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Process SHE Guide No.

13
Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)

Process SHE Guide 13

HAZARD STUDY METHODOLOGY


PART 1 - HAZARD STUDY 1

This Guide is issued by ICI Technology on behalf of the


Process Safety, Health and Environment Interest Group for internal circulation within ICI only.

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Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)

CONTENTS

PAGE

1.0

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1.0.1
1.0.2
1.0.3
1.0.4
1.0.5
1.0.6

Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Team ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5
Timing ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Preparation.................................................................................................................................................................................. 5
Documentation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Method .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1.1

PROJECT DEFINITION ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

1.2

PROCESS DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................................................... 7

1.3

CONTROL PHILOSOPHY .................................................................................................................................................... 7

1.4

INCIDENT REVIEW................................................................................................................................................................. 7

1.5

INHERENT SHE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

1.6

MATERIALS HAZARDS......................................................................................................................................................... 8

1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
1.6.4

Material List ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8


Hazard Data Sheets ................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Chemical Hazards ................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Loss of Containment ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

1.7

SAFETY..................................................................................................................................................................................... 13

1.8

HEALTH .................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

1.9

ENVIRONMENT..................................................................................................................................................................... 15

1.9.1
1.9.2
1.9.3
1.9.4
1.9.5

Environmental Statement ................................................................................................................................................... 15


Loss of Containment ............................................................................................................................................................ 15
ICI Objectives .......................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Environmental Impact .......................................................................................................................................................... 16
Environmental Criteria ......................................................................................................................................................... 16

1.10

TRANSPORT AND SITING............................................................................................................................................... 17

1.10.1
1.10.2
1.10.3
1.10.4

Transport Stages ................................................................................................................................................................... 17


Loss of Containment ............................................................................................................................................................ 17
Existing Plants ......................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Other Considerations ........................................................................................................................................................... 18

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1.11

EXTERNAL AUTHORITIES .............................................................................................................................................. 19

1.12

DESIGN GUIDELINES AND CODES ............................................................................................................................ 19

1.13

ORGANISATION ................................................................................................................................................................... 19

1.14

EMERGENCY FACILITIES ................................................................................................................................................ 20

1.15

FURTHER STUDIES ........................................................................................................................................................... 22

1.16

CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................................................................ 22

FIGURES
1.1
CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE DIAGRAM ..................................................................................................................... 11
1.2
MEANS OF HANDLING GUIDE DIAGRAM ................................................................................................................ 12
1.3
EMERGENCY FACILITIES GUIDE DIAGRAM .......................................................................................................... 21

Copyright Imperial Chemicals Industries PLC 1997

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Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.0.1

Purpose
The purpose of Hazard Study 1 is to ensure that the understanding of the project, the process and the
materials involved is sufficient to enable safety, health and environmental issues to be properly
assessed. It also contributes to key policy decisions (e.g. on siting) and ensures that contacts are
established with the functional groups, site management and the authorities who may contribute to, or
impose constraints upon, the development of the project.
Hazard Study 1 is the first formal hazard study applied to all projects. In the case of new products and
processes, there are benefits in applying the Process SHE Impact Study during development.
Key aspects include:
(a)

Ensuring that there is a clear understanding of the objective and scope of the project.

(b)

Reviewing information on any previous incidents on the plant, process, building, service or
operation being studied, and on those elsewhere which use the same technology.

(c)

Collecting information on the safety, health and environmental hazards of all chemicals and
materials involved (individually and in combination).

(d)

Providing a broad appreciation of the hazards of fire, explosion and harmful releases (e.g.
toxic gases, effluent, radioactivity, biohazards etc.); reviewing the application of the concepts of
inherent safety, health and environmental protection.

(e)

Reviewing the draft 'Environmental Impact Assessment' (see Information for Managers Notes E-016) for the project and ensure that this will cover all relevant on-site and off-site
environmental issues.
In addition, the study helps to ensure that the project meets Company objectives for
environmental performance:
(1)
the use of standards which will meet anticipated regulations in the most
environmentally demanding country in which it operates;
(2)
minimisation of waste;
(3)
energy and resource conservation;
(4)
waste recycling.

(f)

Reviewing the 'Occupational Health Statement' for the Project.

(g)

For all the sites under consideration, reviewing on-site and off-site transport of raw materials,
intermediates, products and wastes; identifying and considering interaction of the project with
other plants, processes, buildings, services and operations both on-site and off-site.

(h)

Considering the human and organisational aspects of the project and its subsequent
operation, including emergency services.

(j)

Reviewing the application of national legislation and considering other aspects of regulatory
approval and consents.

