You are on page 1of 68

Cover Page

(Front)

Cover Page
(Front-Back)

THE MESSAGE
Editor: Hujjat-ul-Islam Wal Muslimeen Sheikh Shabbir H. Lakhani (Maisami)
Editorial Board: Mr. Mazher Ali Jumani, Molana Sajjad Qaimi, Dr. Hussain Kanani,
Mr. Hasnain Nanjiani.
Annual Subscription: Pak. Rs. 500/=

For subscription and suggestions contact:
6, Jiwani Garden, JM-208/2, Amil Colony, Soldier Bazar # 3, Karachi – Pakistan
Email: themessage@zahraacademy.org Web: www.zahraacademy.org
Disclaimer: The Editor does not necessarily agree with the views expressed in the matter
published herein. The views and opinions presented in the Journal reflect the views of the authors
and not of the Journal or its Editorial Board or the Publisher.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

Food for Thought: - Sayings of Imam Ali (A.S.)

02

2

From The Editor’s Desk

03

3

Your Daily-Life Questions Answered

04

4

A Glance at the Life of Holy Prophet (S)

06

5

A Biography of Imam Ja‘far al-Sadiq (A.S.)

29

6

Appointing Imam al-Mahdi (A.T.F.) as the Next Imam by
Imam Hasan al-Askari (A.S)

39

7
8
9
10

9th Rabi al-Awwal – A Day of Rejoicing and Celebration
Peace Treaty of Imam Hasan Mujtaba (A)
The Migration of the Prophet: the Source of Historical
Transformation
Imamate at Childhood

46
48
52
58

Kids’ Corner
11

Always Speak the Truth

61

12

Recommendation for Helping Others

62

13

Monotheism in Worship & Fear from the Resurrection Day

63

Published by

Zahra (S.A.) Academy
Institute of Islamic Education, Development & Relief

1

the same wealth) the latter entered Paradise whereas the former entered the Fire.S. The greatest of regrets on the Day of Resurrection will be the regret of a man who gained wealth through means of disobedience Allah. 2. He who is negligent in his work is afflicted with anxiety. 9. glory be to Him. 3. 10. 6. Worry is half of old age. The foolishness of a man is recognised by three things: idle talk. The servant of Allah is free so far as he remains content. answering something he was not asked. know the truth (first) and you will know its people. The best of people in the sight of Allah is he who likes to act according to what is right – even if it brings him loss and misery – more than what is wrong. Planning before action will preserve you from regret. 7. and he who suppresses them will make his status elevate and will reach his goal. The fruit of the jealousy is the misery of this world and the Hereafter. 11. 12. Verily the truth is not known through men.  2 . Wisdom is a tree that grows in the heart and produces fruit on the tongue. Whoever utters the name of Allah on some food that he eats will never be asked (to account for) the bounty of that food.e. and being careless in matters. 4.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH FOOD FOR THOUGHT Sayings of Imam Ali (A. 8. 5. The worst enemy of man is his rage and lust. even if it brings him profit and increase of wealth. thus because of it (i. which was then inherited by a man who spent it in the obedience of Allah. The free man is a slave as long as he is greedy.) 1.

Brothers and Sisters.s. Salam Alaikum. Maisami (Lakhani)  3 .Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message From The Editor’s Desk given by Islam and also the most important responsibility of time so by decree of Imame-Ummat Imam Khomeini (r.w.) the week between 12th Rabi-ul Awwal and 17th Rabiul-Awwal each year is celebrated as Unity Week.w. the ever mercy.a.) Hazrat Muhammad-e-Mustafa (s. the Holy Imams (a. Please remember us and all Momineen.) Academy Pakistan extends heartiest greetings and felicitations to the Household of Holy Prophet Muhammad (s. Zahra (s.w.a.w.) especially Imame-Zamana (may the Almighty Allah hasten his return). the all mercy.) on 12th Rabi-ulAwwal while Shia Muslims celebrate it on 17th Rabi-ulAwwal. In the name of Allah. Shabbir H.a. As the Unity amongst Muslims is a responsibility Long live Islam.s.s.t.). in your prayers as we remember you in ours.) on the blessed occasion of Wiladat of last Prophet of Allah (s.w. especially the oppressed ones. May the guidance & blessings of Allah (SWT) be with you and your family! Because of different traditions Sunni Muslims celebrate Wiladat of Rasool Allah (s. It is our prayer that his birth anniversary may serve to unite the Muslim nation. Long live Pakistan.). to keep them safe. Editor. Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.) and our sixth Holy Imam.a. and to allow their continual development. We thank all those who showed their confidence in our system and gave us a chance to serve the Muslim Ummah. to the Muslim ummah and the followers and lovers of the Holy Ahlulbait (a.w.w.a.

Ans. or opposite to the grave. Q. shrimp is considered from that category [of permis- Q. Ans. But other than fish. shrimps allowed to eat? Ans.: The right of the custody of the children is for the mother for the first two years of the child’s age. clothing and housing in conformity with her social status and dignity.5: Is it permissible to perform prayers near a grave or in a graveyard? Q.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Your Daily-Life Questions Answered Q. on a grave. lobsters.: The husband is obliged to provide his wife with food. After that. Q. between two graves. like lobster. dignity meaning the same level of life that she had before marriage.3: What type of sea food is allowed? Are crabs.: It is makrooh (abominable) to perform prayers in a graveyard. who is entitled to the custody of children.6: Is it permissible for a man to wear a watch that 4 . Q.1: In the event of separation. it is necessary. whether the child is a male or a female.: It is not permissible to eat from marine animals anything except fish that has scale. the father or the mother? sible sea animals]. it is obligatory on her to give the custody to the father if he asks for it. Is it true that the husband should provide the same level of life as the wife had before marriage? Ans. and similarly the fish that does not have scale is forbidden. the father should not prevent the mother from corresponding with her child as this is a right for both the child and the mother.4: I would like to know the depth and extent of a husband's obligations for maintenance and expenses of the wife.2: Is it necessary for a woman to cover her feet in front of a stranger? Ans.: Yes. At the same time.

it is not permissible to listen to it.g. Ans. a gold ring and a gold watch. which means he should set a slave free. contains parts made from gold or a watch whose strap is made of gold? Is it permissible to say salat with it? Q. Q. but does not intentionally act according to his oath.: It is not permissible for men to wear gold objects such as a gold chain. or should provide them with clothes. it is.: If a person takes an oath that he will perform an act (e. and electronic piano? Ans.7: If someone says: "I swear to God I won't do this deed" and then does it again.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message perform these acts. wind-pipe.10: Is it permissible for a lady to spend her iddatulwafat at her son’s house living in another city? Ans. or any other thing on which sajda is allowed. even though the gold may be white in color. What is the Kaffarah for it? Ans. lute. he should fast for 3 consecutive days.: If the music accompanying it is that which is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings.: Yes. and also one should keep other parts of one's body on the ground.g.9: In Qur'ani sajda is it obligatory to place all 7 organs on the ground? Q. Wearing gold plated objects is also not allowed and prayer in them would be invalid. as required in a sajda of prayers. that he will not smoke). he should give Kaffarah for it.8: Is it permissible to listen to revolutionary songs accompanied by sounds of piano. a person should place his forehead on a mohr. or should fully feed 10 indigent persons. And if he is not able to Q.  5 . Ans. drum.: The obligatory precaution is that in the obligatory Sajda caused by the Qur'anic verse. that he will fast) or will refrain from doing an act (e.

Thus Abbas took Ja'far and the Holy Prophet brought Imam Ali to his house and became his guardian from his very childhood. This was one example of the compassionate 6 . Whatever is written in the following pages has been derived from Biharul Anwar. Kuhlul Basar. each one of them should take one son of Abu Talib. Abu Talib. His Compassion Sympathy: and Before the advent of Islam. 16. However on the life and attributes of the Holy Prophets many books were written in Arabic language some details of which have been mentioned in our discussions on the signs of the Prophets. and private life. It would be profitable for all the Muslims to know the details of the Prophet's character. the Holy Prophet is the only Prophet about whose life even ordinary matters have been recorded in history and this is a great accomplishment of the Muslim nation because the biographical sketches of other Prophets have been written after a lapse of considerable time with alterations and incorrect accounts by some of their followers. 6 and other authentic books. The Holy Prophet decided with his uncle Abbas to go to Abu Talib and in order to lessen the burden of his daily expenses. Tafsir al-Mizan. Thus it seems pertinent to give a brief account of the conduct and character of our Holy Prophet. it so happened that people were worried about the appalling conditions of famine. vol.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH A Glance at the Life of Holy Prophet (S) By: Hojjat al-Islam Shaykh Muhsin Qara'ati Among all the Prophets. Sirah-i Ibn Hisham. morals. vol. the uncle of the Holy Prophet was also equally perturbed because he had a large family to support and his resources were limited.

One should not divorce one's wife on her minor fault or slight unpleasant behavior because women possess some good qualities and noble attributes also.. mothers of orphaned children. He was particular about cleansing his teeth with Miswak. While taking his food. and were of varying nature and disposition. His Morals: His Family Life: The Holy Prophet used to sleep on the floor on a simple mat. But he used to say that the shortcomings of a woman should be weighed with some of her good qualities also. Despite the fact that most of the wives of the Holy Prophet were of advanced age. He would never make a disparaging remark about the food which was not of his liking. [2] 7 . of the Prophet of The Message he was sitting before Allah's bounties. While going out of the house he put on white dress. he treated them nicely as is mentioned in the Holy Qur'an: Treat them kindly .[1] Though some of his wives treated him so badly that his companions used to advise him to leave them for the good. He cobbled his shoes and patched his clothes himself. he would never lean upon anything so that there might not be any sign of pride when The Holy Prophet said: "Anyone who is affluent with regard to wealth and property but still remains stingy with his wife and children is not amongst us".Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH nature Islam. The Holy Prophet milked the shegoat himself.. Anas bin Malik says. "For years I was in the service of the Holy Prophet but never even for once did he reprimand me on my fault. greeted the children first and accepted the invitation of his slaves. He would go to buy things for himself. He smiled away any disgraceful remark. applying perfume and taking bath on Fridays.

In his code of conduct the injunction for giving respect to the females is present. and the sign of a woman's auspiciousness is that her first-born is a daughter". His Feelings for the Newborn: When the glad news of the birth of their daughter is announced to them. The Holy Prophet said: "The best of your offsprings are the daughters. But once when on the birth of a female child the father of the child became so furious that his face turned black. [6] 8 . respect for the sons and daughters particularly of the daughter was a conspicuous thing. [4] Under such ghastly condition of the society. [3] The Holy Prophet observed justice with his wives so strictly that even during his serious illness his bed was made each night by regular turns in every wife's chamber. This is the view of the Holy Prophet. their faces turn gloomy and black with anger. His Initiative in Greeting the Children: The Holy Prophet used to call the name of the boys and girls with respect. At this the Holy Prophet said: "Don't mind. I shall have my clothes washed".The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH After the passing away of his beloved wife. The little one is getting frightened of your making a noise. Lady Khadija the Holy Prophet treated all those ladies who were her intimate friends with high esteem and favour. He gave special instructions about respecting the girls. The new-born passed urine in the lap of the Holy Prophet and the parents as well as the people standing around became very much embarrassed. The Holy Qur'an says: The Holy Prophet used to say: "I treat my family members better than anyone else". [5] A newborn baby was brought to the Holy Prophet for blessings or for giving him a name.

