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coils of non-linear orthotropic material

F R de Hoog1 , W Y D Yuen2 , and M Cozijnsen2

1

CSIRO Mathematical and Information Science, Canberra, Australia

2

Research Department, BlueScope Steel Limited, Port Kembla, Australia

The manuscript was received on 1 June 2007 and was accepted after revision for publication on 23 August 2007.

DOI: 10.1243/09544062JMES749

Abstract: Extensive study of stresses induced during and after winding of coils has led to signicant improvements to the processing of web-like materials for the packaging industries and

consumer goods. The current paper presents an inverse solution for the prediction of the winding

tension prole required to satisfy a specied residual stress distribution in the coil, for non-linear

material properties (in the radial direction), with allowance for large strain and large deformation

in the coil. The inverse solution approach has advantage over the forward solution approach by

directly determining the winding tension prole, which can be readily controlled in a processing

line, once the desired residual stresses in the coil are known. The current paper, together with

several recently published ones, completes the study of stresses in the winding of coils using the

inverse solution approach.

Keywords: winding stresses, winding, coil collapse, coiling, non-linear material, large

deformations

INTRODUCTION

daniel.yuen@bluescopesteel.com

are caused by the unfavourable residual stresses in the

coil after the release of the radial pressure (applied by

the mandrel during winding). Typical of these defects

are the tension buckle or tight-bore collapse which

is caused by the excessive circumferential compression stress near the bore/eye of the coil, and the soft

collapse of the coil due to inadequate interwrap pressure and interwrap friction to maintain the integrity

(shape) of the coil under its own weight. These defects,

if severe, could render the coil to be scrapped for further processing. Hence, the understanding of stress

buildup during winding and the resultant residual

stresses in the coil is crucial for defect-free processing

of web-like materials.

There have been numerous studies performed on

the above subject, in the context of both the thin

lm/paper and metal strip manufacturing. Owing to

the difculty in measuring stresses and strains in the

coil during and after winding, most studies were theoretical in nature, with predictions conrmed directly or

indirectly by experiments and/or eld observations. It

must be emphasized, however, that the material properties (in particular, the radial compressibility and

shear characteristics of the coil) must be known for

of a roll or coil during its processing and manufacture until its nal use. Examples are paper, plastic lm,

and metal strip, for the packaging, building and automotive industries, as well as for the manufacture of

consumer goods. One of the most common methods

to form these rolls/coils is by centre winding, whereby

the web material is wound on a mandrel or a former

to build up the coil. Much care is required, however,

in producing these coils. If an inappropriate winding tension prole is applied, numerous defects could

arise during the winding process. These include bursts,

baggy lanes, and star defects for paper rolls, and for

metal strip, scufng (marking of the strip surface due

to interwrap movement), telescoping (sliding of some

wraps in the axial direction), or partial collapse of the

mandrel (due to excessive radial pressure on the mandrel). In addition, various defects could occur after the

Corresponding

Limited, Old Port Road, Port Kembla NSW 2505, Australia. email:

1522

Nevertheless, the measurements of these properties

are relatively straightforward [1].

The most popular method in analysing the stresses

and strains in winding of a coil is the accretion model.

In this approach, the web material is modelled as a

series of prestressed rings (the level of prestress is given

by the applied winding tension), successively applied

onto the coil (with the stress and strain distributions, hence the outer coil diameter on which the new

layer is laid, calculated for each additional ring/layer).

This approached was pioneered by Altmann [2], who

derived the well-known Altmann integrals for the solution of the stresses in the coil. Since then, many

enhancements and extensions have been proposed.

Examples are considerations of effects associated with

high speed winding, such as centrifugal force [35]

and air entrapment [68], large deformation for soft

materials [911], relaxation of the winding material [1214], non-linear material behaviour [15, 16],

and three-dimensional effects [1720]. More details

may be found in a recent comprehensive review by

Good [21].

