed through professional public retations firms
or professional photographers with magazine contacts. Occasionalty, a magazine special
features editor will seek the architect or engineer. but this is not the most common procedure . The A./E provides the information, but the actual story is most often written by a
reporter or staff writer. Good professional photographs may be edited from the final article
due to space requirements or timeliness. The matter of timing is import in magazine articles also, but not in the same manner as for newspapers. Two types of artic4es require
different time consideration. The feature article may need several months advance planning and writing in order to appear at a certain appropriate date. Articles about winter insulation are not common in mid-summer; articles about construction or design of exhibitions needs to coincide with openings; some special issue of magazine may neP.d planning
far in advance. Another type of magazine publicity is with "filler" information supplied by
AlE's. These are usually short descriptions of a special feature, photographs of a special
details, or combinations that are not time-dated .
Such material is filed by the magazine until some occurrence prompts publication of such
material from several so_urces, some seasonal reason is apparent, or perhaps simply to fill
out a page or column . Both newspapers and magazines can be a source of good public
Most architectural competitions fall into one of two categories: those that search for good
ideas by a board of trustees or sin:'ilar body with no intent or consideration for compensation to the entrance , or competitions organiz~d to include a selected entry list and to provide equitable pay for each entry, and a contract to the finalist chosen. Young architects
are usually the ones involved in the first type and occasionally gain a contract, but the
basic idea is one of putting one office against another and then selecting the most
desirable aspects of each entry. Quite often the parameters are poorly defined and the
judging done by inexperienced amateurs. In the second type, the requirements are fully
defined, each entrant receives some remuneration for time spent, judging is done by ar
chitectural professionals with some lay help, and a contract is awarded . With a wellorganized competition, it is possible to obtain news media exposure before and during the
event, and the possibility of good follow-up during constructioin or at completion.
Competitions require time to prepare and this is one of the greatest drawbacks when an
office is busy. A considerable amount of advanced planning is also necessary as most
competitors is usually made through professional, or trade magazines, by mailed flyers or
invitations, and in many cases by manufacturers on a yearly b~sls . Submittals normally require several plans and elevations, often in color, properly coordinated, and on standard
sized boards. Judging is generally by a selected jury and contestants are not present at the


critique. Announcement of award is generally by the same media as the original announcement of the proposed competition, and submittals are returned to contestants who
supply shipping facilities and expenses.

Almost every commercial organization of_., kind ha&~ brochure which they use as a
public relations document . Many ot these firms distribute these brochures is advocated
but some ideas are suggested. Brochures should be up-to-date showing good samples of
the work that the office has done. In -*~ilion, the brochure should contain a complete
resume of office personnel. Ourte oft8n photographs and individuals resumes of principals
are included . Two methods are used to include photos of completed projects . For general
use and without speciahzation, an office wm include work as many different varieties as
possible. In some cases a large office will include only office buildings; if a laboratory
building is anticipated, only photos of laboratories will be shows; or if a church is to be
considered, only churches are included. This procedures is not possible where an office
has had considerable experience end a variety of project types. Copies of award citations,
publicity' clippings, and other data favorable to the office, may also be contained in the
brochure . Cover and binding should be well designed. Brochures should present the best
picture of the office but should not be self-laudatory or bragging in nature.
Financial consideration is a big fac~or an preparation and use of office brochures. Blackand-white printing or four-<:0101 printing command a considerable difference in cost, but
both may be used successfully. Many brochures are fairly simple resumes of an A/E office,
designed to be left with a prospective client, and cost can be reduced by using black-andwhite reproduction. More impressive and more expensive, brochures include may
photographs, color logos or other embellishments, high-quality paper stock, and are provided for display only at conferences or other meetings . Generally, t hese more expensive
broch ures are kept by the AlE for multiple showing:
While not strictly a brochure, many offices maintain a file of 3 5 mm color slides showing
the office, personnel, and proiects for brochures or other presentation material and have
rather limited or spea.l use. When used in the home office of the A/E, it is possible to have
a projector and other equipment set up and seating arranged for easy viewing. If the file
and equipment are to be used at the client's office, the A/E should be sure to obtain prior
approval, determine if the equipment can be set up without undue inconvenience, provide
a screen, extension, cords and related gear, and do everything possible to make the
presentation interesting and convenient. Slide shows should be carefully organized to include only pertinent information, should be long enough to prevent boredom, and should
have good accompanying narration.

