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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound


coils of non-linear orthotropic material
F R de Hoog1 , W Y D Yuen2 , and M Cozijnsen2
1
CSIRO Mathematical and Information Science, Canberra, Australia
2
Research Department, BlueScope Steel Limited, Port Kembla, Australia
The manuscript was received on 1 June 2007 and was accepted after revision for publication on 23 August 2007.
DOI: 10.1243/09544062JMES749

Abstract: Extensive study of stresses induced during and after winding of coils has led to signicant improvements to the processing of web-like materials for the packaging industries and
consumer goods. The current paper presents an inverse solution for the prediction of the winding
tension prole required to satisfy a specied residual stress distribution in the coil, for non-linear
material properties (in the radial direction), with allowance for large strain and large deformation
in the coil. The inverse solution approach has advantage over the forward solution approach by
directly determining the winding tension prole, which can be readily controlled in a processing
line, once the desired residual stresses in the coil are known. The current paper, together with
several recently published ones, completes the study of stresses in the winding of coils using the
inverse solution approach.
Keywords: winding stresses, winding, coil collapse, coiling, non-linear material, large
deformations

INTRODUCTION

daniel.yuen@bluescopesteel.com

roll/coil is removed from the mandrel/former, which


are caused by the unfavourable residual stresses in the
coil after the release of the radial pressure (applied by
the mandrel during winding). Typical of these defects
are the tension buckle or tight-bore collapse which
is caused by the excessive circumferential compression stress near the bore/eye of the coil, and the soft
collapse of the coil due to inadequate interwrap pressure and interwrap friction to maintain the integrity
(shape) of the coil under its own weight. These defects,
if severe, could render the coil to be scrapped for further processing. Hence, the understanding of stress
buildup during winding and the resultant residual
stresses in the coil is crucial for defect-free processing
of web-like materials.
There have been numerous studies performed on
the above subject, in the context of both the thin
lm/paper and metal strip manufacturing. Owing to
the difculty in measuring stresses and strains in the
coil during and after winding, most studies were theoretical in nature, with predictions conrmed directly or
indirectly by experiments and/or eld observations. It
must be emphasized, however, that the material properties (in particular, the radial compressibility and
shear characteristics of the coil) must be known for

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Web-like material is most efciently stored in the form


of a roll or coil during its processing and manufacture until its nal use. Examples are paper, plastic lm,
and metal strip, for the packaging, building and automotive industries, as well as for the manufacture of
consumer goods. One of the most common methods
to form these rolls/coils is by centre winding, whereby
the web material is wound on a mandrel or a former
to build up the coil. Much care is required, however,
in producing these coils. If an inappropriate winding tension prole is applied, numerous defects could
arise during the winding process. These include bursts,
baggy lanes, and star defects for paper rolls, and for
metal strip, scufng (marking of the strip surface due
to interwrap movement), telescoping (sliding of some
wraps in the axial direction), or partial collapse of the
mandrel (due to excessive radial pressure on the mandrel). In addition, various defects could occur after the
Corresponding

author: Research Department, BlueScope Steel

Limited, Old Port Road, Port Kembla NSW 2505, Australia. email:

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F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

meaningful predictions using the theoretical models.


Nevertheless, the measurements of these properties
are relatively straightforward [1].
The most popular method in analysing the stresses
and strains in winding of a coil is the accretion model.
In this approach, the web material is modelled as a
series of prestressed rings (the level of prestress is given
by the applied winding tension), successively applied
onto the coil (with the stress and strain distributions, hence the outer coil diameter on which the new
layer is laid, calculated for each additional ring/layer).
This approached was pioneered by Altmann [2], who
derived the well-known Altmann integrals for the solution of the stresses in the coil. Since then, many
enhancements and extensions have been proposed.
Examples are considerations of effects associated with
high speed winding, such as centrifugal force [35]
and air entrapment [68], large deformation for soft
materials [911], relaxation of the winding material [1214], non-linear material behaviour [15, 16],
and three-dimensional effects [1720]. More details
may be found in a recent comprehensive review by
Good [21].
On the other hand, depending on the operating
regime of interest, certain simplications may be
employed. For materials which offer little radial compliance, small deformation analysis may be adopted.
Conversely, for materials that are very compliant in the
radial direction, non-linear large deformation theory
must be used (for example, see Benson [9]). Similarly, when the winding tension is relatively low such
that the radial pressure is small, the material characteristics in the radial direction can be regarded to
be linear (i.e. radial stress proportional to the radial
strain), otherwise non-linear material properties need
to be included in the formulation. Hence there are
four combinations for the assumptions: small/large
deformation, together with linear/non-linear material
properties (all of them refer to the radial direction).
In a recent series of papers [2224], the authors have
developed inverse solutions to solve the above problem. These inverse solutions have distinct advantages
over the traditional forward solutions. In the forward
solutions, the winding tension prole is assumed, from
which the stresses in the coil during winding, and the
postwinding residual stresses are calculated. In addition, for the accretion models, the stresses have to be
calculated as each additional layer/wrap is added to
the coil, making the computation relatively expensive
for thin materials and large coils (which could consist
of thousands of layers) although this constraint can
be somewhat relaxed by considering the coil as a continuum, but with anisotropic material properties [25].
These calculated stresses are then assessed, based on
certain criteria [1, 26], for their likelihood of generating defects in the coil. The winding tension prole is
then adjusted, by a trial-and-error approach, to arrive

