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-a, -eo, -yeo

-, -, -
conjugation
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

// are the syllables that start the present tense conjugation for the simple present
tense (both intimate and standard politeness levels), the past tense (both intimate and
standard politeness levels) and also start a few other grammatical constructions.
- is used for verbs that have or as the last vowel in the verb stem.
- is used for verbs that do not have or as the last vowel in the verb stem.
- is used for (hada) verbs.
Many times there are deletions and contractions with repeating vowels (If a verb stem
ends in a consonant there are no deletions or contractions). The following is a list:

Formation
/ Verb Stems
1. + ->
2. + ->
All other verbs
3. + ->
4. + ->
5. + ->
6. + ->
7. + ->
verbs
8. + ->

Example Sentences
1.Verb stem with [ + -> ]
(sada) - to buy
+-
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)
(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)
2.Verb stem with [ + -> ]
(oda) - to come
+-
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)
(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)
3.Verb stem with [ + -> ]
(seoda) - to stand
+-
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)
(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)
4.Verb stem with [ + -> ]
(juda) - to give
+-
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)
(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)
5.Verb stem with [ + -> ]
(yeppeuda) - to be pretty
+ ->
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)
(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)
6.Verb stem with [ + -> ]
(masida) - to drink
+ ->
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)

(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)


7. Verb with [ + -> ]
(bonaeda) - to send
+ ->
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)
(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)
8. (hada) verb [ + -> ]
+ ->
(Intimate politeness level - simple present tense)
(Standard politeness level - simple present tense)

Notes
The standard politeness level typically just adds the politeness suffix - (-yo).

je, nae, ni, uri, jeohui

, , , ,
my, your, our (informal and formal)
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

We use possessive pronouns to attribute ownership of an object to someone. Like any


other pronoun, these replace the nouns. We use different possessive pronouns according
to the speakers relationship with the listener. Humbling pronouns, neutral pronouns,
and intimate pronouns, all indicate the relationship between the listener and the speaker.

Formation
In reality, possessive pronouns are a contraction of pronouns and the possessive particle.

1. = (jeo-ui) - +
first person humbling pronoun + possessive particle
We use (je) to humble oneself in the presence of someone the speaker
respects.

2. = (na-ui) - +
informal first person pronoun + possessive particle
We use (nae) in informal contexts where the speaker feels that (je) is too
polite and inappropriate for the relationship with the listener. We use (nae)
when the speaker does not feel the need to show the highest respect to the
listener.

3. = (neo-ui) - +
informal second person pronoun + possessive particle
We use (ni) in informal contexts when the speaker feels very comfortable
with the listener and the power relationship is at least equal. We commonly use
it when the speaker has the upper hand in the relationship.

4. = + - ()
humbling first person plural noun + (possessive particle)
We actually drop the possessive particle for this possessive pronoun (as we
do in many cases.) We use this possessive particle in formal situations such
as when the speaker does not know the listener well, or when the listener holds
much of the power in the relationship.

5. = + - ()
intimate first person plural pronoun + (possessive particle)
We actually drop the possessive particle for this possessive pronoun (as we
do in many cases.) We use this possessive particle in informal situations when
the speaker feels that (jeohui) is too polite.

Example Sentences

1. .
je chingu-ga hoju-e sarayo.
My friend lives in Australia.

2. .
nae cha-ga jukeosseo.
My car broke down (died).

3. .
ni yeonpil jwo.
Give me your pencil.

4. .
uri jib-eun neolbeo.
My home is big. (neutral/intimate)

5. .
jeohui jip-eun jobayo.
My home is small. (polite)

-at, -eot, -yeot

-, -, -
did, was (past tense)
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

-(//)- is a verbal infix, which we use to convey the past tense.

We use for verbs that have or as the last vowel in the verb stem.
We use for verbs that do not have or as the last vowel in the verb stem.
We use for (hada) verbs.

Many times, there are deletions and contractions with repeating vowels. If a verb-stem
ends in a consonant, there are no deletions or contractions. These contraction and
deletion rules follow the // conjugation. Please refer to the grammar bank entry
on -// conjugation to refer to rules for contraction and deletion.

Formation
(Contraction and Deletion Rules follow the same rules as the // conjugation.
Please refer to entry on // conjugation in the grammar bank for contraction and
deletion rules.)
[Verb Stem] + [//] + [Conjugation (politeness level/mood/etc.]

1. ()
Example: (to eat)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Intimate Politeness Level - //]
[] + [] +[]
. - Simple Past Tense (Intimate Politeness Level)

2. ()
Example: (to eat)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Standard Politeness Level - // + ]
[] + [] +[]
. - Simple Past Tense (Standard Politeness Level)

3. ()
Example: (to eat)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Formal Politeness Level - ]
[] + [] +[]
. - Simple Past Tense (Formal Politeness Level)

4.
Example: (to learn)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Intimate Politeness Level - //]
[] + [] + []
. - Simple Past Tense (Intimate Politeness Level)

5. ()
Example: (to learn)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Standard Politeness Level - // + ]
[] + [] + []
. - Simple Past Tense (Standard Politeness Level)

6. ()
Example: (to learn)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Formal Politeness Level - ]
[] + [] + []
. - Simple Past Tense (Formal Politeness Level)

Example Sentences

1. .
jeo-neun hanguk-eseo simnyeon dongan sarasseoyo.
"I lived in Korea for ten years."
Verb: (to live)
+ + [Standard Politeness Level Conjugation - // + ]

2. ?
nuguyeossji?
"Who was it?"
Verb: (to be)
+ + (Confirmation/Agreement Conjugation - )

3. .
mandu mandeureotneunde.
"I made dumplings."
Verb: (to make)
+ + [Introductory Non-Final Ending - (//)]

'eu' bulgyuchik dongsai hwalyong

''
Irregular 'eu' Verbs' conjugation
Category
Irregular Verbs
TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

Verbs that end with the vowel '' are conjugated differently than other verbs when the
conjugation starts with a vowel. Essentially, '' is replaced with the vowel that starts
the conjugation. When the conjugation starts with a consonant, the verb is conjugated as
normal. The conjugation must start with a vowel. In addition, the verb must end with
the '' vowel, and not with a consonant for this irrgular conjugation to take place (e.g.
(neutda) to be late - this verb is conjugated as normal).
In addition, there is an irregular conjugation when the verb that is being conjugated has
two or more syllables and the vowel in the syllable immediately preceding the ''
syllable is either '' or '.' The preceding syllable affects the conjugation and instead
of determining which conjugation to use according to (which would be typically be a
conjugation), the verb is conjugated as if '' or '' was the determining vowel
(which would be typically be a conjugation).

Formation
Example:
1. (sseuda) + // conjugation - to write + Intimate Simple Present Tense
conjugation
(sseu) + // conjugation - verb stem + Intimate Simple Present Tense
conjugation
+ // conjugation - verb stem (with the vowel removed) + (this
conjugation is used because there is no or vowel to affect the conjugation)
(sseo) - to write (Intimate Politeness Level simple present tense conjugation)
2. (kkeu-da) + // conjugation - to turn off + Intimate Simple Present Tense
conjugation

(kkeu) + // conjugation - verb stem + Intimate Simple Present Tense


conjugation
+ // conjugation - verb stem (with the vowel removed) + (this
conjugation is used because there is no or vowel to affect the conjugation)
(kkeo) to turn off (Intimate Politeness Level simple present tense conjugation)
3. (ba-ppeu-da) + // conjugation - to be busy + Intimate Simple Present
Tense conjugation
(ba-ppeu) + // conjugation - verb stem + Intimate Simple Present Tense
conjugation
(ba-pp) + // conjugation - verb stem (with the vowel removed) +
(this conjugation is used because influences the conjugation)
(ba-ppa) - to be busy (Intimate Politeness Level simple present tense conjugation)

Example Sentences
1. ? (jeo-reul bulleosseoyo?) - Did you call?
Verb - (bureuda) - to call
2. ? (ne handeupon-eul seosseo?) - DId you use my cell phone?
Verb (sseuda) - to use
3. . (bappaseo sukje-reul mot haesseoyo.) - I was busy, so I
couldn't do my homework.
Verb (bappeuda) - to be busy

Notes
There are "regular" conjugations, which are much more uncommon than this "irregular"
conjugations.

-sida, -eusida

-, -
Honorific Infix
Category
Honorifics
TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

-()[-(eu)si] makes a standard verb (descriptive or action) [jondaetmal],


honorific speech. It is used to expresses respects to the subject of the sentence when
attached to a verb stem. It's not used necessarily only towards people who are in the
conversation, but is used very widely in order to lift up (honor) the topic of the sentence,
a person or group of people.

Formation
To make a verb honorific, take the verb stem, and add - or -(). And this is now
the honorific form of the verb in the dictionary form.
I. "-" is attached to the end of clauses that end in consonants.
1. [ikda]: "to read"
(Verb stem ending in a consonant) + - ---> [ilgeusida]: "to read /
honorific"
2. [anda]: "to sit"
(Verb stem ending in a consonant) + - ---> [anjeusida]: "to sit /
honorific"

II. "-" is attached to the end of clauses that end in vowels.


1. [oda]: "to come"
(Verb stem ending in a vowel) + - ---> [osida]: "to come / honorific"

2. [gada]: "to go"


(Verb stem ending in a vowel) + - ---> [gasida]: "to go / honorific"

Example Sentences
1. .
Eomeoniga jarie anjatseumnida.
My mother is sitting in the seat.
2. ?
Hanguk-euro gasyeosseoyo?
Did you go to Korea?
3. .
Sajang-nimeun se sie osimnida.
My boss is coming at 3.

