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Engineering Department

Civil

Chapter 5

Spatial Features & Data Structures

Definition of a Spatial Object

Types of Objects

Surfaces

Types of Points

Entity pointidentifies the location of point or line features such as buildings, wells,

utility poles, etc. As such, the accuracy of the location of entity points is important

Label pointused for displaying text associated with map features. The position of the

point is solely a cartographic concern

Area pointdenotes a position within an area feature, and is used to carry the attribute

information associated with the area feature. For example, a point representing the

centroid of a lake may be assigned the statistics for the entire lake

intersections or end points of line features. This type of point is important in networking

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

Point Features

Point features. Features that either represents the location of a feature that has no

dimensions or a feature that has width and length but whose perimeter cannot be mapped at

the defined map scale. Elevation control points. Stream gagging stations, oil wells and small

buildings are examples of point features.

A zero-dimensional abstraction of an object represented by a single X, Y co-ordinate. A point

normally represents a geographic feature too small to be displayed as a line or area; for

example, the location of a building location on a small-scale map, or the locations of a

service cover on a medium scale map.

Besides the X, Y coordinate, other data must be stored to indicate what kind of point it is and other

information associated with it. Fig. Shows a typical point data stored in GIS.

North

38.996000

38.994000

38.992000

38.990000

38.988000

38.986000

38.984000

38.982000

38.980000

38.978000

38.976000

8.720000

8.740000

8.760000

East

By Tariku A.

8.780000

8.800000

Engineering Department

Civil

Line Features

Liner features. Sets of connected points that represent a feature that either has no width

of that has width but is shown by a single line at the scale of the map being used. Rivers

railroad tracks utility lines and roads are examples of linear features.

A set of ordered co-ordinates that represent the shape of geographic features too narrow to be

displayed as an area at the given scale (contours, street centrelines, or streams), or linear features

with no area (county boundary lines). A line is synonymous with an arc.

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

Simplest line required the storage of begin point and end point. (Two X, Y coordinates plus a

possible record). An arc, a chain or string is asset of n X, Y coordinate pairs describing a

continuous complex line.

Shorter the line segment and larger the no. of X, Y coordinate pairs, the closer the chain will

approximate a complex curve.

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

Area features by closed boundaries counties land parcels and zones are examples of area

features.

A feature used to represent areas. A polygon is defined by the lines that make up its

boundary and a point inside its boundary for identification. Polygons have attributes that

describe the geographic feature they represent.

The boundary of area features separates the interior area from the exterior area.

It may be isolated or connected.

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

1. Vector data model

2. Raster Data Model

Vector Data Model:

Advantages

Disadvantages

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

Raster data

Raster data records spatial information in a regular grid or matrix organized as a set of rows and

columns. Each cell within this grid contains a number representing a particular geographic

feature, such as soil type, elevation, land use, slope, etc.

Raster data is commonly, but not exclusively, used to store information about geographic features

that vary continuously over a surface, such as elevation, reflectance, groundwater depths, etc.

ARC/INFO grids are raster data. Image data is a form of raster data in which each cell or pixel

stores a value recorded by an optical or electronic device. Raster data records spatial information

in a regular grid or matrix organized as a set of rows and columns. Each cell within this grid

contains a number representing a particular geographic feature, such as soil type, elevation, land

use, slope, etc.

Raster data is highly dependent on the resolution of the regular grid in which it is recorded. The

size of the cells in the grid is fixed, so as you zoom in on raster data displayed on a view, you

will eventually see the shape of the cells.

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

Advantages:

Simulation is easy because each spatial unit has same size and shape

Disadvantages:

By Tariku A.

Engineering Department

Civil

Spatial Interpolation

Spatial Interpolation is the process of using points with known values to estimate values

at other points

Through Spatial Interpolation, We can estimate the precipitation value at a location with

no recorded data by using known precipitation readings at near by weather stations.

Control Points.

Type of Spatial Interpolation.

Control Points

Also called known points, sample points, or observations, control points provide the data

necessary for the development of interpolator(e.g.. Mathematical equation) for spatial

interpolation.

The number and distribution of control points can greatly influence the accuracy of

spatial interpolation.

value.

value.

By Tariku A.

10

Engineering Department

Civil

Stochastic and Deterministic interpolation

Global Methods

Trend Surface Models: An inexact method, trend surface analysis approximates points

with known values with a polynomial equation. The equation or the interpolate or can

then be used to estimate values at other points.

Where the attribute value z is a function of x and y coordinates. The b coefficients are estimated

from the known points

Example

Figure below shows the five weather stations with known values around point 0 with an

unknown value. The table below shows the x,y-coordinates of the points, measured in

row and column of a raster with a cell size of 2000 meters, and their know values

By Tariku A.

11

Engineering Department

Civil

The least squares method is commonly used to solve for the coefficients of b0,b1 and b2 in

the above equations:

x2

y2

69

76

20.82

4761

5776

59

64

10.91

3481

4096

75

52

10.38

5625

2704

86

73

14.6

7396

5329

88

53

10.56

377

318

67.27

7744

2900

7

2809

2071

4

point

sum

z2

433.4

724

119.0

281

107.7

444

213.1

6

111.5

136

984.9

185

xy

5244

3776

3900

6278

4664

2386

2

xz

1436.

58

643.6

9

778.5

1255.

6

929.2

8

5043.

65

yz

1582.

32

698.2

4

539.7

6

1065.

8

559.6

8

4445.

8

Using the values of five known points, we can calculate the statistics and substitute the statistics

in to the equation

By Tariku A.

12

Engineering Department

5

377

318

5

377

5

377

318

3004254990

5

377

2933303868

Civil

377

29007

23862

377

29007

67.27

5043.65

286071973

4445.80

2

67.27

284697522

5043.65

0

318

23862

20714

318

23862

318

23862

28607197

20714

32

318

29440601

23862

06

67.27

510034062.6

5043.65

4445.8

67.27

26707.96

5043.65

532989178.

8

377

530428398

29007

23862

377

29007

51045256

3.3

318

52532340

23862

4.1

20714

318

23862

5

377

318

40419246635

5

377

41009063951

377

29007

382718012

23862

63

377

383032046

29007

10

67.27

5043.65

39994301

4445.8

209

67.27

39386760

5043.65

620

605159171

60466302

3.9

63187710

8.2

1355260

522370830.5

13680072.3

644796603

2

620513683

601757881.

5

470125.16

b0

b1

b2

-10.094

0.020

0.347

By Tariku A.

13

2 = from right to left

1=

2=

1=

2=

1=

2=

1=

2=

87256944

54

87243391

94

15658125

73

15657858

65

1.18685E

+11

1.18699E

+11

18546187

98

18541486

73

Engineering Department

Civil

By Tariku A.

14

Engineering Department

Civil

Example

point

A

B

C

D

E

F

x

1

4

2

3

2

2

y

2

2

1

1

3

2

z

1

4

3

4

1

?

with known values around point F with an

unknown value. The table below shows the x,ycoordinates of the points. Determined the

unknown elevation by using global Interpolation

method with necessary steps

3.5

3

2.5

2

Coordinate (m)

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

X Coordinate (m)

By Tariku A.

15

4.5

Engineering Department

Civil

By Tariku A.

16

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