On the other hand, depending on the operating

regime of interest, certain simplications may be

employed. For materials which offer little radial compliance, small deformation analysis may be adopted.

Conversely, for materials that are very compliant in the

radial direction, non-linear large deformation theory

must be used (for example, see Benson [9]). Similarly, when the winding tension is relatively low such

that the radial pressure is small, the material characteristics in the radial direction can be regarded to

be linear (i.e. radial stress proportional to the radial

strain), otherwise non-linear material properties need

to be included in the formulation. Hence there are

four combinations for the assumptions: small/large

deformation, together with linear/non-linear material

properties (all of them refer to the radial direction).

In a recent series of papers [2224], the authors have

developed inverse solutions to solve the above problem. These inverse solutions have distinct advantages

over the traditional forward solutions. In the forward

solutions, the winding tension prole is assumed, from

which the stresses in the coil during winding, and the

postwinding residual stresses are calculated. In addition, for the accretion models, the stresses have to be

calculated as each additional layer/wrap is added to

the coil, making the computation relatively expensive

for thin materials and large coils (which could consist

of thousands of layers) although this constraint can

be somewhat relaxed by considering the coil as a continuum, but with anisotropic material properties [25].

These calculated stresses are then assessed, based on

certain criteria [1, 26], for their likelihood of generating defects in the coil. The winding tension prole is

then adjusted, by a trial-and-error approach, to arrive

be acceptable.

In the inverse solution approach, the target residual stresses in the coil are specied and the winding

tension prole to achieve these stresses is to be determined. It has been shown that inverse solutions, which

do not involve trial-and-error or iterations, can be

derived for the above problem. In the previous studies, small deformation with linear material properties

was rst explored [22], followed by small deformation with non-linear material properties [23], and large

deformation with linear material properties [24]. The

current paper completes the series of inverse solution development for this problem by considering the

winding regime requiring large deformation analysis with non-linear material properties. Although the

solution procedure is more involved due to the need

to consider the deformation eld of the coil accurately,

it will be shown that simplifying assumptions can be

made for most applications and the resultant solution

is still signicantly faster than the forward solution

approach. In addition, the required winding tension

prole can be determined directly, rather than using

the trial-and-error method as in the forward solution

approach.

2

PROBLEM FORMULATION

Because winding of the coils is under tension (prestressed), the denition of coordinates requires some

care. First, a computational domain is dened Rc

r R R0 where Rc is the undeformed radius of the

core (the former and/or mandrel) and the radial coordinate r denes a particular wrap (Figs 1 and 2).

Specically, r denotes the [(r Rc )/h]th wrap, where

h is the wrap thickness in the unstressed state. Note,

however, that r is not the radial position in the physical coil, which is deformed. In fact, the radius of

the [(r Rc )/h]-th wrap is r + u(r, R) and this may be

signicantly different to r for large deformations. Similarly, the current coil consists of (R Rc )/h wraps while

the completed coil consists of (Ro Rc )/h wraps.

Fig. 1

1523

r (R, r) = Ec (f ( r (R, r), (R, r)) f (0, w (r)))

at r = Rc

r (R, r) = 0

at r = R

(6)

Here

w (R) = (R, R)

(7)

r = Rc via

Fig. 2

mandrel

As described previously [2224] constitutive equations of the following form are considered

r = g ( r , ),

= f ( r , )

(1)

r =

u

,

r

r + u (r)

(r)

(2)

are the stresses in the undeformed coordinate system (known as rst Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors),

which are related to stresses in the deformed coordinate system (known as second Piola-Kirchhoff stress

tensors) by

r = (1 + )(1 + z )r ,

= (1 + r )(1 + z )

be zero for plain strain or if there is no Poisson effect.

It is sometimes convenient to calculate the stresses

from the strains and it is assumed that equation (1) has

a unique inverse given by

r = G(r , ),

= F (r , )

(3)

denitions of r and ) respectively, one obtains

r

r

d

(r (r))

=

dr

(4)

zero while, at the mandrel

(Rc ) r (R, Rc ) = Ec u(R, Rc )

JMES749 IMechE 2007

(5)

(8)

The forward coil winding problem is to infer the wound

in stresses in the coil given the winding stress w .