Entertainment is a perfectly legal and logical method to publicize the office. Lunches, dinners, theatre parties, yachting cruises, and similar entertainment allows and semi-social
exchange between the AlE and the prospective client. In a relaxed atmosphere it is often
possible to " talk shop" while playing golf, or at some other entertainment. All such entertainment needs to show customary good taste in its proposal and should have t he
possibility of producing business. tn a good many cases the A/ E may find that he, consciously or unconsciously, selects the same golf foursome to continue this entertainment
even after initial contact has accomplished its purpose . While this may be good for his
golf game or card game, it does not materially increase his number of business contacts.
Entertainment like most anything else, can be overdone . While a certain amount of productive entertainment is perfectJy legal, for tax purposes you must be able to prove with
whom you were, what was the business reason for the entertaiment and a reasonable


Perhaps one of the most influential factors in public relations takes place in the office. By
this term we mean the actual office location and appearance, as well as the quality of
work produce and the personnel employed. Each professional, of course, has his own idea
of what a good office is, but a hard to find space in a run-down industrial area of a city is
not likely to impress prospective clients. The rent may be cheap and the space adequate,
the location may be near the center of town, there may be ample parking and all other
desirable qualities, but the overall picture would not tend to indicate a successful professional practice. Perhaps a smaller space in a newer office-type building, with the
possibilities of good street exposure and ease of location would be a better solution. Often
a small buitding housing, real estate offices, contractors or engineers, or others related t o
construction is available, and a certain amount of remodeling or decorating may be advan
The interior of the office itself, especially reception and conference should reflect the
general attitude of the office. Natural wood paneling and natural wood trim may indicate
that ~he architect likes the feel and appearance of wood and .use-s i't in his design work. A
more modern atmosphere of stainless steel or chrome furniture with lots.of glass. may indicate a feeling for more industrialized design. Photos of renderings of completed work are
almost a must, and should be periodically changed to offset any feeling that only a few
projects turned out well enough to display proudly. Cheerful, courteous, well-groomed
personnel also reflect the office feeling and prompt attention to phone .calls, mailings , and
similar work strengthens the publics feeling of competency.

A number of more minor public relations activities may bring new contacts or retain contacts with former clients. Attendance at openings by a principal of the office is a must and
quite often is accompanied with appropriate flowers or card of congratulations. Keep up a
good relationship with contractors, real estate people, manufacturer's representatives
and other who may have contracts through their businesses or social groups that the architects does not have. Christmas card and birthday or anniversary cards also serves as a
reminder. to past or possible clients, that you are still in business and availab~e if needed.
Other opportunities will present themselves from time to time and the A/E should be able
to work out methods depending upon type of client, type of project, and his own desire or
ability to perform. Remember however, that in the long run, the well-designed building
and the pleased client are the two important public relations devices that any professional
may have.


In order to engage in the practice of architecture, one must have some tools and
equipments before the practice has been estl!lb,ished long. Also some money presumably
will been earned. Some of this earnings may not be due, some may be due but not col
lected in lieu of cash. If services are paid in cash, a part of the cash may be left in the
treasury of the firm. It is also convenient to use ctedit with firms from whom purchases
are made .
Anything owned. that has exchange value:
a) Cash - may be changed for something else at any time.


b) Accounts Receivable - consist of sums of money owned by the business and which
are due.
cl Prepaid - .some of the income of the business may be earned but not yet due. As an
example, accrued income, if working drawing is done _!lalfway, it is accrued while the
preliminary sketches are accounts receivable.

These are usually securities, but might include real property owned by the firm but not
used for its practice. The purpose is to enable the firm to earn some income on the money
which has been set up in reserve funds.

al Automobiles - The most sellable item. In any Architectural practice, one automobile
for use at least part of the time is necessity.
b) Library - the second most sellable item is an up to date Library, which is essential for
progressive, intelligent practice.
c) Models and Art Objects - As an aid to developing an impressive atmosphere. This
may help to stimulate business.
d) Furniture and AppHances - More essential part. These may have somewhat the same
as art object, but the ~se is mainly necessary to carry on the work of the firm .
e) Alterations of Leased Property - If office space is rented, it is often necessary for
alterations as to make it more suitable.
f) Building - If the firm own the building it occupies, its value would be called asset entitled building.

