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NORMATIVE AS REGARDS IN SITU TEST-PILES AND FOUNDATION


PILES
INDICATIVE NP 045-2000

1. Scope and application field


This normative assigns the specifications concerning the static in situ test of single
(isolated) piles in order to set their bearing capacity and the relations between loadings
and deformations as in the dynamic in situ pre cast piles for evaluation through calculus of
vertical bearing capacity.
Data obtaining as a result of in situ tests piles are used for:
Piles foundation design;
Auditing of the piles execution technologies according to geo-technical requirements site;
QA of the execution;
NOTE: The present Normative replaces the STAS 2561/2-81
The stipulations of this normative are applied also for in situ static test of bars for the
construction foundation (defined in Technical Instruction P106-85).
The preparation requirements and instrumentation of in situ piles can be also used in the
scientific research works, representing a minimum level of strictness.
1.2. The stipulations of the present normative are in compliance with the principles
comprised in the chapter Piles Foundations form European pre-norm ENV 1997-1:1994
Eurocod 7. Geo-technical Design. General Rules. and recommendations form
Compression with vertical loadings for test-piles Methodology Part 1: Static test.
(Elaborated under aegis of International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation and
published in ASTM Geo-technical Test Journal June 1985), to which this European prenorm refers.
1.3. The data utilization obtained from in-situ test of the test-pile for the design foundation
on piles is made according to the stipulations included into the design regulations to this
category of foundation. Likewise, on the base of these design settlements the number and
distribution in plan of the test-piles are established on construction site, as also type of
test, in correlation with another determination which could be useful to the determination of
the bearing capacity form, the design structure foundations (tests for static penetration,
dynamic penetration, barometers, etc.).
In the case of moist sensitive soil, the program elaboration for in situ test of piles and
interpretations of the results will be made in compliance with P7-92 normative stipulations.
1.4. The present normative stipulates the following types of vertical and isolated tests
piles:
Static tests with loading steps benches maintained in time:
Axial, during compression;
Axial, during strength;
Transversal (with horizontal forces)
b) Tests on dynamic way (test foundation pilling)
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Notes:
Some stipulations regarding the execution, preparation and test-piles can be also used for
static test on piles groups, for which special test program will be elaborated.
When the axial static test is not possible (compression with vertical loadings test-piles)
with the help of the hydraulic presses according to this normative, test with direct
ballasting could be stipulated on the pile head, an elaboration of a special documentation
being required.
3) Test of the test-piles with a required deformation speed can be used, on the
basis of some special working schedule, only when its demonstrated for the type of pile
and the foundation soil equivalence of results with the one obtained through the static
tests, with loadings steps maintained in time.
4) Speed measurement of the waves propagation in beating piles, for determinations of
bearing capacity or pile body integrity, on the base of the wave equation, its executed
with special equipments and does not make the object of this normative.
1.5. The test on piles will be executed according to the project and will be conducted by
technical authorized personnel. The permanent presence of an experienced specialist will
be assured in this field during in situ test. An experienced engineer in this field will draw up
a report that will include the test results interpretation.
1.6. Depending on the goal wanted and the requirements required by the test and
equipment program of piles, 4 levels of quality are established for in situ piles test, such
as:
Level N1: Tests for the science research
Level N2: Tests performed near the designed construction site, for verification of the
execution technology of piles according to the soil properties and determination of the
bearing capacity and dependency of loading movement, regarding piles foundation
design;
Level N3: Control test on foundation piles, for the bearing capacity confirmation
Level N4: Test for piles reception with possible flaws of execution.
The designer, by the agreement of an engineer geo-technician (by mutual agreement) can
decide the modification of the quality level comparing to the one indicated in the preceding
alignment in accordance with the design structure type, by the geo-technical requirement
complexity on the site and by the experience regarding similar piles behavior in the same
soil condition. Likewise, they can ask for a certain level of quality to respect adequate
requirements for a superior quality level regarding test program, preparation or
instrumentation of the test-piles.
1.7 Some STAS.
2. Related normative acts
Standards:
STAS 1242/1-89 Foundation ground. General principles of research.
STAS 1243-88 Foundation ground. The classification and land identification
STAS 2561/1-83 Foundation ground. Piles. Classification and terminology.
STAS 2561/3-90 Foundation ground. Piles. General specifications for designing
STAS 2561/4-90 Foundation ground. Drilled piles of large diameter. General guidelines,
execution and reception.
STAS 3950-81 Geo-technique. Terminology, symbols and measurement units
STAS 10101/0-75 pending actions. Classification of actions
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Technical regulations elaborated within MLPAT:


-P. 106-85 technical instructions for bar designing and execution for constructions
foundation
-P.7-92 normative concerning the designing and execution of the constructions founded on
wet-sensible soils.
-GE-029-97 Practical guidelines concerning the technology of foundation piles execution.
2. PRINCIPLES OF TEST METHODS
2.1. The static test is accomplished by the appliance of an isolated pile, identical with that
from work, of some controlled loadings, that maintain constant in certain period of time, by
measuring the upper side of the pile.
For qualitative upper level tests over some instrumented piles, the deformations are
measured using special device in different points of the test-pile, above the level of the
ground as well as along the layout, in order to obtain some extra information, such as the
modification of the forces on the base and lateral surface of pile depending on the external
loading. Likewise, for the instrumented piles with pressure ratios, the normal forcees can
be measured on the base or lateral surface of the piles loadinged transversally.