Wound-in stresses might also be required after further

processing of the coil, such as removal from the mandrel. The calculation of the wound-in stresses while

the coil is on the mandrel requires the simultaneous

solution of differential equations (4) and the boundary

conditions (5) and (6) for the unknowns (r), r (R, r)

and (R, r). The approach here is similar to that for

small deformations. First, equation (4) and the boundary condition (5) can be differentiated with respect to

R to eliminate the right-hand side in equation (4). An

accretion approach which, in a discretized form, is

equivalent to constructing the coil by adding a wrap

at a time can then be applied. For large deformations, this is non-trivial since all of the variables are

coupled (for small deformations, (r) and the equations uncouple) but simple iterative schemes, utilizing

under-relaxation as in reference [27], are possibly

effective.

Suppose now that further processing of the coil

takes place. For the purpose of this development,

this shall be assumed to be the removal of the mandrel as illustrated in Fig. 2. Assuming that there has

been no slippage of the wraps, (r), the radius of the

(r Rc )/h-th wrap if it were unconstrained, remains

the same but the wound-in stresses will change.

Let the radial and circumferential components of

these stresses be denoted by r (Ro , r) and (Ro , r),

respectively. These stresses also need to satisfy the

equilibrium and compatibility conditions, thus

r

r

d

(r (r))

=

dr

(9)

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

1524

effective modulus of the core has changed and the

boundary conditions become

r (Ro , r) = E c (f ( r (Ro , r),

at r = Rc

(10)

The stresses r (Ro , r) and (Ro , r) can now be calculated by solving the differential equation (9) subject to

the boundary condition (10). Since (r) is now known,

this is just a simple two-point boundary value problem for a pair of non-linear differential equations, for

which solution techniques are well known [28].

r

g ( r(n+1) (Ro , ), (Ro , ))d

+

(n+1) (r) =

r + u (n+1) (Ro , r)

1 + f ( r(n+1) (Ro , r), (Ro , r))

core or sleeve is used, E c = 0) is a degenerated case,

which needs to be treated separately. A compatibility

condition on (Ro , r), namely

Ro

(Ro , )d = 0

Rc

The inverse problem takes, as a starting point, specied residual stresses in a coil at some point of its

winding history (which will be taken to be after it is

removed from the mandrel) and asks what winding

stress is required to produce these stresses. Actually,

since the stresses cannot be specied independently,

only one of these should be specied. When bore

stability is a potential issue, a target hoop stress distribution (Ro , r) is usually specied. On the other

hand, when wrap slippage is an issue, it may be preferable to specify a target interwrap pressure distribution

o , r) = r (Ro , r).

p(R

First, the case is considered when a target hoop

stress (Ro , r) is specied. The differential equations

(9) and boundary conditions (10) can be written as

r

r

g ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r)) = 1

needs to be specied. An appropriate modication to

the above iteration is given by

(0) (r) = r

For n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Ro

d

(n+1)

r

(Ro , r) =

(R, ) (n)

(r)

r

f ( r(n+1) (Ro , Rc ), (Ro , Rc ))

f (0, w (Rc ))

u (n+1) (Ro , Rc ) = Rc

1 + f (0, w (Rc ))

u (n+1) (Ro , r) = u (n+1) (Ro , Rc )

r

+

g ( r(n+1) (Ro , ), (Ro , ))d

Rc

(n+1) (r) =

(11)

and

r (r)

=0

(r)

at r = Rc

r(n+1) Ro , Rc

E c

Rc

r (Ro , r) = 0 at r = Ro

(12)

r (Ro , r) = 0 at r = Ro

These can be viewed as a standard two-point boundary

value problem for the unknowns (r) and r (Ro , r) [28].

