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Principles of Physical

Activity

Principles of Physical Activity


Overload Principle
Principle of Progression
Principle of Specificity
Principle of Reversibility
Dose-Response
Relationship
Principle of Diminishing
Returns
Principle of Rest &
Recovery
Principle of Individuality
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Overload Principle
Doing more than
normal is
necessary for
benefits
e.g., strength,
muscular
endurance,
cardiovascular
endurance,
flexibility
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Principle of Progression
Overload should occur in a gradual
progression rather than in major
bursts.
Could result in excessive soreness
or injury if you fail to adhere
Most effective training = sessions
become progressively more
challenging over time.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Principle of Specificity
Must overload for specifically what you
want to benefit
Examples:
Strength-training does little for
cardiovascular fitness.
Flexibility training does little for body
composition.

Overload is specific to each body part.


Example:
Exercise legs build fitness in legs
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Principle of Reversibility
Overload principle in reverse
Use it or lose it!
Some evidence exists that you can
maintain health benefits with less
physical activity than it took to
achieve them.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Dose-Response
Relationship
The more physical activity you perform,
the more you benefit.
There are exceptions to this rule.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Some is Better than None!


HEALTH
RISK

OLD CONCEPT
OF TRAINING

REVISED
CONCEPT OF
TRAINING

AMOUNT OF ACTIVITY
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

More is Not Necessarily Better


Principle of Diminishing Returns
BENEFIT
EFFECT

AMOUNT OF ACTIVITY
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Benefits of Moderate and


Vigorous Activity

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Lifestyle Physical Activity


For health promotion:
Expend about 150 caloriesequivalent to 30
minutes of brisk walkingon most days

For health promotion and weight


management:
Engage in 60 or more daily minutes of activity
to prevent unhealthy weight gain
Engage in 60-90 daily minutes of activity to
sustain weight loss

Moderate Amounts of PA

Performance vs. Health


Improving performance requires more
physical activity than the amount
needed to obtain health benefits.

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Principle of Rest &


Recovery
Rest is needed to allow
body to adapt to
exercise.
If no rest, could lead to
overuse injuries,
fatigue, and reduced
performance.
Examples:
Alternate hard/easy
days.
Day off between bouts
of exercise.
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Principle of Individuality
Benefits of physical activity vary for
each person.
Individuals have unique characteristics
Heredity
Age
Gender
Ethnicity
Lifestyles
Current fitness and health status
Other factors
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FITT Formula
Frequency

Intensity

Time

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Physical Activity Target Zone

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Benefits will come to


those who persist.

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Physical Activity Pyramid

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Principles from the


Activity Pyramid
No single activity provides all
the benefits.
Something is better than
nothing.

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Reflective Learning
Assess your current level of PA.
What activities (lifestyle) can you
start doing that are at least of
moderate intensity?
How feasible is it to go up to
Level 2 or Level 3 of PA pyramid?
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