at a residual stress distribution which is considered to


be acceptable.
In the inverse solution approach, the target residual stresses in the coil are specied and the winding
tension prole to achieve these stresses is to be determined. It has been shown that inverse solutions, which
do not involve trial-and-error or iterations, can be
derived for the above problem. In the previous studies, small deformation with linear material properties
was rst explored [22], followed by small deformation with non-linear material properties [23], and large
deformation with linear material properties [24]. The
current paper completes the series of inverse solution development for this problem by considering the
winding regime requiring large deformation analysis with non-linear material properties. Although the
solution procedure is more involved due to the need
to consider the deformation eld of the coil accurately,
it will be shown that simplifying assumptions can be
made for most applications and the resultant solution
is still signicantly faster than the forward solution
approach. In addition, the required winding tension
prole can be determined directly, rather than using
the trial-and-error method as in the forward solution
approach.
2

PROBLEM FORMULATION

Because winding of the coils is under tension (prestressed), the denition of coordinates requires some
care. First, a computational domain is dened Rc 
r  R  R0 where Rc is the undeformed radius of the
core (the former and/or mandrel) and the radial coordinate r denes a particular wrap (Figs 1 and 2).
Specically, r denotes the [(r Rc )/h]th wrap, where
h is the wrap thickness in the unstressed state. Note,
however, that r is not the radial position in the physical coil, which is deformed. In fact, the radius of
the [(r Rc )/h]-th wrap is r + u(r, R) and this may be
signicantly different to r for large deformations. Similarly, the current coil consists of (R Rc )/h wraps while
the completed coil consists of (Ro Rc )/h wraps.

Fig. 1

Schematic of centre winding

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils

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This leads to the boundary conditions


r (R, r) = Ec (f ( r (R, r), (R, r)) f (0, w (r)))
at r = Rc
r (R, r) = 0

at r = R
(6)

Here
w (R) = (R, R)

(7)

is the winding stress, which is related to (r) when


r = Rc via
Fig. 2

Schematic of completed coil removed from


mandrel

As described previously [2224] constitutive equations of the following form are considered
r = g ( r , ),

= f ( r , )

(1)

where the strains are given by


r =

u
,
r

r + u (r)
(r)

(2)

It is important here to recognize that r and


are the stresses in the undeformed coordinate system (known as rst Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors),
which are related to stresses in the deformed coordinate system (known as second Piola-Kirchhoff stress
tensors) by
r = (1 + )(1 + z )r ,

= (1 + r )(1 + z )

Here, z is the strain in the axial direction, which will


be zero for plain strain or if there is no Poisson effect.
It is sometimes convenient to calculate the stresses
from the strains and it is assumed that equation (1) has
a unique inverse given by
r = G(r , ),

= F (r , )

(3)

From equilibrium and compatibility (i.e. using the


denitions of r and ) respectively, one obtains

[(r) r (R, r)] + (R, r) = 0


r

((r)f ( r (R, r), (R, r))) g ( r (R, r), (R, r))


r
d
(r (r))
=
dr

(4)

In addition, the radial stress on the outer boundary is


zero while, at the mandrel
(Rc ) r (R, Rc ) = Ec u(R, Rc )
JMES749 IMechE 2007

(5)