Notes
Note: The difference between honorifics and politeness levels: Politeness levels are verb
conjugations used for the relationship between the speaker and the listener(s).
Honorifics are words/infixes/conjugations/etc. that are used to respect the topic of the
sentence (whomever the speaker is speaking of).
*** - + can become both and - it was originally
but has become more common because it's easier to pronounce

5W1H, eonje, eodiseo, nuga(nugu), mwo, wae, eotteoke5W1H, when, where, who,
what, why, how

5W1H, , , (), , ,
5W1H, when, where, who, what, why, how
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

? (eodi-yeyo?) is a phrase used to ask where something is. The literal


translation of this phrase is (eodi) - where, (yeyo) - is. This phrase can be
translated as "Where is (it)?"
(eonje) has the same meaning as the English word "when." We use it in Korean
just as frequently as in English.
The focus of this is the question word (eonje), which we translate as "when."
When asking a question in Korean, the question word typically comes at the front of the
sentence. Imlesson mediately after that, we say the verb. Oftentimes in Korean, a
subject is unnecessary and we can ask a question without a subject. When we leave out
a subject, we can usually assume it from the context of the conversation.

(wae) is a question word that we use to ask someone for an explanation. It is


equivalent to the word "why" in English. (wae) is not limited to questions. We can
also use it in sentences to provide clarification.

We translate (wae) as "why" in English. In the same situations we use "why" in


English, we can also use (wae) to find a specific reason or explanation for
something.In the context of this lesson, a verb follows (wae). We use (wae)to find
out the reason for the action of the verb. The formation of this particular usage is as
follows:

+ (wae + dongsa) "Why + verb"

* Note: We can often omit subjects in Korean. We have omitted the subjects in all the
lines of the dialogue in this particular lesson.

(museun) is a question word we use to specify and inquire about details. We


translate it as "what kind of?" Typically, a noun follows it. The noun that follows the
question word (museun) is what the speaker wishes to specify.
However, when (museun) meets any verb, it becomes (mwo). For example,
(mwo hae) is an expression to ask, "what are you doing?" (mwo) means "what"
and (hae) is the verb for "to do." Look up () in the dictionary. You can make
this more polite by saying, " ?" (mwo haeyo). In addition, if you know the noun
that indicates what you're doing now, you can use that word in place of (mwo).
(eoteokke) is a question word that we use to ask 'how'. You can place this
adverb in any locations. Also, you can simply say '(eoteokke)?' to ask 'how it
happened' or 'how will we do?' We can use the phrase (etteoke) in conjunction
with verbs other than (haeyo), meaning "do." Simply replace the verb
(haeyo) with different verbs.
(nuka)/(nuku) is a question word that we use to ask 'who'. (nugu) is a
question word that is equivalent to "who" in English. To ask who someone is in Korean,
you should use the question word (nugu) along with the Korean copula (ida),
which is equivalent to "to be" in English. (ida) has a number of conjugations, but
in conjunction with the question word (nugu), the conjugation becomes
(yeyo).

The phrase "Who is (he/she)" in Korean is ? (nuguyeyo?).

Formation
(Subject) + Question Word(,,,,) + Action Verb

Example Sentences
() ?
[(pyeonuijeom-i) eodi-yeyo?]
Where is (the convenience store)?
? (eonje gongbu hae?)
"When do you study?"
?(wae an ga?)
"Why aren't you going?"
?(oneul musun yoil-ieyo?)
"What day is it today?"
? (Mwo hae?) "What are you doing?"
? (igeo eoteokke halgeoya?) "How will you do this"
? (nuga watseo) "Who did come?"

apeuda (apa)

()
to sick
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(apa) comes from the verb (apeuda) meaning, "to be painful, to hurt." This
is in casual language, so we can use it with close friends, family members, and between
people on close terms. (appa) comes after the noun that refers to a part of the body
that is aching or a person who is sick.

Formation
Subject()+

Example Sentences
.(bae apayo.)
"I have a stomachache."

myeongneonghyeong

Imperative (Standard/Intimate Politeness Level)


Category
Grammartical Information
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Beginner

One of the imperative conjugations of Korean verbs has the same set of conjugations as
the simple present tense (in regards to the standard/intimate politeness level). We can
conjugate verbs the same as the simple present tense, yet they have different usages, one
of which is the imperative. Although we can conjugate these verbs in the same manner,
they have a different function.

As stated above, the imperative is the same as the simple present tense in regards to the
standard and informal politeness levels.

Formation
[Verb Stem] + [//]
For example:

1. (hada)
[] + [] =
(ha) + (ya) = hae

2. (gada)
[] + [] =

(ga) + (a) = ga

3. (boda)
[] + [] =
(bo) + (a) = bwa

4. (sseuda)
[] + [] =
(sseu) + (eo) = sseo

The formal politeness level uses the conjugation: () (sipsio)

Verb Stem + ()

For example:

1. (oda) to come
+ ()
come (imperative - formal politeness level)

Note: We can often find the written form () on signs on the street, giving
warning or directions to the public.
We can find the spoken version of this in many historical Korean dramas as well,
however, its use is only relegated to written Korean in modern Korean.

Example Sentences

1. .
ppalli bap meogeo.
"Hurry and eat." (intimate)

2. .
jip-e gaseyo.
"Please go home." (standard)

3. .
mul masyeoyo.
"Drink water." (standard)

4. .
mun-eul dadeusipsio.
"Please, close the door." (formal)

5. .
mul-eul dadeusio.

"Please, close the door." (written)

Notes
This conjugation is the same as the simple present tense, only in regards to standard and
intimate politeness levels. We do not use the formal politeness imperative often in
casual spoken Korean, or even in formal situations. We generally reserve it for people
of extreme importance (i.e., kings, queens, royalty, presidents, high-ranking military
officials, etc.).

Related Expressions
Imperative (positive) - Formal Politeness Level
Imperative (negative) - Formal/Standard/Intimate Politeness Levels

-sida, -eusida

-, -
Honorific Infix
Category
Honorifics
TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

-()[-(eu)si] makes a standard verb (descriptive or action) [jondaetmal],


honorific speech. It is used to expresses respects to the subject of the sentence when
attached to a verb stem. It's not used necessarily only towards people who are in the
conversation, but is used very widely in order to lift up (honor) the topic of the sentence,
a person or group of people.

Formation
To make a verb honorific, take the verb stem, and add - or -(). And this is now
the honorific form of the verb in the dictionary form.
I. "-" is attached to the end of clauses that end in consonants.
1. [ikda]: "to read"
(Verb stem ending in a consonant) + - ---> [ilgeusida]: "to read /
honorific"
2. [anda]: "to sit"
(Verb stem ending in a consonant) + - ---> [anjeusida]: "to sit /
honorific"

II. "-" is attached to the end of clauses that end in vowels.


1. [oda]: "to come"
(Verb stem ending in a vowel) + - ---> [osida]: "to come / honorific"

2. [gada]: "to go"


(Verb stem ending in a vowel) + - ---> [gasida]: "to go / honorific"

Example Sentences
1. .
Eomeoniga jarie anjatseumnida.
My mother is sitting in the seat.
2. ?
Hanguk-euro gasyeosseoyo?
Did you go to Korea?
3. .
Sajang-nimeun se sie osimnida.
My boss is coming at 3.

Notes
Note: The difference between honorifics and politeness levels: Politeness levels are verb
conjugations used for the relationship between the speaker and the listener(s).
Honorifics are words/infixes/conjugations/etc. that are used to respect the topic of the
sentence (whomever the speaker is speaking of).
*** - + can become both and - it was originally
but has become more common because it's easier to pronounce

-eul su itda , -eul su eopda

- ,-
can, cannot
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

-/ [-l/eul su itda] is a grammatical structure we use to express ability,


capability, or possibility (e.g., whether you can or can't speak English, or you can or
can't use a computer). We add this structure onto the end of both descriptive and action
verbs to express the possibility or capability of those verbs. We can translate this as
"can" or "able to."
We can conjugate the last verb, (itda), to express politeness level, tense, or mood.
Traditionally, the verb can inflect negation as well, but in this grammatical structure, the
negated form would come from the verb opposite to the verb [itda], which is -
[eopta]. We can translate the construction -/ [-l/eul su eoptda] as "cannot"
or "not able to."
However, when using the construction / [-l/eul su eoptda], this carries the
notion that the speaker (or subject of the sentence) was unable to do something because
he or she did not have the capacity to perform that activity. Using this structure implies
that the subject does not possess the ability to perform that action (i.e.,
meaning "I can't eat" ("I don't have the ability to eat")). When expressing the "can't"
because of factors other than inability, we use the impossibility adverb (mot).