In case of the replaced piles, with bigger diameter than (d60cm), having a high bearing
capacity, the execution of vertical static tests on model-piles is admitted which are
executed with the same technology, having the same length, but with the diameter at least
equal with half of the piles from diameter value. In this situation, the tests are performed at
the same quality level N1 or N2 and the measuring of forces transmitted on base and on
the skin piles are mandatory during the test.
Note: The replaced piles are executed by removing the soil volume equal with the pile
volume.
2.3 The test on dynamic way is applied only to the pre-cast piles and consist in following
the residual axial movement of the pile brought to the final level, under a number of hits
executed with a breaking machine on free falling or simple action, with a rare modulation
(by applying to the pile an established mechanic thing)
2.3 For a superior level quality test, the elastic movement is measured (elastic rejection)
under each hit on the pile head.
The obtaining data through dynamic test are useful for the evaluation of bearing capacity
to vertical compression of the pile.
3. PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES FOR THE TEST EXECUTION
3.1. The test-piles meant for the determination of bearing capacity (quality level N2) will be
sought by the designer and the geo-technician near the site structure, so that the
foundation requirements may not be different too much (in a significant way).
The piles from the foundation on which the control or reception test will be performed
(levels N3 and N4) will be established by the designer and geo-technician, in accordance
with non-uniformities of the foundation field and by particularities mentioned during the
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3.2. Field geo-technical research


3.2.1. The field search where they are going to execute pile test shall specify the
succession and geo-technical parameters of layers that will have to be more than 4d or
minimum 5m.
Note: In case the compacted hard rock should be under the test-piles level base, the
search depth could be limited to 2d.
3.2.2 The field search will be executed with geo-technical drills from which will be taken
undisturbed and disturbed samples and also water sample for the chemical test. It is
recommended that it should be completed with in situ research methods of soil properties
(static penetration, SPT, plate test in the BH, etc.)
3.3 Test-piles execution
3.3.1. The test-piles are performed with the same technologies and will have the same
dimensions with the final piles from the paper.
3.3.2. During the test-piles execution, the general requirements will be respected as in
Practical guide for the execution technologies regarding piles foundation indicative GE0290-97 and specific requirement stipulated in the task book of the project.
3.3.3 For each test-piles the next data will be specified:
- Position in plan of the pile or group of piles;
- equipment used in execution and its properties;
- final dimensions of executed pile;
- properties of the material from which the pile is executed (grade of concrete,
reinforcement, etc.);
- behavior during driving in of the pile, damages occurred (if any);
- other Notess during execution;
- presumed projected loading for the pile or group of piles (if known).
3.3.4. The distance in the layout (plan) between axels of a 2 adjoined piles for test will be
chosen as the soil volumes influenced by the intersection of the test loading in case each
pile may not be cut across.
For the compression with vertical (loading) forces test-piles, the minimum distance
between the axels of two adjoining test-piles shall be of at least 3 m for d 0.50 m and at
least 6d for d > 0.50 m
(d being the side or cross section diameter of the pile). When two single test-piles are
simultaneously loading with vertical forces, the distance between them shall be at least
equal to the (l).
3.3.5. In case the piles execution should cause a strong stuffing effect of the adjacent soil,
test-piles will be surrounded by other (dead) piles which are executed at distances from
the project or at minimum 3 d.
3.3.6.Static tested test-piles will be protected, within the test period, against vibrations,
shocks.
3.3.7. The test-pile head (at the superior part where loadings will be applied and the
movement are measured) will be protected against any degradation during the test. Any
transfer shall be eliminated of loading between the pile and the field, in this area.
3.4 Testing of test-piles is performed in the following time during the interval since the end
of execution imposed by reaching of the designed strength (grade) of concrete or by the
consolidation in time of the adjoined soil (rest period). For the ramming piles( pre-cast
piles the minimum rest period will be of:
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- 5 days, for piles driven in non-cohesive soils;