Rc (Rc ) = (Rc )f (0, w (Rc ))

(8)

2.1 The forward problem


The forward coil winding problem is to infer the wound
in stresses in the coil given the winding stress w .
Wound-in stresses might also be required after further
processing of the coil, such as removal from the mandrel. The calculation of the wound-in stresses while
the coil is on the mandrel requires the simultaneous
solution of differential equations (4) and the boundary
conditions (5) and (6) for the unknowns (r), r (R, r)
and (R, r). The approach here is similar to that for
small deformations. First, equation (4) and the boundary condition (5) can be differentiated with respect to
R to eliminate the right-hand side in equation (4). An
accretion approach which, in a discretized form, is
equivalent to constructing the coil by adding a wrap
at a time can then be applied. For large deformations, this is non-trivial since all of the variables are
coupled (for small deformations, (r) and the equations uncouple) but simple iterative schemes, utilizing
under-relaxation as in reference [27], are possibly
effective.
Suppose now that further processing of the coil
takes place. For the purpose of this development,
this shall be assumed to be the removal of the mandrel as illustrated in Fig. 2. Assuming that there has
been no slippage of the wraps, (r), the radius of the
(r Rc )/h-th wrap if it were unconstrained, remains
the same but the wound-in stresses will change.
Let the radial and circumferential components of
these stresses be denoted by r (Ro , r) and (Ro , r),
respectively. These stresses also need to satisfy the
equilibrium and compatibility conditions, thus

[(r) r (Ro , r)] + (Ro , r) = 0


r

((r)f ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r))) g ( r (Ro , r), (R, r))


r
d
(r (r))
=
dr
(9)
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F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

which are the same as equations (4). However, the


effective modulus of the core has changed and the
boundary conditions become
r (Ro , r) = E c (f ( r (Ro , r),

(Ro , r)) f (0, w (r)))

at r = Rc
(10)
The stresses r (Ro , r) and (Ro , r) can now be calculated by solving the differential equation (9) subject to
the boundary condition (10). Since (r) is now known,
this is just a simple two-point boundary value problem for a pair of non-linear differential equations, for
which solution techniques are well known [28].

u (n+1) (Ro , r) = u (n+1) (Ro , Rc )


r
g ( r(n+1) (Ro , ), (Ro , ))d
+
(n+1) (r) =

r + u (n+1) (Ro , r)
1 + f ( r(n+1) (Ro , r), (Ro , r))

The case when there is no support at the bore (i.e. no


core or sleeve is used, E c = 0) is a degenerated case,
which needs to be treated separately. A compatibility
condition on (Ro , r), namely
 Ro

(Ro , )d = 0

Rc

2.2 The inverse problem


The inverse problem takes, as a starting point, specied residual stresses in a coil at some point of its
winding history (which will be taken to be after it is
removed from the mandrel) and asks what winding
stress is required to produce these stresses. Actually,
since the stresses cannot be specied independently,
only one of these should be specied. When bore
stability is a potential issue, a target hoop stress distribution (Ro , r) is usually specied. On the other
hand, when wrap slippage is an issue, it may be preferable to specify a target interwrap pressure distribution
o , r) = r (Ro , r).
p(R
First, the case is considered when a target hoop
stress (Ro , r) is specied. The differential equations
(9) and boundary conditions (10) can be written as

[(r) r (Ro , r)] + (Ro , r) = 0


r

((r)[1 + f ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r))])


r
g ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r)) = 1

is required and w (Rc ), the winding stress at the bore,


needs to be specied. An appropriate modication to
the above iteration is given by
(0) (r) = r
For n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
 Ro
d
(n+1)
r
(Ro , r) =
(R, ) (n)
(r)
r
f ( r(n+1) (Ro , Rc ), (Ro , Rc ))
f (0, w (Rc ))
u (n+1) (Ro , Rc ) = Rc
1 + f (0, w (Rc ))
u (n+1) (Ro , r) = u (n+1) (Ro , Rc )
r
+
g ( r(n+1) (Ro , ), (Ro , ))d
Rc

(n+1) (r) =
(11)

and



r (r)

r (Ro , r) Ec f ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r)) + Ec


=0
(r)
at r = Rc

r(n+1) Ro , Rc
E c

Rc

r (Ro , r) = 0 at r = Ro

u (n+1) (Ro , Rc ) = (n) (Rc )