Formation
Verb Stem + -/ or -/

Future / Present Tense


I. Verb stems ending in a vowel + - or -

1. [gada] to go
+ - => [gal su itda]: "to be able to go"
+ - => [gal su epda]: "to not be able to go"
2. [boda] to see
+ - => [bol su itda]: "to be able to see
+ - => [bol su eopda]: "to not be able to see"
3. [hada] - "to do"
+ - => [hal su itda]: "to be able to do"
+ - => [hal su eopda]: "to not be able to do"

II. Verb stems ending in a consonant + - or -

1. [itda]: "to exist" or "to have"


+ - => [itseul su itda]: "to be able to have ...
+ - => [itseul su eopda]: "to not be able to have"
2. [japda] to catch
+ - => [jabeul su itda]: "to not be able to catch...
+ - => [jabeul su eopda]: "to not be able to catch"
III. Verb stems ending with + - or -

1. [alda] to know
+ - => [al su itda]: "to not be able to know...
+ - => [al su eopda]: "to not be able to know"

Example Sentences
1. .
hakgyo gal su eopseoyo.
"I wasn't able to go to school." ("I didn't have the ability to.")
2. , .
son-i apaseo, sseul su eopseoyo.
"I can't write because my hand hurts."
3. .
yeongguk-e sal su isseumnida.
"I can live in England."
4. .
malhal su eopseoyo.
"I can't tell you."
5. ?
naeil-do ol su isseoyo?
"Can you come again tomorrow?"
6. ?
jeonyeok-e yeonghwa boreo gal su isseoyo?
"Can you go see a movie (with me) tonight?"
7. ?
jadongcha jom billil su isseoyo?
"Can I borrow (your) car for a while?"
8. ?
jeo dowajul su isseoyo?
"Can you help me?"
9. .
jeo-neun hangukeo hal su eopseoyo.
"I can speak Korean." (standard politeness level)
10. .
jeo-neun hangukeo hal su eopseoyo.
"I can't speak Korean." (standard politeness level)
11. .
gimchi-reul meogeul su eopseumnida.
"I can't eat kimchi." (formal politeness level)
12. .
gimchi-reul meogeul su isseumnida.
"I can eat kimchi." (formal politeness level)

jigeum

now
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(jigeum) means "now," and in Korean, the word (jigeum) usually comes
before the verb.
More Examples
Here are some of the more common expressions using :
1. ? (Jigeum eodi-yeyo?) "Where are you now?"
2. ? (Jigeum myeot si-yeyo?) "What time is it now?"
3. ? (Jigeum isseoyo?) "Do you have it now?"
4. . (Jigeum eopseoyo.) "I don't have it now."
5. . (Jigeum bappayo.) "I'm busy at the moment."

Example Sentences
. (Jigeum cheongso hae.) "I'm cleaning now."

-seupnida,-pnida

-, -
to be (formal)
Category
Honorifics
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

-/ - The Formal Declarative Sentence Ending. This can be attached to any verb
to form a present tense declarative sentence. This conjugation is in the formal politeness
level.

Formation
Take the stem of any verb and attach "(/)" at the end.
If the verb stem ends in a vowel, "" would be added to the stem to form a new
syllabic block, and would be come after the new syllabic block.
Verb stem +
- ida - to be (copula)
- verb stem
+ =
- oda - to come
- verb stem
+ =
- gongbuhada - to study
- verb stem
+ =
If the verb stem ends in a consonant, "" is added to the end of the verb stem.

Verb stem +
- antda - to sit
- verb stem
+ =
- japda - to catch
- verb stem
+ =

Example Sentences
- yuri ssi-ga jamnida - Yuri sleeps.
- jigeum babbeumnida - (Subject) is busy now.
- beoseu-reul tamnida - (Subject) rides the bus.

-seumnikka?

-?
formal interrogative sentence ending
Category
Honorifics
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

-/ - The Formal Interrogative Sentence Ending. This can be attached to any


verb to form a present tense question with that verb. This conjugation is in the formal
politeness level and is used for very formal situations.

Formation
Take the stem of any verb and attach "(/)?" at the end.
If the verb stem ends in a vowel, "" would be added to the stem to form a new
syllabic block, and would be come after the new syllabic block.
Verb stem +
- ida - to be (copula)
- verb stem
+ = ?
- gada - to go
- verb stem
+ = ?
- saranghada - to love
- verb stem
+ = ?
If the verb stem ends in a consonant, "" is added to the end of the verb stem.

Verb stem +
- meokda - to eat
- verb stem
+ = ?
- utda - to laugh, to smile
- verb stem
+ = ?

Example Sentences
? - jigeum meokseumnikka? - Are you eating now?
? - wae usseumnikka? - Why are you laughing/smiling?
? - gamnikka? - Are you leaving?
? - sara ssi-imnikka? - Are you Sara?

Notes
When (b) is the last syllable of one syllabic block and is the first character in the
next syllabic block, a phonetic change occurs. changes to . The written does not
change, but it changes when spoken.
+ = (spoken form)

-do

-
too, also
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

We use the particle - (-do) to express that a statement we already expressed holds true
for another noun. If we issue a statement and that statement holds true for another
person or thing, we use the particle - (-do). We attach this particle directly to the noun
it is modifying. This correlates with the English words "too" and "also."

Formation
This is a very simple particle to use. It is simply suffixed to the end of the noun it is
modifying.
For Example:
1. .
jeo-neun seonsaengnim-imnida
"I am a teacher."
.
jeo-do seonsaengnim-imnida
"I am also a teacher."
Here, we replace the topic-marking particle -/ (-eun/-neun) with the augmentative
particle - (-do).

Example Sentences
1. .
jeo-neun seonsaengnim-imnida
"I am a teacher."

.
uri nuna-do seonsaengnim-imnida
"My sister is also a teacher."
2. .
jeo-neun chuwoyo
"I'm cold."
.
minji-ssi-do chuwoyo
"Minji is also cold."

juseyo

please give me Category


Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

Noun + ... (juseyo) is a very useful and basic expression in Korean that we use to
politely request something.
We can simply translate (juseyo) as "please give me..."

Formation
Noun + ... (juseyo)
To form this kind of phrase, simply use a noun(s) that you want to request and add
(jooseyo) right after the noun(s).

Example Sentences
For Example:
1. .
Mul juseyo.
"Please give me some water."
Item: (mul) "water"
"Please give me...": ... (juseyo)
"Please give me [item]": (mul juseyo)
"English": "Please give me some water.
And...
1. .
Keopi juseyo.
"Please give me some coffee."

Item: (keopi) "coffee"


"Please give me...": (juseyo)
"Please give me [item]": (keopi juseyo)
"English": "Please give me some coffee."

Related Expressions
(juseyo) is a formal expression.
The informal expression would be (jwo).
For Example:
1. (formal) = (informal)
2. (formal) = (informal)

ida, imnida

,
I am, to be
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

(name/noun) + (imnida)
This pattern becomes the predicate of a sentence when followed by a noun.

We can translate (imnida) as "to be" ("be" verb).


(imnida) is a "be" verb. Actually, its original form is (ida), meaning "to
be"; however, the polite form becomes (imnida). Korean people often use
(imnida) when saying their names.

Formation
name + (imnida), meaning "to be"
nationality + (imnida)

Example Sentences
Names:
1. .
Jeoneun Keuris imnida.
"(I) am Chris."
2. .
Yoko imnida.
"(I) am Yoko."

3. .
Lin imnida.
"(I) am Linn."
Nationalities:
1. .
Jeoneun migooksalam imnida.
"(I) am American."
2. .
ilbonsaram imnida.
"(I) am Japanese."
3. .
joonggooksaram imnida
"(I) am Chinese."

Notes
(imnida) is formal language of (ida) "to be."
But Koreans don't often say "I + Name + " or "I + Nationality + ."

geureonde, geunde

,
however, but
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

When you want to say "but" in Korean, (geunde) is the most common expression
among many that Koreans use. (geunde) comes from ( geureonde), but
Koreans use much more commonly than except for in writing.
For Example:
1. . .
igeo bwasseo. geunde jaemieopseo.
"I saw this. But it's not interesting."
Although it's a shortened form of (geureonde) and is certainly more
formal, you can use (geunde) in polite language too.

Example Sentences
. .(bakk-e bi wayo. geunde usan-i eopseoyo.)
"It's raining outside, but I don't have an umbrella."

5W1H, eonje, eodiseo, nuga(nugu), mwo, wae, eotteoke5W1H, when, where, who,
what, why, how

5W1H, , , (), , ,
5W1H, when, where, who, what, why, how
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

? (eodi-yeyo?) is a phrase used to ask where something is. The literal


translation of this phrase is (eodi) - where, (yeyo) - is. This phrase can be
translated as "Where is (it)?"
(eonje) has the same meaning as the English word "when." We use it in Korean
just as frequently as in English.
The focus of this is the question word (eonje), which we translate as "when."
When asking a question in Korean, the question word typically comes at the front of the
sentence. Imlesson mediately after that, we say the verb. Oftentimes in Korean, a
subject is unnecessary and we can ask a question without a subject. When we leave out
a subject, we can usually assume it from the context of the conversation.

(wae) is a question word that we use to ask someone for an explanation. It is


equivalent to the word "why" in English. (wae) is not limited to questions. We can
also use it in sentences to provide clarification.

We translate (wae) as "why" in English. In the same situations we use "why" in


English, we can also use (wae) to find a specific reason or explanation for
something.In the context of this lesson, a verb follows (wae). We use (wae)to find
out the reason for the action of the verb. The formation of this particular usage is as
follows:

+ (wae + dongsa) "Why + verb"

* Note: We can often omit subjects in Korean. We have omitted the subjects in all the
lines of the dialogue in this particular lesson.

(museun) is a question word we use to specify and inquire about details. We


translate it as "what kind of?" Typically, a noun follows it. The noun that follows the
question word (museun) is what the speaker wishes to specify.
However, when (museun) meets any verb, it becomes (mwo). For example,
(mwo hae) is an expression to ask, "what are you doing?" (mwo) means "what"
and (hae) is the verb for "to do." Look up () in the dictionary. You can make
this more polite by saying, " ?" (mwo haeyo). In addition, if you know the noun
that indicates what you're doing now, you can use that word in place of (mwo).
(eoteokke) is a question word that we use to ask 'how'. You can place this
adverb in any locations. Also, you can simply say '(eoteokke)?' to ask 'how it
happened' or 'how will we do?' We can use the phrase (etteoke) in conjunction
with verbs other than (haeyo), meaning "do." Simply replace the verb
(haeyo) with different verbs.
(nuka)/(nuku) is a question word that we use to ask 'who'. (nugu) is a
question word that is equivalent to "who" in English. To ask who someone is in Korean,
you should use the question word (nugu) along with the Korean copula (ida),
which is equivalent to "to be" in English. (ida) has a number of conjugations, but
in conjunction with the question word (nugu), the conjugation becomes
(yeyo).