When he heard the news of the birth of his daughter he became displeased. He was not an Opportunist: One day each of the foster brothers and sisters of the Holy Prophet separately came to the Holy Prophet. Ibrahim". people thought it was as a consequence of the demise of the son of the Holy Prophet. Thus the Holy Prophet got the people saved from falling into ignorance. [7] The Message happened to be a solar eclipse. Such a treatment of his visitors was not particularly shown to Salman Farsi but it was for every Muslim. His Hospitality: A man told the Holy Prophet that he had never kissed his child. In the matter of giving equal treatment to all the children. the loyal companion of the Holy Prophet said: "I happened to visit the Holy Prophet at his house. the sky is her shelter and her livelihood is secure with Allah. superstition and undue love. The Holy Prophet then said to him: "When earth is her abode. One of the sons of the Holy Prophet was Ibrahim who expired early in his infancy. He offered me the same pillow which was the only one in his own use". He treated the sister with greater respect than the brothers. When after his death there 9 . The Holy Prophet said: "This is the sign of your cold bloodedness".Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH A companion of the Holy Prophet was sitting with him. the Holy Prophet said: "If you kiss a child before another. At this the Holy Prophet assembled the people and said: "The occultation of the sun was not due to the sad demise of my son. why have you become so unhappy? She is like a flower spreading its fragrance and she will stand you in good stead". Salman Farsi. you should kiss the other one also".

After prostrating himself before Allah. he got himself busy with the worship of Allah. the Holy Prophet used to free his slaves. leave his home. I have greater regard and love for her". When you have finished eating. When he offered his prayers alone he prolonged his bowing and prostration but in congregation he shortened them. One of his companions who was appointed to lead the congregational prayers was instructed by him to recite a short Surah after Surah al-Hamd so as not to prolong the duration of the prayers in congregation. but be punctual (so that you will not be waiting while the meal is being prepared). the Holy Prophet replied: his teeth with Miswak. While offering prayers he trembled with fear. and reciting a few verses of the Holy Qur'an. [8] Sometimes the guests of the Holy Prophet overstayed their welcome even after finishing with their meals and got themselves busy in conversation but still he tolerated it.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH When the people inquired about this distinction. This will annoy the Prophet and he will feel embarrassed to tell you. you may enter. [9] His Extreme Dedication: The Holy Prophet used to wake up from his sleep after midnight. "As this sister used to respect her parents. Some of his wives used to say to him: "You are innocent and infallible and yet you do a lot of imploration!" The Holy Prophet would answer them by saying: "Should I not try to be a grateful servant of Allah". the Holy Prophet used to 10 . and do not sit around chatting among yourselves. At last a Qur'anic verse was revealed saying: During the month of Ramadan. brushing His Insight and Sagacity: While solving any problem. If you are invited.

When the cloth was brought he placed the sacred Black Stone in the middle of the sheet of cloth and asked every chief of the tribes to lift it from each corner and carry it near the Holy Ka'ba. The Message Prophet's insight as well as the sense of justice that the dispute was settled amicably. Thereafter. His Decisiveness: The Holy Prophet was never prepared to ignore his ideological programme or any of its principles for the sake of increasing the number of his 11 . It was because of the Holy The Holy Prophet in the Battlefield: Imam Ali says: "The Holy Prophet used to be always on the forefront in the battlefield to face the enemy. we took shelter of the Holy Prophet and sought his help and protection". This dispute was going to create an ugly situation. The Holy Prophet then ordered them to bring a sheet of cloth. And in the Battle of Trench when it was decided to dig a trench around the city of Madina. When the different tribes of Arabia rebuilt the Holy Ka'ba. The following morning the Holy Prophet was the first to come to the Holy Ka'ba and hence he was accepted as an arbiter in this dispute. the dispute arose as to which tribe should install the sacred Black Stone (Hajar ul aswad) at its original place. The Holy Imam further says: "In the battlefields whenever we Muslims were faced with some difficulty. A man suggested that whoever came to the Masjidul Haram first of all in the early morning should be made to arbitrate between them. the Holy Prophet picked up the sacred Black Stone and placed it at its original place.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH apply his foresight. and sense of justice. the Holy Prophet was the first to pick up the pickaxe for digging the earth and he continued digging the trench along with his followers until the trench was completely ready".

The Holy Prophet asked her the cause of her trouble. On his way back again the Holy Prophet saw the same slave-girl still standing there. In deference to the Holy Prophet's coming to his house His Piety and Devotion: Once the Holy Prophet gave twelve Dirhams to Imam Ali to buy a dress for him (the Prophet). 12 . it would have been better. The Holy Imam returned the dress and brought back twelve dirhams to the Holy Prophet. return it to him". On the way he saw a slavegirl who was crying. The Holy Prophet gave that girl four dirhams and bought a dress for himself for four dirhams. If the shopkeeper agrees to take back the dress. The Holy Prophet gave his dress to this man and came back to the bazaar to buy another dress for the remaining four dirhams left with him. He did not care to increase the numerical strength of his followers at the cost of the fundamental principles of Islam. Some people from Ta'if came to the Holy Prophet and said: "We can profess Islam provided that you give us permission for idol-worship and exempt us from offering prayers".The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH followers. The Holy Prophet rejected their conditions straightaway. This time the Holy Prophet went along with Imam Ali to the bazaar. The Holy Prophet accompanied the slave-girl to her master's house. The Holy Imam went to the bazaar and brought a dress costing the same amount of money. I am afraid of going back home because of my master". The Holy Prophet seeing the dress said: "If the dress had been simpler. On his way back home he saw a man who was without proper clothes. She lamented that since she was already late for home she was scared of her master who would beat her for this. She said: "My master gave me four dirhams to buy things from the bazaar but I lost that amount of money.

One day he came to the Holy Prophet and demanded his money but the Holy Prophet had no money with him to pay off his debt. On the following day I found that the Holy Prophet had already reached there but he was holding his sheep off and was not allowing them to graze. and distributed his money in charity in the name of Allah. People offered their Zohr prayers. At last the people became annoyed. Then the time for evening. he and I together used to tend the cattle. The Jew said: "I will not leave this place until you give me my money back". His Loyalty: Ammar Yasir. On my asking the reason for this the Holy Prophet said: "There was an agreement The Holy Prophet owed a few dirhams to a Jew. One day I suggested to the Holy Prophet that a certain place was most suited for tending our cattle and we should go over to that pasture. The Holy Prophet agreed. one of the celebrated companions of the Holy Prophet narrates: "Before the announcement of the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet then said: "Those twelve dirhams were so auspicious that they enabled two needy ones to clothe themselves and a slavegirl to become free". Conse- 13 .[10] The Message quently the Jew who shadowed the Holy Prophet until the following day embraced Islam. Indeed if we care to cut down our personal expenditure we can help the needy to procure some of their basic needs. But the Holy Prophet said: "We are not supposed to be unjust to him". He said: 'I was not actually meaning to harm the Holy Prophet. for my intention was to test the Holy Prophet's high qualities of character ".Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH the master not only excused the slave-girl but also freed her. dusk and night prayers came and the Jew was still there to pester the Holy Prophet. He stayed there till it was the Zohr (midday prayers) time.

Then let them return to their towns for they are ignorant people. Safwan. Safwan remained with the Holy Prophet on his many travels and after finding himself enchanted by the personality of the Holy Prophet and move by the powerful force of his preachings. voluntarily professed Islam as his religion. His Method of Teaching: While teaching the people Islamic faith and moral conduct or answering questions. he entered the Holy Ka'ba and smashed up all the idols in it. Safwan returned from Jeddah and asked for a grace time of two months until he could think of embracing Islam. But the Holy Prophet gave him the grace period of four months instead of two months. when the Holy Prophet left Madina at the head of an army and conquered Makkah.[11] According to Islamic jurisprudence in Jihad (the Holy War against the infidels) the giving of shelter and asylum to infidels have been stressed. the Holy Prophet used to repeat his instructions three times so as to drive the idea home.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH between us that both of us together would graze our sheep and thus it was not proper on my part to graze my sheep without you doing the same at the same time". 14 . one of the chiefs of the idolaters. give them asylum so that they may hear the words of Allah. The Holy Prophet then sent his head- The Holy Qur'an says: If the pagans ask you to give them refuge. His Sheltering the Enemy: In the eighth year of the migration. Some people interceded with the Holy Prophet for his pardon. who belonged to the tribe of Umayya fled away to Jeddah which was at a distance of a few miles from Makkah. gear to him so that he should be under protection while entering Makkah.

some companions rushed forward to do that little job but the Holy Prophet did not accept the help of the companions and instead said" "You too should not throw yourself upon the help of other". but despite possessing the means for revenge. the Holy Prophet replied back by saying "Wa Alayka" (Same be to you). Some of those who were present there became very furious at the insolent behavior of the enemy.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH His Behavior Enemies: with The Message replied: "I reciprocated his greeting in his own words that is. They said to the Holy Prophet: "Why did you not retaliate upon your enemy?" The Holy Prophet Some Special Traits of the Holy Prophet • The Holy Prophet readily accepted the invitation of the 15 . Despite his worthy companions’ desire not to let him work. He used to collect the firewood for cooking food. Affectionate Treatment of His Friends: While on a journey people used to divide work among themselves and the Holy Prophet. the On the occasion of the conquest of Makkah. too. "The same on you" which he had wished for me". Once an enemy of Islam happened to come to the Holy Prophet and instead of greeting him with the celebrated Islamic Greeting "Assalam u Alayka" (Peace be in you) he said "Assamu Alayka" (Death be on you) and insolently repeated these words several times. the Holy Prophet would not agree to it. the Holy Prophet pardoned even his blood-thirsty enemies and not only that he even pardoned the unbelieving woman who had conspired to kill him by cooking for him a poisoned meal. Once when the Holy Prophet alighted from the camel's back and went to tether the animal to a tree. had his work to do himself.

never agreed and instead prayed to Allah to show them guidance. We have not revealed the Qur'an on you that you should be burdened. However he would entrust their leadership to those who were held in respect by them. He used to encourage as well as admonish people as the occasion demanded. He was always much concerned about the proper guidance of the people. In this context the following Qura'nic verse was revealed to him: • Whenever he went on riding he never allowed anybody to follow him on foot and instead he asked the people to go separately until he met them on the appointed place. • Whenever he shook hands with somebody he would not withdraw until the other person withdrew his hand first. [13] • Whenever he happened to attend a gathering he always seated himself at a lower • Sometimes the companions suggested to the Holy Prophet to curse the enemies but he 16 . [12] • In a gathering the Holy Prophet gave so much individual attention to each other and every person that he thought that he was the only favorite of the Holy Prophet. On this occasion the following Qur'anic verse was revealed to him.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH slaves and he considered it necessary to hold them in high regard like other notables of the tribes. but as admonition for whom who fear. Do not be niggardly or extravagant that you may later feel reprehensive and constrained. • The Holy Prophet was not mindless of good or bad behavior. When the son came to the Holy Prophet he gave him his dress. A woman sent his son to the Holy Prophet and asked for his dress. • The Holy Prophet never disappointed a beggar.

ted a theft. • In matters of enforcing laws. Once. one of his companions interceded with him for a woman of a famous tribe to excuse her punishment. I would have not spared her even from the punishment". If my own daughter Fatima had commit- His Concern of the Common Man: Unlike those leaders who fled away from the scene of trouble and hardship or those 17 . He would readily accept a present howsoever humble it was. At this the Holy Prophet said: "By Allah! I am not the one to relax the punishment ordained by Divine commandment in favour of anybody. • He would ask the people to sit in a circular seating arrangement so as not to give any distinction to anyone over the other. he never showed special favour to anybody. If he happened to be on a journey. • The Holy Prophet treated the poor and the rich alike and during the conversation he never allowed irrelevant or controversial things to be discussed. • The Holy Prophet paid particular attention to the captives and the slaves and he himself married a captive woman and thus by this action of his the Muslims started showing regard to the captives and they freed many of them. • Whenever he found any Muslim or a companion missing in a meeting. he would immediately inquire after him.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message place. The Holy Prophet asked the people to be kind to the captives and to feed them and clothe them like themselves and to call them by their names so as not to give them a feeling of inferiority. he would pray for his safe return and if he happened to be sick he would pray for his speedy recovery. besides he never found fault with anybody nor did he indulge in laughter.