(k)

Setting criteria for safety, health and environmental aspects of the Project to comply with
relevant Company guidance (e.g. on the tolerability of risk and on environmental standards).

(l)

Reviewing the Codes of Practice which will be followed, including those which may be in the
course of development.

(m)

Agreeing the extent and timing of further Hazard Studies and the need for any additional
specific studies or assessments (e.g., Chemical Process Hazards Assessment, Quantified

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Hazard Study Methodology
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Risk Assessment, Hazard and Operability Studies on computer systems, Hazardous Area
Classification, Quality Studies, Construction/Demolition Hazard Studies [Hazcon]).
1.0.2

Team
The team composition should be proposed by the Business and Project Managers and agreed by the
Hazard Study Leader. It normally includes:
(a)

Hazard Study Leader.

(b)

Business Manager (or nominee).

(c)

Project Manager.

(d)

Appropriate Functional Engineers (e.g., Process Engineer).

(e)

Operations or Site Representative.

(f)

Occupational Hygienist (or other representative of the Occupational Health function).

(g)

Environmental Adviser or Specialist.

(h)

Chemist (where appropriate).

(j)

Construction representative (where major construction/demolition work is involved).

The final outcome of Hazard Study 1 should be agreed by the full team. Separate sub-groups may be
formed to progress specific parts of Hazard Study 1.
1.0.3

Timing
Hazard Study 1 should start as early as possible in the life of a project. Generally, the business or
project management will have formed a basic idea of the project before appointing the project team
and Hazard Study Leader. Sometimes one or two informal meetings will be required before the formal
Hazard Study 1 to initiate and collect the supporting project studies.
Since Hazard Study 1 defines the key parameters for the project on safety, health and environmental
issues it should be completed prior to the production of a sanction estimate on every project.
In the case of new processes or operations, there are major benefits in considering the hazards during
the early development stages of the project. It is then possible to incorporate the concepts of inherent
safety, health and environment most effectively into the process (see Process SHE Guide 16). In some
cases, a very early Hazard Study 1 may be carried out, concentrating on parts of the process
description and incidents.

1.0.4

Preparation
Before the first formal meeting it is advisable that the project team has been identified and that the
following is available:
(a)

A draft project definition.

(b)

A process description.

(c)

A review of SHE incidents with respect to the same or similar technology.

(d)

A block diagram or flowsheet of the process.

(e)

Completed chemical hazard, interactions and handling forms.

(f)

Hazard Data Sheets.

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Hazard Study Methodology
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(g)

Draft Environmental Statement.

(h)

Draft Occupational Health Statement.

ICI's preferred approach to the control of hazards will always be their elimination where this is
reasonably practicable. This is aided by the application of the concepts of inherent safety, health and
environment (see Process SHE Guide 16). These concepts can be applied particularly effectively at
the early stages of a project and they are, therefore, specially valuable and important at Hazard
Study 1.
Various safety, health and environment/risk assessments may be necessary in conjunction with the
Hazard Studies. General background information and advice on techniques and sources of help are
available in ICI Group SHE Information for Managers Note SHE-005 - Risk Assessment: A Managers
Guide - General Introduction, Methodologies and Contacts.
1.0.5

Documentation
The draft report should be issued as soon as practicable, whilst giving details of the information still
lacking. The relevant actions should be complete before the commencement of Hazard Study 2.
The Hazard Study 1 report should be updated and reissued when all actions have been resolved. A
copy of this report should be filed in the Project Safety, Health and Environment Dossier
(STD/F/01022). A template for the Hazard Study 1 report is shown in STD/F/01025.

1.0.6

Method
Hazard Study 1 meetings are held in which the basic SHE issues are reviewed according to the
established format given below. The documentation should follow the same format. With modern
information technology, areas unanswered during the first meeting can often be pursued and resolved
without recourse to more meetings. However, the final report should be agreed by all members of the
Hazard Study team.

1.1

PROJECT DEFINITION
Designs which will be safe and meet environmental and health standards, require a clear
understanding of the objective of the project and the processes involved.
A definition of the Project should be provided by the Business Manager or the Project Manager. For a
suitable format and contents see PP13 - Appendix A, Section A.1. For example the project definition
may cover:
(a)

Objective.

(b)

Scope:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

(c)

Timetable.

(d)

Location.

(e)

Project risks (e.g., the effect on the business of loss or unavailability of the plant).

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capacity and patterns of demand;


availability/occupacity;
process operating philosophy (e.g., 24-hour operation, batch or continuous process);
maintenance philosophy;
control philosophy (e.g., computer systems or PLC, trip systems);
containment philosophy;
buildings (e.g. purpose, numbers of people);
demolition.

Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)

1.2

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The Project Manager should ensure that a brief description of the process or proposed operations is
produced, e.g., by the Process Engineer, Client Representative or himself. This should also include:
(a)

Process raw materials; specification, quantities and storage.

(b)

Products; specification, conditions and storage.

(c)

Catalyst and other materials.

(d)

Effluents; quantities and treatment philosophy.

It is recommended that at least a block diagram or flowsheet be provided.

1.3

CONTROL PHILOSOPHY
The project should have a basic control philosophy addressing:

1.4

(a)

Is the proposed application suitable for the intended type of process control (e.g.,
Programmable Electronic Systems)?

(b)

What type of trip system is proposed and how does it interface with the process control (e.g.,
PES)?

(c)

Is there an existing plant and how does any PES fit in?

(d)

Who is responsible for ergonomic (man-machine communication and health) aspects?

(e)

Vulnerability in an emergency or calamity?

INCIDENT REVIEW
Initiate a review of any incidents with significant Safety, Health or Environmental effects which have
occurred on similar projects or processes/projects using the same or related technology. This should
cover ICI experience and other known incidents.
Information may have to be sought from third parties such as Regulatory Bodies, other companies or
Science Associations.
The sources of the data which are searched should be recorded.
The incidents identified above should be reviewed to ensure that the precautions necessary to control
the hazard are understood. It is recommended (mandatory in the USA) to consider and document how
repetition of each incident will be prevented.

1.5

INHERENT SHE
GG 17.2 of the Group SHE Standard GS 17 (Product Stewardship) requires that each new process
should be subjected to a study of the SHE impact of its operation. The need for a SHE Impact Study
should be identified early on in a Project and the Study carried out prior to Hazard Study 1. Hazard
Study 1 confirms whether a SHE Impact Study is required, has been completed, and, if not, whether
one is required.

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The SHE Impact Study stresses the importance of processes based on Inherent SHE principles.
Inherent SHE emphasises changing the design as early as possible and makes use of the concepts of:
(a)

Substitute.

(b)

Minimise.

(c)

Simplify.

(d)

Moderate.

Guidance on the application of inherent SHE is available in Process SHE Guide 16.

1.6

MATERIALS HAZARDS
The purpose is to ensure that the material hazards will be fully understood by the project team and,
subsequently, operating personnel. In cases where large numbers of similar chemicals are involved, it
may be appropriate to group these generically.

1.6.1

Material List
Prior to the first Hazard Study Meeting a list (see 1 of 3 of STD/F/01018 - Materials List) of the
materials, chemicals or substances involved should be produced, e.g., by the Functional Engineer,
Chemist or Client Representative. This should cover:
(a)

Raw materials, intermediate and/or intermediate mixtures, main product or products,


byproducts.

(b)

Effluents - Gaseous, Liquids, solids, slurries.

(c)

Emissions from adjacent facilities or materials from elsewhere which may be air borne,
encountered in drains, utilities or in the ground.

(d)

Support materials including catalysts, inhibitors, biological, radio-chemical, decontamination


and detoxification materials, fumigants, any special maintenance materials or materials
involved in supporting activities.

(e)

Services, including heat transfer oils, dielectric fluids, gases, steam, oil, nitrogen, cooling
water, water, instrument air, waste disposal. (Include additives and contaminants in the list).

(f)

Principal materials of construction/construction materials.

(g)

Materials encountered during construction/demolition. For example, contaminated ground, in


ducts, drains, pipes and vessels or on surfaces: PCBs, insulation material (e.g., Asbestos),
lead, flammable materials, etc.

Describe the material including, as far as possible, the composition.


abbreviations, product codes/numbers.

Include trade names,

When the same material is present in different physical states, it may be helpful to list each physical
state separately.
1.6.2

Hazard Data Sheets


The Hazard Study should confirm that all necessary Hazard Data Sheets (or MSDS) are available and
identify where data is lacking and needs to be collected/determined. Often data will initially only be
available for a mismatch of process streams and individual component substances. Identify limitations
in the data which could affect decision making and factors of safety which need to be applied.

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1.6.3

Chemical Hazards
(a)

Consider the hazards associated with the materials involved in the process. This can be done
using the Chemical Hazards standard form (2 of 3 of STD/F/01018), in conjunction with the
Chemical Hazard Guide Diagram (see Figure 1.1) to identify any need for additional
information on the materials involved. The form should be completed with one of the following
3 responses:
-

The material has no known or suspected hazard in this aspect.