The phrase "Who is (he/she)" in Korean is ? (nuguyeyo?).

Formation
(Subject) + Question Word(,,,,) + Action Verb

Example Sentences
() ?
[(pyeonuijeom-i) eodi-yeyo?]
Where is (the convenience store)?
? (eonje gongbu hae?)
"When do you study?"
?(wae an ga?)
"Why aren't you going?"
?(oneul musun yoil-ieyo?)
"What day is it today?"
? (Mwo hae?) "What are you doing?"
? (igeo eoteokke halgeoya?) "How will you do this"
? (nuga watseo) "Who did come?"

geureonikka

so, therefore
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(geureonikka) literally means "so" or "therefore," but in colloquial situations,


we use (geureonikka) more often to mean "that's what I'm saying" or "I told
you."

Example Sentences
, .(geureonikka, gongbu hae.)
"That's what I'm saying. Do some studying!"
, .(geureonikka, gwenchanha.)
"I'm telling you, it's okay."
, . (geureonikka, ireona.)
"So get up!" / "That's why you should get up."
, .(geureonikka, gaja.)
"For that reason, let's go." / "That's why we should go."

man (1)

(1)
only, just
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(man) is a particle that expresses the meaning of "just" or "only." We can attach
(man) to all nouns and some particles, but not verbs. So if you want to describe
something and add the meaning of "only" to the sentence, you add (man) to a noun,
whether it's the subject or object of the sentence. While in English "only" or "just" are
separate words, in Korean we attach this function to the noun as a particle.

Formation
Noun + (man)
1. (yeonghwa) "movie"
+ = (yeonghwa-man) "only movies"
.
ilyoil-eneun yeonghwa-man bwayo.
"I only watch movies on Sundays."
Verb Stem + - (gi) + (man) + (hada)
1. (nolda) "to play"
(nolda) + = (nolgiman)
.
i haksaeng-eun nolgiman haeyo.
"This student only plays."

Example Sentences
1. 5 .
o-bun-man juseyo.
"Please just give me five minutes."

2. .
jeo-neun ilyoil-man swieoyo.
"I only take Sundays off."

eoddae?

?
What about A?
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

A. Noun(s) + (eoddaeyo?) is a very basic and simple "how" question.

B. Koreans often politely (formally) ask about opinions by saying - ?


(eoddaeyo?), meaning "How is?" or "How about?"

Formation
Here is the way to form this construction:
- noun(s) + Topic-marking particle (eun)/ (neun) + (eoddaeyo?)

Example Sentences

1. ?
"How about my clothes?"
(Note: "my" is (nae), and "clothes" are (ot))
C. When informally speaking, we use -? (eoddae?), meaning "How is?" or "How
about?"

Notes
1. () ?
Keopi(neun) eoddayo?
"How is coffee?"/"How about coffee?"
2. () ?
Chaek(eun) eoddaeyo?
"How is a book?"/"How about a book?"
3. () ?
Banchandeul(eun) eoddaeyo?
"How are side dishes?"/"How about side dishes?"
4. () ?
Hangukeo(neun) eoddaeyo?
"How is Korean?"/"How about Korean?"

Related Expressions
-? (casual)

buteo

from (time and place)


Category
particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

- (-buteo) is a particle that marks a point in time or a certain location in which a


certain action starts. We can translate it as "from," "since," or "starting from."
When we use it with location words, it is typically followed by another location word
and the particle (kkaji), the time/location point marker. (buteo) marks a place
where a movement has started, and the other particle, (kkaji), marks where a
movement has ended.

Formation
Time word/Location word +

Time word: (eoje) "yesterday"


For Example:
1. + =
eojebuteo
"since yesterday"
2. .
eojebuteo pigonhaesseo.
"I was tired since yesterday."
Location word: (hakgyo) "school"
For Example:

1. + =
hakgyobuteo
"starting from school"
2. .
hakgyo-buteo jip-kkaji georeosseo.
"I walked from school to home."

Example Sentences
1. 2 .
du si-buteo ilhaesseo.
"I worked since two o'clock."
2. .
jip-buteo hoesa-kkaji jajeongeo tasseoyo.
"I rode a bicycle from home to the office."

Related Expressions
- time/location marking particle.

-at, -eot, -yeot

-, -, -
did, was (past tense)
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

-(//)- is a verbal infix, which we use to convey the past tense.

We use for verbs that have or as the last vowel in the verb stem.
We use for verbs that do not have or as the last vowel in the verb stem.
We use for (hada) verbs.

Many times, there are deletions and contractions with repeating vowels. If a verb-stem
ends in a consonant, there are no deletions or contractions. These contraction and
deletion rules follow the // conjugation. Please refer to the grammar bank entry
on -// conjugation to refer to rules for contraction and deletion.

Formation
(Contraction and Deletion Rules follow the same rules as the // conjugation.
Please refer to entry on // conjugation in the grammar bank for contraction and
deletion rules.)
[Verb Stem] + [//] + [Conjugation (politeness level/mood/etc.]

1. ()
Example: (to eat)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Intimate Politeness Level - //]
[] + [] +[]
. - Simple Past Tense (Intimate Politeness Level)

2. ()
Example: (to eat)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Standard Politeness Level - // + ]
[] + [] +[]
. - Simple Past Tense (Standard Politeness Level)

3. ()
Example: (to eat)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Formal Politeness Level - ]
[] + [] +[]
. - Simple Past Tense (Formal Politeness Level)

4.
Example: (to learn)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Intimate Politeness Level - //]
[] + [] + []
. - Simple Past Tense (Intimate Politeness Level)

5. ()
Example: (to learn)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Standard Politeness Level - // + ]
[] + [] + []
. - Simple Past Tense (Standard Politeness Level)

6. ()
Example: (to learn)
- verb stem
[Verb Stem] + [] + [Formal Politeness Level - ]
[] + [] + []
. - Simple Past Tense (Formal Politeness Level)

Example Sentences

1. .
jeo-neun hanguk-eseo simnyeon dongan sarasseoyo.
"I lived in Korea for ten years."
Verb: (to live)
+ + [Standard Politeness Level Conjugation - // + ]

2. ?
nuguyeossji?
"Who was it?"
Verb: (to be)
+ + (Confirmation/Agreement Conjugation - )

3. .
mandu mandeureotneunde.
"I made dumplings."
Verb: (to make)
+ + [Introductory Non-Final Ending - (//)]

igeo, geugeo, jeogeo

, ,
this thing, that thing, the thing
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

(igeo), (geugeo), (jeogeo) are demonstrative pronouns, which we can


express as "this," "that," and "that over there," respectively. These words are pronouns
and we use them just as we use nouns.
(igeo) means "this."
(geugeo) means "that." It indicates the speaker is far from item under discussion
but the listener is close to it.
(jeogeo) means "that." It indicates both the speaker and listener are far from the
item under discussion.
All three of these have corresponding written forms.

Spoken:
, ,
Written:
, ,

Formation
We can break down the written form of these words as such:
[demonstrative modifier] + = , ,
For Example:

1. (geot) means "thing."


Literally, (igeot) means "this thing," (geugeot) means "that thing,"
and (jeogeot) means "that thing over there."
In spoken Korean, however, they are as follows:
[demonstrative modifier] + = , ,
(geo) means "thing."

Example Sentences
1. .
igeo-neun je chaek-iya.
"This is my book."
2. ?
jeogeo-neun nugukkeo-eyo?
"Who is that over there?"
3. ? .
geugeoyo? geugeo-neun moja-imnida.
"That? That's a hat."

rang, irang

,
and, with
Category
particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use -()[-(i)rang] to link nouns in coordination in a sentence. We can translate it


as "and" or "with" both of which must be implied from context. -() links the
nouns in consecutive order. We can use -() with as many nouns as desired.
However, we must link it to each noun in coordination.

When we use this particle with one noun, a non-present noun is assumed to be
connected to the linked noun. In this case, we still translate it as "with" or "and."

This particle is interchangeable with - (-hago).

Formation
1. Noun1 + -()[-(i)rang] + Noun2 : "Noun1 and Noun2"

I. Noun ending in a vowel + -


[sagwa]: apple- Noun 1 / [gam]: persimmon- Noun 2
(ending in a vowel) + - ---> [sagwarang gam]: "an apple and a
persimmon"
II. Noun ending in a consonant + -

[gam]: persimmon- Noun1 / [sagwa]: apple- Noun 2


(ending in a consonant) + - ---> [gamirang sagwa]

2. Someone + -()[-(i)rang] + verb : "to verb with someone"

I. Noun ending in a vowel + -


[chingu]: "friend" / [iyagihada]: "to talk"
(ending in a consonant) + - + ---> [chingurang
iyagihada]: "to talk with my friend"
II. Noun ending in a consonant + -
[seonsaeng-nim]: "teacher" / [meokda]: "to eat"
(ending in a vowel) + - + ---> [seonsaeng-nimirang
meokda]: "to eat with the teacher"

Example Sentences

1. .
Jeoneun sagwarang gameul joahaeyo.
I like apples and persimmons.
2. .
Geuneun gamirang sagwareul sireohaeyo.
He doesn't like persimmons and apples.
3. .
Jigeum chingurang iyagihago itseoyo.
I am talking with my friend right now.
4. .
Seonsaengnim-irang bap meogeosseoyo.
I ate with the teacher.

eolma

how much?
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(eolmayeyo) is composed of two parts: (eolma) and (yeyo). -


(-yeyo) is the standard politeness level form of the verb (ida, or "to be"), but we
almost always use it in this form/politeness level when it's used in a store.

