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Part B

What type of hazards that may occur and how are they avoided?

Hazard is a term associated with a substance that is likelihood to cause an injury in a given
environment or situation. It is a potential source of harm that would effect on a person in term
of human injury, damage to property and environment. Industrial hazards may be defined as
any condition/ substance produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personnel
or loss of product or property. There are many type of hazard that could occur in
a factory. Those type of hazard are explain later.
Ways to prevent hazard
There are procedure needs to be followed to control and prevent the
hazard. Below is the hierarchy of hazard control procedure:

Engineering Control
Administrative Control
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Type of Hazards
1. Mechanical Hazards
These types of hazard are associated with power-driven machine, whether automated or
manually operated. Common mechanical injuries are cutting & tearing, shearing, crushing,
straining & spraining and also puncturing. Cutting & tearing can be described as when a body
part comes in contact with a sharp edge. In this company, they involve with lots of cutting
process. While for shearing, power-driven shears for severing sheet metal or plastic can also
be shearing human flesh. Crushing injuries occur when a part of the body is caught between
hard surfaces. In this case, the worker more likely tend to caught between the machines
rotating part. A strain results when muscles are overstretched or torn while a sprain results
from torn ligaments in a joint. Lastly the puncturing results when an object penetrates straight
into the body.
Nip point can pull hands, feet or articles of clothing. Below are the example of the inrunning nip point that can occur in the manufacturing plant.

Control of mechanical hazards

The first step is to eliminate the source of hazard. If cannot be eliminate, the process
need to be substitute with less hazardous machine or process. If not possible, use engineering
control which is guards it. Administrative control also can be done such as provide training to
the worker, job rotation to avoid repetitive motion that can lead to accident and also
reschedule the time duration of each work to avoid loss of concentration due to too long time
period. Lastly if not possible of other option, the worker must rely on training and personal

protective equipment (PPE). PPE is the last option of control, it only minimize the effect not
control the hazard.
Failure to provide proper machine guards and enforce their use can be costly for
companies Mechanical hazards that are not properly guarded are implicated in thousands of
workplace injuries every year. Small gains in productivity obtained by willfully bypassing
mechanical safeguards on machines can cost companies huge fines & medical bills. Machine
safeguarding is to minimize the risk of accidents of machine-operator contact. The contact
can be in the form of an individual making the contact with the machine, flying substance
such as metal chips, hot metal splashes or cause by machine malfunction. Safeguards can be
devised to protect workers while allowing work to progress at a productive rate. Example of
the safeguard are fixed guard, interlocked guard and adjustable guard.
2. Electrical Hazards

Electricity is the flow of negatively charged particles (electrons) through electrically

conductive material. It is a natural energy force and also a man made energy force. It is
essential to modern life and taken for granted everyday. Electricity flows through conductors.
Conductors include metals, water, the Earth and the human body. In order to flow, electricity
must have a complete circuit or path.

When electrical tools are working properly a complete circuit is maintained between
the tool and the energy source. However, if the tool is damaged the person may come in
contact with the electricity and can become a path for the current. The person will be
experience electrical shocked.

Major causes of electrical shock are:

Contact with a bare wire carrying current.

Working with electrical equipment that lacks the UL label for safety inspection.
Electrical equipment not been properly grounded.
Working with electrical equipment on damp floors or other sources of wetness.
Static electricity discharge.
Using metal ladders to work on electrical equipment.
Working on electrical equipment without ensuring that the power has been shut off.
Lightning strikes.

Electrical hazard have different effect on human based on the degree of current. Table below
shows the effect of electrical current on human body.

This is safety precaution for electrical hazards:

Ensure that power has been disconnected form the system before working with it. Test
the system for de-energization. Capacitors can store current after power has been shut

Allow only fully authorized and trained people to work in electrical system.
Do not wear conductive material such as metal jewelry when working with electricity
Screw bulbs securely into their sockets. Ensure that bulbs are matched to the circuit by

the correct voltage rating.

Periodically inspect the insulation.
If working on a hot circuit, use the buddy system and wear protective clothing.
Do not use a fuse with a greater capacity than was prescribed for the circuit.
Verify circuit voltages before performing work.
Do not use water to put out an electrical fire.
Check the entire length of electrical cord before using it.