- 24 weeks, for piles in cohesive soils (according to the ratio-smaller or greater-of
clayous layers onto the depth performed by the pile).
Note: 1. In case of sensitive loam soils, the rest of the period will be bigger than the one
indicated at 3.4. and it will be established based on special Notes.
2. If cohesive layers have an insignificant contribution to the pile bearing capacity (under
5%), the relax time period will of minimum 5 days.
3. A dynamic test-pile could be then static tested, after expiring the relax time period
(stated according to the above specifications).
4. Requirement for the equipments, devices and measuring devices used to testpiles
4.1. The device to take over the reaction to static test
4.1.1. For the compression axial test, the device to take over the reaction could be:
Ballast platform (annex A1);
Pulling pile (anchor piles) and a beams system (annex A2);
Anchors (usually drilled) and beams system or a column head for transmitting the force
reaction;
A structure (a construction) existing over the pile head (annex A4), possibly combined with
beams (annex A5);
4.1.2. For the axial pulling test, the device for taking over the reaction could be composed
of:
Bearing plates or a concrete abutment and an interlocked metallic beam with the tested
beam (annex 6);
Piles required at compression and a metallic beam (annex 7);
In case of horizontal loadings (forces) test, the device to take over the reaction could be:
a vertical plate or a concrete abutment( or masonry) located on the field( annex A8);
a vertical pile, usually identical to the test-pile( annex A9);
Vertical parameter of an existing structure (constructions), joined to the test-pile.
4.1.4. The efforts need to be simultaneously mobilized in elements take over the reaction
(ballast platform, anchors, existing construction); its recommended that these elements
should be symmetrically arranged in proportion to the force axial applied to test-pile
4.1.5. The device for taking over the reaction will be dimensioned to at least 1,1 Q max (Qmax
maximum loading that will applied to the test of the test-pile)
4.1.6. The piles movement from work, used as anchor piles (according 4.1.1.) or as
bearing points to the pulling test (4.1.2.), will be pursued during the test, and maximum
value of these movements shall not exceed 50% from the (settlement or rising) adequate
movement value, admitted for design structure.
4.1.7. The minimum distance from the test-pile center till the nearest extremity for the
ballast (loading) rest (prop) or till the anchorage axial shall be of 2,5m or 3d (the largest
distance will be chosen).
4.2. The device for applying the force on the test-pile
4.2.1. The applied force on the test-pile with the hydraulic press with a adequate capacity.
4.2.2 The press or the press group shall be disposed in such a way so that the composite
force may coincide with the pile axial. In order to avoid the admission of eccentricities
during the test, the penetration of a joint under spherical bell between the press and the
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4.2.3 The presses shall assure the progressive increasing and decreasing (without any
shocks) of pressure, and the race of the breaking machine shall be bigger than the sum of
the pile head movement and deformation of bearing device of reaction, corresponding to
force Qmax.
NOTES: exception from this provision is made by the cyclic tests, to which the execution
of a loading cycle-discharge, clamps for the residual deformations compensation.
4.2.4 The utility of an automatic device of constant maintenance in time of the applied
force is mandatory for the qualitative level tests N1 and it s recommendable for the
qualitative level tests N2 independent of pile deformation and bearing device of reaction.
4.2.5 For the qualitative test N1 and N2, between press and bearing device of reaction, a
device of measuring the applied force is independent of pile deformation.
The measuring device of force shall assure accuracy higher than 0.5% of the force value
or dynamo-metric ring).
4.2.6 When any measurement force device is not stipulated according to 4.2.5(for the level
tests N3 and N4) the hydraulic presses will be aligned before every series of tests off a
location, by assuring an accuracy bigger than 2% of the minimal force value that will be
applied for piles. The manometers will be aligned (calibrated) with the pump that will be set
up during the tests.
4.3. DEVICES FOR INTERNAL FORCES DETERMINATION IN THE TEST-PILE
4.2.1 The reference devices (beam girder) for the movements measure.
Devices for determining the efforts in sections of the test-pile are usually installed for level
tests N1 and for low level tests level (N2 and N3)- for the judicious designing of the
foundation- it s important that one should know about the distribution of the field reaction
on lateral surface and on the basis of pile.
The determination of internal force in instrumented test-piles are executed with the help of
special devices by:
Measuring the deformations in different points of the pile;
Direct measuring of normal forces on the base or lateral surface of the pile;
4.3.2 The measuring of deformations into the pile body can be executed with devices of
the following types:
Electro- resistance transducer;
Acoustic transducers;
Mechanic transducers (mechanical bench-marks)
In order to determine the body pile efforts of reinforced concrete on the basis of
deformation measurement, the determination of the deformation modulus is needed by:
Determinations from the lab for samples collected at the pile concrete
or
Deformations measuring on the superior part of the pile, where a uniform distribution of
efforts is assumed.
The execution and interpretation of measuring the mechanic transducers (mechanic
bench-marks) are described in the Technical Instructions P 106-85, annex 1.
4.3.3 The settlement, the installation and calibration of measuring devices of internal
forces in the test-pile are detailed in the project drawn for each test of this type, depending
on the data obtained from the test and properties of the used devices.
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4.4 REFERENCE DEVICES (BEAMS) FOR MEASURING THE MOVEMENTS


4.4.1. The superior part movements of a test-pile will be measured with the devices and
equipment (leaned) on the reference beam girders.
Note: In case the utility of some reference beams is not possible, the measuring of pile
movements is allowed by top metrical methods that will assure an accuracy of 0.05 mm
for level tests N1 and N2, respectively of 0.1 mm for level tests N3 and N4. In this case
on the pile head, marks will be installed horizontally, in triangle or 2 perpendicular
diameters.
4.4.2 One of the reference beam edges shall be crippled across it, at temperature
variations.
4.4.3 The bearing points on the field of reference beams shall be situated at distances
larger than 2.5 or 3 d (the largest distance is chosen) towards the axial test-pile or
anchorage, respectively towards the closest extremity of the bearing ballast.
4.4.4 The quote of the reference beams (usually at their edges) shall be verified by
accuracy leveling ( 0.1mm):
Before the beginning of each loading sequence;
In the final level of appliance for each loading for level test N1;
In the final level of maxim loading of each loading cycle for level tests N1 and N2.
The leveling of the points from the reference beams will be done in comparison with a
stable bench-mark (milestone or pile), situated at a distance of min. 10m towards the test
sample.
4.4.5 DEVICES FOR MEASURING THE MOVEMENTS AND DEFORMATIONS
4.5 1 In order to measure the movements of superior part of test-pile the followings are
used:
Micro-comparators;
Electronic transducer for movement;
Wire devices (flex meters) (flex meter = bending measuring device or deflect meter);
The accuracy of the devices shall be of 0,05 mm;
Note : if the wire devices are used, the accuracy measuring can be 0.05 mm, on the
condition of permanent measuring of proper temperature and correction corresponding to
readings.
4.5.2 The deformations of test-piles transversally (axial spinning) can be measured with
batter level, with the superior accuracy of angle value of 5x 10 -5 radians.
4.5. 3 the devices for measuring the movements will have a measuring field large enough
in order to avoid their change during the test.
4.6. TEST DEVICES - CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF THE MEASURE EQUIPMENT