Alternatively, an iterative scheme such as the following

could be used

(0) (r) = r

For n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Ro

d

(n+1)

r

(Ro , r) =

(R, ) (n)

(r)

r

r + u (n+1) (Ro , r)

1 + f ( r(n+1) (Ro , r), (Ro , r))

The case when a target radial stress r (Ro , r) is specied is technically a little different. Although equation

(11) yields a differential equation in the unknowns (r)

and (Ro , r), the boundary conditions (12) only give

a single constraint on the unknowns. Furthermore,

the interwrap pressure is zero on the outer boundary

and thus the differential equations become singular.

An additional boundary condition is not required if

E c > 0. Imposing the condition that the solution is

bounded is sufcient. Reference [27] provides further

information on singular boundary value problems and

their numerical solution. On the other hand, if E c = 0,

the winding stress at the bore needs to be specied. Further discussion of this case is deferred until

section 3, where a simple approximation is given.

Having obtained (r) and the residual stresses

r (Ro , r) and (Ro , r), the calculation of the winding

stress is now considered. From equations (4), (6), and

r

(r) = r

r

=

((r)f ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r)))

r

g ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r))

(13)

and boundary conditions

r (R, r) = Ec (f ( r (R, r), (R, r)) f (0, w (r)))

at r = Rc

(14)

two-point boundary value problem that can be solved

by standard techniques [28] to obtain r (R, r) and

(R, r). The winding stress is now calculated from

w (R) = (R, R) and the process can be repeated for

different values of Rc R Ro to obtain the winding

stress at different points.

FURTHER APPROXIMATIONS

but substantial simplication is possible by making further appropriate assumptions. In practice, the

azimuthal strains are small because they are limited by

the ratio of the yield stress to the effective azimuthal

and axial moduli. On the other hand, the radial strains

may be substantial, since the effective elastic modulus in the radial direction can be very much less than

the elastic modulus of the coil material. Therefore, it

is assumed that (R, r), (R, r), and z (R, r) 1 from

which it follows that

0 , r)

r + u(R

1 + (R0 , r)

0 , r)

r + u(R

(r) =

equation, can be used to determine the residual

stresses and (r) to an accuracy that is sufcient to

account for the change in geometry due to the large

deformations (i.e. sufcient for utilization in equation

(13)). Note, however, that the accuracy is not sufcient

to determine the azimuthal strain (which has been

neglected in the derivation). Specically

d(r)

g ( r (Ro , r), (Ro , r)) = 1

dr

r

(16)

JMES749 IMechE 2007

at r = R

(17)

Equations (16) and (17) form a system of differential equations subject to boundary conditions when

(Ro , r) is given or a system of algebraic differential

equations when r (Ro , r) is given. In either case the

solution can be found by standard methods.

For the solution of (16) and (17), one requires the

winding stress at the bore w (Rc ), which can be found

for E c > 0 by solving

E c f (0, w (Rc )) = E c f ( r (Ro , Rc ), (Ro , Rc )) r (Ro , Rc )

(18)

When E c = 0, an arbitrary winding stress may be

specied at the bore.

Further simplication is possible if additional

assumptions are made about the constitutive relation (1). Specically, almost all cases considered in

the literature assume that r = g ( r , ) = g ( r ), from

which it follows that the rst and second equations in

(16) uncouple when r (Ro , r) is specied. It should be

noted, however, that

( r , )

r

( r , )

f ( r , ) =

g ( r , ) =

(19)

g ( r , ) = g ( r ) implies that f ( r , ) = f ( ) from

equation (19). This constraint is not always respected,

an example being the widely used model of Hakiel

[15] that requires the specication of a tangential

modulus as a function of the interlayer pressure.