(12)

r (Ro , r) = 0 at r = Ro
These can be viewed as a standard two-point boundary
value problem for the unknowns (r) and r (Ro , r) [28].
Alternatively, an iterative scheme such as the following
could be used
(0) (r) = r
For n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
 Ro
d
(n+1)
r
(Ro , r) =
(R, ) (n)

(r)
r

r + u (n+1) (Ro , r)
1 + f ( r(n+1) (Ro , r), (Ro , r))

The case when a target radial stress r (Ro , r) is specied is technically a little different. Although equation
(11) yields a differential equation in the unknowns (r)
and (Ro , r), the boundary conditions (12) only give
a single constraint on the unknowns. Furthermore,
the interwrap pressure is zero on the outer boundary
and thus the differential equations become singular.
An additional boundary condition is not required if
E c > 0. Imposing the condition that the solution is
bounded is sufcient. Reference [27] provides further
information on singular boundary value problems and
their numerical solution. On the other hand, if E c = 0,
the winding stress at the bore needs to be specied. Further discussion of this case is deferred until
section 3, where a simple approximation is given.
Having obtained (r) and the residual stresses
r (Ro , r) and (Ro , r), the calculation of the winding
stress is now considered. From equations (4), (6), and

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils

(9), following differential equations are obtained

subject to the boundary condition

[(r) r (R, r)] + (R, r) = 0


r

(r) = r

((r)f ( r (R, r), (R, r))) g ( r (R, r), (R, r))


r

=
((r)f ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r)))
r
g ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r))
(13)
and boundary conditions
r (R, r) = Ec (f ( r (R, r), (R, r)) f (0, w (r)))
at r = Rc

(14)

Since (r), r (Ro , r), and (Ro , r) are known, this is a


two-point boundary value problem that can be solved
by standard techniques [28] to obtain r (R, r) and
(R, r). The winding stress is now calculated from
w (R) = (R, R) and the process can be repeated for
different values of Rc  R  Ro to obtain the winding
stress at different points.
FURTHER APPROXIMATIONS

To this point, the analysis has been kept quite general


but substantial simplication is possible by making further appropriate assumptions. In practice, the
azimuthal strains are small because they are limited by
the ratio of the yield stress to the effective azimuthal
and axial moduli. On the other hand, the radial strains
may be substantial, since the effective elastic modulus in the radial direction can be very much less than
the elastic modulus of the coil material. Therefore, it
is assumed that (R, r), (R, r), and z (R, r)  1 from
which it follows that
0 , r)
r + u(R
1 + (R0 , r)
0 , r)
r + u(R

(r) =

This approximation, along with the equilibrium


equation, can be used to determine the residual
stresses and (r) to an accuracy that is sufcient to
account for the change in geometry due to the large
deformations (i.e. sufcient for utilization in equation
(13)). Note, however, that the accuracy is not sufcient
to determine the azimuthal strain (which has been
neglected in the derivation). Specically
d(r)
g ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r)) = 1
dr

[(r) r (Ro , r)] + (Ro , r) = 0


r
(16)
JMES749 IMechE 2007

at r = R

(17)

Equations (16) and (17) form a system of differential equations subject to boundary conditions when
(Ro , r) is given or a system of algebraic differential
equations when r (Ro , r) is given. In either case the
solution can be found by standard methods.
For the solution of (16) and (17), one requires the
winding stress at the bore w (Rc ), which can be found
for E c > 0 by solving
E c f (0, w (Rc )) = E c f ( r (Ro , Rc ), (Ro , Rc )) r (Ro , Rc )
(18)
When E c = 0, an arbitrary winding stress may be
specied at the bore.
Further simplication is possible if additional
assumptions are made about the constitutive relation (1). Specically, almost all cases considered in
the literature assume that r = g ( r , ) = g ( r ), from
which it follows that the rst and second equations in
(16) uncouple when r (Ro , r) is specied. It should be
noted, however, that
( r , )
r
( r , )
f ( r , ) =

g ( r , ) =

(19)

where ( r , ) is the strain energy density. Thus,


g ( r , ) = g ( r ) implies that f ( r , ) = f ( ) from
equation (19). This constraint is not always respected,
an example being the widely used model of Hakiel
[15] that requires the specication of a tangential
modulus as a function of the interlayer pressure.
4