The hazards are known (identified clearly in the Hazard Data Sheets) and well
understood by the Hazard Study team, design team, operators and process
management.

1, 2, 3

Numbered reference notes should identify and exemplify not well known
hazards or information that is needed.

Much of the information can be assembled outside the meeting by the Occupational Hygienist,
Environmental Specialist, Chemist or other specialist. In all cases, the form and resulting
notes should be reviewed by the Hazard Study team.
Confirm that the required data is available or will be obtained.
The purpose of the Chemical Hazards form is to indicate the hazards of the materials used in
the process. For capital projects, the compiled information is used by the design team in
developing the design. For existing processes, the compiled information can be used to
ensure that hazards (both known and possibly unknown [new] due to changes in process
chemistry, operating conditions, materials, equipment or operating procedures) are reviewed.
The adequacy of existing process operating, control, protective or emergency systems and
procedures can then be checked.
(b)

Use the Means of Handling standard form (Part 3 of STD/F/01018) and Means of Handling
Guide Diagram (see Figure 1.2) to determine any special storage, handling, production,
environmental and emergency practices which need to be followed for the materials used in
the process. The early identification of potential difficulties may allow the development of
inherently better ways of achieving the project objectives. The form and resulting notes may
be prepared outside the meeting but should be reviewed by the Hazard Study team.

(c)

To identify potential hazardous interactions between the chemicals/substances in the process,


materials of construction and services, the Chemical Interaction standard form (STD/F/01019),
should be completed outside the meeting and reviewed by the hazard study team. The
purpose of the form is to identify any combinations of materials used in or near the process
which are incompatible or have a significant hazard. Fill the form in a similar fashion to the
Chemical Hazards form. Materials of construction should be listed in the lower section of the
form: these include materials in direct contact with process fluids but consideration should also
be given to other tools and equipment or building/construction materials which may come into
contact with the process material. Use the matrix to consider possible hazardous interactions
of each material with each of the other materials in the top section of the form and with
materials of construction in the lower section. The materials section may also be used to
signal materials that are incompatible (e.g., copper with ammonia solutions) and should
therefore not be used. Advice may be required from a Materials Expert.
Ambient materials (e.g., air, water, soil) may be added to prompt possible oxidation, reactions
with water and/or corrosion issues.
When processing operations are being undertaken with reactive chemicals, the possibility of a
runaway reaction should be ascertained by means of a Chemical Hazard Assessment.

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With research projects, where the material hazards are not precisely known, the appropriate
safeguards should be established.
1.6.4

Loss of Containment
Consider whether a quantity of material released from any section of the plant, or from any operation,
with total loss of containment and under the conditions of storage or use, can give rise to unacceptable
consequences for safety, health or the environment.
If so, review the consideration which has been given to inherent safety, hygiene and environmental
acceptability - see Process SHE Guide 16.
Methods of assessing risks are described in Process SHE Guide 10. For major environmental accident
quantification, refer to E-010 - Safety Health Environment Information for Managers, Guidance on
Environmental Impact Assessment of Major Accidents for CIMAH Safety Reports and other Accidental
Releases.
Where the quantity of material to be handled is not known, the quantity which will cause off-plot effects
should be estimated.

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FIGURE 1.1

HAZARD STUDY 1 - CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE DIAGRAM

Explosion &
Flammability

Fire

Flammability limits, flash point, auto-ignition temperature,


smouldering, heat of combustion, fire fighting, products of
combustion, disposal of contaminated water/material.
Pyrophoric material - can material glow or cause ignition of a
fire?

Deflagration/

Can combustion generate pressure effects? Can material


cause a detonation? Dust explosions, High explosive, Impact,
VCE.

detonation
Electrical static
Reactivity/ stability
Immediate health
hazards

Can material generate electrical static which could cause


ignition or personnel shock?
Is material highly reactive, likely to decompose, what products
of decomposition, effects of contaminants?

Inhalation toxicity Consider harmful effects if material is inhaled. Asphixiant.


Other toxicity

Absorption through skin.

Irritant/ corrosive

Effect to skin, eyes, nose.

Sensitizer

Effects on skin, breathing, reaction to other substances.

Chronic health
hazards

Does material present long-term toxic health risks?


Carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens, reprotoxic materials?

Radiation

Is material radioactive?

Nuisance

Odour

Smell threshold, comparison to OEL, unpleasantness.

Environmental

Aqueous

Contamination of aquifers, damage to water life, appearance.

Gaseous

Risks to people, damage to surroundings, appearance, ozone


depletion, smog formation, global warming.