There are items of indebtedness of a business
aJ Vouchers Payable - payable items among liabilities. The most urgent are current bills.
b) Notes .Payable- money is from the bank or a loan from an individual or business, a
written promise called the note is usually given bearing interest and due at a stated
c) Prepaid Income - it may happen in practice that a client will pay in advance for services to be rendered. If this is done, the architect owes the client the service.
d) Accrued Expense - such as the salary ot an employee which is -earned but not yet
el Long Term Indebtedness - it might be that a firm would find it wise to buy or build a
building or any additional equipment which would be paid for over a period of more
than a year. This is a liability.
a) Capital Investment - when assets are purchased for the conduct of .a business, part of
the money may be borrowed and part furnished by the owners of the business.
b) Reserve for Slack Periods -The probability that some time in the near future there will
be a period during which the volume of the work in the office is insufficient to operate
the business at a profit provided for by the establishment of a fund.
c} Surplus - Any profit left in the business in addition to reserve funds.
If a man produces more of anything than he and his family w ish to consume, he may:
a) Trade it to someone who has surplus of something h.e may want.
b) He may save it for future use.


Accumulation of money by an individual may mean

al that more value has been produced by him than he has consumed.
b) that by assuming risks, he made profits.
c) That he has loaned part of his accumulation to others with interest.

An architectural office, operating successfully under our present economic system shoukj
make profit where conditions are normal. To accomplish this, the total income should exceed the total expense.
If a firm is to avoid bankruptcy, when losses results from Its operation&, it is necessary
that a reserve fund be accomplished from profits during periods which are normal.
When responslbiUty, such as that assumed by an architect, must be carried, risks of losa

goea with it. Some risks can be recovered by insurance but every enterpriser must carry
the principal rlsics of his business. Possible cunent uses, therefore, often are provided for
by a reserve funds which may be called reserved for emergency.
Payments fof service rendered by architects shoutd be In proportion to their professional
ability. Salaries should be large enough to serve as recognition of the long years of training
and the high caliber of native ability required. Since an ar.~hite_~ may usually be mote
valuable to his own firm than another, the salaries of the principals of a firm should be
somewhat higher than could be earned by some Individuals as employees of another archltecturat firm.
The income from the operation of an architectural practice comes mostly from fees from
cltenta. Income is really earned at the times the service Is rendered rather than when the
service Ia paid for. An architecturaf firm might possible be successful therefore, during a
period when more money is being paid out than received.
If a firm hes accumulated earnings for reserve funds, and surplus, this should be invested.
Thia produces more Income in form of interest or dividends from the investments. Such income is called non-operating income. Non-operating expense is usually small, being
limlted ~inclpally to the actual expense of managing investments, including payment for
time devoted to his activity.

1) Direct expense - includes all items which are incurred in connection with definite
building projects.
a. Job development
b. Production
c . Administration
Ex: salaries of technical personnel cost of consulting service cost of btueprinta &
reproductions traveling and living expenses outside of agreed local area. Long
distance and telegraphic message cost of expendable drafting materials.
2) Overhead Expenses - includes all items which continue whether or not there are
many jobs in the office.
Ex: telephone and telegraph charges, photographs, use of office and drafting
equipments, office supplies, salaries of non-technical personnel use of library,
transportation, management salaries, taxes licenses, contributions, gifts.
Formula: Profit = income - expense



It is worthwhile for an architect to establish his own practice, that practice should pay him
a salary at least as large as the salary he would receive where he is employed by another
firm. lf the work of the Architectural Office is being carried on from the home. a charge
should be made for lights, heat and janitor service. Also a portion of the telephone bills, a
portion of automobile expense and a portion of depreciation of automobile should be
charge against the business.
(By: Eduardo l. Roberto. Ph. 0.)

W hat is Marketing in the Practire of the Architectural Profession?

If Architectu re is the art and science of building then Marketing is the art and ~cience of
satisfying building needs better than now or better than others.

" What is Marketing as a Management Area?

It is one of the management functions carried out through the four management processes.








______._ ~


" What are the Management Processes?

What is Planning?
Deciding what to do now to improve the future.
What is Organizing?
Deciding who will do what with and under whom.
What is Implementing?
Deciding how to do what, when and by w hom.

What is Controlling?
Deciding how well plans were organized and implemented so that the next planning,
organizing and implementing will be better.