(15)

at r = Rc

r (R, r) = 0

r (R, r) = 0 at r = R

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RESULTS AND APPLICATIONS

To illustrate the results, the same constitutive relation


as that in Benson [9], is used, specically
= E
p = r = [(1 + r ) 1]

(20)

where and are the interlayer compression modulus


and interlayer springiness, respectively, and p is the
interwrap pressure. Alternatively, it can be written as


1 r 1/
1
r = g ( r ) =


= f ( ) =
E
(21)
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Table 1

F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

Material constants used in the calculations


for paper

Radius of the bore


Outer radius of coil
Elastic modulus of mandrel
Elastic modulus of the coil in the
tangential direction
Interlayer compression modulus
Interlayer springiness
Initial winding stress

Rc
Ro
Ec
E

25 mm
100 mm
6 GPa
4 GPa

w (Rc )

40 kPa
25
20 MPa

Values of the interlayer compression modulus and


interlayer springiness used in this section are given in
Table 1. They are based on the values used for paper
material in Benson [9], which in turn are based on
experiments reported in Olive [29].
For the illustrative example, a roll of paper that has
been wound on a mandrel and then removed from the
mandrel as illustrated in Figs 1 and 2, shall be considered. It is assumed that the roll has no former. The
target residual stresses in this coil are shown in Fig. 3.

Note, however, that only one of these stresses can be


specied the other stresses and (r) are calculated
as described in section 3. These stresses will be used
to calculate the winding stress prole based on the
inverse solution.
The radial compression of the coil after its removal
from the mandrel is shown in Fig. 4, for material properties typical of paper and steel (given in Tables 1 and 2,
respectively). In the calculations, large deformation
analysis resulting in the residual stresses shown in
Fig. 3 was used for paper, while for steel, a constant
winding stress of 100 MPa was used. Figure 4 shows
that, for paper material, there has been substantial
deformation of the coil a reduction in the outer radius
of nearly 10 per cent when compared to the nominal
radius. As might be expected, this can have a substantial effect. If, for example, the target hoop stress was
specied and the small deformation approximation
was used

[r r (R, r)] + (R, r) 0


r

Fig. 3 Target stresses after removal from mandrel used


for calculating the large deformation winding
stress shown in Fig. 6. All other parameters are
given in Table 1. Included is a comparison with
the stresses calculated from the forward solution.
The specied winding stress used for the calculation is the large deformation winding stress of
Fig. 6 (as described in section 4). (a) Large deformation radial pressure and (b) target tangential
stress

to estimate the interwrap pressure, a substantial deviation as shown in Fig. 5 would be obtained, where the
radial pressures calculated from large and small deformation analyses are compared for the hoop/tangential
stress prole shown in Fig. 3(b). On the other hand,
when the interwrap pressure is specied, the hoop
stresses calculated on the basis of large deformation
or small deformations are quite similar.
Figure 4 also shows the deviation of (r) from its
nominal value for material properties typical of steel.
(For this calculation the constitutive relations for steel
described in reference [23] were used.) As can be seen
the deviation for steel is very small, indicating that the
small deformation theory is largely valid for materials such as steel. Furthermore, corresponding results
for aluminium and polymer lm are also included
in Fig. 4. In these calculations, an E of 72 GPa and
a constant winding stress of 50 MPa were used for
aluminium, while material properties and winding
conditions similar to those assumed by Hakiel [15]
were adopted for polymer lm. It can be seen that the
deviations of (r) from their nominal values are very
small for both aluminium and polymer lm, indicating
small deformation analysis is suitable for these materials. The somewhat different behaviour of the polymer
lm from paper material is due to its higher value of Er
(around one to two orders of magnitude higher than
that of paper), despite similar values of E for the two
materials.
Having analysed the target residual stresses, one
can now nd the required winding stress that will
result in the target residual stresses. As explained
previously, this is achieved by the numerical solution of the differential equations (13) subject to the
boundary conditions (14). The required winding stress

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils

Fig. 4

Table 2

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Comparison of nominal and actual radius after removal from the mandrel for a variety of
materials. The large deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 and parameters listed in Table 1
were used for the comparison for material properties typical of paper. For material properties typical of steel a constant winding stress of 100 MPa and the parameters listed in Table 2
were used. For aluminium, a constant winding stress of 50 MPa and an E of 72 GPa were
used, while for polymer lm, those assumed by Hakiel [15] were adopted