4

(15)

at r = Rc

r (R, r) = 0

r (R, r) = 0 at r = R

1525

as that in Benson [9], is used, specically

= E

p = r = [(1 + r ) 1]

(20)

and interlayer springiness, respectively, and p is the

interwrap pressure. Alternatively, it can be written as

1 r 1/

1

r = g ( r ) =

= f ( ) =

E

(21)

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

1526

Table 1

for paper

Outer radius of coil

Elastic modulus of mandrel

Elastic modulus of the coil in the

tangential direction

Interlayer compression modulus

Interlayer springiness

Initial winding stress

Rc

Ro

Ec

E

25 mm

100 mm

6 GPa

4 GPa

w (Rc )

40 kPa

25

20 MPa

interlayer springiness used in this section are given in

Table 1. They are based on the values used for paper

material in Benson [9], which in turn are based on

experiments reported in Olive [29].

For the illustrative example, a roll of paper that has

been wound on a mandrel and then removed from the

mandrel as illustrated in Figs 1 and 2, shall be considered. It is assumed that the roll has no former. The

target residual stresses in this coil are shown in Fig. 3.

specied the other stresses and (r) are calculated

as described in section 3. These stresses will be used

to calculate the winding stress prole based on the

inverse solution.

The radial compression of the coil after its removal

from the mandrel is shown in Fig. 4, for material properties typical of paper and steel (given in Tables 1 and 2,

respectively). In the calculations, large deformation

analysis resulting in the residual stresses shown in

Fig. 3 was used for paper, while for steel, a constant

winding stress of 100 MPa was used. Figure 4 shows

that, for paper material, there has been substantial

deformation of the coil a reduction in the outer radius

of nearly 10 per cent when compared to the nominal

radius. As might be expected, this can have a substantial effect. If, for example, the target hoop stress was

specied and the small deformation approximation

was used

r

for calculating the large deformation winding

stress shown in Fig. 6. All other parameters are

given in Table 1. Included is a comparison with

the stresses calculated from the forward solution.

The specied winding stress used for the calculation is the large deformation winding stress of

Fig. 6 (as described in section 4). (a) Large deformation radial pressure and (b) target tangential

stress

to estimate the interwrap pressure, a substantial deviation as shown in Fig. 5 would be obtained, where the

radial pressures calculated from large and small deformation analyses are compared for the hoop/tangential

stress prole shown in Fig. 3(b). On the other hand,

when the interwrap pressure is specied, the hoop

stresses calculated on the basis of large deformation

or small deformations are quite similar.

Figure 4 also shows the deviation of (r) from its

nominal value for material properties typical of steel.

(For this calculation the constitutive relations for steel

described in reference [23] were used.) As can be seen

the deviation for steel is very small, indicating that the

small deformation theory is largely valid for materials such as steel. Furthermore, corresponding results

for aluminium and polymer lm are also included

in Fig. 4. In these calculations, an E of 72 GPa and

a constant winding stress of 50 MPa were used for

aluminium, while material properties and winding

conditions similar to those assumed by Hakiel [15]

were adopted for polymer lm. It can be seen that the

deviations of (r) from their nominal values are very

small for both aluminium and polymer lm, indicating

small deformation analysis is suitable for these materials. The somewhat different behaviour of the polymer

lm from paper material is due to its higher value of Er

(around one to two orders of magnitude higher than

that of paper), despite similar values of E for the two

materials.

Having analysed the target residual stresses, one

can now nd the required winding stress that will

result in the target residual stresses. As explained

previously, this is achieved by the numerical solution of the differential equations (13) subject to the

boundary conditions (14). The required winding stress

Fig. 4

Table 2

1527

Comparison of nominal and actual radius after removal from the mandrel for a variety of

materials. The large deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 and parameters listed in Table 1

were used for the comparison for material properties typical of paper. For material properties typical of steel a constant winding stress of 100 MPa and the parameters listed in Table 2

were used. For aluminium, a constant winding stress of 50 MPa and an E of 72 GPa were

used, while for polymer lm, those assumed by Hakiel [15] were adopted

for steel

Outer radius of coil

Strip thickness

Elastic modulus of mandrel

Elastic modulus of the coil in the

tangential direction

Gap thickness (at zero pressure)

Elastic modulus of the coil in the radial

direction

Poisson ratio of the coiled material

Rc

Ro

h

Ec

E

250 mm

750 mm

0.3 mm

100 GPa

200 GPa

l0

Eg

7.485 m

10 MPa

Fig. 6

Comparison between the winding stress calculated from the inverse solution for large deformations and those for small deformations for

material properties typical of paper. The target

tangential stress used for the calculations and

corresponding radial pressure are shown in Fig. 3.

