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The Effects of Varying Concentration on the Efficiency of Calamansi & Lemon Juice as
a Stain Remover
Patricia Agbayani
Pia Badion
Christine Kay De Leon
Pauline Ibuyan
Martina Leonardo
Alekx Natividad
Bea San Miguel
Past Authors:
Isabela Aragon
Maxine Bersamira
Kyla Deonoso
Katelyn Henson
Renesa Palonpon

Submitted to:
Ms. Rosalie Nazal
Quantitative Research Teacher
January 12, 2017

One of the present household tasks at this point in time is washing clothes while
ensuring that the stains are completely removes. Calamansi is a common and abundant
citrus fruit found in the Philippines. The study aims to test if calamansi juice is an
efficient stain remover on cloth and if its varying concentration affects its capabilities as
a stain remover. Betadine stained clothes were prepared and tested with different
concentrations of calamnsi juice. The different concentrations of calamansi juice were
prepared through adding water. Through titration, citric acid was found to be the main
component of calamansi juice which enables the removal of betadine stains since the
acid interacts with betadine and causes acidification to take place. Acidification creates
creates the ion exchange between citric acid and PVP-I abd the fabrics desorption of
the betadine stain. Citric acid itself was then tested on the stained clothes and
underwent the same process as the test for the calamansi. The collected data proved
that the citric acid solutions successfully removed the betadine stains compared to the
calamansi juice, due to the impurities of the calamansi juice. Furthermore, a higher
concentration of calamansi juice results to it being a more effective as a stain remover.


The investigatory project aims to affirm that concentrated calamansi and lemon
juice are effective stain removers because of their naturally occurring acids which are
capable of removing stains. Aside from solving the quest of finding an alternative
bleaching agent, the investigatory project prompts its everyday readers to find everyday
surroundings or household materials that can also be used to remove stains. The
groups target audience is MC students as the types of cloth to be tested are used in the
production of their uniforms. Furthermore, by exploring the topic, the importance of
calamansi and lemon are reiterated, whether for medical or personal purposes.

1. What is your reason in choosing the IP for replication?
- Stains are incidents that can happen to ones life and in most cases, they
happen when you least expect it. The researchers chose this IP for replication
mainly because this sparked an interest in the researchers to study it more and it
would be beneficial to everyone especially on unexpected events. But the

researchers decided to focus on MCHS students and how calamansi and lemon
juice can be an alternative stain remover. They also chose this IP for replication
because they saw possible changes to the experiment to make it better and more
2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the paper?
- There are strengths and weaknesses in everything always. One of the
papers strengths is that it is able to provide necessary information regarding the
topic. Also, the fact that it shows another way to remove stains definitely add to
the papers strengths. The paper was also able to discuss thorough details about
calamansi and citric acid, which made the entirety of the paper complete and
adequate. A possible weakness would be the identification of the parts of the
paper. An example would be the statement of the problem. Of course it is located
in the introduction area, but it would be better if the authors have specified it
more. The paper also lacks the discussion of the process of titration, which is
mentioned in the discussion section and is not found in the procedure section.
This can be quite a problem to the readers since they may have a hard time
understanding how the researchers came to their findings and conclusion.
Another weakness is the lack of other samples. The title has specified that the
citrus that would be used is calamansi already, but it would be better if other
types of citrus would be used as well such as lemon and orange. Lack of stain
varieties have been used that is why different types of stain should be utilized as
well so that the effectivity of the citrus would be tested, hence strengthening the
paper. Despite the weaknesses, the conclusion of the paper is straight to the
point and is directly associated to the findings of the experiment, thus having the
researchers to believe that the strengths of the paper weigh more than its
3. How do you plan to modify the IP?
- The Researchers plan to modify the IP by changing some of the materials
used. First would be the kind of cloth that is to be tested, they would replace the
cotton cloth used in the previous study to cotton jersey or dri-fit cloth and other

types of cloth that are used for uniforms. The use of these cloths would be helpful
for students after all this type of cloth makes up their regular and P.E. uniforms.
Second would be the stain remover, the researchers decided to keep the
calamansi juice and then replace citric acid solution with lemon juice. They want
to test another factor that is convenient to the majority , like calamansi, lemon
can be found in most household and can also be accessible to students in their
schools. Third factor that the researchers would like to modify is the stain being
tested in the study. The previous IP focused on just one stain which is Betadine
(Povidone-Iodine) but since the researchers concern is to know which is more
helpful to people specifically students of MCHS, they would like to work with the
common stains that these students usually encounter. Milo drink, soy sauce and
mud will be used in this study. Lastly the researchers plan to modify the aim of
the previous researchers, in the previous study, the effectiveness of calamansi as
stain remover served as the IPs aim. The researchers and their work aims to
know which is more effective as a stain remover; calamansi juice or lemon juice.
Another would be the researchers aim to know if these factors can serve as an
instant stain remover.
4. Which among the recommendations of the past authors will you adapt in
your research?