Material constants used in the calculations


for steel

Radius of the bore


Outer radius of coil
Strip thickness
Elastic modulus of mandrel
Elastic modulus of the coil in the
tangential direction
Gap thickness (at zero pressure)
Elastic modulus of the coil in the radial
direction
Poisson ratio of the coiled material

Rc
Ro
h
Ec
E

250 mm
750 mm
0.3 mm
100 GPa
200 GPa

l0
Eg

7.485 m
10 MPa

Fig. 6

Comparison between the winding stress calculated from the inverse solution for large deformations and those for small deformations for
material properties typical of paper. The target
tangential stress used for the calculations and
corresponding radial pressure are shown in Fig. 3.
All other parameters are given in Table 1

distribution is then calculated from w (R) = (R, R).


Figure 6 shows, for material properties typical of paper
(based on parameters given in Table 1), the winding
stresses calculated under the assumption of small

deformations and large deformations with the target


hoop stress given in Fig. 3(b). Again the deviation is
substantial though, as previously, the deviation is substantially smaller when the target interwrap pressure
is specied.
In order to validate the inverse solution for large
deformations, the following comparison has been
made. Using the forward solution, which has been
extended from the small deformation theory [25], the
residual stresses were calculated for a specied winding stress prole. The winding stress prole of Fig. 6,
obtained from the inverse solution for large deformation, was used as the specied winding stress prole
for the forward solution. The residual stresses (after
mandrel removal) from the forward solution were then

JMES749 IMechE 2007

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Fig. 5

Comparison between the radial pressure calculated for large and small deformations for material properties typical of paper. The same target
tangential stress, shown in Fig. 3(b), was used
for both solutions. All other parameters are given
in Table 1

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1528

F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

compared with the target stresses used for calculating


the winding stress from the inverse solution. Figure 3
shows the results of the comparison for material properties typical of paper (given in Table 1). As can be
seen, the agreement between the inverse and forward
solution is excellent.
Benson [9] has also developed a forward solution for
the case of large deformations and non-linear material properties and applied it to calculate stresses for
materials such as paper. He further validated his solution by comparing the calculated radial pressures with
experiments (shown in Fig. 7 of reference [9]). A comparison between his results (digitized Figs 5 and 4 of
reference [9]) and the forward solution for large deformation is shown in Fig. 7. As can be seen there is
reasonable agreement for the case of the radial pressure and good agreement for the tangential stress.
Differences between the two results can be attributed
to slight differences in the model formulations such as
the ones described below.
The stresses in a coil can be dened with respect
to the deformed (or actual) coordinate system, as presented by Benson [9] or to the undeformed coordinate
system, as used in the model formulation presented in
this paper. Hence the radial force with respect to the
deformed coordinate system will effectively be over

Fig. 7 Comparison of stresses calculated using the


large deformation forward solution for non-linear
material properties with Bensons results (Figs 4
and 5 of reference [9]). (a) Radial pressure and (b)
tangential stress

a smaller area than that with respect to the undeformed system, i.e. the radial pressure will be higher
for the deformed coordinate system, compared with
the undeformed coordinate system. This explains the
higher radial pressure calculated for Bensons model
compared to the model described in the current paper.
It is straightforward, however, to transform either
result into the other form by taking into account the
strain/deformation eld in the coil after winding.
In addition, in the model of this paper (as well as
in Hakiels model [15]), it is assumed that the tension
of the outermost wrap is equal to the applied tension,
whereas Bensons model allows for a slight reduction
in the tension of the outermost wrap [9]. This difference partially offsets the effect of the difference in the
coordinate systems.
Now that models for all four regimes have been
developed (small deformation theory for both linear
and non-linear material properties, as well as large
deformation for linear and non-linear material properties), the applicability of these regimes for different
types of materials shall be investigated. Those studied include metals, such as steel and aluminium, as
well as polymer lms and paper. Typical properties of
these materials can be found in references [9], [15],
[17], [23], and [30]. It is found that for all materials
considered, non-linear material properties need to be
employed for accurate stress predictions. To illustrate
this, a comparison of the stresses calculated from the
small deformation theory using non-linear and linear material properties for both paper and steel is
shown in Figs 8 and 9, respectively. In order to make
these comparisons, the equivalent material parameters for the linear case have to be deduced from
those of the non-linear material parameters listed in
Tables 1 (for paper material) and 2 (for steel). The
adopted method for the material properties of paper
is described in reference [24] and a similar method is
used for the material properties of steel. The material properties for paper listed in Table 1 and the
calculated winding stress (from small deformation
theory) of Fig. 6 are used for the comparison shown
in Fig. 8. As can been seen, there is a very large difference in the radial pressure calculated using linear
material properties as well as a signicant difference
in the tangential stress. A constant winding stress of
30 MPa and the material properties listed in Table 2
have been used for the comparison for steel. As can
be seen from Fig. 9(a), the radial pressure calculated
using linear material properties differs from that for
non-linear material properties even for low winding
stresses.
As discussed in reference [24], differences between
the large deformation and small deformation theory
are likely for cases for which (r) differs signicantly
from r. Hence for very compressible materials
(i.e. materials with very small values of Er ), such as