Ground

Damage to plant life, surroundings, appearance, long-term


effects.

Long term or delayed


health hazards

Hazards

Hazardous
breakdown

From fire, temperature, ageing, biological processes,


contamination.

products

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FIGURE 1.2

HAZARD STUDY 1 - MEANS OF HANDLING GUIDE DIAGRAM

Storage

Quantity of hazardous material minimised. Storage conditions, need for


inert padding. Effects of storage temperature. Location. Need to
segregate storage of flammables/ toxics. Type of container. Bunding.

Transport

Quantities. Packaging. Discharge. Filling. Location of full containers.


Special routing requirements.

Problems in Handling

Stickiness, hygroscopic, searching, dirty, contamination, dyeing, dusty,


caking, lumps. Special handling precautions.

Process Conditions

Increased hazard of the material due to extremes of pressure,


temperature or static. Mixing with other materials which increases the
hazards.

Materials of Construction,
Corrosion/Erosion

Particular problems from materials handled and process conditions.


Isolation. Effects on material of construction of civil, control/electrical,
and mechanical equipment.

Decontamination

Method of decontamination. Disposal of contaminated materials.

Gaseous Emissions

Continuous, intermittent, maintenance, loss of containment, reliefs,


venting down, monitoring.

Aqueous Emissions

Continuous, intermittent, maintenance, loss of containment, fire water,


wash water, monitoring, mixing in drains, material of construction for
drains.

Effluent/Solid Waste Disposal

Containers, safe methods of disposal of containers.

Flare/Thermal Oxidiser

Needed? Products of combustion, effluent. Potential ignition source.


Flare radiation restricting access or proximity to other equipment. Control
of fuel and total heat input.

Quality Control

Product, Raw Materials, Catalysts, monitoring

Emergency Procedures

Dealing with fires, spills, emissions, affected personnel.

Plant Layout, Spacing, Access

Special requirements for. What material or operation should or should


not be close to, e.g. vehicles.

Area Classification

Electrical Classification, restricted access, eye protection, special


containment, atmospheric monitoring.

Provision of Services

Nitrogen, clean air, emergency power, steam, mask air. Dangerous


services, e.g. toxic air.

Codes of Practice

Any Codes of Practice, industry or scientific standards for the material.

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1.7

SAFETY RISK CRITERIA


It is a requirement of Group SHE Standards that risks shall be reduced as far as is reasonably
practicable. In general, this will be achieved by the proper application of appropriate codes, standards
and good working practices. However, in some cases it will be judged necessary to use quantitative
risk assessment to help decide the level of precautions needed.
Any relevant risk criteria set by site requirements or by local or national authorities should be identified,
e.g.:
(a)

Toxic gas emission criteria.

(b)

Employee risk.

(c)

Off-site individual risk.

(d)

Off-site group risk (societal risk).

(e)

Major incident frequency.

ICI corporate advice on safety risk criteria is given in Group SHE Information for Managers Note S-003
and the limit values for tolerable risk are summarised below:
Note:
The limit values are indicative, not absolute. They should not be exceeded unless adequate
justification can be demonstrated. In practice, the aim should be to achieve risk levels below the upper
limit as far as is reasonably practicable. Refer to Group SHE Information for Managers Note S-003 for
mode of application, relevant assumptions and adjustments that may be allowable.
(1)

Employee at greatest risk from all process hazards

35

10-6/year

(2)

Employee at greatest risk from specific process hazard

10-6/year

(3)

Public individual risk from all process hazards


(see Note (i))

10-6/year

(4)

Cumulative frequency of major accident events


arising from all process hazards (for a substantial
manufacturing plant or activity)
With potential for a few fatalities and
extensive local damage. (see Note (i))

100

10-6/year

With potential for tens of fatalities and


widespread damage. (see Note (i) and (ii))

10

10-6/year

A.

B.

Notes:
(i)
In some cases it may be necessary to assess a proposal/project against a fraction of the limit
as judged appropriate for the circumstances of the particular situation.
(ii)

If the effects of a major accident could be more severe a lower target might be appropriate.

The most stringent of the internal or external criteria should be applied.


Any other appropriate safety criteria (e.g., for construction/demolition activities) should be identified or
developed in conjunction with the relevant site/business SHE function.
Risk margins for future expansions may be required.

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1.8

HEALTH
A draft Occupational Health Statement (OHS) should be prepared as early as possible in the project
and prior to the Hazard Study 1 by an occupational hygienist or other suitably trained person and a
project/plant representative. The content and depth of the statement will depend on the project. See
the Group SHE Information for Managers Note H-009: Occupational Health Statements for New
Projects.
The OHS should identify health hazards resulting from:
(a)

Chemical and biological properties of the materials.