What are the Management Functions?

* Look at yoCJr income statement: Pro Forma with Ratios



(Under Marketing)

INCOME: ..... ...... ..... .... .. .... .. .... ... .... .... .. ..... ... .. ... .. .... .... ...... .... .. .............
Architectural Service Fees



(Under Operations)

EXPENSES: ...... .... .. .. ....... .. ..... -...... ....... ... .......... ... ... .............. ............. .
Salaries. Benefits and Allowances
Professional Fees
Transportation and Travel
Materials and Supplies
Amortization of ?reoperating Expenses
Repairs and Maintenance
Taxes and Licenses
Representation and Entertainment
Interest and Bank Charges



3 .2%



(Under Finance!



Marketing Architectural
Selling professional service is a matter of communication, and this is the process by which
ideas are exchanged . In the past years professionals got a number of clients obtained throug"
personal friendship and contact. However in recent years, the number of clients has multiplied
and more and more they are corporate or committee in nature. This means that the selection oi
professionals becomes a group decision based on analytical processes, rather than individual
To cope with the consequences of all this, modern society has developed a whole range of new
techniques of communications, marketing, advertising , promotion , public relations, merchandising, propaganda, and publicity. These are the terms and the tools.
There are four basic levels involved in communication :
a. Recognitton of the need: if the client who wants a custom house first calls in a builder . It is
obvious that architects have incomplete communication.
b. Clan ldentiflcatlon: when the local school board or highway department sends out invita
tion for professional service proposals, who w ill be on the list? Professionals must be sure
their firm is counted in when all the firms. Tl'\ey consider equal are invited to submit proposals.

c. Competitive preference: The client will say one office looks better, one is cheaper. etc. So
from a dozen firms under considefatlon, the choice is narrowed to two or three. Here
Salemanship is important. A critical challenge to the professional's communication program
at these stage is how an individual firm can have an identity different f rom or superior to
its competitors.
d. Selection : How one professional firm win a commission over its closest competitors is an
equally complex and sometimes capricious process. It involves information, personality.
strategy and some luck, all of which are elements of commun ication . The name of the
game is salesmanship.
Is Marketing Ethical?
Is Marketing Professional?
What really counts in the marketing of professional services is whether a given technique or ap
proach reinforces the professionalism of the seller to the client. In practical fact, most of the
techniques prohibited by professional society ethics prior to 1970 are not ve~y useful because
they don't sell in the market place. Those few that do help haven't lowered the standards of
professionalism one bit.
Is Marketing Ethical? If It is professional , you bet it is ethical.

Marketing deals with what you sell. Sales deals with how you sell it. There is a distinct difference between this two. The distinction begins with the difference between a product and a
service. A product, in the sense of, for example an automobile, is a predetermined object which
one buys or doesn't buy according to how the features it offers appi.Y to one's needs.


In the product world, marketing determines what is to be sold, and selling is a clearly distinct
function which tries to persuade as many people as possible that the established model is just
what they want.

A service. on the other hand. is frequently marketed and sold at the same time. The customer
who wants a bridge or building designed is originally more concerned with the process by
which the engineer or architect will design it than with the end result. Considerations such as the
firm's professional response to the program of the project, its approach to project management, and
ability to meet budgets and schedules. and the personal chemistry between buyer and seller are the
elements being purchased.
As the skillful design firm adapts what it can do to the particular needs of the assignment at
hand, and puts together a persuasive proposal demonstrating why its approach is just right for
this particular project, it is marketing and selling simultaneously.
In this context it has been demonstrated time and again that firms which offer a truly
remarkable service will have lots of good assignments whether they are doing any active selling or
not. Conversely, it has been equally demonstrated that firms which Jearn to sell but don't have much
to offer will have very much less if no clients at all.


Every business has an image from the moment it opens its doors. The founders of a given
business can, by their approach. endeavor to shape their initial image. A new professional firm
may, for example, wish to be known for "design", or for "highways". or for "comprehensive
service''. or any one of numerous special qualifications or talents. It is up to the principals to
decide what image they want. and in this context, there is no such thing as an image being
"good" or "bad". In practice. every professional will be concerned with two different images.
First - is the image of the profession as a whole. Second is the image of his own practice.
Individual professionals cannot escape from the image of their profession, whether they like it
or not. If people believe that Engineers are stodgy and architects are expensive, no single pro
fessioinal (no matter how change that on their own.)