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JMES749 IMechE 2007

An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils

Fig. 8

Comparison of stresses calculated using the small


deformation forward solution for non-linear and
linear material properties typical for paper. The
small deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 was
used for the calculation. All other parameters
are given in Table 1. (a) Radial pressure and (b)
tangential stress

Fig. 9

1529

Comparison of stresses calculated using the small


deformation forward solution for non-linear and
linear material properties typical for steel. A constant (low) winding stress of 30 MPa was used for
the calculation. All other parameters are given
in Table 2. (a) Radial pressure and (b) tangential
stress

be expected to be largely valid for these types of


materials as well.

paper, there is a large difference in (r) resulting in


large differences between the calculated radial pressure for large deformations compared with that of
small deformations, as illustrated in Figs 4 and 5.
For the case of metals such as steel, even though the
radial pressure for high winding stresses can be signicantly higher than those for the examples given for
paper, the effective radial elastic modulus for steel Er is
much larger than that for paper. Hence, as illustrated
in Fig. 4, the deviation of (r) from r is much smaller
for steel than for the case of paper (even for very large
winding stresses). Aluminium also has large values of
Er compared to the radial pressure and hence the deviation of (r) from r is also very small for this material.
For these cases, small deformation theory would be
adequate.
Even though materials such as polymer lms have
similar values of radial pressures (for typical winding stresses) to those typical for paper (and similar
values of E ), their effective values of Er are again signicantly higher than those typical of paper. Hence
the deviation of (r) from r for these materials is
again small. Thus the small deformation theory can

The current paper presents an inverse solution for


the stresses induced during and after winding of a
roll/coil, considering large strains and the non-linear
material behaviour in the radial direction. This analysis completes the recent series of papers by the authors
on the inverse solutions for the wound-in stresses
in coils, covering combinations of both small and
large deformations, and linear and non-linear material
properties.
In addition, it is shown that for most practical applications with common materials used for
packaging and consumer products, non-linear material properties should be considered. However, small
deformation theory is sufcient for relatively rigid
material such as metal strip (steel and aluminium)
and polymer lms. For relatively soft materials,
such as paper, large deformation theory needs to be
employed.

JMES749 IMechE 2007

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CONCLUSION

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1530

F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors wish to thank the management of CSIRO
and BlueScope Steel Research for permission to publish the material contained in the current paper.

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APPENDIX
Notation
effective modulus of core
Ec
(former and mandrel)
modulus of gap
Eg
azimuthal modulus of coiled
E
material

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils

f ( r , )
F (r , )
g ( r , )
G(r , )
h0
p
p
r
r +u
R
(r Rc )/h0
(R Rc )/h0
Rc

stress strain function


stress strain relation
stress strain function
stress strain relation
thickness of unconstrained
wrap
target interwrap pressure
interwrap pressure
radial coordinate
radius of the (r Rc )/h0 wrap
outer radius of coil during
winding
wrap number, Rc  r  R
number of wraps in coil
radius of the core (former and
mandrel)

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1531

Sm
u = u(R, r)

strain energy in the mandrel


radial displacement

interlayer compression
modulus
interlayer springiness
radial strain
azimuthal strain
stress strain relation
stress strain relation
axial strain
radius of the (r Rc )/h0 wrap
if it were unconstrained
winding stress
target stress
target stress

r = u/r
= (r + u )/
r = g ( r , )
= f ( r , )
z

w (R)
r

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