But when you reach a decision trust Allah. While migrating to Madina. and as such they all marched forward towards Uhud to face the enemy. the Holy Prophet first sent a batch of the loyal followers to Madina. What is more interesting is that the verse 159 of Surah Ale Imran was revealed after the set-back of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud. Muslims had to suffer defeat. Allah says in the same verse as follows: Forgive them and ask Allah to forgive (their sins) and consult with them in certain matters.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH who left their friends in the lurch and migrated from their town or country. the Holy Prophet set up an advisory council and consulted the people as to whether the believers should fight the battle outside Madina or they should remain within the city of Madina. The Holy Prophet himself and a few of his companions were of the opinion that the battle should be fought in Madina and accordingly defense should be The above-mentioned verse was revealed despite the fact that after accepting the opinion of the companions. Here we see that the Holy Prophet gave preference to the opinion of young and zealous fighters over that of others including his own. As for example on the occasion of the Battle of Uhud. [15] His Behavior Opponents: 18 with His . the Holy Prophet stayed in Makkah all the time and instead sent his followers to migrate to Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Allah loves those who trust Him. [14] His Consulting the People: In all those matters where there was no special command from Allah and they were left to the people's discretion. built up there. the Holy Prophet very often used to consult them before taking any decision. but most of the young people gave their opinion for fighting the battle outside Madina.

A group among the followers of the Bible would love to In the case of hypocrites. [17] Muhammad. 'He listens to everything and believes what he hears'. Let us worship no one except Allah nor consider anything equal to Allah. in another verse we read that if the doubts arise the agreement should be revoked. The Holy Qur'an says: If you are afraid of treachery of some of your allies. [19] Some of them speak ill of the Prophet saying. say to the followers of the Bible. accept it. Allah does not love the treacherous ones. He used to say that in exchange for one single arrow that was shot at the enemy of Allah.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The treatment of the Holy Prophet with his opponents was based on the following Qur'anic injunction: The Message mislead you but they mislead no one save themselves. [18] The Holy Prophet considered military preparations for fighting against the enemies of Islam. (Muhammad) tell them. nor regard any of us as our lord besides Allah. its maker. we see that the Holy Prophet The Holy Qur'an says about the Jews and the Christians as follows: 19 . Those who speak ill of the Messenger of Allah will face a painful punishment'. 'He only listens to what is good for you. 'We must come to a common term. [20] If they (the unbelievers) propose peace. believes in Allah and has trust in the believers. the necessity of coaching of youngster for the art and skill of archery and similar other skill of paramount importance. its buyer who handed it over to the soldiers of Islam and the one who shot it at the enemy were ensured of Paradise. and trust in Allah. [16] Of course. He is Mercy for the believers among you. you may disregard your treaty with them.

In this connection there is clear injunction in the Holy Qur'an that believers cannot ask for the forgiveness of the infidels and polytheists. [21] Indeed the disruptionist's hands should be cut off no matter even if he happens to be the uncle of the Holy Prophet. the Prophet and the believers should not have sought forgiveness from Allah for them even if they may have been relatives. After it was made clear that the pagans are to be the dwellers of Hell.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH ordered the demolition of a Masjid that was built by the hypocrites. When the Holy Prophet learnt of such a conspiracy he ordered the storming of the room where the plot was being hatched and accordingly the believers stormed the room over the heads of the hypocrites. he was lenient towards the infidels when they wanted some more time to take a decision about their embracing Islam. (and those who survived were treated harshly). It was the uncle of the Holy Prophet for whose condemnation a strongly worded Qur'anic verse was revealed. 20 . The Holy Qur'an says: In the following verse Allah encourages the Holy Prophet lest the enemy's plot might shake his decision. He will suffer in a blazing fire and so too will his wife (who threw thorns and firewood in the Prophet's way). Around her neck will be a rope of palm tree. The Holy Qur'an says. However. On the occasion of the Battle of Tabuk some hypocrites were conspiring against Islam in a room of a public inn. The Holy Prophet did not offer the funeral prayers for these hypocrites. [22] Family affiliations had no influence on his taking ideological decisions. May the hands of Abu Lahab perish! May he too perish! His property and worldly gains will be of no help to him.

ignore their annoying you and trust in Allah. glorify your Lord with His praise before sunrise and sunset. Allah is your allSufficient Protector.[26] 21 . exercise patience against what they say. The Holy Qur'an says: But they (the idols) will not be able to help them. [24] It is the Holy Prophet whom the Divine carrier takes away from the Holy Masjid (the Ka'ba) in Makkah to Baytul Muqaddas (the Masjid in Jerusalem). [23] The Message Holy Prophet whose praise has been done by Allah Himself. On the other hand we find his attributes and personal qualities of love and affection and refined thoughts and sympathetic behavior towards all. whom Allah takes him through the heavens and by whose auspicious presence the angels' abode becomes blessed. [25] An Apology to the Holy Prophet: Glory to Him who carried His servant during the night for a visit from the Holy Mosque (at Makkah) to the Aqsa Mosque (at Jerusalem). Do not be grieved about them nor be disappointed at their evil plans. [27] While writing on the merits of the Holy Prophet I am feeling helpless because of my limited knowledge. "Once a Muhammad. that We may show him some of Our signs. As a matter of fact an appreciation on the life and attributes of the Holy Prophet can only be undertaken by a person of the caliber of Imam Ali as it is the On the one hand these exalted destinations are the proof of the exalted personality of the Holy Prophet.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Do not yield to the disbelievers or the hypocrites. Whose precincts We have blessed. Exercise patience and let it be only for the cause of Allah. Instead the disbelievers as the troops of the idols will be brought before Allah.

so much so that he swears that he would not forgive even his own daughter. The example of compassion and mercy that the Holy Prophet set before the people in those days became the sign of the success and grace of the nation. [28] At the time when on the murder of one person the entire tribe used to rise for taking revenge upon the murderer's people and several of their innocent people were put to death. his testimony would not be considered reliable because the one who cruelly fatigues his animal is hard-hearted. The Holy Prophet is harder than the rock against the enemies and is softer than snow toward his friends. He foregoes his personal rights against his enemies also but in the implementation of the laws he is very strict. The Holy Prophet said that if anyone would drive his animal even on his journey to Makkah too fast. listen to Allah and the Messenger when they call you to that which gives you life. The Holy Prophet instead of using that water for ablution places it before the cat. That was the time when savagery was at its peak. the Holy Prophet stressed the acquiring of knowledge by saying that it was obligatory for all the Muslims.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH thirsty cat keeps an eye on the water container meant for the Prophet's ablution. if she ever committed any wrong". Now after the passage of fourteen centuries we see that everybody is clamoring for acquiring knowledge. The Holy Qur'an says: How dare we talk about the attributes of the Holy Prophet? We read in Nahjul Balaghah (Peak of Eloquence) that when nobody could read or write. the Holy Prophet stopped this heinous custom. [29] The command of Allah is not without meaning when He says about the Holy Prophet of Islam as follows: 22 . Believers.

and whose installation as Prophet removed all disturbances and chaotic conditions from the land. [32] How can one attempt to write something in praise of the Holy Prophet when Allah Himself has exalted his name and his mission in the following words? (Muhammad). work diligently and turn to your Lord with all your love. and exalted your fame? Surely with hardship there is ease. [34] He does not speak out of his own desire.[33] And in the Hereafter too. Allah dignified the position of the Holy Prophet as an interceder. When he was born. We have granted you abundant virtue. the foundation of the palace of Kisra. [30] You have attained a high moral standard. So worship your Lord with full dedication and sacrifice. It is surely your opponents whose line will come to end. haven't We comforted your heart and relieved you of the burden which had been a heavy weight upon your back. There can be no better appreciation of the Holy Prophet than the one given in the Holy Qur'an as: He will grant you a majestic triumph. [31] The Holy Qur'an which describes this world a poor and insignificant thing makes the position of the Holy Prophet exalted.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message He who obeys the Messenger obeys Allah. With hardship indeed there is ease. What can I write about the highly exalted attributes of the Holy Prophet whose birth extinguished the leaping flames of the Fireplace of Persia. the ancient monarchs of It is not possible that in these few pages we may throw light on the high morals of the Holy Prophet about whom Allah Himself says in the following verse of the Holy Qur'an: 23 . So when you are free. [35] (Muhammad).

who reaches such a lofty place of honour that he becomes the guest of Allah on the night of Me'raj. whom the Holy Qur'an declared the "Mercy for the whole Universe". 24 . and he himself is so humble in disposition that he first greets the children. The Archangel Jibra'il who brings the Divine revelation to him conveys him the greetings of Allah.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Persia (Iran). in his humbleness. But in either case he does not exceed the limit and does not do anything against the Will of Allah. Buraq. When he was assigned to Prophethood the entire humanity got wonder-struck. The Holy Prophet remains cheerful with the people while he is in their company He sheds tears also at the demise of his son. men. he never hesitated to ride on a mule. How to speak of him. who at one and the same time is dedicated to the worship and remembrance of Allah and is also mindful of the feelings of the two children! The people should take lesson from this in the matter of upholding the rights of children. a Divine carrier. women and the laborers and they should be ashamed of raising empty slogans. Ibrahim. were shaken. was provided to him. It was he. declares that he would not turn down the invitation of a slave and would travel a far off distance in order to share a simple food with him? For his journey to the heavens. Who can write and how can we write about such a unique personality? In the state of prostrating himself before Allah he submits his forehead and heart before Allah and when his two grandsons (Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn) find him under that position and ride on his back. What can I say about him. he prolongs his prostration so that their feeling might not be hurt. and yet who. while at his own.

on the day of the conquest of Makkah. Lady Khadija had already rejected the offer for marriage of several other men who wanted to marry her because of her financial standing. that he was lustful. Khadija-tul Kubra up to the age of fifty years. makes the house of his arch-enemy as sanctuary of peace. oppression. and to liberate man from all kinds of domination and subjugation? Certainly not. But Lady Khadija proposed to the Holy Prophet because he was found to be a trustworthy. the revered Lady of Islam.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message the total number of those killed was not more than 1700 from both sides in all the battles of Islam against enemies. announces general amnesty and pardons to all his opponents and bears with patience hardships for fifteen years at the hands of the infidels of Makkah. and his wedding with her was solemnized at the initiation of Lady Khadija when she was forty and the Holy Prophet was twenty five years old. truthful and righteous person enjoying high reputation in Sometimes the opponents say that Islam was spread at the point of the sword and this is not correct because from historical facts and evidence 25 . Sometimes the opponents find fault with the Holy Prophet that he married too many wives and mislead the people by insinuating. and if he takes his sword in hand to protect himself and his faith and to defeat the nefarious designs of his enemies and asks the believers to wage Jihad (Holy War) against them so as to emancipate mankind from treachery. savagery. although the fact is that the Holy Prophet passed the youthful years of his marital life with only wife. God forbid. False Accusations: Is it correct to make false allegations against Islam whose Prophet gives a grace period of four months instead of the two asked for.

One among them was Sauda whose husband died after he had migrated to Abyssinia and she was left without any patron and supporter. Her marriage with Zayd did not last long and she was divorced by him. Prophet were of varying temperament and dispositions and as such it was not easy to get along with them. She was first married to Zayd bin Harith. The other wives of the Holy Prophet were married to him only after the demise of his first wife Lady Khadija and that too when he had passed the age of fifty. comfort. These women were of elderly age and were widows and had orphaned children and hence he had to lead a hard and strenuous life with them instead of life of ease. These wives of the Holy 26 . Then she married the Holy Prophet. Umm Salama was another such wife who was of old age and was mother of orphaned children. The husbands of some of these wives were martyred while fighting against the infidels and as such they needed protection for themselves and the orphans. the slave and adoptive son of the Holy Prophet. If they had not been married to the Holy Prophet they would have reverted to infidelity. Zaynab was also another wife of the Holy Prophet who was the daughter of his aunt from the father's side. but he always refused their offer. she had already heard from her uncle Warqa bin Nawfal the prophecies of the preceding Prophets about the appearance of the Holy Prophet as the Prophet of Allah and of her marriage with him. The Holy Prophet spent 25 years of his married life with Lady Khadija and spent her wealth in the preaching of Islam and to relieve mankind from ignorance and tyrannies although there were some of the choicest girls wanted to marry him.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH the whole of the Arabian Peninsula and besides. and indulgence.