The public image of engineers of architects as a group creates the market for professional services. But it is the image of an individual firm that will capture a share of that market. The same
principles ot image analysis apply when an individual iirm is planning its own marketing
strategy. Foremost is the need to be sure that your view of yourself is shared by your clients
and prospective clients.
When all is going well, and a firm has a good batting average in competition for projects plus a
high ratio of referral commissions walking in, it can be assumed the firm's image is positive.
This does not mean. however, that the principal's view of the firm's Image is the same as the
image held by clients. For example a firm that thought itself as strong in land planning services
because it had most of the work in town, found through an image study that it got the work
because it was cheaper. not because it was thought of as particularly strong professionally.
Since the firm was having trouble making money, the image study demonstrated that it had a
much larger marketing problem than was originally recognized.
In some case studies. it was found out that to improve one's office in terms of winning competitive commissions. the name of the firm should be changed. If the principal architect has
been there for quite some time, who has earned a negative image such as being opinionated, inflexible, and hard to work with, clients were reluctant to give work to the firm as long as he was
perceived in control. So the solution is to retire him, put a young architect in control and limit or
omit the founder from further interviews.



There is a distinct step-by-step sequence by which professional services are offered, considered, and commissioned. From the professional's standpoint this business development proces.s can be divided into eight steps.

1 . Market Research - determining what kind of work you want to do and where to get
it . .

2. List Building - identifying those with whom you want to be in touch.

3. Bird-dogging - beating the bushes to f ind the live ones.

4. Strategy Research - learning enough about each quarry to determine your choice of
selling weapons.

5. Courting - the art of making professional relationships.

6 . Paperwork - preparing the forms and questionnaires.
7. Interviews - putting yourself across

8. Closing - making the sale


This has two simple objectives:

1. Determining what kind of work you

w~n t

to do.

2 . Learning how t o find those who sponsor this work. According to professor Theodore
Levitt of Harvard Business School. There are four phases in life expectancy of products or. services in the market place and knowledge of their cycle can be critically important to the timing of marketing strategy.

PHAS&' , ., I I

,,_, ,___ ___1,_..



- - --



- .. - --......__ .. - -





a. Market Development - the phase when a new service is first brought to or required by. the market, but before there is proven demand. Volume is low, and
creeps ahead very slowly. There is generally very little competition. An example is
when the first condominium was introduced to the Philippines .

b. Market Growth - the "take-off" stage when demand begins to accelerate and
th e size of the total market expands rapidly. In Hotels, it was caused by tourism
and world conventions. In school buildings it was caused by a baby boom. This is
the most advantageous time to be in a market from a ~arketing standpoint. At the
same time there is the sharpest increase in demand and the fewest competitors.
c. Market Maturity - eventually demand begins to level off as the market need
becomes satisfied and continuing volume is matched to national growth or
replacement requirements. At this stage many firms have jumped on the bandwagon
and there is rnore and more competition for a static market. As a general rule, by the
ti me one sees example of a new project type rising across the landscape, that market
cycle is w ell into maturity and it is late to cash in big.
d. Market decline - eventually every service fulfills the demand or loses appeal or
relevance . This is particularly true of the project and building type markets of in
terest to engineers and architects, because of our society's habit of "solving" nat ional priorities one at a time, ex:, the Government's highway program, the
renewal of hospitals. etc., at this market stage there is more competition from
firms that are geared up, but there i.s less and less w ork to go around.

The process of conducting market research is to establish:

a. What market or pro;ect types will be investigated?

b. What territory (tocal, nationwide) will be studied?

c. Who are the sources that can be contacted for information? (Call or write the national
office of associations and find out who of their Chapter or national Officers are based
in the territory your are studying.


Once a firm has selected the market it wants to pursue, the next step is to identify those
who commission professional services for this work. At this stage the objective is to
prepare a list of likely prospects to be. contacted later in search of leads. The yellow pages
or the local phone directories is one source of list building. The Architect can write at least
a hundred companies by inquiring if they have proposed projects and need the services of
an architect.