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4.6.1 Before running the test, a pre-loading of pile will be performed with a force that will
not exceed 0.05 Qmax for the control and adjustment of devices and equipment, followed by
a complete discharge.
4.6.2 During the test, the located devices will be protected against the isolation, wind or
shocks and the measuring devices - against the rain or humidity from other sources. For
the qualitative level tests N1 the setting of a temporary close-up where to maintain a
constant temperature during each testing.
4.6.3 The electronic and electric compounds (transducers, tens metric brands, cables)
incorporated into the test-piles or installed near them will be specially protected against the
mechanical actions, concrete cutting-in, clay mud, and water during the piles execution
and preparing of their upper side.
4.6.4 In order to prevent the sudden subsidence of undertaken device of reaction, it is
recommended that the marginal points of the ballast platform and anchorages should be
included at the final loading steps in the measuring of optic leveling.
4.7 THE PILE BEATING EQUIPMENT AND THE REFUSE MEASURING DEVICE FOR
THE DYNAMIC WAY TEST
4.7.1 For the equipment that executes the test foundation piling the following will be
mentioned:
The type of the used pile driver;
The type and modulation piling of the breaking machine;
The volume of the breaking machine and the head determined with an accuracy of 1%;
The mechanic thing efficiently transmitted by a hit( lowering the losses due to the wearingin case of direct test;
The mass of the protection head determined with an accuracy of 1%; and the material of
which the anti- vibration layers;
4.7.2 the volume of the breaking machine will be at least equal with:
-1.5M for piles with mass M< 2t;
-M for piles with M> 2 4t;
0.75 M for piles with M> 4t; (M being the mass of pile).
4.7.3 The measuring device of axial movement of pile under 10 nits shall assure an
accuracy of 1 mm.
The measuring device of elastic movement (elastic refuse) under a hit will assure an
accuracy of 0.1 mm.

5. THE COMPRESSION VERTICAL (AXIAL) TEST


5.1 The recommended scheme for test execution of the pile vertical compression are
shown in annexes A1.A5.
The requirements regarding the properties and location of the devices and equipment,
which form this schemes are specified in the chapter 4.
Note: other schemes can be used for the test-pile loading, on the condition of respecting
the requirements presented in ch. 4, for all the components of these schemes.
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5.2. The measuring of the pile vertical movements under loading will be performed at the
superior part of the pile, in a horizontal plan, with at least 3 equipment arranged noncollinear around the pile.
Note: In this case the quality level N1 is mandatory, and for the N2 level test is indicated to
measure the horizontal movement of the pile head, with equipment arranged on 2
horizontal axial, perpendiculars.
5.3. TEST EXECUTION
5.3.1. The test shall be done without interruption. Its admitted, just for the nonce, that
during the night, the Notess can be stopped, on the condition of keeping the loading
constant on the pile, in the meanwhile.
5.3.2. The piles loading is made in equal steps Q with 1/8 at the most from the Q max
presumptive maximum loading value.
The loading step size shall be chosen in order to allow a clear tracing (marking) of the
settlement diagram; in this way it is recommended the step sizes should be reduced
before the fail test.
5.3.3. After the application of one step loading, which shall be quickly executed (maximum
interval 1 minute), the records are performed with equipment for measuring of movements
(vertical and horizontal) at 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and so on if
necessary at 10 min. interval, till the vertical movement is stabilized, according to 5.3.4.
The difference between records on every settlement measure equipment shall not be
more then sm average value
50%, for sm <1mm;
30%, for sm=15mm;
20%, for sm>5mm;
Otherwise, the test is not valid.
5.3.4. For each loading step, the records are performed for all measuring equipment till the
conventional stabilization of the pile movement, that it s considered to be reached when
the difference of average settlement measured at an interval of 20 min doesnt exceed 0.1
mm.
2 diagrams
Fig.1, Fig.2 page 116
5.3.5. The loading will be increased, in steps, till the Q max maximum value is reached, that
is defined at 5.3.6 and 5.3.7 depending on the test quality level.
The loading variation can be executed in one of two ways shown below (established by
mutual agreement between the designer and the construction):
Through monotone loading till Qmax; (fig.1);
Through 2 cycles loading: first till approximate 0.5 Q max, with discharge, followed by
second cycle of loading till the Qmax (fig. 2).
When maintaining time for Qmax loading ends up, it is recommended that the discharge
should be done in double steps (2Q) according to loading step size. At each discharge
step the movements are measured at two intervals of 5 minutes each. After the final
discharge, at one-hour interval a last series of measurements are performed.
5.3.6. For the loadings of N1 and N2 qualitative level, Q max. value corresponds to Qr failing
loading (in comparison with soil), which will reach the loading step for which one of the
requirements will be carried out:
Average settlement sm is bigger than 1/10 from the pile diameter;
Within 24 hours since the step has been applied the stabilization requirement from pct.
5.3.4 is not obtained.
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As critical loading on pile Q cr the loading is considered to be accordingly to the previous


loading step for which the Qr has been determined.