Formation
The specific item or service that you want to ask for the price of is proceeded by
(eolmayeyo).
Example:
[ Item A ] + ?
[ Item A ] + eolmayeyo?
"How much is [ Item A ]?"

Example Sentences
? (sagwa eolmayeyo?)
How much is an apple?

kkaji (1)

(1)
till, until, to, up to
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

- (kkaji) is a particle that marks a point in time or a certain location in which a


certain action ends. We can translate it as "until" or "up to."
When we use it with location words, it is typically preceded by another location word
and the particle (buteo), the time/location point marker. (kkaji) marks a place
where a movement or an action has started, and the other particle, (buteo), marks
where a movement or action has ended.

Formation
Time word/Location word +
Time word: 6 (yeol si) "six o'clock"
For Example:
1. 6 +
6
yeol si-kkaji
"until six o'clock"
2. 6 .
chingu-rang yeol si-kkaji isseul geoya.
"I'm going to be with my friend until six o'clock."
Location word: (sijang) "market"
For Example:
1. +

sijang-kkaji
"up to the market"
2. .
sijang-kkaji daeryeoda julge.
"I'll drive you up to the market."

Example Sentences
1. .
yeogi-buteo nyuyok-kkaji meoreoyo.
"It's far from here to New York."
2. 12 , .
yeoldusi-kkaji yaksog-i isseunikkan, mannal su eopseoyo.
"Because I have plans till twelve o'clock, I can't meet you."
3. ?
yeogi-kkaji wasseo?
"You came all the way here?"
4.
hana-buteo yeol-kkaji
"one to zero" ("every little detail")
5. .
oneul-eun yeogi-kkaji-yeyo
"Today, it's until here." ("That's it for today.")
6. ?
eodi-kkaji gaseyo?
"Until where do you go?" ("Where are you going?")
7. ?
igeot-kkaji haeya dwaeyo?
"Do I even have to do this?"
8. ?
eonje-kkaji sigan isseoyo?
"Until when do you have time?"

Notes
- (-kkaji) can also mean "even" in certain situations. In this case, we link
(kkaji) to a noun.
For Example:
1. ?
chingu-kkaji mannasseo?
"You even met his friends?"

2. eodinga, nugunga, mwonga, eonjenga, waenji


3.

, , , ,

somewhere, someone, somewhat, sometime, somehow


4.
5. Category
6. Noun
7. TOPIK Level
8. 9. Level
10. Beginner
11.
12. These words are used to describe an indefinite place/thing/person/time/reason. It
is used when the speaker is not sure of details, or when the speaker does not
wish to be so specific. These words can be translated as "somewhere,"
"someone," "something," "sometime," and "some reason."
13.
14. Formation
15. These are the interrogative words with - or - suffixed to the end.
However, it is recommended that these be learned as set phrases, not as
conjugations. The conjugations are provided below as a reference.
Interrogative + -/-
1. + - =
eodi + -nga = eodinga
where -> somewhere
2. + - =
nugu + (-nga) = nugunga
who -> someone
3. + - =
mwo + (-nga) = mwonga
what -> something
4. + - =
eonje + (-nga) = eonjenga
when -> sometime
5. + - =
wae + (-nji) = waenji
why -> some reason
16.
17. Example Sentences

18. 1. . (na eodinga yeohaeng hago sipda.)


I want to travel somewhere.
2. ! (nugunga-hante sikyeo!)
Tell someone to do it!
3. . (yuseok ssi-ui eolgul-e mwonga
mudeosseoyo.)
Yuseok, you have something on your face.
4. , . (munje isseusimyeon, eonjenga
yeollak hae-do dwae yo.)
If you ever have any problems, you can contact me anytime.
5. . (yojeum waenji pigonhaeyo.)
These days, I'm tired for some reason.
19.
20. Notes
21. These words are often contracted to simply their interrogative forms in speech.
In the context of a sentence, they are nearly indecipherable from their
interrogative counterparts because they have the same pronunciations. However,
they can be differentiated from the different stresses in a sentence.
--> (somewhere --> where)
--> (someone --> who)
--> (something --> what)
Examples:
1. ? (with stress on ) - What do you want to drink?
2. ? (with stress on ) - Do you want to drink something?
[ ?]
1. ? (with stress on ) - Who came?
2. ? (with stress on ) - Did somebody come? [
?]
1. ? (with stress on ) - Where are you going?
2. ? (with stress on ) - Are you going somewhere? [
?]

hago

with, and
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use - (-hago) to link nouns in coordination in a sentence. We can translate it as


"with," or "and," both of which must be implied from context. - (-hago) links the
nouns in consecutive order. We can use - (-hago) with as many nouns as desired.
However, we must link it to each noun in coordination.

When we use this particle with one noun, a non-present noun is assumed to be
connected to the linked noun. In this case, we still translate it as "with" or "and."

This particle is interchangeable with -() [(-i)rang].

Formation
- (-hago) attaches to nouns.

Example Sentences

1. .
seonsaengnim-hago bap meogeosseoyo.
I ate with the teacher.

2. , , , .
bap-hago, jjigae-hago, galbi-hago, gimchi meogeosseoyo.
We ate rice, stew, galbi, and kimchi.

Please note: - (-hago) is suffixed to all the nouns in the sequence.

-eullae, -eullae?

-, -?
I want to, I would like to, shall we?
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use this grammatical structure (/) to convey one's desired intention for the
future. It does not express one's actual intention, but one's desired intention. We often
translate it as "want to (verb)." We use this construction with action verbs.

This grammatical construction is in the intimate politeness level. The standard


politeness level adds the politeness particle - (/). We use this structure in
colloquial situations. There is no formal politeness conjugation.

When you want to suggest doing something together to someone or ask whether the
other person wants to do something, you can use this structure. We can translate this as
both "Shall we do something?" or "Do you want to do something?" in English.
When you say something using -/? (-l/eullae?), when you're referring to
something that the other person is to do alone, it's translated only as "Do you want
to...?" but when you're referring to something that you can do together, it's also
translated as "Shall we...?"

Formation
Verb Stem +/
We use for verb stems ending in vowels.

For example:

1. (juda) to give
+
() I want to give (something).

Verb stem + -/? (-l/eullae?)


For Example:
1. (gada) - "to go" --> ? (gallae?) "Do you want to go?" or "Shall we go?"
2. (sada) - "to buy" --> ? (sallae?) "Do you want to buy it?" or "Shall we
buy it?"
We use for verb stems ending in consonants.

For example:

1. (japda) to grab
- verb stem
+
() I want to grab.

Verb stem + -/? (-l/eullae?)

For Example:
1. (gada) - "to go" --> ? (gallae?) "Do you want to go?" or "Shall we go?"
2. (sada) - "to buy" --> ? (sallae?) "Do you want to buy it?" or "Shall we
buy it?"

Example Sentences

1. .
hanguk-euro gallaeyo.
"I want to go to Korea."

2. .
na-neun oneul gyeolhon hallae.
"I want to get married today."

3. .
saranghaebollaeyo.
"I want to give love a try.

?(naeil gachi yeong-hwa bollae?)


"Do you want to watch a movie together tomorrow?"

-gi

-
verb nominalization
Category
Verb Nominalization
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

Most Korean action verbs can be nominalized by taking the verb stem and attaching -
(gi) at the end. This nominalization is very important to remember since it is used with
many other grammatical structures. With the new construction, the verb can be used as a
noun.
These verbal nouns indicate activity, quality, quantity, extent, or state of being. When
nominalized, these nominalized verbs can be translated as "(verb)ing, to (verb),
(adjective)ness."
This verb nominalization refers to the actual act of "(verb)ing."

Formation
(action) verb stem +
Example:
(meokda) - to eat (infinitive)
(meok) - verb stem
+ = (meokgi) - to eat, eating (as a noun)
.
Eating is my hobby.
.
I don't like working.
.

Example Sentences

1. (to walk - the infinitive) - (to walk - when used as a noun)


. (geotgi-ga himdeureo.)
To walk is tiring.
2. (to write - the infinitive) - (to write - when used as a noun)
. (hanja sseugi-ga eoryeowo.)
To write Hanja is difficult.
3. (to listen - the infinitive) - (to listen - when used as a noun)
(deutgi silheo.)
I don't want to listen.
4. . (syopinghag-i himdeuleoyo.)
It's tiring to shop.
5. . (geotgi-neun mom-e johayo.)
Walking is good for your body.
6. . (je chwimi-neun eumak deutgi-yeyo.)
My hobby is listening to the music.

Notes
In Korean, the infinitive form of verbs cannot be used as nouns. These verbs must be
nominalized with a verb nominalizer (such as -).
When these nominalized verbs are used as subjects, they take the subject marking
particle - (-ga). When they are used as objects, they use the object marking particle (-reul).

-neun geot

-
Verb Nominalization
Category
Verb Nominalization
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

Verbs can be nominalized in a number of ways. One way is to use the grammatical
construction - (-neun geot). This structure is used to to nominalize action verbs
and indicates 'the act of (verb)ing.' It stresses the fact or manner of "(verb)ing." It can be
translated as "(verb)ing."
Often times, (geot) is changed to (geo) to make pronunciation easier, and for
speech to flow more easily. (geo) is used in spoken Korean. When (geo) is used
with the subject marking particle, (ge) is often used in its place.
= =
When (geo) is used in conjunction with the object marking particle, (reul), it
becomes (geo-reul). But this is often contracted to (geol) in speech.
= =

Formation
This verb nominalization is only used with action verbs.
Verb Stem +
(gada) - to go
(ga) - verb stem
+ =
. (hakgyo ganeun geos-eul silheohaeyo.)
I don't like going to school.
(mannada) - to meet

(manna) - verb stem


+ =
. (chingu mannaneun geos-eul johahamnida)
I like meeting friends.