The Sales activity known as " btrd-<iogging" implies finding and pointing. This is done by
non-professionals who sometimes do the job on the payroll of architect/Engineer organizations. Bird-dogging is inteligence gathering, not sales. The bird dogseeks information for
the hunter, and when 1he dog finds a target it onJy points the direction for the hunter to
The bird-dogging of potential clients for a design firm is exactly the same. The }obis to firid
"information, not to sell. Thus, in practice, it cannot be emphasized too strongly that birddogging calls should not be used as sales calls. It is wise that birddogs do not carry
brochures when they make calls. This allows a request for a brochure to be answered later,
by mail or messenger or return visit, accompanied by a tailored sales letter aimed at theparticular opportunity that has been uncovered.
Bird-dogging, then begins with the list, which ideally contains:
1 . The names of the organizations, institutions or' companies in a given territory that
may use the particular service one is interested in providing.
2. an evaluation of the list in order of priority of contact.


3. The name and address of the executive in each organization who considers professionals and receives proposals.
And from these contacts the professional will want to find out:

4. Whether the organization uses professional services such as the firm offers; and

5. Are any specific projects in prospect in the foreseeable future?



Finding the range before firing

There is nothing in the process of selling quite so exciting as the moment when one uncovers a genuine prospect who has an active project under way and is seeking the professional services one offers.
Often, this moment arrives by mail from one of the organizations the professional has been
bird-dogging. The letter will outline a scope of service required, and will ask if the firm
wants to be considered. A questionaire may be attached. to be completed and returned by
those who want to stay in the running.
If the professional firm is really lucky, it may encounter a live project before it has competitors and while the field is relatively clear. Don't start the hard sell yet! This is a time tor
strategy research. If you are going to sell yourself effectively later. now is the time to learn
five things.

1 . Who is the Prospective Client?

In addition to knowing the client's bus'mess, it is important to know who the people
are who run the organization. All sorts of annual reports, catalogues, and directories
list these names. It may happen that the officer of the firm seeking a professional is a
friend, or a relative of one's client and this is good for referrals .

2. What is the Program?

Every client has some sort of a program in mind. and it is wise that the professional
will know all they can about that program before they start selling any services.
Things to know are:

a. How did the client decide what it wants to build?

b. Are the program requirements to be developed by the professionals who are about
to be hired?
c. If a detailed facilities program has already been prepared, is this to be rigidly
followed or will the new professionals be able to contribute to it?
d. Is there a budget? How was it arrived at, and how fixed is it?
e. How will the project be financed? Is construction money available, or will money
have to be raised after preliminary design 7


f . How will the project be built?

3. What is the Site?
The professional should find out where the site Is. and should visit it. Most professionals agree that the character of the site has a very significant bearing on the
design , quality, .and cost of any project built on it. At best, the professional's comments about a site which was already selected by a client may do much to
demonstrate a philosophy of approach, and thereby help convince the prospect of the
professional's suitability for the assignment . . The professional who gives good advice on an adverse site will invariably gain respect, and often will get the job.

4. How will professionals be selected?

Strategy is all important in effective selling, and the prospect controls all the ground
rules that influence strategy. These include:
a. How many firms will be considered .
b. How they will be initially screened {by written submittals or interviews).
c. How many firms will be considered in the final interviews .
d . Who will do the intetViewing.

e. What questions the intet'Vlewers will want to discuss.

f . Where the interviews wiU be held (Is the room suitable for showing slides?}

g . How long the intenriew will last?

h. Will price proposals be requested prior to selection? If "yes", how much weight
will be given to the lowest price?

i. How the final seection will be made?

j. Who will make the final selection 7

5 . What is the Timetab'e?

There are two \2) important timetables
a. The proj~t timetable. Obvtousty, an extreme timetable will influence a professional firm's ability to handle the job.

b. The timetable for setection of professionals. This ties in directly with the other
aspects of strategy discussed above. From the sales point of view it is particularly valuable to knOw the " considercrtion time" that may be alloted between receipt
of written submittals and selection of those to be interviewed; and the time be
tween the end of the interview and the final decision.
Knowing these timetables may open up valuable opportunities for follow-up submittals,
personal contact, and other erhk."tive techniques for salesmanship. When the timetable is
not known. a great deal of effort can be wasted. And so the best way to Jearn the timetable
is to ask the prospect.
After getting the answers. there are three important questions the selling professionals
must ask themselves.