Safiya and Maymuna. Hafsa. When she was taken prisoner. and whom the Holy Prophet married when he was past fifty. But Allah ordered this marriage in order to abolish this custom at the hands of the Holy Prophet himself. and had orphaned children with them. with a view to maintain cordial relations among various influential tribes. and that many a beautiful girl aspired to marry him. and most of them had been married once or twice before. The Message Habiba. Safiya of course was the daughter of the tribal chief of a big Jewish tribe of Bani Nuzayr. many of the wives of the Holy Prophet were those who had passed the age of youth and personal charm. Umm 27 . another wife of the Holy Prophet was a captive. Juwayria. Her marriage with the Holy Prophet motivated the Muslims to treat the captives with great regards and kindness so much so that they freed many of them.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Holy Prophet married Zaynab at Allah's command so that the very root and basis of a wrong custom might be abolished. Besides. the Holy Prophet married her and established relationship with a big tribe. the Holy Prophet married such women as Ayesha. This is the proof of the fact that the purpose of the Holy Prophet in contracting various marriages was based on pious and noble cause only and as such no sane person can dare attack his personal character. According to this custom of the Age of Ignorance nobody was allowed to marry the wife of his adopted son and in this case since Zayd was the adopted son of the Holy Prophet. the divorced wife of the former. to prevent disruption among them. and to promote internal stability. an age which by no means can be regarded as an age of youthful and lustful desires and by that time he had attained great reputation already. In short. the latter could not marry Zaynab.

The Holy Qur'an says about his dedication and worship of Allah as follows: 6. 68:4 Surah al-Kauthar. 33:48 Surah an-Nahl. 23. 94:1—7 Surah al-Qalam. who have enwrapped in a mantle.16. 17. 4:19 Mustadrak.16. 8:58 Surah Ale Imran. 101 Biharul Anwar. 9. 14. Surah Nisa.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Besides keeping these wives. 111:1—5 Surah at-Tauba.615 Wasa'il. 4. vol. 3:159 Surah al-Anfal. 5. 3:64 Surah Ale Imran. 3. attending jihad. vol. 4:80 Surah an-Najm. p.2. 25. 16 Surah al-Anfal. p.614. 21. vol. 29. 11.[36] It is only we who even for the sake of one wife forsake Allah. 27. 20. 7. 10. 36:75 Surah Qaf. 28. 33:53 Biharul Anwar. 34. Notes: 1. 36. 16. 12. uplifting the society and doing justice to wives themselves and instead it becomes the source of their support and protection. 8:61 Surah al-Anfal. 281 Surah al-Ahzab. 16:58 Mustadrak. vol. 14. 50 39 Surah Bani Isra'il. 9:113 Surah al-Ahzab. 9:61 Surah Lahab. 33. 15. 53. If the number of wives does not prevent anyone from getting right guidance. 22.24 Surah an-Nisa. 13. 17:29 Tafsir-i Namuna. 18. 215 Surah at-Taubah. p. 17:1 Biharul Anwar. vol.3 Surah al-Fath. 8. 16:127 Surah Ya Sin. spiritual enlightenment. 15. 643 Wasa'il. 26. p. worship (Allah) for only a few hours at night. p. 2. 32. 19. vol. 8. 35.142 Surah Ale Imran. there cannot be any reason for criticism. 31. 30. 122 Kuhlul Basar Surah Nahl. 3:68 Surah at-Tauba. performing religious duties of offering prayers. You. 24. 48:23 Surah al-Inshira.3. 2. the Holy Prophet most often passed his nights in offering prayers and remembering Allah as he did in his youth also. p. 9:6 Sura Ta Ha. vol. vol. 20:2 Surah Bani Isra'il. 73:1—3  28 . 108:1—3 Surah Muzzammil. p.

Sabir.[3] Although the Imam is most renowned as the initiator of Shi’a Islamic fiqh.H. The sixth Shi‘a Imam (a) was born on a Monday or Friday on the 17th of Rabi’ul Awwal 83 or 86 A. the most famous one is al-Sadiq. Imam Baqir (a). particularly on the wonders of creation.Mufaddal. Tawhid al. his extensive knowledge in a variety of fields had a great academic impact on the people of his time.) By: Muhammad Nasir Husayni ‘Ala’i Ja'far ibn Muhammad alSadiq. His appellations are also alSadiq. Tahir. the sixth Imam.”[2] His great father was Imam Muhammad Baqir (a) and his mother was Umm Farwah bint Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. was revered by both Sunni and Shi’a Muslims for his deep Islamic scholarship.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message A Biography of Imam Ja‘far al-Sadiq (A. As to why he was called alSadiq (the truthful). This article offers a brief biography of his life. In response to Daris Kanani as to why he was called Ja’far. Aba Isma‘il. and academic accomplishments. the distinctive features of his Imamate compared to other Imams. which is the name of an offspring of Satan. and his political confrontations.[1] He was born 29 . a compilation of his teachings. He was named Ja‘far by his holy father. His epithets are Aba Abdillah. reflected his extensive knowledge. called Ja’fari jurisprudence. his educational achievements. Fadil. while all Imams are truthful in the real sense of the word. on the same day the Prophet was born 136 years earlier. which is the name of a brook in Heaven. while my father out of knowledge named me Ja‘far. the sixth Imam responded.S. Imam Sajjad (a) is quoted as saying. “Oh Daris! Your father ignorantly called you Daris. Qa’im. Kafi and Munji. piety. and Abu Musa.

H.). That is why he is known as Ja‘far al-Kazzab (the liar). Hisham ibn Abdul-Malik (105-125 A.H.H. & 7. Compared to other Imams before and after him. namely: 1. Imam Mahdi (a) would prove his false claim to the Shi‘as. 3. and ended in 148 A. Marwan ibn Muhammad known as Marwan Himar (126-132). Abu Ja‘far known as Mansur Dawaniqi (137158). by Allah’s grace. 1.[5] No other Imam was a contemporary of this great number of Caliphs. However.). Yazid ibn Walid ibn AbdulMalik (126). and Imam Sajjad (a) and Imam Hadi (a) were contemporary with at most six Caliphs during their Imamate.H. The great number of Caliphs during his Imamate The sixth Imam was a contemporary of seven Caliphs. Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn Abdul-Malik (70 years in 126 A. 6.”[4] Ja‘far al-Kazzab attempted to present himself as the successor of Imam Hassan Askari (a). 5. He spent thirty one years of his life in the presence of his holy father. Walid ibn Yazid AbdulMalik (125-126 A. Abdullah ibn Muhammad known as Saffah (132-137). the period of Imam al-Sadiq’s Imamate is politically distinctive and noteworthy in two respects: 30 . 2.).The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH “The dwellers of Heaven know Ja‘far ibn Muhammad as alSadiq because a descendant of his called Ja‘far would falsely claim to be Imam. The distinction between the sixth Imam and this descendant of his through five generations proves his veracity. 4.H. The Distinctive Features of his Imamate The turbulent lifetime of Imam al-Sadiq (a) began in 83 A.

That is why Jabir ibn Hayyan is known as ‘The Father of Chemistry. The holy Imam (a) was not only active in the era of freedom.’ 3. especially on rational and natural subjects and chemistry. 7. For example. Mu’min Taq. In doing so. Hisham ibn Salim. his advising the Shi‘as to adopt an appropriate approach to confront tyrants. Aban ibn Taghlab. Mu‘awiyyah ibn Ammar. which was called alchemy then. Hisham ibn Hakam wrote thirty one books[7] and Jabir ibn Hayyan authored more than two hundred twenty books[8] on various subjects. 6.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message footsteps. his confrontation with the governments of his time. 2. Different dynasties In contrast to the political situations of other Imams. 1. Training Students In order to train his students. Ali ibn Yaqtin. and so forth are noteworthy. Jabir ibn Hayyan. Imam al-Sadiq (a) made the most out of the time when there was no dictatorship and cruelty because the Abbasids and the Umayyads were in political conflict with one another over power. Imam al-Sadiq (a) followed in his father’s 31 . Muhammad ibn Muslim. Mu‘alli ibn Khanis. Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar. but he also lived under the extremely dictatorial and tyrannical regimes. the Umayyad dynasty was replaced by the Abbasid one. his backing the Shi’i uprisings. during the Imamate of Imam al-Sadiq (a). 5. The school established by Imam Baqir (a) was expanded by Imam al. Students trained in this school include: 2. 9. 8.Sadiq (a).[6] Some of these students were so advanced and well trained that they were the pivots of their fields. Hisham ibn Hakam. Thus. & 10. 4. 3.

‘O’ AbuHanifah! Share your questions with Abu-Abdillah. According to the renowned leader of the Hanafi sect. Hence. On different occasions. He talked of these two years as the foundation of his knowledge. Then Mansur added. think of some difficult questions.’ he replied.’ The Imam’s Breadth of Knowledge The spread and modification of Shi‘i Islam is indebted to the scientific endeavors of Imam al-Sadiq (a). Sunnis also benefited from his knowledge. ‘People are fond of Ja‘far ibn Muhammad (a). the Imam made use of the political pressures in society caused by the transfer of power from the Umayyads to the Abbasids to revive the principles of Shi‘i thought that the governments prevented their dissemination to define the injunctions of Islamic law (shari‘a) and to ‘Yes. “Had it not been for those two years. rather. Foremost among these leaders is AbuHanifah who studied under the Imam for two years. Mansur turned to him and said. he told me.’” So I thought of forty difficult questions. I know him. In order to denounce him. Many well-known Sunni leaders were directly or indirectly the Imam’s students. “When Mansur Dawaniqi summoned Ja‘far ibn Muhammad (a). One day Mansur was in “Hayrah” and summoned me. Abu-Hanifah. For every question I asked him. he explained all about my opinion. I saw Ja‘far ibn Muhammad (a) sitting on his right side. the “twelver-Imam Shi‘ism” is called “Ja‘fari Shi‘ism”.”[9] elevate Shi‘a Islam.’ I started posing the questions. When I went to him. ‘This is AbuHanifah. saying. Nu‘man (Abu-Hanifah) would have been destroyed. the view of people of Medina and the Shi‘i 32 .The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Imam al-Sadiq’s students were not limited to Shi‘as.