Note: In case of big capacity pile, when the lack of technique for the failure loading
reaching, the Qmax loading will be at least equal with 1,5 times, the maximum test value on
the working piles, calculated in the design for the ultimate limit state the adequate groups
of actions (according to STAS 10101/0-75). In this case, the pile critical loading will be of
Qcr=Qmax;
5.3.7. At N3 and N4 level test (executed on foundation pile), the loading Q max will be at
least with 1,5 times, maximum loading value for the working piles, established by design
for the fundamental grouping of actions according to the normal exploitation limit state
(STAS 10101/0-75).
For the N3 and N4 level tests, when the verifying of the test-piles will be needed (the
settlement determination under loading being unessential for designing), fast test could
be done. The force variation on pile is executed after schemes shown in fig. 1 or fig.2 with
the maintenance of every step loading till stabilization condition is reached from pct. 5.3.4,
but no more than an hour, the readings have to be done at intervals shown at pct. 5.3.3.
In this case the test stops when reaching the maximum loading Q max according 5.3.7.
The variation diagram of pile settlement s with loading Q can be constructed in
approximate way only if the variation diagram of measurement average settlement s m with
time t represented at logarithmic level, it s confirmed. In this case, the stabilized
settlement will be considered the value obtained through extrapolation for t=3 hours (fig.3).
Note: It is recommended that the effectuation of quick test should be only in case of end
bearing piles or floating piles that transmit the most of the loading into layers made of noncohesive soil.
5.3.7 For the level tests N3 and N4 (executed on the foundation piles, loading Q max shall
be at least equal with 1.5 from the value of the max. loading on working piles, determined
by the project for the basic action grouping corresponding to the normal limit exploitation
state ( STAS 10101/0-75).
5.3.8 For the level tests N3 and N4, when the bearing capacity verification of test-piles is
necessary (foundation settling determination not being essential for designing), fast tests
can be performed.
The force variation on pile are accomplished according to the schemes shown in fig.1 or
fig. 2 by maintaining each loading step until reaching the stabilization requirement from
point 5.3.4 , but no longer than an hour, the performance of readings being at 5.3.3
In this case the test stops when reaching the loading Q max according to 5.3.7
The variation diagbreaking machine of foundation pile s with loading Q can be
approximately built only if linearizarea of variation diagbreaking machine for the average
foundation piling sm is confirmed with time t represented on a logarithmic level. In this
case, as a foundation settlement stabilized s, the obtained value is considered by
extrapolation for t= 3 hours.(
Diagram ( fig. 3).

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Notes: the execution of fast tests are recommended only for the end-bearing capacity or
floating piles that transmit the largest part of loading in layers made up of non-cohesive
soils.
5.3.9 For the foundations required at cyclic or repeatable variation loadings up to the value
Q, the pile is loading: (Q+ Q) by maintaining these forces for 10 min. and the
measurement of the corresponding movements.
Values Q and Q < Q are established by the work s designer.
The minimal number that is recommended by loading-unloading cycles is of 20.
5.3.10 The measurements for the determination of internal forces with devices shown at
4.3 are performed in all cases at the following time-intervals.
since the appliance of loading step at 0, 5 , 60 and if necessary- from 20 to 20 min.
since the execution of loading step at 0, 5 , 10 and for final discharge at 30.
5.4 TEST RESULTS PRESENTATION
5.4.1 All the measurements performed during the test, as well as operators notes are
recorded in record sheet of test results, that will comprise the following data:
Unity that performs the tests;
Work (building site, objective);
Identification no. of test-pile;
End of execution (beating down) of pile;
Type of pile;
End time of the pile execution;
Time of dynamic test( if necessary);
Loading press: series, calibration date;
Force absorption cell (dynamo-metric ring): type, series, and calibration date;
Devices for measuring movements; type, series, calibration date;
Other devices and measuring instruments;
Leveling of reference beam girders: operator, instrument type;
Movement measurements and internal forces:
Time of measurement: date, hour, minute;
Force applied to pile;
Record of foundation pilings: on each instrument s 1, correction of records and corrected
foundation pile s;
Other records (transversal movements, internal forces)
-Notes during the preparation and test execution (behavior of pile body, weather forecast,
shocks vibration);
Operator s name and surname.
5.4.2 The record sheets of test results are kept in work archive, within the executioner unit.
A copy of this sheet will be put at the beneficiary s disposal, at his request.