1. Do we want the job?

2. Have we any ChanCe of getting it?
3. It we go after it. wtwrt is our best strategy to win it?
ln prac!ice, there is a tremendous cost in losing . Internally the energy that is spent putting
together long-slot Pfopos inflates the marketing budget and, more importantly, detracts
from the kind of maximum energy that should be applied toward the ones you really can
win. Externally, it is neYa"" w*t to let a client reject you because you have no bl.!siness trying to get the job.
There is no faster WfiY to gain respect to one's professional judgment. than to withdraw
from consideration for a job which is not your cup of tee. In other words, write the prospect an~ tell them the truth. If you .cannot tackle the job, tell them it is not being handled
by your small office. The moral is always to put the best foot forward. If it looks like one
has no chance of getting particuler job, don't go ahead and strike out. Every time a board
of peers considef's and rejects 8t professionals, your batting average declines. And when
average gets too low, not one wiJa give you a chance.


It can be assumed that all the competitors will have access to the same strategy data. But
it is highly unlikely that any two c ompetitors w ill interpret all this data the same way . The
judgments you make at this stage will give you the greatest opportunity to establish your uniqueness in front of the client and hereby walk away with the job. It is good practice at this
stage of planning and pursuit to review the following:


1 . What is the real job?

2 . .What do we know about the prospect (personality, position, decisionmakers, influences, preferences, etc.)?

3. What do we know about this prospect's project:

- the objectives
- their view of the problem
- What they need from us (scope of services)?

4. What is our view of:


the prospect's objectives

the prospect's problems
what the prospect needs
alternative approaches to the project?

5 . What does the prospect expect to hear from us?

6. What does the project need to hear from us?
7. What project team will be involved?

8. How will we present our approach?

9. What is the single most important message we want the client to know about us?
You have the chance to adopt virtually any sales strategy you choose. The correctness of
your choice in terms of whether you win or lose will depend, more than anything else. on
the quality of your original strategy research. If you know everything there is to know
about the prospective client, the assignment, the compef1tion, and the process of selection, then it is time to start selling!

All along the way, every selling pursuit involved courting the prospective client in order to
develop rapport and confidence. In practice, some firms initiate in high proportion or all of
their marketing at the courting phase. These firms know of certain active clients with
whom they want to work, and they focus their business development effort or getting
known by these clients. Today's clients demonstrate a high degree of openness to new
approaches and new faces.
Courting by definition, is the process of establishing a level of professional relationship
that makes the client comfortable with the idea of working with you - usually well before
a decision is made on who will get the job. In every professional service, people must be
comfortable with whom they are worki[lg if either party is going to get the most out of the
professional relationship.


There are three requirements to successfully court a professional relationship:

1. Be known

2. Be credible

3. Be useful
The routes to becoming known are simple. One way is to be introduced and this can beeffective if the right person makes the introduction. The person making the introduction
must have equal or greater credibility than by which you wish to be known. Lacking an introduction, the easiest way to become known is to introduce yourself and then reappear
regularly and often enough so that your name and even your face - are remembered and
recognized. Getting known is iust this sort of process with all prospective clients. You
must reappear at discretely regular intervals generally 60 to 90 days apart- and be patient
enough to keep at it for six to nine months until you are readily recognized.

BECOMING CREDIBLE invotves both what is conveyed during the get-acquainted visit, and
who does the conveying. tf the courting is done by a professional who is prepared to be the
architect or Engineer for the client, the credibility conveyed will be quite different from
what it might be if the catle.- is seen only as a sales representative or bird-dog for the firm.
The bird-dog's role is to get information and finds the leads, and so only card-carrying
registered professionals are given serious credibility.
In any market, if the design firm's representative doing the courting is seen "only" as a

salesperson seeking work, credibility will be hard to establ~sh. Whoever is doing the courting must make genuine efforts to project a useful benefit to the prospective client, if any
sort of credible professional relationship is to be developed.
There are many ways to proiect the kind of benefits that will gain credibility. One way is to
be an expert in the project type and make it clear to clients you know their business and
may have something they can use. This is why a great deal of credibility is given to architects or engineers who appearonprograms_at .!ient trade associations, write articles for
client trade magazines. or otherwise become rccoqnitcd in a clien's field WhP.n h1s~~ professionals go courting, they are always way ahead of the generalists in establishing
If the firm has particular strengths in personnel, location, process, cost controls; or
whatever, these can be conveyed during the courting process to gain credibility. A good
practice, when courting is to look for something specific to take the prospect on each visit
- perhaps a printed pro;ect report that might be of interest, a reprint, of a trade magazine
article about the firms wortt, or a new edition or supplement to the firm's brochure.
The last but not the least route to credibility is through civic or professional associations. If
the client sees you perform weH at something-even a wholly different activity - you will
gain stature in the clients eyes. This is why professionals who are active on civic boards or
in professional society affairs do so well when they seek work from clients who are aware.
of these roles. It is not the contacts that are made in public/professional service, that are so
valuable, rather it is credibility you gain as one who has demonstrated the ability to lead
and get things done.
The final element of the courting process is being helpful. When courting reaches the stage
where the prospect is comfortable asking for advice or a favor, and the professional is
comfortable giving or granting it. a nature relationship has been established that will inevitably yield mutual benefits OVet' the long run.