Example Sentences
1. . (moja sseu-neun geos-eul johahae.)
I like wearing hats.
2. ? (chingu haneun geos-i eottae?)
What about being friends?
3. . (ilhaneun geos-i himdeureoyo.)
Working is tiring.
4. . (bi omyeon yeonghwa-reul boneun goes-i
seupgwan-ieyo.)
It is my habit to watch a movie if it rains.
5. . (eomma-neun
namjachingu-ga bam-e jeonhwahaneun geos-eul an johahaseyo.)
My mom hates my boyfriend calling me at night.

'b' bulgyuchik dongsa

''
Irregular 'b' Verbs' conjugation
Category
Irregular Verbs
TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

With irregular '' verbs, the verb stem ends with '.' If this is followed by a
construction which starts with a vowel, then the is changed to or (mostly, is
changed to ). The conjugation then affects or .

Formation
With irregular '' (b) verbs, the verb stem ends with '.' If this is followed by a
construction which starts with a vowel, then the is changed to (o) or (u) (most
of the time, is changed to ). The conjugation then affects or . When the verb
stem ends with the vowel '' or '', it is followed by , and when verb stem ends with
any vowel other than '' and '', it is followed by .
1.[deopda] - to be hot
[deop] - verb stem
[deop] + [eu-myeon] -> [b] - changes to --> [deo-u-myeon]

2. [chupda] - to be cold
[chup] - verb stem
[chup] + [eu-myeon] -> [b] - changes to --> [chu-u-myeon]

3. - (jupda) - to pick up
[jup] - verb stem

[jup] + [eun] -> [b] - changes to --> [ju-un]

4.[eoryeopda] - to be difficult
[eoryeop] - verb stem
[eoryeop] + [eun] -> [b] - changes to --> [eoryeo-un]

Example Sentences

1. . [Deo-umyeon oseul beoseuseyo.]


Take off your cloth if it's hot.
2. . [Chu-umyeon oseuol ibeuseyo.]
Wear this cloth if it's cold.
3. .[Igeoseun naega ju-un penimnida.]
This is the pen I picked up.
4. .[Geugeoseun jeongmal eoryeo-un munje-imnida.]
It's really a difficult problem.

Notes
The following verbs are exceptions and don't follow the rule above, therefore
conjugated like other regular verbs.
1. - (ipda) - to wear
2. - (japda) - to catch, to hold
3. - (ssipda) - to chew
4. - (jopda) - to be narrow
5. - (neobda) - to be wide

-ji anta, -haji anta

- / -.
negative sentence ending
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

- (-ji anta) is a the negative sentence ending, used for negating a sentence. It is
considered the standard in which to negate a sentence. It is often used in written Korean
(i.e. books, novels, manuals, newspapers) as well as it is used in spoken Korean. This
construction can be translated as "no" or "not."
This structure is attached to the end of verbs (both descriptive and action) to negate
these verbs. (anta) can be conjugated to reflect politeness level, tense, mood, etc.

Formation
Verb Stem +
(masida) - to drink
+ -
(masiji anta) - not drink
. (jeo-neun sul-eul masiji anhseumnida)
I don't drink alcohol.

Example Sentences
(1) ! (na-neun oeropji anha!)
I am not lonely!
(2) ? (oneul jinjja dupji anha?)
Isn't it really hot today?
(3) . (jeo-neun hakgyo-reul daniji anhseumnida.)
I don't go to school.

Notes
Another way a sentence can be negated is by using the negative adverb (an). The
difference between the two is that (an) is considered more colloquial, and (ji
anta) is considered the standard way to negate a sentence. (ji anta) would be the
negation most likely found in novels, textbooks, and newspapers, however, it is still
used commonly in colloquial situations. (an) would most likely be heard during a
conversation and would typically not be found in written Korean.

ppalli, neutge

,
early, late
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We often use (ppalli) as an adverb to encourage someone to do something


"quickly." In addition to using it as an adverb, we can use it by itself without a verb to
encourage someone to do something quickly. When we use it by itself, we often repeat
it for added emphasis.
Although this adverb does not have any politeness levels and we can use it with all
levels of speech, you can add at the end of this word to be more polite when you're
using this word alone as in (ppalliyo).
(neutge) is an adverb that means "late." In Korean, we usually place adverbs
before verbs, unlike in English, where most adverbs come after the verbs.

* (neutge) - "late"
* (neutge gada) - "to go late"
* (neutge dochakhada) - "to arrive late"
* (x) - Not correct
* (x) - Not correct

Formation
As with any adverb we use, we use this one before verbs.
+ Verb (or Verbal phrase)
Examples
1. (gada) "to go"
(ga) "go" : imperative (intimate politeness level)
+ (ppalli + ga)
(ppalli ga) "go quickly, hurry up and go"
2. (meokda) " to eat"
(meogeo) "eat" : imperative (intimate politeness level)
+ (ppalli + meogeo)
(ppalli meogeo) "eat quickly, hurry up and eat"

Example Sentences
: , .
jingyu: ya, ppalli gaja.
Jingyu: "Hey, hurry up! Let's go!"
.(eoje neutge jasseoyo.)
"I went to bed late yesterday."

-na, -ina

-, -
or
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

-() [-(i)na] is a particle, which attaches to nouns. It has a number of usages that can
change the translation.
Usages:
1. It is a particle which separates two nouns to express different options. It is used
as "or."
(e.x. - Sunday or Monday)
2. When it is used with only one noun, the latter half is assumed and is usually
translated as "or something." It is not to discriminate between person / time / place
"wh-ever, any-, all every".
(e.x. ! - Do your homework, or something)
3. When used in conjunction with time phrases, the time given is an approximation.
(), in this situation, is often translated as "about" or "approximately."
(e.x. ? - About how many hours did it take?)
4. It can be used to express one's missed expectations. In this situation it is used
when it is much more than one expects. When used in this manner it gives off the
nuance "much more than expected."
( 3 . - That movie lasted 3 hours, much more than I
expected.)

Formation
-() [-(i)na] is a particle and is attached to the end of nouns. For all the following
constructions, - [-ina] is used with nouns ending in consonants, and - [-na] is
used with words ending in vowels.
Usage 1 < Noun + -() + Noun: "or" >

[hangugeo] + - + [yeong-eo] ---> [hangeugeona yeongeo]: Korean or English


[chaek] + - + [yeonpil] ---> [chaegina yeonpil]: a book or a
pencil

Usage 2 < Noun + -() : wh-ever, any-, all, every >


[sukje] + - + [hae] ---> ![Sukjena hae!]:Do your homework, or
something!

Usage 3
[myeot sigan] + - ---> [myeot siganina] : "About how many
hours"
Usage 4 < phrase + -() : much more than expected>
3[se sigan] + ---> 3[sesiganina]: " 3 hours which is much more
than expected"

Example Sentences
1. .
Hangugeona yeong-eoro malhaseyo.
Please speak Korean or English.
2. .
Chaek-ina japji-reul manni ilgeoyo.
I read books or magazines a lot.
3. .
Yurob-ina apeurika-e gago ipeoyo.
I want to go to Europe or Africa.
4. ?
Keopi-na masireo galraeyo?
Do you want to go drink some coffee or something?
5. ?
Myeot sigan-ina geolryeosseoyo?

About how many hours did it take?


6. 3 .
Geu yeonghwa-neun se sigan-ina geolryeosseoyo.
That movie lasted 3 hours (much more than I expected).

yoil

day of the week


Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

We express the days of the week in Korean by adding the word (yoil) to the end of
the letter that represents each day. The names are based on the Chinese characters that
represent different things in nature.

Meaning

Days

Name

Chinese
Character

(il)

Sun

(iryoil)

(wol)

Moon

(woryoil)

(hwa)

Fire

(hwayoil)

(su)

Water

(suyoil)

(mok)

Tree

(mogyoil)

(geum)

Gold

(geumyoil)

(to)

Earth

(toyoil)

Notes
Sometimes, when referring to several days of the week, we only use the first letters.
For Example:
1. (wolhwasu)
"Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday"
2. (wolsugeum)
"Monday, Wednesday, Friday"

je, nae, ni, uri, jeohui

, , , ,
my, your, our (informal and formal)
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

We use possessive pronouns to attribute ownership of an object to someone. Like any


other pronoun, these replace the nouns. We use different possessive pronouns according
to the speakers relationship with the listener. Humbling pronouns, neutral pronouns,
and intimate pronouns, all indicate the relationship between the listener and the speaker.

Formation
In reality, possessive pronouns are a contraction of pronouns and the possessive particle.

1. = (jeo-ui) - +
first person humbling pronoun + possessive particle
We use (je) to humble oneself in the presence of someone the speaker
respects.

2. = (na-ui) - +
informal first person pronoun + possessive particle
We use (nae) in informal contexts where the speaker feels that (je) is too
polite and inappropriate for the relationship with the listener. We use (nae)
when the speaker does not feel the need to show the highest respect to the
listener.

3. = (neo-ui) - +
informal second person pronoun + possessive particle
We use (ni) in informal contexts when the speaker feels very comfortable
with the listener and the power relationship is at least equal. We commonly use
it when the speaker has the upper hand in the relationship.

4. = + - ()
humbling first person plural noun + (possessive particle)
We actually drop the possessive particle for this possessive pronoun (as we
do in many cases.) We use this possessive particle in formal situations such
as when the speaker does not know the listener well, or when the listener holds
much of the power in the relationship.