(b)

Noise and vibration.

(c)

Health related ergonomics (manual handling, repetitive movements, posture, visual display
terminals).

(d)

Radiation (radioactive sources, ultraviolet, lasers).

The OHS should consider the health risks which may arise during:
(1)

Construction.

(2)

Commissioning.

(3)

Operation.

(4)

Maintenance.

(5)

Demolition.

The OHS should give guidance to the project team in relation to risk control either by specifying design
criteria, recommending involvement of experts or recommending further studies.
The draft occupational health statement should be discussed and approved by the hazard study 1 team
and form part of the hazard study report. The hazard study team should agree how the requirements
and actions raised in the draft OHS will be reviewed.
The draft occupational health statement should be reviewed to check that:
(i)

All the health issues have been addressed.

(ii)

The OHS includes criteria and standards for all identified health hazards.

(iii)

All the actions and requirements have been incorporated into the project.

(iv)

Further involvement by the occupational hygienist is specified.

(v)

Further studies are specified.

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1.9

ENVIRONMENT
As with safety hazards the preferred approach to environmental hazards is their elimination through
choice, selection and development of appropriate process routes and technology. (see Process SHE
Guide 16).

1.9.1

Environmental Statement
An Environmental Impact Assessment (see GS 13 and GG 13.1) carried out before the meeting by, for
example, the Process Engineer, Chemist, Client Representative or Environmental Specialist, should
consider the process route options in the light of the Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO). The
resulting draft Environmental Statement (for guidance see SHE Information for Managers Note E-016)
should preferably include a simple block diagram or flowsheet showing all effluents and wastes. For
each waste stream listed in the Chemical Hazards form (STD/F/01018), the Environmental Statement
should also identify:
(a)

The treatment options considered and justification of the chosen option; Best Available
Technique Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC).

(b)

How will the material be disposed of, controlled and monitored?

(c)

Are the potential effects of this disposal understood?

(d)

The impact of discharges to the environment.

Hazard Study 1 reviews and agrees the Environmental Statement. Have means of waste reduction at
source been adequately considered? Is the impact acceptable?
1.9.2

Loss of Containment
It should be considered if the accidental release of material from any section of the plant, or from any
operation, can give rise to a major environmental accident. Methods for assessment are given in
E-010, Safety Health Environment Information for Managers - Guidance on Environmental Impact
Assessment of Major Accidents for CIMAH Safety Reports and other Accidental Releases.
Some tentative proposals giving severity/tolerable frequency guidelines for environmental incident
assessment are also given in E-010. Any other relevant criteria set by site requirements or by local or
national authorities should be identified. As quantitative assessment of environmental incidents arising
from loss of containment is at a relatively early stage of development and use, the most appropriate
criteria to apply may require discussion with the site/business SHE function.

1.9.3

ICI Objectives
It should be confirmed that the project is compatible with ICI's SHE Challenge 2000 objectives:
(a)

Gain total compliance with local regulations and consents, wherever we operate.

(b)

Continue to meet our high world wide standard for the construction of new plants.

(c)

Maintain our drive for the continuous reduction of wastes.

(d)

Strive towards continued energy efficiency improvement.

(e)

Demonstrate improvement in the efficiency of the use of resources in our operations.

(f)

Aim to avoid any loss of containment and spills.

The White Book (GS 7) says:

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New plants shall comply with the most demanding environmental legislation reasonably anticipated in
any territory in which the ICI Group operates that process
This will normally require the use of the best practice in industry.
1.9.4

Environmental Impact
Hazard Study 1 should further consider whether:
(a)

There are any effluents not included on the list considered within the environmental statement.

(b)

The data for the environmental effects of the materials being handled are sufficient for the
project and for ongoing operation.

(c)

There are any problems associated with the disposal of catalysts, inhibitors, decontamination,
detoxification, radioactive or biological/pathological materials, maintenance wastes and
packaging from received materials.

(d)

Consideration has been given to the disposal of out of specification, returned or contaminated
material.

(e)

Consideration has been given to the need to build on contaminated land and to the disposal of
contaminated land, materials encountered during construction or demolition, demolition
material and building wastes.

(f)

Special precautions are needed to prevent dust or leakage of materials during


construction/demolition affecting drains.

(g)

Any of the process materials will give rise to environmental problems if there is a loss of
containment.

(h)

It will be necessary to take measures to prevent soil or groundwater contamination.

(j)

Special provision will be needed for containment/treatment of contaminated fire water.