When Allah ordered him to prostrate himself before Adam. He said.” “Now if acting upon analogical reasoning is to be correct.”[10] According to the famous scholar of the 3rd century A. This way. and fire is superior to soil. On some questions. I raised forty questions and he answered all. ‘I will not.H. the holy Imam mentioned some instances of Islamic legal rulings opposed to this principle. “Ja‘far ibn Muhammad (a) is a person whose knowledge is world-famous. Reaching this point. Abu-Bahr Jahizh. in order to invalidate ‘analogical reasoning’. In a debate between him and Abu-Hanifah. It is said that Abu-Hanifah and ’Uthman Thawri were his students. because You have created me out of fire and him out of soil. This suffices for demonstrating his high scholarly status. on others with people of Medina.’ ‘Yes. “Which one is worse. and still on some others he disagreed with both of us. Imam al-Sadiq (a) particularly endeavored to refute the principal thoughts of other sects. ‘I have heard you issue an Islamic ruling (fatwa) based on analogical reasoning. aware of their disagreements on Fatwas and jurisprudential issues. he agreed with us. killing somebody unjustly or committing adultery?” Besides strengthening the principles of Shi‘i thought.’ ‘Woe to you! The first one who expressed ideas based on analogical reasoning was Satan. I pointed to Imam al-Sadiq (a). he “Killing someone unjustly. saying.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH opinion on it. The Message refuted the analogical reasoning of Abu-Hanifah. why are two witnesses 33 . he said.”[11] Then.. The Imam said.’ “[He is] the most knowledgeable of people.

prayer or fasting?” “Prayer.” I am going to tell you about the Divine philosophy in creating the universe. “Verily you shall be questioned about the blessings on the Day of Judgment. while this is not the case with obligatory prayer? Is this Islamic ruling concurrent with analogical reasoning?” Tawhid of Mufaddal: A Reflection of the Imam’s Knowledge Mufaddal ibn ’Umar Kufi was a student of Imam al-Sadiq (a) who was instructed by the Imam for four days and compiled the Imam’s teachings in the form of a treatise called Tawhid of Mufaddal.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH enough to convict somebody of murder. 34 . that is. If somebody invites you over and serves you delicious food and cold water. the Prophet’s Household (a).” “I was told you have commented on this Quranic verse. all living “Yes. with its animals.” as follows.” “Is Allah ungenerous?” “So what is meant by the blessings about which man will be questioned?” “No. “No. I have commented on it this way. This book includes complicated and hidden facts about the world from humankind to astronomy. what will you think of him?” “I will consider him ungenerous.” “Which one is more important. wild ones.”[12] “So why is it incumbent on menstruating women to make up for obligatory fasting. and insects. but four are necessary for convicting somebody of adultery? Is this Islamic ruling in accordance with analogical reasoning?” then he reproaches you for having entertained you. “Allah will rebuke people for eating delicious foods and drinking cold water in the summer.” “This blessing is the love for us.

He was asked if this (turning to them) was allowed. the Imam spoke of the wonders of creation as Mufaddal wrote them down. The Imam spent 21 years of his Imamate under the tyrannical rule of the second Abbasid caliph. a legitimate government has its roots in Allah’s order. It is considered accepted (maqbul) by some scholars due to the reliability of its chain of authorities. so that [people] may learn a lesson. some others consider it a sound hadith. supporting the Shi‘a uprisings while not helping those who wanted to align Imam al-Sadiq (a) with themselves. showing the Shi‘as the appropriate policy of not cooperating with the government.[14] The Imam (a) replied. covert and overt struggle and defensive policies. Mansur.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH beings. How- 35 . The Message ever. from fruit trees to the edible and inedible plants. coercion. not in social contract. consider the following valid narration reported by ’Umar ibn Hanzalah. and turned to the illegitimate ruler or judge for a verdict on it. The struggle strategies the Imam recommended to his followers included adopting a nonviolence policy. animals and plants. Afterwards. “Whoever turns to the illegitimate ruler or judge whether rightfully or not and asks him for a verdict definitely asks Taghut (false deity) for a Each above-mentioned strategy is beyond the constraints of this paper. According to Imam al-Sadiq (a). part of the Imam’s struggle was based on not recognizing any illegitimate government.[13] Imam al-Sadiq’s Confrontation with the Tyrants of his Time For example. and the like. ’Umar ibn Hanzhalah related: Imam al-Sadiq (a) was asked about two Shi‘as who had a dispute over debt and inheritance.

it is wrong that he should accept something by the verdict of Taghut even though it is his vested right because he enjoys it by the judgment of Taghut. Allah has ordered people to disbelieve in Taghut. Allah regards turning to Taghut and submitting to him as false and wrong. If we consider all 10 verses together. “They want to turn for judgment [in their disputes] to Taghut. they should be content with it because I have appointed him a judge. So if they belittle his verdict which is based on our injunctions. Whoever denies us 36 . “So what should they do?” He responded. and He sees those who ask somebody other than the Messenger of Allah for a verdict on their disputes as faithless. In some parts of these verses.[17] Allah even swears by Himself. they definitely underestimate the verdict of Allah and deny us. that is.’[15] In the above-mentioned narration. Whatever verdict he gives. the Qur’anic verse Imam al-Sadiq (a) mentioned enjoys a unique theme. Imam al-Sadiq’s saying is well. The Imam (a) was asked again.” (4:60). He views the faith of those who accept the judgment of Taghut as imaginary. though they were ordered to disbelieve in him. it will be made completely clear that the rule of Taghut and turning to him are illegitimate and unlawful. takes our halal and haram into account and knows our injunctions.[16] Considering the verses before and after it. ‘They should turn to somebody who narrates our Hadiths. He said in the Hoy Quran: actually denies Allah and this is tantamount to associating somebody with Allah. In some other part. verses 5868. Also.documented by his referring to the divine word. In a nutshell.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH verdict.

when Shi‘a have dispute over an issue and there in no Infallible (a). is considered a taghut. What do you think of this job?” Imam al-Sadiq (a) is also quoted as saying. saying. taking halal and haram into account and knowing the injunctions. namely narrating hadiths.[19] Imam al-Sadiq (a) prevented his companions from associating and cooperating with the court of the caliphate. Imam alSadiq (a) extended this Qur’anic verse beyond the time of the Holy Prophet[18] to the future. are not consistent with qualities of anybody but jurisprudents. or any means of revolt and rebellion against Allah.”[21] The sixth Imam also warned jurisprudents and hadith narrators against having any tie with the illegitimate government of that time.”[20] 37 . and people seek his judgment. “Jurisprudents are the trusted agents of the Prophets. Therefore. The Message Another hadith by the sixth Imam reads as follows. Thus. the permanent ruling has been made clear. Once a companion asked him. and they are offered to build houses and dig a canal for the Abbasids. they should turn to a jurisprudent because three characteristics. “We are those obeying whom Allah has made obligatory. while you obey the one for whose ignorance people cannot provide any pretext before Allah. If you see them turning to the kings and intimately cooperating with oppressors. “Whoever does not judge by right and truth.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH In this narration.”[22] The word ‘taghut’ from the root of ‘tughyan’. be suspicious of them and do not trust them. “Sometimes Shi‘as become poor and short of money. means rebelling against Allah and breaking divine laws. as for the time when there is an Imam but he is inaccessible or when he is in occultation.

ibid. 20. 3. 17. Wasa’il-ul.6 8.Shi‘a. 18. vol.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Imam replied.”[23] 11. Ibn Shahr Ashub. Rijal. 69-77. Imam al-Sadiq (a) and the Four Islamic Sects. p. Mahdi Pishwa’i. vol. 420-423. p. vol. 21. pp. Shaikh Saduq. Bihar-ul-Anwar. 443. pp. 10. pp. 220-221. vol. p. 1.186. 47. 12. Usul Kafi. p. Al-Fihrist. 65. 18. 281-312. 1. Hurr Ameli. 21 7. p. 1. vol. “I do not like to tie a knot or to put a lid on water-skin for them even though they pay a high wage. 3. 353-410. Hadith no. Dr. 22. v. p. 279-280 15. Allama Majlisi. 4. 271. 4. p. 184. 129. vol. pp. 19. 1. 2. 55. Bihar-ul-Anwar.47. ‘Illal-u-Sharayi’. because those who help the oppressors will be thrown into a tent of fire until Allah gives His verdicts on all servants. vol. vol. p. The History of the Caliphs. 1. pp. 16. Wasa’il-ul. 1. 1. vol. Hadith no. 6. Nisa’.281. vol. 9.47.10. p. vol. Nemuneh Quranic Commentary. Hadith no. vol. no. Nemuneh Quranic Commentary. 13. vol. 5. Notes: 14. See its details in Bihar-ulAnwar. 2. p. p. 27. 4. vol. 23. 70. 215-216. 456. Khu’i. 20. Kulayni. Imam al-Sadiq (a) and the Four Islamic Sects. Imam al-Sadiq (a) and the Four Islamic Sects. 234. Suyuti. vol. pp. Muhammad Baqir Muhaqqiq. 217-218  38 . p. 12. 3. The Virtues of Abi Talib’s Household. 19. 3. The example of Signs on the Occasions of the Revelation of the Quranic verses. vol. pp. Bihar-ul-Anwar. 99. p. Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Four Islamic Sects.Shi‘a. The Virtues of Abi Talib’s Household. The Conduct of the Shi‘a Leaders. p.

) said about that. as I think. And this. but Allah falsified their saying.s) told that the Awaited Imam (a.s. and praise be to Allah.). They subjected him to confinement and imposed on him economical blockades. Imam (a. social justice all over the world. and raise the banner of faith and truth. He would revive the annulled laws of Allah.) as the Next Imam by Imam Hasan al-Askari (A. The Prophet (a.S) By: Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi Imam Abu Muhammad Hasan al-Askari (a. was the worst distress the imam suffered. Therefore. The Abbasid kings spared no effort in oppressing him.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message Appointing Imam al-Mahdi (A. had brought good news about and told that he would be the greatest reformer that mankind had never seen like him throughout all stages of history. He would do away with polytheism and atheism.s. They prevented him from meeting with his followers as they prevented ‘Ulama’ and scholars from contacting with him to take away from the fountain of his sciences.F.s.s. the Abbasids tried to kill Imam al-Askari (a.) spent his short life in sufferings and distresses.T. They moved him from a prison to another. They tried more than once to assassinate him but Allah protected him from their plots.s.’[1] There were some reasons that made the Abbasids bear a grudge against Imam Hasan al-Askari (a. Here are some of them: First. ‘They claimed that they wanted to kill me in order to cut off my offspring.) would spread political.) to be sure he would not leave any offspring. the Abbasids feared the Awaited Imam whom the Prophet (S) 39 . and defeat all tyrants and oppressive powers in the world. would do away with all kinds of injustice and oppression.

). Third. suffered the bitterest distresses from the Abbasids because he was the master and chief of the Alawids and the imam of Muslim at that time.s.s.) is the hope. aiming at achieving the political justice of Islam and applying its economic and social programs in life. they plotted day and night to do away with him.) 40 .s.) for his popularity and the great respect that all classes of society showed him. the Abbasids bore envy towards Imam Hasan alAskari (a. whereas the authority was in the hand of the Abbasids who received nothing of respect or honor from people. and subjection.s.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Second. let us come back to the last days of Imam Hasan alAskari (a.) was and is a great miracle in Islam. Now.). and so they ordered their policemen to chase every Alawid. Therefore. as he had concealed the birth of Prophet Moses (a. oppression. not only for Muslims. It was naturally that Imam al-Askari (a.s. Appointing Imam AlMahdi as the Next Imam Imam al-Mahdi (a. He is the Savior who will free the will of man and save peoples and nations from the oppression of the corruptive regimes who have turned this world into unbearable hell. but for all oppressed human beings who suffer slavery. Allah concealed his birth.s. the Alawids rose in many revolts against the Abbasid rule since its beginning. Imam al-Mahdi (a. because the Abbasid government looked for him… and in his remaining alive (in occultation) throughout the long stages of life is also a miracle Those revolts filled the hearts of the Abbasids with hatred and grudge against the Alawids. Those revolts were supported by great masses of people in the different Muslim communities that harmed the dignity of the rule and shook its throne and were about to overthrow it.