5. = + - ()
intimate first person plural pronoun + (possessive particle)
We actually drop the possessive particle for this possessive pronoun (as we
do in many cases.) We use this possessive particle in informal situations when
the speaker feels that (jeohui) is too polite.

Example Sentences

1. .
je chingu-ga hoju-e sarayo.
My friend lives in Australia.

2. .
nae cha-ga jukeosseo.
My car broke down (died).

3. .
ni yeonpil jwo.
Give me your pencil.

4. .
uri jib-eun neolbeo.
My home is big. (neutral/intimate)

5. .
jeohui jip-eun jobayo.
My home is small. (polite)

eodinga, nugunga, mwonga, eonjenga, waenji

, , , ,
somewhere, someone, somewhat, sometime, somehow
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

These words are used to describe an indefinite place/thing/person/time/reason. It is used


when the speaker is not sure of details, or when the speaker does not wish to be so

specific. These words can be translated as "somewhere," "someone," "something,"


"sometime," and "some reason."

Formation
These are the interrogative words with - or - suffixed to the end. However, it
is recommended that these be learned as set phrases, not as conjugations. The
conjugations are provided below as a reference.
Interrogative + -/-
1. + - =
eodi + -nga = eodinga
where -> somewhere
2. + - =
nugu + (-nga) = nugunga
who -> someone
3. + - =
mwo + (-nga) = mwonga
what -> something
4. + - =
eonje + (-nga) = eonjenga
when -> sometime
5. + - =
wae + (-nji) = waenji
why -> some reason

Example Sentences
1. . (na eodinga yeohaeng hago sipda.)
I want to travel somewhere.
2. ! (nugunga-hante sikyeo!)
Tell someone to do it!
3. . (yuseok ssi-ui eolgul-e mwonga mudeosseoyo.)
Yuseok, you have something on your face.

4. , . (munje isseusimyeon, eonjenga yeollak


hae-do dwae yo.)
If you ever have any problems, you can contact me anytime.
5. . (yojeum waenji pigonhaeyo.)
These days, I'm tired for some reason.

Notes
These words are often contracted to simply their interrogative forms in speech. In the
context of a sentence, they are nearly indecipherable from their interrogative
counterparts because they have the same pronunciations. However, they can be
differentiated from the different stresses in a sentence.
--> (somewhere --> where)
--> (someone --> who)
--> (something --> what)
Examples:
1. ? (with stress on ) - What do you want to drink?
2. ? (with stress on ) - Do you want to drink something? [
?]
1. ? (with stress on ) - Who came?
2. ? (with stress on ) - Did somebody come? [ ?]
1. ? (with stress on ) - Where are you going?
2. ? (with stress on ) - Are you going somewhere? [
?]

-gi jeone

-
before
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

We use this grammatical pattern to set a timeline and express an action that occurs
before another action. This pattern emphasizes the last action in the construction. We
use the first action to give a time reference. We can translate this construction as "before
(verb1), (verb2)."

We use this pattern to connect two verbs. We express politeness level, tense, negation,
and mood through the second verb.

Formation
This construction uses two verbs. The second verb expresses the politeness level, tense,
negation, and mood.
For Example:

[Verb 1 - verb stem] + + [Verb 2]


Before [Verb 1], [Verb 2]

Verb 1 - (jada) to sleep


(ja) - verb stem
Verb 2 - (meokda) to eat

+ +
. (jagi jeon-e meokda) Before sleeping, eat.
. I ate before sleeping.
. I couldn't eat before sleeping.

Example Sentences

1. .
hanguk gagi jeon-e reosia gasseumnida.
"Before going to Korea, he went to Russia."

2. .
jagi jeon-e chaek-eul ilgeo.
"Read a book before sleeping."

3. .
jeo-neun nongguhagi jeon-e syawohaesseoyo.
"Before playing basketball, I took a shower."

Notes
This grammatical construction is actually the nominalization of Verb 1 followed by the
(jeone). (jeon) means "before" and (e) is the time marking particle.

eun, neun (1)

, (1)
topic maker, As for
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

Note that -/ is called the topic particle and placed after a noun to make it the topic
under discussion. Using the topic particle is one way to designate a noun as the subject
of a particular sentence.
1. When a conversation can go any way, the topic marking particle is used to bring
attention to what the speaker wishes to talk about. When nothing is being said by either
party in a conversation, and a speaker wishes to bring up a topic to talk about, the topic
marking particle is used to introduce a new topic to a conversation.
2. If a topic has already been introduced into the conversation, it is old information. If it
is old information, it is no longer necessary to mention the topic again (topics and
subjects may be dropped in sentences). But if the speaker wishes to clarify what is being
spoken about, the topic marking particle is used to clarify the topic of the sentence.
3. The topic marking particle may be used to contrast.
For example:
1. - jeo-neun hanguk saramimnida.
2. - jeo-neun ilbon saramimnida.
Sentence 1 uses the topic marking particle because it is bringing a new topic of
conversation to attention. Sentence 2 uses the topic marking particle to make the
contrast that the person is not Korean, but rather Japanese.

Formation
-/ (eun/neun) is attached to the end of a noun, an adverb, or another particle.
(neun) is used when the previous syllabic block ends in a vowel [i.e. (jeo-neun),
is the last vowel; (seongjussi-neun), is the last vowel; , (daeguneun), is the last vowel].

(eun) is used when the previous syllabic block ends in a consonant [i.e.
(ireum-eun), is the last consonant; (Seoul-eun), is the last consonant;
(busan-eun), is the last consonant].

Example Sentences
.
(jeo-neun yunseol-imnida)
(- attached to a noun)
I am Yunseol.
.
(baksukyeong-eun hakseng-imnida)
(- attached to a noun)
Su Kyeong Park is a student.
.
(jungguke-neun saramimanhseumnida)
(- attached to another particle)
There are many people in China.

i, ga

,
subject-marking particle
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

-/ (i/ga) is a subject-marking particle. We attach this particle to the end of a word


to indicate that it's the subject of the sentence. Sometimes we must use / with
certain verbs as they are part of a set (, , , etc).

Formation
[Noun] + /.
(i) and (ga) both accomplish the same thing: indicate the subject of the sentence.
But they change according to the word they attach to.
We use (i) when the word it is attaching to ends in a consonant, as in
(ilbonsaram-i animnida). The subject is (ilbonsaram), and it ends
in (-m), which is a consonant. Therefore, we use (i) here.
We use (ga) when the word it is attaching to ends in a vowel, as in
(gasu-ga animnida). The subject is (gasu), and it ends in (u), which is a vowel.
Therefore, we use (ga) here.
For Example:
1. .
don-i eobseoyo
"I don't have money."
+ (don + i)
2. .
hakseng-i animnida

"(I) am not a student." (I is inferred)


+ i (hakseng + i)

Example Sentences
1. .
uija-ga animnida
"(It) is not a chair."
2. .
jeo-neun miguksaram-i animnida
"I am not American."
3. .
uri abeoji-neun don-i eobseumnida
"My father does not have money."

mani, jeokke

,
many, little
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(mani) is an adverb and we use it to describe actions that are done "many" times or
"a lot." We also use it as an intensifier for descriptions to say that the subject is "very"
(description). As with any adverb, we place this in front of verbs.
(jeokke) is an adverb and we use it to describe actions that are doing 'a little' or 'not
that many'. We also say the adverb with 'very'(/maeu) to describe 'very little'. As
with any adverb, we place this in front of verbs.

Formation
(mani) + Verb
(jeokke) + Verb

Example Sentences
. (mani jayo.)
"I seep a lot."
(jeokke meokeoyo)
"I eat a little"

eul,reul

,
object-marking particle
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

-/ (eul/reul) is an object-marking particle. It marks the object of the sentence, the


noun that the verb of the sentence is acting upon. We typically use this particle in
conjunction with action verbs.
We attach (eul) to nouns that end in consonants.
We attach (reul) to nouns that end in vowels.

Formation
[ ] + []
[batchim-euro kkeutna-neun mokjeokgyeok] + [eul]
[objects ending in a consonant] + [eul]
[ ] + []
[bachim-i eops-neun mokjeokgyeok] + [reul]
[object not ending in a consonant] + [reul]

Example Sentences
1. .
jjamppong-eul meokeosseumnida.
"I ate jjampong."
2. .
sindi ssi-neun aeksyeon yeonghwa-reul silheoyo.
"Sindy doesn't like action movies."
3. ?
hangukeo-reul johahajyo?
"You like Korean, right?"

Notes
We often drop particles, such as the object-marking particle, in speech, and we simply
infer them from the context.

-deul

-
-s (plural suffix)
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

In General, singular and plural are not secifically stated but are infered from context.
You can attach the suffix "[deul] after any nouns.

Formation
Noun + [deul]

1. [haksaeng] : a student
+ -> [haksaengdeul]: students

2. [chaeksang] : a table
+ -> [chaeksangdeul]: tables

Example Sentences

1. () .[Maneun haksaeng(deur)i gyosire itseoyo]


- " There are many students in a class."

2. . [Sodeuri deulpane georeogago itseoyo]


- " Cows are walking in the field."

sutja

Korean numbers
Category
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

Korean has two systems for numbers: sino-Korean numbers and native-Korean numbers.
We use the sino-Korean numbers for counting dates, money, people, and so on. We
generally use the native-Korean numbers for counting.