(k)

Consideration is necessary for the disposal of customers' waste (including packaging).

(l)

Any special mechanisms can result in loss of containment and spread, (e.g., flood, wind,
storm, fire water runoff).

(m)

Harmful or toxic/biologically environmentally active materials can be created accidentally


during unusual conditions, such as process upsets or fire exposure. Can these have an effect
beyond the site boundaries?

(n)

Construction/demolition or operation may involve significant effect on tree removal, natural


vegetation or flora/fauna.

(p)

Special measures are required to reduce or monitor fugitive emissions (e.g., leaks from glands
or seals).

(q)

The location in the site of any endangered flora or fauna.

(r)

There are any native titles (access, burial grounds).

Agree and record the responsibility for any further Environmental Assessments.
1.9.5

Environmental Criteria
It is important to establish the consent levels for continuous and discontinuous discharges and the
tolerable criteria for major and minor incidents (see 1.9.2) at the start of the project and to obtain the

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support and agreement of local management for these.
changes in standards likely in the foreseeable future.

Consideration may have to be given to

What are the criteria for:


(a)

Gaseous effluents release points and environmental impact, for example end of vent release
levels, allowable ground level concentrations, odour thresholds, background levels and Air
Quality Standards (AQS).

(b)

Aqueous effluents release points and environmental impact, for example end of site drain
release levels, ambient levels and Environment Quality Standards (EQS).

(c)

Disposal of solid waste.

Are there other environmental constraints? For example, for:


(1)

Noise levels beyond the site boundaries.

(2)

Visual effects (e.g., from flares or stacks).

(3)

Special considerations during construction/demolition (e.g., noise/wastes).

(4)

Commissioning (e.g., noise from flares or steam blows, cleaning materials).

It is important to establish the consent levels for continuous discharges, etc. and the target criteria for
incidents, at the start of the project and to obtain the support and agreement of local management for
these. Consideration may have to be given to changes in standards likely in the foreseeable future.

1.10

TRANSPORT AND SITING

1.10.1

Transport Stages
Consider those factors which are relevant to the selection of a site and a plot, including the transport
between sites and plots. The study should include consideration of potential knock-on effects on
existing hazardous or vulnerable pipe routes, buildings, services, storage, etc. A key objective is to
ensure that the overall risk is minimised:
(a)

Define the transport stages involved in broad terms (e.g., road, rail, ship, pipeline, etc.) taking
account of the flow of major raw materials through to the destination of the products.

(b)

Define in broad terms the transport stages involved in demolition/construction taking account
of the flow and storage of demolition and construction materials and equipment.

(c)

Review whether the risks arising from the construction/demolition work or from the transport
and storage of hazardous materials could be minimised by the choice of plant location,
material to be transported, etc. A simple diagram showing material and transport movement
may assist.

(d)

In difficult cases, a Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) may be called for.

In all of the above it is important to concentrate on the major material flows. Detailed assessment of
routes to individual customers will only be necessary in a very limited number of cases and will
generally not require consideration in the case of established businesses.
1.10.2

Loss of Containment
Consider the potential effect of loss of containment on occupied buildings, (e.g., control rooms,
workshops, offices, laboratories, houses, schools, hospitals, retail and sports centres, etc.). See
Process SHE Guide 6, and national examples eg. UK - CIA Guidance for Location and Design of

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Occupied Buildings on Chemical Plants and US - API 752. This may be carried out using the data
recorded under Material Hazards or may require a separate study. Explosions or toxic releases may
require special design standards for new and existing buildings.
Where loss of containment could give rise to significant safety or environmental risk, a preliminary
quantified risk assessment (QRA) may be called for. For advice on risk criteria, see 1.7 and 1.9.5.
Consider layout restrictions of, and on, the project on-site or off-site.
1.10.3

Existing Plants
Consider the potential effect of existing plants or operations (both ICI and non-ICI) on the proposed
development. Existing plants may need modifying or their impact studies updating. Give consideration
to bulk storage of potentially hazardous materials.
Include potential hazards of chemical interactions in or from drains and contamination of intake air.
Consider if the proposed project will restrict future site development.

1.10.4

Other Considerations
Will normally rare events need to be considered in the project design? For example:
(a)

Subsidence.

(b)

Landslide.

(c)

Dam burst.

(d)

Earthquake.

(e)

Storm and high winds.

(f)

Aircraft crash.

(g)

Storm surge.

(h)

Rising water courses.

(j)

Flood.

(k)

Storm water run-off.

(l)

Breach of security.

(m)

Lightning.

(n)

Tsunami (earthquake induced freak waves).