I went to al-Hasan bin Ali (a.s. of an authority over His people. By him (the authority) distresses are pushed away from the people of the earth. and He will not deprive it until the Day of Resurrection. Ahmad bin Is’haq bin Sa’eed al-Ash’ari said. Allah the Almighty did not deprive the earth since He created Adam. he came out holding a three-yearold boy. On the following day. He was named and surnamed like the messenger of Allah (a. were it not for your honor near Allah the Almighty and near His authorities. he will hide in an occultation. He said to me before I asked him. whose face was (bright) like a full moon. during which no one shall be saved except one whom Allah fixes on the belief in his imamate and supplicating Allah to hasten his deliverance. is like al-Khidhr (Elijah) and Thul Qarnayn. “Once. and by him the blessings of the earth are emitted.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH for Islam.) concerning the Imamate of his son al-Mahdi (a. and in his reappearance and announcing the pure principles of Islam is another miracle too. ‘O Ahmad bin Is’haq. The Message went in the house. I came back to 41 . Do not look for a sign after a proof!’ The following are some of the traditions transmitted from Imam Hasan al-Askari (a.) intending to ask him about the successor after him.). by him rain falls down. Then.). ‘I am the representative of Allah in His earth and the avenger on His enemies. 1.s. in this nation. ‘O Ahmad.s. on his shoulder and said. ‘Is there any sign so that I may be sure?’ The young boy said.’ I said to him. O Ahmad.’ I said. He will fill the earth with justice and fairness after it has been filled with injustice and oppression. ‘O son of the messenger of Allah. By Allah. he. who is the imam and successor after you?’ He got up hastily and I left delightedly.s. I would not show you my this son.

‘O son of the messenger of Allah. shall apostatize. this is a command from Allah. ‘Yes. you shall be with us in Illiyin. he will reappear.s. ‘Long occultation.’ I said. and supported them with a mercy from Him. and daters[4] will tell lies.’”[5] 42 . “Once. Whoever dies without knowing (acknowledging) him shall dies as an unbeliever. He said. a secret from the secrets of Allah. Muhammad bin Uthman alUmari narrated that his father said.’ He said. fixed faith in their hearts. I was with alHasan bin Ali (al-Askari) when he was asked about the tradition transmitted from his father that the earth would not be empty from an authority from Allah over His people until the Day of Resurrection. and an unseen matter from the unseen (matters) of Allah. He will be in an occultation where the ignorant will be confused. until many of those. and that whoever died without knowing the imam of his age would die as an unbeliever. ‘O son of the messenger of Allah. by my Lord. ‘This is true as day is true. my delight was so great for what you favored me with. who shall be the authority and imam after you?’ He said. who believe in this matter (occultation and reappearance). Then. Take what I told you.[2]”[3] Someone asked him. O Ahmad. deniers will perish. ‘My son Muhammad is the imam and the authority after me. then. and be from the grateful. and as if I see white flags fluttering over his head at the hill of Kufa. Would you please tell me what norm with al-Khidr and Thul Qarnayn was?’ 2. ‘O son of the messenger of Allah. shall his (alMahdi’s) occultation last long?’ Imam al-Askari (a.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH him and said.) said. and no one shall remain (believing) except those whom Allah has taken from them a covenant on our guardianship.

and sorrow overcame her.s.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH 3.). could not bear Imam Abu Muhammad (a.) said. because the obedience of the last of us is like the obedience of the first of us. Do not worry…!’ On the 8th of Rabi-ul-Awwal. who believes in all prophets and messengers of Allah but denies the prophethood of the messenger of Allah (Muhammad) (a. Surely. in the year 260. is like one who She was distressed. who denies the last of us.) calmed her down saying.) saying. who believes in the imams after the messenger of Allah (a.s. the Abbasid tyrant. My son will have an occultation where people will be in doubt about it except those whom Allah preserves. She began crying. He said to his mother. [8] Assassination of the Imam Al-Mu’tamid.s.s.) perceived from behind the unseen that he would leave this life and go near his Lord. ‘Praise be to Allah Who did not take me out of this life until He made me see the successor after me. Imam Abu Muhammad (a.’[6] The Message denies the first of us.s. and one. while he was twenty-eight years old. ‘In the year 260 I shall suffer bad fever from which I shall be afflicted…’ 4. He is the most similar in shape and morals to the messenger of Allah (a. ‘The fate of Allah must take place. he. Musa bin Ja’far al-Baghdadi narrated that he had heard Imam Abu Muhammad alHasan bin Ali al-Askari (a. is like one.s.). Allah will protect him in his occultation and make him reappear to fill the earth with justice and fairness after it will be filled with injustice and oppression. Imam Abu Muhammad (a.) any 43 .s.s.’[7] The Imam Himself Comforts Imam Abu Muhammad (a.) but denies my son. he died as he had predicted. ‘(It is) As if I see that you will disagree after me on my successor.

They lost their leader. After two days. resorting to Allah. and carried to be prayed on by Muslims.s. for he saw and heard people every when and everywhere glorify the imam and prefer him to all the Alawids and the Abbasids. Finally. Death began approaching him quickly. he made up his mind to do away with the imam. He also ordered a committee of physicians to test the imam’s health day and night. poor. His lips were busy reciting verses from the Holy Qur'an.[10] It was the greatest loss Muslims suffered in that age. and prayed Him to take him nearer to Him.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH longer. he ordered the physicians not to leave the imam alone because his state was very grievous. He assassinated him by poisoning him. and the physicians were despondent of his recovery. He turned towards the Qiblah. put in the coffin. and after not long. Al-Mu’tamid ordered five of his trusted statesmen. and he began suffering bitter and severe pains.s. he uncovered the imam’s face before 44 . among whom was Nahrir. At those last moments of his life. his pure soul flew towards the Heaven surrounded by the angels of the Beneficent Lord. To The Best of Abodes The imams’ health got worse. The Government’s Confusion The Abbasid government was very confused when Imam Hasan al-Askari (a. while being patient. reformer. The imam’s body was (ritually) washed. glorified Him. and instructor who loved and helped their weak. After the prayer.). enshrouded. Eesa son of al-Mutawakkil led the prayer by al-Mu’tamid’s order. mentioned Allah.[9] The poison reacted on his body. Imam alAskari (a. to remain in the imam’s house and report to him about every new happening. and orphans.) became seriously ill.

228. p. It was a great shock for Muslims who hurried up to the imam’s house while crying and weeping. p. It was like the Day of Resurrection in Samarra’. So-and-so of judges. government clerks. p. state officials.[12] Samarra’ had never witnessed before. and physicians and said to them. Ikmaluddeen by Sheikh as-Saduq.). Illiyin is the highest position in the Paradise. Al-Irshad.383. Encyclopedia of al-Bustani.) while mentioning his 1. the Abbasids.216-217. Kifayat al-Athar. Kifayat al-Athar. Soand-so of Ameerul Mu’minin’s (al-Mu’tamid) servants and trusted men. Muhaj p. Government offices and all markets were closed.383. army leaders. 6.383. ad-Da’awat. a day of escorting like this. Notes: The painful news spread everywhere in Samarra’.s. 7. Waves of human beings and flowing masses of people from all classes and societies came to escort the holy corpse of this pure imam (a. Al-Irshad. Al-Irshad. Kifayat al-Athar. 2.[11] The Message virtues and favors and talking with great sorrow and regret about the great loss they were afflicted with. Al-Irshad. p. p. Ikmaluddeen.s. 4.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH the Hashemites. ‘This is al-Hasan bin Ali bin Muhammad bin ar-Reza (peace be on them).383.45.  45 . 3. 10. He died a natural death in his bed. and So-and-so of physicians were present with him. 8. vol.7 p. 5. Kifayat al-Athar.274. p. Those who defines certain dates for the reappearance of the awaited imam (a. 12. judges. 11.’ Then he covered his holy face. 9.

as narrated to Ahmad ibn Is’haq al-Qummi by Imam Muhammad al-Hadi (a.). and will endeavor to shed tears in your remembrance every Thursday night. As we remove the black cloth from the walls. It is our greatest Eid and the Eid of our followers. matam. we are with you. Furthermore. Arba’een. Ashura. we salute the Martyrs of Karbala and declare that we are with you.). When they inquired what the Ghusl was about. and Azadari at this scale. surely we are against your enemies.).s. Muhammad Hamadani and Yahya Baghdadi came to visit him and were informed that Ahmad was busy performing Ghusl for that day. It is our greatest Eid and the Eid of our followers. we take this opportunity to bid farewell to the Martyrs of Karbala as the Ayyam-e-Aza come to an end.).The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH 9th Rabi al-Awwal – A Day of Rejoicing and Celebration Source: www.s.s.hujjat. they were told that Ahmad had heard from Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Hadi (a. we will strive to apply the principles you stood for in our daily lives. mourning. the “9th of Rabi-ul-Awwal is the day of Eid. We will endeavor to perform your Ziyarat. who said: With heavy hearts. We will have to wait for another year to witness and experience majalis. Ahmad ibn Is’haq al-Qummi was a great companion of Imam Hassan al-Askari (a. foremost of which is dedication and loyalty to the Imam of the Time (a.s. 46 . On the 9th Rabi al-Awwal.” After performing his Ghusl Ahmad ibn Is’haq said to the two visiting men: “I have performed Ghusl because today is the Eid of 9th Rabi-alAwwal.org 9th of Rabi al-Awwal is the day of Eid.

s.) assumed his Imamate formally at a young age of 5 years on 9th Rabi al-Awwal 260 A.s. “I thank Allah who kept me alive to this day so that I could see the heads of the tyrants who killed my father.s.).” He then instructed the members of his family to remove the clothes of mourning. Finally. till this day. and our 12th Imam (a. Mukhtar arrested ‘Umar ibn Sa’d and ‘Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad.) went into prostration  47 .).).s.s. He beheaded them and sent their heads to Imam Sajjad (a.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH 9th of Rabi al-Awwal is also known as Eid-e-Zahra meaning the festival of Fatima alZahra (s.s. because three to four years after the tragedy of Karbala.H. From the tragedy of Karbala in 61 A. The Message and said.a. They arrested every killer of Karbala and executed them.) in Medina. together with Ibrahim bin Malik al-Ashtar and others rose to avenge the blood of Imam al-Husayn (a. the Imamate of our Living Imam (a. the family members of the Holy Prophet (S) had continuously mourned and grieved the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a. It is true that an Imam is an Imam from birth but every Imam assumed the official role of his Imamate after the death of the previous Imam.s.s. Imam Sajjad (a.s.) passed away on 8th Rabi al-Awwal 260 A. Imam Hassan alAskari (a.) is to perhaps remind ourselves of his presence and about our responsibilities towards him. it was on this day that joy and happiness was restored in the family of AhlulBayt (a.). adorn themselves and celebrate the day with joy and happiness. The reason why we celebrate.H.) on 9th Rabi-ul-Awwal and on seeing them.). 9th Rabi al-Awwal is the first day of the Imamate of our Living Imam. These two heads reached the Imam (a. in particular. Then Mukhtar bin ‘Ubaydullah as-Saqafi.H.s. Imam al-Mahdi (a.

Muhammad Ibrahim Ayati After Imam Ali. At this time the Muslim society had assumed a peculiar form. Imam Hasan retired from the caliphate and thus safeguarded the blood of the Muslims and the strength of Islam. Imam Hasan attained to the caliphate. This does not.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Peace Treaty of Imam Hasan Mujtaba (A) Edited excerpts from the book. Hence. fighting with Mu’awiyah had been continued only Allah knows what calamity would have fallen on the Muslims from the side of the Eastern Roman Empire and what dimensions the danger from Khawarij would have assumed. If he had persisted in fighting it would have resulted in gain to the Eastern Roman Empire on the external front and to the Khawarij within the Islamic territories. Their strength had been divided almost evenly. and what the history of Islam would have been! Hence. The result of such a fighting would have been disastrous for the Muslims. mean that he surrendered to Mu’awiyah and recognized him as the caliph and the Commander of the Faithful. Imam Hasan was faced with a situation in which he had no alternative but to come to terms with Mu’awiyah and prevent senseless bloodshed. “A Probe into the History of Ashura” By: Ayatollah Dr. and prevented the external and internal enemies from taking undue advantage of the situation.000 or 500.000 Muslims had attacked one another on that day and 48 . One of the conditions of the Peace Treaty between Imam Hasan and Mu’awiyah reads thus: "Hasan bin Ali makes Peace on the condition that If those 400. however. and if Imam Hasan had continued fighting against Mu’awiyah neither of the two parties could expect victory without severe bloodshed.