All other parameters are given in Table 1

Figure 6 shows, for material properties typical of paper

(based on parameters given in Table 1), the winding

stresses calculated under the assumption of small

hoop stress given in Fig. 3(b). Again the deviation is

substantial though, as previously, the deviation is substantially smaller when the target interwrap pressure

is specied.

In order to validate the inverse solution for large

deformations, the following comparison has been

made. Using the forward solution, which has been

extended from the small deformation theory [25], the

residual stresses were calculated for a specied winding stress prole. The winding stress prole of Fig. 6,

obtained from the inverse solution for large deformation, was used as the specied winding stress prole

for the forward solution. The residual stresses (after

mandrel removal) from the forward solution were then

Fig. 5

Comparison between the radial pressure calculated for large and small deformations for material properties typical of paper. The same target

tangential stress, shown in Fig. 3(b), was used

for both solutions. All other parameters are given

in Table 1

1528

the winding stress from the inverse solution. Figure 3

shows the results of the comparison for material properties typical of paper (given in Table 1). As can be

seen, the agreement between the inverse and forward

solution is excellent.

Benson [9] has also developed a forward solution for

the case of large deformations and non-linear material properties and applied it to calculate stresses for

materials such as paper. He further validated his solution by comparing the calculated radial pressures with

experiments (shown in Fig. 7 of reference [9]). A comparison between his results (digitized Figs 5 and 4 of

reference [9]) and the forward solution for large deformation is shown in Fig. 7. As can be seen there is

reasonable agreement for the case of the radial pressure and good agreement for the tangential stress.

Differences between the two results can be attributed

to slight differences in the model formulations such as

the ones described below.

The stresses in a coil can be dened with respect

to the deformed (or actual) coordinate system, as presented by Benson [9] or to the undeformed coordinate

system, as used in the model formulation presented in

this paper. Hence the radial force with respect to the

deformed coordinate system will effectively be over

large deformation forward solution for non-linear

material properties with Bensons results (Figs 4

and 5 of reference [9]). (a) Radial pressure and (b)

tangential stress

a smaller area than that with respect to the undeformed system, i.e. the radial pressure will be higher

for the deformed coordinate system, compared with

the undeformed coordinate system. This explains the

higher radial pressure calculated for Bensons model

compared to the model described in the current paper.

It is straightforward, however, to transform either

result into the other form by taking into account the

strain/deformation eld in the coil after winding.

In addition, in the model of this paper (as well as

in Hakiels model [15]), it is assumed that the tension

of the outermost wrap is equal to the applied tension,

whereas Bensons model allows for a slight reduction

in the tension of the outermost wrap [9]. This difference partially offsets the effect of the difference in the

coordinate systems.

Now that models for all four regimes have been

developed (small deformation theory for both linear

and non-linear material properties, as well as large

deformation for linear and non-linear material properties), the applicability of these regimes for different

types of materials shall be investigated. Those studied include metals, such as steel and aluminium, as

well as polymer lms and paper. Typical properties of

these materials can be found in references [9], [15],

[17], [23], and [30]. It is found that for all materials

considered, non-linear material properties need to be

employed for accurate stress predictions. To illustrate

this, a comparison of the stresses calculated from the

small deformation theory using non-linear and linear material properties for both paper and steel is

shown in Figs 8 and 9, respectively. In order to make

these comparisons, the equivalent material parameters for the linear case have to be deduced from