Use only explosion-proof devices and nonsparking switches in flammable liquid

storage areas.
Enclose uninsulated conductors in protective areas.
Discharge capacitors before working on the equipment.
Use fuses and circuit breakers for protection against excessive current.
Provide lightning protection on all structures.
Train people working with the electrical equipment on a routine basis in first aid and
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

3. Manual Handling Hazards

Manual handling of loads is any of the following activities carried out by one or more
workers: lifting, holding, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving of a load. The
load can be animate (a person or animal) or inanimate (an object). Manual handling of loads
may cause cumulative disorders due to gradual and cumulative deterioration of the
musculoskeletal system through continuous lifting/handling activities, such as low back pain.
Back pain is a major work-related health complaint. There are some aspects that make
handling the load hazardous. First aspect is the load itself. People tend to carry load beyond
their capabilities. Besides that, there is no exact weight limit that is safe; usually 20-25 kg is
heavy to lift for most people. If the load is too heavy, it is hazardous to be handles. If the load
is large enough, it is not possible to follow the basic rules for lifting and carrying. The result is
the muscle will get tired rapidly. Second aspect that can make handling the loads hazardous is
the task. Sometimes the task that given by the employer is too strenuous, as an example is it is
carried out too frequently or for too long a time. Besides that, task with involves awkward
postures or movements also one of the factors. Examples of the movements are bent and/or
twisted trunk, raised arms, bent wrists and over-reaching.
Next aspect that can may handling the load hazardous is environments and individual.
Many factors can relate environment as the one of the aspect that contributes for making
handling loads as the hazardous. The factors are insufficient space, unstable or slippery floor,
surrounding temperature too hot, insufficient lighting and many more. All this factors can
cause hazard. Lastly is individual, individual with lack of experiences and too old are suitable
to handle this task there is because they can contribute a lot of problems such as wrong
procedure to carry the load.

The prevention of this hazardous can be done by several steps. First is eliminationconsidered whether handling the load can be avoided, for example by using powered or
mechanical handling equipment such as conveyers or lift truck. Second, Technical measures
if handling the load cannot be avoided, considers the use of supporting devices such as hoists,
trolleys and vacuum lifting devices. Third, Organizational measures such as job rotation and
the introduction of breaks of sufficient length should only be considered if elimination or
reduction of handling the load risks is not possible. Lastly, Provide information on the risks
and negative health effects of handling the loads, and training in the use of equipment and
correct handling techniques. The worker also need to wear the PPE while handling loads.

4. Workplace Transport Hazards

What is workplace transport? It is any activity involving vehicles used in a workplace.
Vehicles driven on public roads are excluded, except where the vehicle is being loaded or
unloaded on a public road adjacent to a workplace. Examples of worplace transport hazards
are people struck, run over or crushed by vehicles, vehicles colliding with each other or
plant/equipment, people falling from vehicle or items falling from vehicles.

For the countermeasure the manufacturing plant should separate routes for pedestrians,
fork lift routes should be indicated by floor lines, and also provide separate vehicle and
pedestrian doors with vision panels on all doors. While for routes to be used by public should
be clearly signposted. Other than that, suitable and sufficient parking areas for work and
private vehicles should be provided. It must be located in safe locations driver should not to
cross dangerous area and well lit. The loading bays should be at least one exit from lower
level, the edges of the bays must be clearly marked and need edge protection. Protection
against adverse weather conditions may also be necessary.
The driver must undergo proper training and not under influence of drug or alcohol.
The access on the vehicle must be restricted to authorized persons only. It must have edge
protection, the ladders must be properly constructed and non-slip grating for walkways.
5. Fire Hazards
Fire only exists when there are three elements present at the same time, which are fuel,
oxygen and heat. Fuel is in the form of any combustible material such as solid, liquid and gas.
The air we breathe in is about 21% oxygen, but fire needs only 16% oxygen. For heat, it is the
energy necessary to increase the temperature of fuel to where sufficient vapours are given off
for ignition to occur.

There are 4 types of fire. Class A is classified as ordinary combustible or fibrous

material, such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber, and some plastics. Class B is happen when
flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners and
propane are on fire. While Class C is energized electrical equipment, such as appliances,
switches, panel boxes and power tools. Lastly for Class D is certain combustible metals, such
as magnesium, titanium, potassium, and sodium.
Type of fire
Class A

Prevention ways
Keep storage and working area free of trash

Class B

Class C

Class D

Place oily rags in covered container

Do not refuel gasoline-powered equipment in a confined
space, in the presence of an open flame, or while the
equipment is hot
Keep flammable liquid stored in a tightly closed
container and away from spark producing sources
Use flammable liquids only in well ventilated areas
Never install a fuse rated higher than specified for the
Investigate any appliance or electrical equipment that
smells strange. Unusual odors can be first sign of a
potential fire.
Utility lights shouls always have some type of wire guard
over them
Knowledge of the properties of the metals and using
good judgement and common sense will assist you in
controlling or avoiding potential fires or reactions

Below are the preparations for a fire emergency incase of happen:

Check the location of fire alarms and know how they work.

Learn your building evacuation plan.

Know where your two nearest exits are located. Learn how doors swing and where
stairs lead.

Make sure nothing block fire pulls, extinguishers and emergency exits.

Learn the sound of your building fire alarm.

Post emergency number (including security and first aid) near your telephone.

Make sure you know what to if the fire alarm sound. Plan your escape.