In the meantime Imam Hasan had left Kufa and was on his way to Madina. He sent him the following reply: "O Mu’awiyah! You have appointed Hasan bin Ali to go like one of your officers and to ward off a rebellious Khariji. the Commander of the Faithful". He wrote thus: "I understand that Farwa bin Nawfal Khariji is proceeding to Kufa along with five hundred men. have "Now there is no doubt about the fact that we should fight against Mu’awiyah’s administration. direct you to go and fight against him and ward him off. and after you have vanquished him there will be no objection to your proceeding to Madina". 49 . I. who think that by retiring. When Mu’awiyah came to know that the said Khariji had revolted along with his five hundred men. "After Hasan bin Ali retired and Mu’awiyah became the caliph. As Mu’awiyah has come at the helm of affairs and become the caliph we must wage war against him". I. Those. It meant that he did not recognize Mu’awiyah to be the caliph and the Commander of the Faithful. therefore. he wrote a letter to Imam Hasan. who had deserted the Khawarij earlier along with five hundred men and gone to the city of Zur said: Imam Hasan received Mu’awiyah’s letter when he had arrived at Qadisiya. Farwa bin Nawfal Ashjaie Khariji. should keep in mind this valuable narration by Ibn Athir which refutes this false belief: The Message They. Imam Hasan bin Ali surrendered to Mu’awiyah and Mu’awiyah became the caliph of the Muslims and Hasan bin Ali also became one of his obedient subjects. Hasan bin Ali. possibly with a view to strengthening the Peace Treaty with the Imam. therefore. marched towards Iraq and reached the palm-grove of Kufa.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH he will not be under an obligation to call Mu’awiyah.

And possibly a better interpretation of the words "I let you go" may be this: 'I have set you at liberty in the field of politics and have myself retired only in the interest of Islam and to avoid the bloodshed of the Muslim i.e. I would have fought against you in the first instance". with a Muslim. I considered it futile that these two forces of Islam which are evenly balanced After the martyrdom of his brother Imam Hasan. The Imam meant to say that he desisted from fighting against Mu’awiyah in spite of the latter's being deviated from Islam as compared with all others. and to which ever sect he might belong. whoever he might be. If I had wished to fight against one of the people of the Qibla i. After the martyrdom of Imam Hasan. which he considered necessary during the regime of Yazid. and the external and internal enemies should take undue advantage of this situation '.the campaign. in the interest of the Muslims. On the other hand he wrote: "I let you go and did not fight against you". It will be observed that the Imam did not say: "I have recognized you as the caliph". from the caliphate. which is my right. he continuously criticized and reprimanded Mu’awiyah and denied his rightfulness to the caliphate in the same manner in which his brother Imam Hasan had done.e. should fight and kill and weaken each other and be annihilated.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH retired. Imam Husayn wrote the following letter to Mu’awiyah that has been reproduced by Ibn Qutayba Denuri: "O Mu’awiyah! Are you not the same person who killed Hujr bin Ady and his pious 50 . Imam Husayn did not also rise up in arms against Mu’awiyah during the last ten years of his rule (49-60 AH) and did not undertake that campaign against him . However.

” The Message them on date-palm Allah be praised! trees.e. the son of an unknown father. spoiled your faith and made the Muslim ummah helpless". the ruler of the Muslims.  51 . And then you have appointed Ziyad to rule over the Muslims so that he may kill them and amputate their hands and feet and hang "O Mu’awiyah! I see that you have destroyed yourself. Fear Allah and beware of the Day of Judgment.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH friends unlawfully? They were the persons. This was the manner in which Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn. who condemned heresy and ordered the people to do good and restrained them from evil. because Allah has a document from which nothing. with your father Abu Sufyan and called him your brother. as Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan. you kill people on mere suspicions and false accusations and have made a boy. in whose house) he is born and the woman giving birth to the child is married to him and the adulterer is to be stoned to death as commanded by Allah. addressed and wrote letters to Mu’awiyah and called him to account. whether small or big or good or bad. that is. By doing so you defied Allah and considered the Divine covenants to be frivolous. You must remember that Allah does not forget these acts of yours. Are you not the man who associated Ziyad. and supposed that he is the son of Abu Sufyan although the Holy Prophet has said: "The child belongs to the man on whose bed (i. You killed them cruelly after granting them security and making firm promises and covenants with them. is omitted and everything is taken into account. "O Mu’awiyah! It appears that you are not a member of the Muslim community and the Muslims have no connections with you. who drinks wine and plays with dogs.

The Message

Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH

The of Historical Transformation
Excerpts from the book, “A Glance at the Life of the Holy Prophet of Islam”
By: Dar Rahe Haqq’s Board of Writers

tolerance.
The
Prophet
struggled with the enemies of
Islam in Makkah for 13 years
and resisted all their torments
and obstructions, but the
opponents of Islam did not
give up their devilish beliefs
and manner and utilized all
their power to destroy Islam.[1] Under such circumstances, the universal mission
of the Holy Prophet of Islam
necessitated his migration to
a calm, suitable place and to
find a new arena for his work
and mission.

Going
Into
Exile
To
Achieve The Divine Goal
The Holy Prophet of Islam
was well aware of the fact
that people who were plunged
in prejudice, superstition, and
ignorance would not abandon
their beliefs and ways easily
and that it would take extensive struggle, severe hardships, and sincere selfsacrifice to save them from
the pit of corruption and guide
them onto the path of virtue
and monotheism. He could
easily read in the faces of the
people of Makkah, the opposition to Islam and their bigoted
determination to fight the
Muslims.

Yathrib - Ready To Submit
To Islam
At the time of the pilgrimage
to the Ka'aba, some of the
men of importance of the
Khazraj tribe came to Makkah
and met with the Holy Prophet in the Masjid al-Haram. He
explained the divine faith of
Islam to them and encouraged them to believe in this

The divine foresight of the
Holy Prophet of Islam had
given him a dark image of the
future. With such an insight
and divine knowledge, he held
high the banner of prophecy
and adopted patience and

52

Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH

religion, which is the faith of
peace and fraternity. The
Khazraj chiefs, who were tired
of their deep-rooted disputes
and conflicts with the Aws
tribe, felt that Islam was
exactly what they needed,
and so they most willingly
submitted to Islam.

The Message

Makkah to take part in the
Hajj pilgrimage held a secret
meeting with the Prophet at
midnight and swore allegiance
to support him just as they
supported and protected their
own families.[2]
The Plot To Murder The
Holy Prophet Of Islam

When the Khazrajis, who had
become Muslim, were about to
return to Yathrib, they asked
the Holy Prophet of Islam for a
missionary, and he assigned
Mas'ab ibn `Umir to accompany them. Thus, the people of
Yathrib were informed of the
rising sun of Islam and hurried
to gain information about the
new faith.

Dawn had hardly broken
when the infidel Quraysh were
informed of the allegiance of
the Yathribi Muslims. They
hurriedly attempted to frustrate it and hinder the advance of Islam. For this
purpose, they held a council
in the place where the
Quraysh gathered to pass
judgment and to consult each
other. After a great deal of
talk and consultation, it was
resolved that they select one
man from each tribe to rush
into the house of the Prophet
at night and murder him so
that the basis of the propagation of Islam would be destroyed.[3]

The most effective factor in
making the people ready and
eager to adopt Islam was
listening to the luminous
verses of the Holy Qur'an.
Mas'ab reported the conversion to Islam of the chiefs and
leaders of both the Khazraj
and Aws tribes to the Holy
Prophet. Later on, a large
number of the people of
Yathrib who had come to

But Almighty God made the
Holy Prophet aware of the

53

The Message

Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH

intrigue of his enemies and
commanded him to leave
Makkah by night.[4] The
Prophet, upon receiving this
revelation, decided to leave
his homeland and migrate to
Yathrib.

of the Holy Prophet to carry
out their satanic plot. But
since God was the supporter
and protector of the Prophet,
He saved him from harm at
the hands of the murderous
infidels.

Ali’s Self-Sacrifice

While reading verses from
Sura Yasin, the Holy Prophet
of Islam came out of his
house and through a by-way,
went to the Thawr cave,
which was situated outside
Makkah. Abu Bakr was
informed of the matter and
accompanied the Holy Prophet."[7]

When the Holy Prophet of
Islam was divinely commanded to migrate to Yathrib, he
called 'Ali, disclosed his secret
to him, gave him the people's
trusts to be returned to their
owners and then said, `I have
to migrate, but you must lie in
my bed'. 'Ali sincerely obeyed
the Holy Prophet and lay in
his bed, thus devotedly
exposing himself to the
dangers that threatened the
Holy Prophet of Islam.[5]

The infidels rushed towards
the Prophet's bed with drawn
swords in their hands, but to
their surprise, they found 'Ali
in his place. Upset and
enraged, they asked, `Where
has Muhammad gone? 'Ali
answered, `Had you assigned
me to watch him? Well, you
intended to expel him and he
has left the city'.[8]

'Ali's self-sacrifice was so
sincere and significant that
God praised it in the Holy
Quran.[6]
The Holy Prophet of Islam
Goes To The Thawr Cave

Realizing that all their plots
were frustrated, the idol
worshipping Quraysh took

At midnight the enemies of
Islam surrounded the house

54

my brother. The Message After fulfilling the mission assigned to him. He said to Abu Bakr. Saraqa ibn Malik. but his horse's hoof sank into the ground three times and threw him down. In every alley and neighborhood people impatiently awaited the Holy Prophet of Islam.[11] where he stayed for a few days.[13] The Holy Prophet of Islam settled in Yathrib and there laid the foundations of Islam and a magnificent culture based on justice and faith.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH serious measures but all in vain. and the dearest among the family to me. 'Ali joined the Holy Prophet in Quba. He is my cousin. the Holy Prophet of Islam reached a place called Quba. Thus together they started towards Yathrib."[12] Abu Bakr insistently asked the Prophet to begin travelling towards Yathrib. On the 12th of Rabi al-Awwal. so he repented and returned to Makkah."[10] Yathrib Eagerly Awaiting The Holy Prophet Yathrib had taken on an extraordinary air and intense excitement and eagerness had overtaken the whole city. blessed his hurt legs with the saliva from his own mouth which healed 'Ali's swollen legs. attempted to pursue him. He entered Yathrib on Friday. but the Holy Prophet refused to go without 'Ali.[15] People were overjoyed and could not stop looking at the resplendent countenance of the Prophet. 'Ali has endangered his own life to save mine. the Holy Prophet of Islam proceeded towards Yathrib.[14] On The Way To Yathrib After staying in the Thawr cave for three days. The Holy Prophet embraced him most affection-ately. 55 . but his legs were so bruised that he could hardly walk. I will not leave here until he joins me'.[9] One of the Makkans.