those of the non-linear material parameters listed in

Tables 1 (for paper material) and 2 (for steel). The

adopted method for the material properties of paper

is described in reference [24] and a similar method is

used for the material properties of steel. The material properties for paper listed in Table 1 and the

calculated winding stress (from small deformation

theory) of Fig. 6 are used for the comparison shown

in Fig. 8. As can been seen, there is a very large difference in the radial pressure calculated using linear

material properties as well as a signicant difference

in the tangential stress. A constant winding stress of

30 MPa and the material properties listed in Table 2

have been used for the comparison for steel. As can

be seen from Fig. 9(a), the radial pressure calculated

using linear material properties differs from that for

non-linear material properties even for low winding

stresses.

As discussed in reference [24], differences between

the large deformation and small deformation theory

are likely for cases for which (r) differs signicantly

from r. Hence for very compressible materials

(i.e. materials with very small values of Er ), such as

Fig. 8

deformation forward solution for non-linear and

linear material properties typical for paper. The

small deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 was

used for the calculation. All other parameters

are given in Table 1. (a) Radial pressure and (b)

tangential stress

Fig. 9

1529

deformation forward solution for non-linear and

linear material properties typical for steel. A constant (low) winding stress of 30 MPa was used for

the calculation. All other parameters are given

in Table 2. (a) Radial pressure and (b) tangential

stress

materials as well.

large differences between the calculated radial pressure for large deformations compared with that of

small deformations, as illustrated in Figs 4 and 5.

For the case of metals such as steel, even though the

radial pressure for high winding stresses can be signicantly higher than those for the examples given for

paper, the effective radial elastic modulus for steel Er is

much larger than that for paper. Hence, as illustrated

in Fig. 4, the deviation of (r) from r is much smaller

for steel than for the case of paper (even for very large

winding stresses). Aluminium also has large values of

Er compared to the radial pressure and hence the deviation of (r) from r is also very small for this material.

For these cases, small deformation theory would be

adequate.

Even though materials such as polymer lms have

similar values of radial pressures (for typical winding stresses) to those typical for paper (and similar

values of E ), their effective values of Er are again signicantly higher than those typical of paper. Hence

the deviation of (r) from r for these materials is

again small. Thus the small deformation theory can

the stresses induced during and after winding of a

roll/coil, considering large strains and the non-linear

material behaviour in the radial direction. This analysis completes the recent series of papers by the authors

on the inverse solutions for the wound-in stresses

in coils, covering combinations of both small and

large deformations, and linear and non-linear material

properties.

In addition, it is shown that for most practical applications with common materials used for

packaging and consumer products, non-linear material properties should be considered. However, small

deformation theory is sufcient for relatively rigid

material such as metal strip (steel and aluminium)

and polymer lms. For relatively soft materials,

such as paper, large deformation theory needs to be

employed.

CONCLUSION

1530

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors wish to thank the management of CSIRO

and BlueScope Steel Research for permission to publish the material contained in the current paper.

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APPENDIX

Notation

effective modulus of core

Ec

(former and mandrel)

modulus of gap

Eg

azimuthal modulus of coiled

E

material

f ( r , )

F (r , )

g ( r , )

G(r , )

h0

p

p

r

r +u

R

(r Rc )/h0

(R Rc )/h0

Rc

stress strain relation

stress strain function

stress strain relation

thickness of unconstrained

wrap

target interwrap pressure

interwrap pressure

radial coordinate

radius of the (r Rc )/h0 wrap

outer radius of coil during

winding

wrap number, Rc r R

number of wraps in coil

radius of the core (former and

mandrel)

1531

Sm

u = u(R, r)

radial displacement

interlayer compression

modulus

interlayer springiness

radial strain

azimuthal strain

stress strain relation

stress strain relation

axial strain

radius of the (r Rc )/h0 wrap

if it were unconstrained

winding stress

target stress

target stress

r = u/r

= (r + u )/

r = g ( r , )

= f ( r , )

z

w (R)

r

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