(p)

Forest fire.

(q)

Vermin/insect infestation.

Can the construction activity and the associated transport be safely accommodated? Is a separate
study, HAZCON, required? For details see EDG.CON.50.01. Will construction noise/vibration/dust
adversely affect existing operations or adjacent buildings?

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1.11

EXTERNAL AUTHORITIES
Consideration needs to be given to the authority approval process. This should involve the full
cooperation of staff with experience of the country in which the plant will be located. Lists of authorities
are available on the SSHE Applications database on Lotus Notes.
It is most important that a full and exhaustive list of the regulatory requirements for the project is
obtained. The following questions should be addressed:
(a)

Which Authorities will need to be contacted?

(b)

Who will be responsible for each contact?

(c)

Will the project change the status of the site under any existing regulation?

(d)

Do plant or site inventory lists need to be updated?

(e)

Are chemicals handled that are controlled by international protocols (e.g., chemical warfare).

What reports and studies will be required for the authorities? For the UK see ICI Engineering
Technology Working Instruction PP.13.01, standard form STD/F/00855

1.12

DESIGN GUIDELINES AND CODES


Consider which Design Guidelines, Codes of Practice, Guides and Standards relevant to this
technology, chemicals, etc., need to be applied to the project.
Design Guidelines which may need to be prepared include:

1.13

(a)

Continuous discharges - design approach to meet criteria.

(b)

Relief philosophy - design approach to meet toxic gas emission criteria.

(c)

Noise levels - design approach to meet constraints.

(d)

Plant layout and spacing.

(e)

Fire protection and prevention.

(f)

Product quality.

(g)

Control of any other emissions with potential environmental effects.

ORGANISATION
In addition to the physical/geographical factors associated with site selection already considered,
assess if it is necessary to review the major organisational and human factors.
Ascertain whether the site/operation unit has an existing and effective Safety Management System.
More detailed study of any of the following outside the meeting may need to be commissioned:
(a)

Will the site be able to provide suitably qualified and experienced staff for the construction,
project development, commissioning, operation and maintenance? These considerations will
be of prime importance where new hazards and/or a new technology is being introduced to a
site, particularly if significantly different from those existing and familiar to site personnel.

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The Staff Training and Experience standard form (STD/F/01020), may be used by the site or
business representative to ensure a full coverage of the needs for construction,
commissioning, operation and maintenance. This is particularly important where new hazards
and/or technology are being introduced to a site.

1.14

(b)

Does the project introduce hazards for which new systems of work or procedures are
required? If so who will be responsible for providing these?

(c)

Are the key control, operational and manning concepts clear?

(d)

Have facilities for construction manning been considered, (e.g., medical, hygiene and eating
facilities)?

EMERGENCY FACILITIES
Review the adequacy of site emergency facilities to ensure that these are adequate to meet the needs
of the proposed project.
The Emergency Facilities Guide Diagram (see Figure 1.3), may be used in consultation with site
personnel to ensure a full coverage.
Consider how the personnel will be affected by an emergency. What will they do? How will injuries be
handled? Is there adequate access?
Consider whether there are adequate facilities for handling external emergencies arising from the
transport of hazardous chemicals
Where construction/demolition work is required to interface with existing operating plant, suitable
induction training should be provided for construction supervision and operatives.

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FIGURE 1.3 HAZARD STUDY 1 - EMERGENCY FACILITIES GUIDE DIAGRAM

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1.15

FURTHER STUDIES
Consider and agree what safety, health, environmental, quality or financial related studies will be
required during the design of the project, and whether these will be covered as part of the Hazard Study
process or carried out as independent studies.
Examples include:
(a)

Ergonomics, including Human Factors

(b)

Construction/demolition hazards (HAZCON).

(c)

Area classification.

(d)

Fire prevention and protection.

(e)

Paving and drainage.

(f)

Cable routing.

(g)

Relief and blowdown.

(h)

Lifting equipment.

(j)

Noise.

(k)

Trip and alarms.

(l)

Layout.

(m)

Computer systems.

(n)

Control and operability.

(p)

Non-process hazards.

(q)

Equipment and pipework registration.

(r)

Critical machines.

(s)

Business risk.

(t)

Fire water run-off.

(u)

Building risk assessment (see 1.10.2 and Process SHE Guide 6).

(v)

Means of isolation.

(w)

Materials review.

Agree where these techniques are to be applied and ensure that the necessary effort is allocated.

1.16

CONCLUSION
Agree the extent of further hazard studies. If the hazard study process will be curtailed justify and
document the reason.
Agree the responsibility and date for progressing actions.

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