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5.4.3 Relying on these pile test data, breaking machines diagram are drawn up on a
diagram breaking machine( fig.4) that comprises:
test variation Q with time t;
Variation of pile head foundation depending on the time;
Foundation pile variation of head pile with the loading.
Diagram breaking machine( fig. 4)
If other measurements were executed, breaking machines diagrams are drawn up
representing the following:
Variations of transversal movements of pile head with loading Q;
Variation of deformations along the pile for different values Q;
Loading variation on the top of the surface and lateral pile surface depending on Q;
Tangential force variation on the lateral pile surface along this for different values Q;
6. PULLING TEST AXIAL TEST
6.1 THE RECOMMENDED SCHEMES for the execution of pulling test axial tests of piles
in annexes A6 and A7 and the requirements concerning the properties and settlement of
devices and instruments are mentioned in ch. 4.
The appliance of pulling test strength Q sm is done, usually, with two presses
simultaneously actuated, and efforts transmission to the test-pile- by its reinforcement that will be dimensioned for an equal force with at least 1.5 Q sm max. (Qsm max.- being the max.
pulling test force presumed in test) Measures will be adopted so that all these
reinforcements can be uniformly requested during the test.
6.2 THE TEST EXECUTION WAY for pulling test and execution of measurements is
similar to the stipulated at 5.2, 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3 and 5.3.4 for compression tests.
Slow increasing of the pulling test force is gradually preferred (point 5.3.5 fig. 1), value Q sm
max resulting from the requirements shown at 5.3.6 and 5.3.7.
As a critical value of pulling test force Qsm er is considered:
The value of the force corresponding to the previous force of pulling test value Q sm for the
level tests N2 and N3.
Note: After reaching the Qsm force the following step is the total pile unloading, afterwards
the movements at an hour interval.
6.3 TEST RESULTS PRESENTATION
6.3.1 The measurements executed during the test and the operators notes are recorded
in the record sheet that shall comprise all the mentioned data from 5.4.1
The record sheet is kept under the requirements from 5.4.2
6.3.2 The test data are useful to elaboration of an centralized table( fig 5) that comprise:
- pulling test force variation Qsm with time t;
Movement variation of pile head , depending on the time;
Vertical movements variation stabilized of the pile head with the pulling test force.
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If, during the pulling test test, other measurements were performed, diagram-breaking
machines should be drawn up, if necessary;
Transversal/cross movements variation of pile head with force Q sm ;
Deformation variation and efforts along the pile for different values Q sm.
Diagram ( fig. 5)
7. HORIZONTAL FORCES TEST
7.1 The horizontal forces test of the isolated pile aims at determination of critical horizontal
force Qor.er. or breaking machines of rigidity horizontally on the field in collaboration with
the pile, under the requirements of a simple static scheme of its request.
Note: the deformation way and the subsidence of the pile transversally requested depend
on the rigidity of the foundation ground, and the resistance and pile rigidity, static scheme
of request(influenced by the connection with the pile foundation raft) and the intensity of
axial forces into the pile.
Horizontal forces test of the test-piles are usually executed, corresponding to the accuracy
of levels N1, N2 or N3, if necessary.
7.2 Loading schemes
7.2.1 the layout of devices and tools for the test execution according to the schemes
shown in annexes A8 and A9.
The requirements concerning the properties and arrangement of devices and measuring
instruments are shown in ch.4.
7.2.2 Force is applied by arrangement of devices and measuring instruments at a level as
closed as possible to the size of pile foundation raft of the designed construction.
The horizontal movements of the pile are measured on the horizontal level of the
force( movement or 1) and at a superior size with 0.801.00m ( movement or 2 )
The spinning of the superior part of the pile(above the action layout of force) semn is
calculated by reporting the differences of movements or 2- or1 at the distance between the
measuring layouts.
Within the superior qualitative level tests (mandatory- for N1, recommendable- for N2) the
measuring of the vertical axial spinning of the pile is assured with a mobile battle level for
which a special vertical channel is provided within the test-pile.

7.3 THE TEST EXECUTION AS REGARDS THE DETERMINATION OF CRITIC


HORIZONTAL FORCE OF THE HEAD PILE
7.3.1 The test-pile is executed by increasing the horizontal, slow force, in levels with the
equation Qor= 550kN, corresponding to 1/151/10 of the equation of the critical force
assumed for the requested piles. Each level is maintained for 30 mi, by measuring the
horizontal movements at 0, 5, 10, 30 from the application moment.
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At the beginning and at the end of application of each level, the position of the press is
verified, by recording its possible dips. The loading keeps going to some movements on
horizontal force level: or0.1d ( d- being the diameter or side of the pile section ) or to the
reduction of pile opposed resistance noticed by the obvious decreasing of the oil pressure
into the press.
Note: For a test couple of piles (according to scheme from annex A9), the test stops when
the above requirement is carried out to one of the piles.
7.3.2 The critical horizontal force Q or cr corresponds to the max. loading level for which the
movement on the horizontal level of force is or1 25mm.

7.4 Test execution with horizontal forces for the determination of breaking machines
field rigidity breaking machine using pile

7.4.1 In order to determine the adjacent field rigidity breaking machines of the test-pile (for
instance the lateral coefficient reaction E s defined in STAS 2561/3-90 annex C) the test is
performed by pursuing the movements and pile deformation in the previous subsidence
stages.
7.4.2 the test-pile is executed by increasing the horizontal force, in steps Q or 1/8 Qor max.
the max. force Qor max is determined out of the most restrictive requirement given by below
inequalities:
for qualitative level tests N1 and N2,
Mmax 0.8 Mcap or
or1 0.1d
for level tests N3( foundation piles)
Mmax 0.8 Mcap or
or1 1.5 or adm
Where:
Mmax max. bending moment calculated in pile cross sections under the action of force
Qmax ( on the basis of a calculation model of pile-ground collaboration):
Mcap- max. Bending moment in the pile section corresponding to the elastic behavior of
material;
or adm horizontal movement of pile head, admitted in the pile foundation project;
d- diameter or pile section side.
7.4.3 Each step of horizontal force is maintained for 30 min., by measuring the horizontal
movements at 0, 5, 10, 30, from the application moment.
Measurements with batter level are performed between 20-30 min from the stage
application, to intervals of 0.51.0 min. at the beginning or at the end of each stage the
press position, by recording its possible dips.
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7.4.4 After the maintenance of the corresponding stage Q or max., the downloading up to
0.5 Q or max , maintaining of this downloading for 15 mi with readings of movements at 0, 5,
15 and then total discharge with measurements movements and if necessary with batter
level at 30 min.
7.5 RESULTS PRESENTATION
7.5.1 Measurements performed during the test and the operator s notes are recorded in
the record sheet that will include all the specific data at 5.4.1
the record sheet is kept under the requirements shown at 5.4.2
7.5.2 The test data are useful for the centralized breaking machines diagram (those shown
in fig. 6) that include:
Horizontal force variation Qor with time t;
Pile horizontal movement variation on the horizontal level of force or 1 at the superior level
depending on time;
Horizontal movements variation at those 2 levels, recorded at the end of application to
each level, with the loading.
The variation diagram of pile head spinning..Calculated on the basis of the values or 1and
or 2.
If, other measurements are performed within the test, breaking machines diagrams are
drawn up representing, if necessary.
Pile vertical axis deformation at different horizontal forces;
Contact normal pressure variation on vertical sides of the pile, for different values of
horizontal force.
Diagram fig. 6

8. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR STATIC TEST EXECUTION IN FLOODED FIELD


8.1 The static test of the piles in flooded filed are performed if any humidity sensitive soil
whose classification into group A or B is mentioned in the geo-technical study, according to
the stipulations of the norm P7-92.
Under these conditions the tests are usually performed according to the qualitative N1 and
N2, on the base of a special breaking machine program, elaborated in collaboration by the
designer of the work and the expert- geo-technician following the properties of the
designed structure, as well as the evolution way of loadings on the construction piles and
the variation way of humidity on the foundation ground.

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8.2 For the static pile test identical piles are used with those from the work. The test-piles
will be located outside the designed construction precincts at a safety distance towards it
and the over terrestrial or buried constructions and tools that already exist.
8.3 The devices and measuring tools used in the test will meet the requirements shown in
ch.4.
8.4 The location of the adjacent soil as regards the flooding is made according to those
shown at 8.6- for MSS of group A, respectively 8.7- for MSS of group B.
The water discharge installation in the flooded area will be forecast with a measuring
device of quantities on the field with an accuracy of 0.1m 3.
8.5 The determination of humidity soil test adjacent to test-pile is done:
- Before the flooding, by drill wells ( usually of a diameter below 10 cm), of which
tests are collected at depth intervals of max. 1m;
- During the flooding, by control drill wells executed as nearer the test-pile ( by
collecting the tests at depth intervals of max. 1m) by humidity ratios , or by radiometric measurements in drill wells.
8.6 In P.S.U of group A, the measuring is not usually needed for settlement foundation
ground adjacent to the pile during the flooding and test loading. As a consequence, the
settlements of ground and loading device according to the scheme of annex A10 and
stipulations from 8.6.1 and 8.6.2.
8.6.1 Around the test-pile 4 drill wells are executed crossed located at a distance of 1
1.5m against its axis, with the depth equal to the thickness abutment MSS. soil tests are
collected from these drill wells, at intervals of max. 1 m, where the initial humidity is
determined and then they are filled in with drainage material (gravel with grains of 2
20mm). Likewise, around the piles a digging of min. 50 cm depth and dimensions on a
level of min. 3x3, on whose bottom a gravel layer of 30 cm thickness is spread.
Maintaining into the dug precincts of a superior water level with 20...30 cm to the gravel
drainage layer by measuring the low water quantities performs flooding.

8.6.2 After the saturation of soil adjacent to the test-pile resulted from measurements
performed according to 8.5 the next step is its loading on the basis of the
established test breaking machine.
If by the test breaking machine there wasnt any other solution, the pile loading can be
executed: by compression- according to stipulations from points 5./3, by pulling test
according to stipulations from 6.2
8.6.3 During the test, the position of the reference beam girders shall be verified by
accuracy leveling ( 0.1 mm) at least:
- Before the beginning of each loading sequence;
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-

One hour distance since the application of each loading step;


In the final application field of each loading or unloading step.

The leveling of the points off the reference beam girders will be done in comparison with a
stable bench-mark (preferably a depth one) located at a distance bigger than 10 m or than
H against the edge of the flooded digging (H being the thickness of the humidity sensitive
layer).
The measured values of pile head movements are corrected depending on the reference
beam girder movements, admitting a linear variation in time of beam girder settlements
during the intervals between the leveled measurements.
8.7

For MSS of group B, due to the settlement by humidity under own weight of adjacent
land, negative friction will develop on the lateral side of the test-pile. Under these
circumstances, the flooded precincts will have the dimensions at least equal with the
total thickness H of humidity sensitive layers, but not lower than 20 x 20m.

The scheme recommended for land facility and charge device is shown in annex A11.
Notes: 1 in order to accelerate the saturation process of MSS the execution of drained
drillings (filled with small gravel) on the entire surface of flooded precincts. These drillings
are useful to the initial humidity determination in the adjacent land of the test-piles.
2. The execution of some very closed drillings can be taken into account, even tangent, on
the perimeter of flooded precincts, in view of volume separation from humid sensitive soils,
of adjacent abutment.
8.7.1 When the precincts start to be flooded (by maintaining a superior water level with
20..30 cm of a gravel embankment and the measuring of the water quantities slipped
in), the next step is the settlement measuring of the bottom precincts on enacted marks in
points that are established by test breaking machine.
For the quality level tests N1, depth marks will be provided for measuring the variation with
the settlements depth of MSS under own weight, and the pile test will be equipped with
devices for efforts measuring in different sections, during the precincts flooding and its
charge.
8.7.2 If by the test breaking machine there wasnt any provision the pile charge can be
executed, after the saturation abutment of P.S.U, according to clues from 5.3( to
compression), respectively 6.2 ( to pulling test).
The position of reference beam girders will be verified by accuracy leveling ( 0.1m):
- Before the beginning of each charge step;
- During the loading and unloading the pile, at 10 min. intervals, by applying
adjustments to the measurements of pile head movement depending on the
measured settlement of the reference beam girder.
The leveling of the reference beam girders will be done in comparison with a (depth)
stable bench-mark situated at a distance larger than 20 m or than H against the edge of
the flooded precincts ( H being the total thickness of MSS abutment).