- Letters, Ouestionaires and Proposals
After contact is made and a project of-genuine interest is identified, the 'lext step is to I

the prospect know if the firm is interested in being considered for the commission. How wal
this is done - normally by letter and/or by completing a questionnaire - is critically important. With the introduction of price competition into the selection of design professionals. more

arid more clients have started calling for specific proposals which include both a defined
statement of services and a commitment to fee.
In most cases, the selection committee will request written submittals of brochures and
questionnaires, and these will be reviewed to shorten the list. Thus. the quality of the
paperwork submitted becomes very im'J)ortant.
At the outset it must be emphasized that the real purpose of the documents submitted at
. this stage of the business development process is to get an interview, not to get the job.
Now is the time to communicate qualifications, not speci1ic services.
Several generalizations can be made about the screening process:
a. Firms with previous specific experience in the building type under consideration
~lways rise to the top first.

b. If all firms give the same answer to a question, no matter how correct, the question
becomes meaningless.
c. A stock brochure. by itself will not receive the same degree of attention as individually
prepared mat8fials.
d. Graphic elaborateness of the submission is seldom an important criterion, and can induce negative reactions . Graphic quality, however, says much about the firm, and can
be very important.

e. Brevity, with completeness, is an appreciated value .

f. The genuineness of the firm's interest in the assignment under consideration is very im
g. The covering ietter is possibly thP- most important document of all.
Brief Resume of Key Persons, Specialists, and individual consultants anticipated for the
project. If you propose the right people here in the right way, you are almost certain of an
interview because the agency will look forward to the chance to meet them. If you propose
the right people in the wrong way. you may be passed over for the wrong reasons.
The Resume for each person should be CUSTOMIZED. Some Specific rules to follow:

a. "Name and Tit\e"

In Gen8fal, organization titles are meaningless. Thus, don't say: John Doe, principal (or
lliCeprnident)'' say instead "John Doe, Civil Engineer or principal architect. Aim the title at the project.
b. Project Assignment
Don't .be redundant. As an example, "will act as Principal Engineer and
Client Liaison throughout the project" . Make the function make sense in the client's

c. "Other experience and Qualifications relevant to the proposed project ."

Here, the most effective approach is to give specific examp.les of the person's involvement in prior projects similar to the assignmen~ under construction. The very best
answers read like this:
"Served as Project Manager for the Pl 0 Million XYZ project completed in 14 .months
. on a fast track approach."
"Designed the long-span structures for ABC project which won the AISC Award for innovative economies in steel.
Job Captain in charge of production for the O EF Dam, involving management of a
1CO-person project team for 24 months."

All professionals must learn today to define their services whenever they are selling. do not
say "normal architectural services" anymore. Since in point of fact there is no longer a
"normal" professional service , and even if there were, how can one be sure that the
client's definition of "normal" is the same as yours . A much better answer is :
Comprehensive architectvral services including programming; Feasibility Analysis; site
selection; Master Planning; Building Design; construction documentation and
Specification; Cost Estimating; Interior Space Planning and Design; landscape Design;
Construction Supervision.

Many questionnaires ask firms - especially architectural firms - to identify outside consultants they regularly engage or would use dt'l t he project at hand. It is w ise not to be hasty answering this question.
Quite often, in both public and private work the client may have done some research ~w'hich
led it to blacklist certain consultants whose performance it considers unsatisfactory.
Where possible, a good answer is to stay loose, possibly with a general statement such as:
We employ outside consultants after detailed evaluation of their suitability to the par
ticular project . including such factors as prior experience in the building typ