It was these very sacrificial efforts and hard work of the Muslims that rescued them from slavery and so many miseries and brought them honour. they showed no tendency towards selfindulgence and pleasureseeking. replacing them with the perfect life-giving culture of Islam. Rather they ceaselessly endeavoured to establish an Islamic civilization and to spread the divine faith of Islam. the year the Holy Prophet of Islam migrated from Makkah to Yathrib.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH After the blessful entrance of the Holy Prophet of Islam into Yathrib. The illuminating sun of Islam gave new life to the people. through 56 ."[16] That year. After migration to Yathrib. Muslims in the cause of the migration and laying the foundation of Islam. due to this significant historical event. prosperity. meaning `the City of the Prophet'. They discarded all the old superstitious beliefs and thoughts and all the wrong deeds and manners of the past. the triumph of righteousness and justice. agreeable environment. who relied on their faith in God and. its name was changed into Medinat ul-Nabi. and glory. A careful study of history reveals the sincere and indefatigable efforts of the It is indeed necessary for the Muslims all over the world to be constantly reminded of the devotion and incessant efforts of the Muslims in the early days of Islam. Nevertheless. the migrant Muslims had obviously rid themselves of the torment and torture of the infidel Quraysh and found a peaceful. A Lesson From The Hijra Fourteen centuries have now passed since the momentous historical event of the Hijra the migration of the Holy Prophet from Makkah to Medina. was recognized as the origin of history.

p. Quba is a place near Medina. obeying the instructions of the Holy Prophet. Mu’jim ul-Buldan maddihi Yathrib and Majma' ulBahrin Maddihi Tharb. p.116. Vol. Each year. 19. Tarikhi Tabari. 9. 11. 19. p. Notes: 16. sincere reflection on the lives of these godly men and women will effectively serve this purpose.1232. 3. Vol. 2. 3. Vol. It is of vital significance to Muslims in all places and at all times to take a lesson from the lives and sacrificial endeavors of those truly devoted Muslims.60. Vol. Kamil. p. 2. 3.481. Vol. 5. 4. 1.88. p. Bihar ul-Anwar.55-61. 13.61-62. 14. Vol.106. 19.78. 6. 19. on the occasion of the anniversary of the migration. Alwari. p. Kamil.1245. Bihar ul-Anwar. 15. Vol. A'lam pp. 7.106. Ibid.489. p. Vol. 1.486. Vol. Tarikhi Tabari. It is also incumbent upon us to teach posterity the fact that the Muslims of the beginning of Islam owed their glory and greatness to their faith and their sincere efforts and that we must try to adopt their manners if we want to regain the honour and greatness that devoted Muslims really deserve.63. A'lam Alwari. Bihar ul-Anwar. p. p. Sirihi ibn Hishim. p.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message 3. p. pp. p.1231.. Tarikhi Tabari. managed to make a holy revolution and attained great achievements.108. Sirihi ibn Hisham. Vol. p. pp. Vol. 10. Vol. Bihar ul-Anwar.1234. A'lam Alwari. p. Tarikhi Tabari. 1. Vol. Tarikhi Tabari. Bihar ul-Anwar. p. p.i229. Vol. 12. 9. 8. 1. 3.494. Sirihi ibn Hisham. p. Kamil.69. p. Vol.122.  57 . 2. 3.

in other words. and these are the two most important qualities of the Divinely-appointed Wali.w. he or she must be fully obedient. Seeking miracles and verifying the presence of the conditions and necessary corollaries of Imamate. and by looking at collections of traditions one A monotheist who has submitted to Divine authority over him or herself is wholly 58 . is the practice by the Wali (Divinely appointed authority) of his authority over people (wilayah). 3.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Imamate at Childhood By: Hujjat al-Islam Mahdi Hadavi Tehrani Question: How is it possible for some of the Imams to reach Imamate while still children? obedient to the commands and prohibitions of his or her Allah (s. the Imam cannot be determined or selected by the people. submit to their authority. since inherent knowledge and inner infallibility are unseen qualities which no one but Allah (s. in the view of Imami Shi’as. 2. Studying their conduct and actions. Referring to the attributes and signs that the previous Wali has mentioned for the succeeding Wali.t). and avoid comparing them to others or baselessly second-guessing their appointment. Thus. Imamate is a Divinely-appointed station for managing the people’s worldly and religious affairs as well as guiding them to the peak of felicity and humanity.w. There are several ways to recognize the divinely appointed Imam/Wali: Answer Imamate. It is possible to find out about their lives and character by referring to books of history and biography.t) knows. in accepting the authority of the leaders appointed by Him as well. 1. Thus.

s.t) from the day of his birth. intellectual. The spiritual.s.) who became Imam at the age of five— were no exceptions to this rule.).Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH can find the traditions that have come down from the Prophet (S). This fact is one of the extraordinary phenomena that prove their Imamate. from a superficial and shortsighted viewpoint. one can come to recognize the next Imam. The contemporaries to the young Imams—that is. and mental maturity required for the position can be granted by Allah (s.) turned to him and said. Musa al-Rida (a. Imam Muhammad b. It has also been narrated from al-Mahmudi that he said. The Message the authority of a boy.s. ‘Ali al-Taqi (a. scholars and the old and young to submit to For example.). and Imam alMahdi (a.s. Imam ‘Ali b.s.s. The occurrence of such extraordinary deeds for those who sought recourse to them is so frequent that it is beyond reckoning.) who became Imam at the age of eight. ‘I was in Tus (an area in Central Asia near present-day Mashhad) in the presence of Imam ‘Ali b. it appears difficult for prominent personalities. “Regarding 59 .w. for ordinary people accepting such an authority would not be as easy as accepting older Wali. Obviously. it does not detract from it. Muhammad al-Naqi (a. So there is no specific age necessary to attain the station of Imamate. The Imams (a. Musa al-Rida (a.s. who would be the divinely chosen Imam after him? The Imam (a. One of his companions said. and it is something that everyone searching for truth can experience. “If something were to happen to the Imam.) who attained the Imamate at the age of nine. and finally by examining at the traditions of each Imam. and they posed this very question to Imam ‘Ali b.) performed miracles both in their lifetimes and after their martyrdoms.

s. In spite of these traditions some of Imam ‘Ali b.s. Musa alRida’s (a. and the superior knowledge of the Imams stood out to their knowledgeable contemporaries.). Arranging intellectual gatherings and the like they strove to make the young age of these Imams an excuse to altogether marginalize them from society. This is also why they would apply this principle to all the Imams and subject them to various questions.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH the issue of Imamate. they presented to him some questions. The young Imams were no exceptions to this rule.).  60 . Musa al-Rida (a. and when they found him unable to answer they forsook him. after me refer to my son Jawad (Imam Muhammad b. the enemies of the Imams.) replied.s.s. “Allah chose ‘Isa (a. On the other hand. the brother of the eighth Imam (a.” and only when they felt that they were able to answer them (along with the textual declarations of their Imamate) would the Imami Shi’as recognize them as infallible Imams.) followers out of anxiety still went in search of his successor. Since they weren’t willing to accept anyone’s Imamate without evidence.) as His messenger though he was younger than Imam al-Taqi (a. who were always waiting for an opportunity to marginalize the Imams and disperse the Shi’as from around them. did not sit by idly.s. the more they debased themselves.” He (al-Mahmudi) said.s. “He is still a child!” Imam ‘Ali b. the leaders of the Shi’as would examine them to become certain of their level of knowledge and ability to perform clear miracles. “Some of them went after ‘Abdullah ibn Musa.)). But the more effort they made. ‘Ali alTaqi (a.” This is because what was important to them was the manifestation of this divine aspect in the Imams’ knowledge.

Which one of them should I give up first?" Prophet Muhammad (S) said.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message Once a man came to Prophet Muhammad (S) and said. you can save yourself from a lot of trouble! Here is a story of a man who did a lot of bad things. Before setting out. We pray to Almighty Allah to make our world peaceful and strengthen us to follow Islam. Kids Corner Always Speak the Truth Dear kids! 17th of Rabi-ul Awwal is the birthday of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (S) and our sixth Imam Jafar Sadiq (a. I have many bad habits. But nor can I lie.). "O Messenger of Allah (SWT). I would be punished for stealing.s. "If tomorrow Prophet Muhammad (S) asks me where have I been. what shall I say? Shall I say that I went out stealing? No. and gave up this bad habit of stealing. "Give up telling lies first and always speak the truth. On this joyous occasion we extend our heartiest greetings to every Muslim in the world. he thought for a moment about the promise he made with Prophet Muhammad (S). If you always speak the truth. So the man decided not to steal that night. I cannot say that. At night the man was about to go out to steal. If I tell the truth. but his promise to speak the truth saved him. 61 ." The man promised to do so and went home." Speaking the truth is a very good habit. everyone will start hating me and call me a thief.

whenever the man thought of doing something bad. he gave up all his bad habits and became a good Muslim and a very good person. I shall always speak the truth and never break it. “The government of Najashi that rules Ahwaz and Fars has obliged me to pay a tax. because a Muslim is not allowed to drink alcohol. when he was about to do so. you can be a good person. which is a place of happiness and joy.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Moral: Make a promise. but I cannot afford it.our Creator . the Merciful.” Imam Sadiq (a. he said to himself." And so he gave up the idea of drinking alcohol. “In the Name of Allah. but also recommended others to do so. He will reward us with Heaven.  Recommendation for Helping Others Imam Sadiq (a. a good Muslim whom Allah (SWT) likes and favors. 62 . If Allah (SWT) . he felt like drinking alcohol. and said. recommend him about me. gave him the letter. He visited Najashi.s) wrote in a letter. the Beneficent. may Allah be lenient with you too!” If you always speak the truth.s) not only did good and solved the problems of people. One by one. "What shall I say to Prophet Muhammad (S) if he asks me what did I do during the day? I cannot tell a lie.is pleased with us. In this way. and if I speak the truth people will hate me. he remembered his promise to tell the truth at all times. A man told Imam Sadiq (a. Behave leniently towards your brother. The man took the letter and went to his own city. Next day. Najashi is a sincere lover of you.s).

s). “Did I make you happy?” “Yes. and the “Fear from the Resurrection Day” are of the significant characteristics of the family of infallibility and purification. The man took the property and went.” And he told the man. and said.” Najashi took the letter. So Najashi ordered to give him a horse.s) after a while and told him about what Najashi had done. the Ahl al-Bait.  Monotheism in Worship & Fear from the Resurrection Day The issues of “Monotheism in Worship” in its best manner. Then Najashi told the man. kissed it. to this man too. That man asked Imam (a. “I cannot pay the tax that is due on me.s) became very happy. One of the companions of Imam Hassan Askari (a. “How much is that?” “Ten thousand dirhams. Imam Sadiq (a. “Come to me 63 . The man repeated the same answer every time. “O son of Messenger of Allah (S)! Did you become happy of his conduct?” Imam (a. He went to Imam Sadiq (a. “Pay the debt of this man from my own property!” He ordered not to take the tax of next year from the man. Imam Sadiq (a. “By Allah yes! Allah and His Messenger (S) became happy too.) narrates: ‘On one of the days during Imam “Give this carpet on which I received the letter of my master. Then Najashi said.” the man answered.s. a slave. Najashi called his ascribe and told him.” Najashi asked.s) replied.s) has sent you this letter.Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message whenever you have a request!” “Imam Sadiq (a. and some clothes.s). “What is your request?” The man answered. a female slave. asking him the same question every time.” the man replied.

I came to know who that child was and to which family he belonged…” He said: “[We are created] to know [Allah] and worship [Him]”. He said: Allah has said: "Did you then think that We had created you in vain. and then uses them to flame the big pieces of wood. I asked: “Where have you got that answer from?”  64 . while the Imam (a. I noticed he was standing with children of his same age.The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH Hassan Askari’s (a.’ His cry intensified.) was standing in a corner crying (this was the first time I had seen him). Amazed by his replies. The other children were busy playing.) childhood. and said: … ‘I’ll buy you some good toys. I approached him. Then. I understood that he is extremely distant from me. and that you would not be brought back to Us?" I realized that his logic was based on wisdom and the Holy Quran. Later on. such immense knowledge and such remarkable logic! … so I asked him: “What are we created for?” There. I departed from him.s. and he said:” “Whenever my mother wants to make fire with big pieces of firewood. My worries are from being of those small pieces of firewood for the hellfire…” He looked at me with an angry face and said: “We are not created to play!” I was shocked by his words. while you are still a child and have not committed any sins?” I thought that perhaps the reason for his sadness was because he did not have toys like the other children. expressed my kindness.s. I was ashamed of what I had thought. I said: “Why are you crying. she first puts some small pieces of wood on fire.

Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH The Message TITLE BACK TITLE BACK 65 .

The Message Rabi-ul-Awwal & Rabi-us-Sani 1438 AH 66 .