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9. THE DYNAMIC TEST

9.1 The dynamic test of the test-piles (test beating) is performed on pre-cast piles, put in at
the final bench-mark from the project, after a time has elapsed since the end of the drifting
at least equal with the rest time indicated in 3.4.
The requirements concerning the equipment for the test beating and the measurement
devices are mentioned in 4.7.2 and 4.7.3.
9.2 On the test beating, 10 hits are applied with the same hitting height of the breaking
machine and the total remnant penetration of the pile on the field.
The refusal (remnant average penetration under a hit) is calculated with the equation:
E= e1/10

The classic refusal (reversing of the pile head under a hit) is recorded, separately, for each
hit from the 10 hits- series.
As an expanding refusal to test beating, the arithmetic average of the expanding refusal
values recorded within the 10 hits series.

9.3 the results of the dynamic test are recorded in the test record sheet that will include the
following data:
- Unity that performs the test;
- Work ( building site, objective);
- Identification number of the test-pile;
- Type of the pile and its dimensions;
- End data of pile drifting;
- Data of dynamic test;
- Type of pile driver used for the test beating;
- Type and beating stroke of the breaking machine;
- Bulk of the breaking machine and fall head
Mechanic efficient thing transmitted by a hit (lowering of losses due to the
frictions)- if it has been directly measured;
- Mass of the protection helmet and material of which the amortized layers are made;
- Measuring device of refusal;
Measuring device of expanding refusal;
- Measurements of pile penetration during the dynamic test and expanding refusal *)
- Notes during the preparation and test performing (pile body behavior, bending
striking hammer);
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Operator s full name

*) The automatic records are usually attached of the expanding refusal measuring
device.
The beating test record is kept in the executioner s archive, and its copies are
delivered to the beneficiary within the test rapport.
10. THE TEST RAPPORT
10.1 The field test results of the piles are presented as a rapport that shall encompass:
a) Labeling and address of the unit that performed the pile test in the field;
b) Labeling, address and authorization no. of test labs ( if within the pile test breaking
machine geo-technical determinations were executed or on the material of the pile
body);
c) Labeling and client s address;
d) Topic for the pile test;
e) Indication of the technical guidelines on whose bases the tests have been
performed;
f) Comments on obtained results;
g) Indications of the measuring incertitude caused by the location requirements, by
mentioning the respective causes;
h) Goal definition and field for which the test results can be used;
i) Conclusions and design recommendations;
j) Declaration concerning the fact that the performed tests have not been performed
under any kind of pressures;
k) Table of the parts attached to the rapport(records, test diagbreaking machines,
drawings);
l) Name, job title and signature of the people who are technically responsible for
respecting the technical norms and who certify from technically point of view the
results of the performed tests and recorded in the rapport.
10.2 At the test rapport the following parts are attached:
a) Layout with the position of the test-piles and trial pit executed around;
b) Drawings with a planned arrangement and vertical sections of pile arrangement
test and measuring devices, for each static test, by mentioning the field level ahead
of the piles, or application forces level and by representing the field arrangement in
layers on the basis of the most closed trial pit;
c) The trial pits records closed to the test-piles position, by comprising the results of
the lab tests and in-situ tests (penetrations, compression gauge);
d) Trial pits records concreting or drifting (according to 3.3.2) for each test-pile;
e) Dynamic pile test records
f) The record sheets of static test results on piles (only at beneficiary s request)
g) Centralized breaking machines diagram of static tests (according to 5.4.3, 6.3.2 or
7.4.2)
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h) Test results on collected material samples of the pile body (if necessary);
i) Other breaking machines diagram representing the results of the extra
measurements (of deformations, internal forces) executed during the pile tests;
j) Breaking machines diagram representing the infiltrated water quantities and
humidity variation in time, in case of field flooding adjacent to the pile tests.
10.3 The test rapport and attachments are kept by the tests executioner, construction s
designer and beneficiary s, by making part and parcel of the design documentation
including the construction book for the respective construction.

11. MEASURES SPECIFIC FOR WORK SAFETY TECHNIQUE

11.1 All the work safety measures stipulated in ch. 12 of the Practical guideline concerning
the execution technology of pile foundations GE-029-97.
11.2 The requirements shown in art. 4.1 will be respected for the dimensioning of the
reaction overtaking devices.
11.3 The effects resulted from breaking by accident of the pressure ducts of loading
hydraulic devices will be overcome by their installing inside of protection tubes.

Notes:
1. PSU- MSS MEANS MOISTURE SENSITIVE SOILS
2. THE ANNEXES OF THE NORM AS WELL AS THE DIAGRAMS
CAN BE FOUND IN A SEPARATE SCANNED DOCUMENT
(PDF FILE)

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