Sino Numbers Native Numbers


1 (il)

(hana)

2 (i)

(dul)

3 (sam)

(set)

4 (sa)

(net)

5 (o)

(daseot)

6 (yuk)

(yeoseot)

7 (chil)

(ilgop)

8 (pal)

(yeodeol)

9 (gu)

(ahop)

10 (sip)

(yeol)

11 (sibil)

(yeolhana)

12 (sibi)

(yeoldul)

13 (sipsam) (yeolset)
14 (sipsa)

(yeolnet)

15 (sibo)

(yeoldaseot)

16 (sipyuk) (yeolyeoseot)
17 (sipchil) (yeolilgop)
18 (sippal)

(yeolyeodeol)

19 (sipgu)

(yeolahop)

20 (isip)

(seumul)

-ja

-
let's, why don't weCategory
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use this sentence ending to express invitation, persuasion, or solicitation for an


action, and - is in the intimate politeness form. So make sure you use it only with
people with whom you are on intimate terms.

Formation
Whenever we conjugate a verb or a sentence ending to -, it shows this grammatical
structure.

Example Sentences

1. .
bob meokja.
"Let's eat."

2. .
yeonghwa boreo gaja.
"Let's go watch a movie."

3. !
nolja!
"Let's hang out!"

4. !
jaja!
"Let's sleep!"

5. !
mannaja!
"Let's meet!"

6. !
domanggaja!
"Let's run away!"

7. !
gongbuhaja!
"Let's study!"

8. .
geureotke haja.
"Let's do so."

9. .
gaja.
"Let's go home."

10. .
geuman duja.
"Let's forget about it."

Notes
- is very intimate language. We use it very commonly in everyday conversation, but
you have to be very careful with whom you use this grammar point. You can only use
this very casual language with family and close friends.

ppalli, neutge

,
early, late
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We often use (ppalli) as an adverb to encourage someone to do something


"quickly." In addition to using it as an adverb, we can use it by itself without a verb to
encourage someone to do something quickly. When we use it by itself, we often repeat
it for added emphasis.
Although this adverb does not have any politeness levels and we can use it with all
levels of speech, you can add at the end of this word to be more polite when you're
using this word alone as in (ppalliyo).
(neutge) is an adverb that means "late." In Korean, we usually place adverbs
before verbs, unlike in English, where most adverbs come after the verbs.
* (neutge) - "late"
* (neutge gada) - "to go late"
* (neutge dochakhada) - "to arrive late"

* (x) - Not correct


* (x) - Not correct

Formation
As with any adverb we use, we use this one before verbs.
+ Verb (or Verbal phrase)
Examples
1. (gada) "to go"
(ga) "go" : imperative (intimate politeness level)
+ (ppalli + ga)
(ppalli ga) "go quickly, hurry up and go"
2. (meokda) " to eat"
(meogeo) "eat" : imperative (intimate politeness level)
+ (ppalli + meogeo)
(ppalli meogeo) "eat quickly, hurry up and eat"

Example Sentences
: , .
jingyu: ya, ppalli gaja.
Jingyu: "Hey, hurry up! Let's go!"
.(eoje neutge jasseoyo.)
"I went to bed late yesterday."

myeongneonghyeong

Imperative (Standard/Intimate Politeness Level)

Category
Grammartical Information
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Beginner

One of the imperative conjugations of Korean verbs has the same set of conjugations as
the simple present tense (in regards to the standard/intimate politeness level). We can
conjugate verbs the same as the simple present tense, yet they have different usages, one
of which is the imperative. Although we can conjugate these verbs in the same manner,
they have a different function.

As stated above, the imperative is the same as the simple present tense in regards to the
standard and informal politeness levels.

Formation
[Verb Stem] + [//]
For example:

1. (hada)
[] + [] =
(ha) + (ya) = hae

2. (gada)
[] + [] =
(ga) + (a) = ga

3. (boda)
[] + [] =
(bo) + (a) = bwa

4. (sseuda)
[] + [] =
(sseu) + (eo) = sseo

The formal politeness level uses the conjugation: () (sipsio)

Verb Stem + ()

For example:

1. (oda) to come
+ ()
come (imperative - formal politeness level)

Note: We can often find the written form () on signs on the street, giving
warning or directions to the public.

We can find the spoken version of this in many historical Korean dramas as well,
however, its use is only relegated to written Korean in modern Korean.

Example Sentences

1. .
ppalli bap meogeo.
"Hurry and eat." (intimate)

2. .
jip-e gaseyo.
"Please go home." (standard)

3. .
mul masyeoyo.
"Drink water." (standard)

4. .
mun-eul dadeusipsio.
"Please, close the door." (formal)

5. .
mul-eul dadeusio.
"Please, close the door." (written)

Notes
This conjugation is the same as the simple present tense, only in regards to standard and
intimate politeness levels. We do not use the formal politeness imperative often in
casual spoken Korean, or even in formal situations. We generally reserve it for people
of extreme importance (i.e., kings, queens, royalty, presidents, high-ranking military
officials, etc.).

-myeonseo, -eumyeonseo

-, -
while
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use -() [-(eu)myeonseo] to express two simultaneous actions taking place.


We can translate this as while. It can also link two clauses, which are taking action at
the same time.

We only use this construction with actions verbs. We express tense, negation, and
politeness level in the final verb or clause. We can only use this construction with two
simultaneous actions, not consecutive or subsequent actions.

Formation
Action 1 (verb stem) + -() Action 2
I. Verb stems ending in consonants use -
(meokda) "to eat"
(meok) - verb stem
+ -
.[Meogeumyeonseo yeonghwa-reul bwayo.]: "While eating, I
watch a movie."

II. Verb stems ending on vowels use -


(jada) "to sleep"
(ja) - verb stem
+ -
.[Jamyeonseo malhaeyo.]: "While I sleep, I talk."

Example Sentences

1. .
Norae deuleumyeonseo geurim geuryeyo.
"I am drawing a picture while I am listening to the music."

2. .
Bap meokeu myeonseo tibi bwayo.
"I am watching TV while I am eating."

3. .
Gidarimyeonseo aiseukeurim meokeoyo.
"I am eating ice cream while waiting."

-gi ttaemune

-
because
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level

Beginner

- (-gi ttaemune) means "because," and we use it to show the reason for an
action or a state. Originally, in Korean means "because of," so by adding - at
the end of the [verb stem] or the [verb stem + past infix], you literally nominalize the
verb and say "because of verb(-ing)."

There are several ways to express reasons in Korean.

1. Verb stem + (past infix if necessary) + -// +

2. Verb stem + (past infix if necessary) + -()

3. Verb stem + (past infix if necessary) + -()

4. Verb stem + (past infix if necessary) + -

generally expresses a stronger justification of the consequence than -//,


and is equally as strong as -(). So if you say - or , you are (in

most cases) indicating that what has happened, is happening, or will happen as a
consequence, has all the right reasons to happen.

Formation
Verb stem + (past infix if necessary) + -
Noun +

Example Sentences

1. .
bissagi ttaemune sal su opseoyo.
"Because it is expensive, I can't buy it."

2. .
neomu meolgi ttaemune gagi silheoyo.
"Because it is too far, I don't want to go."

3. .
oneul-eun bi-ga ogi ttaemune usan-i jal pallyeoyo.
"It's raining today so the umbrellas are selling well."

4. !
yageun ttaemune neomu pigonhae!
"I'm so tired because of working extra hours!"

5. !
neo ttaemuniya.
"It's all because of you!"

6. ?
mueot ttaemune geureoseyo?
"Why are you doing that?" ("You are doing it because of what?")

7. .
geureoki ttaemune geumandueosseoyo.
"That's why I quit."

Notes
The syntax order in Korean is often different from that in English, so we can also
translate - as therefore or so, depending on which part of the entire
sentence you translate first.

-aseo, -eseo (1)

-, - (1)
and then
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

- [-seo] is a connective ending that we use when one subject performs one action and
then another action. We can translate it as, "(verb1) and (verb2)." And as the order
suggests, the verbs occur in the order they appear in the sentence.

Formation
We use - [-eoseo] with verbs that have a either the vowel [o] or [a] in the
verb stem's final syllable.
1. [gada]: "to go"
[ga] - verb stem -> + [ga + seo] -> [gaseo]
[gada] + (meokda) - "go" + "eat" -> [gaseo meokda]: go
and eat

2. [oda] "to come"


[o] - verb stem

-> + [o + aseo] -> [waseo]

(oda) + (jada) - "come" + "sleep" -> [waseo jada]

Note: We often fuse - [-a] in - [-aseo] into verb stems if the verb stem doesn't
end in a consonant.

Example Sentences

1. .[Chingurang leseutorang-e gaseo


meogeosseoyo]
I went to a restaurant and ate with my friend.
2. .[Jibe waseo jageora]
Come back home and sleep.

Notes
For situations in which you make suggestions as to what to do and say - or -,
you use -(), and can't use -//.
For example:

1. Incorrect: ,

2. Correct: ,

For situations in which you connect two separate actions in logical order and say, "I did
XX because I did YY," you can use both - and -//.

However, when you are apologizing for a past action, you can't say - , but
must use -// + //.

For example:

1. Incorrect: .

2. Correct: .

-eullae, -eullae?

-, -?
I want to, I would like to, shall we?
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use this grammatical structure (/) to convey one's desired intention for the
future. It does not express one's actual intention, but one's desired intention. We often
translate it as "want to (verb)." We use this construction with action verbs.

This grammatical construction is in the intimate politeness level. The standard


politeness level adds the politeness particle - (/). We use this structure in
colloquial situations. There is no formal politeness conjugation.

When you want to suggest doing something together to someone or ask whether the
other person wants to do something, you can use this structure. We can translate this as
both "Shall we do something?" or "Do you want to do something?" in English.
When you say something using -/? (-l/eullae?), when you're referring to
something that the other person is to do alone, it's translated only as "Do you want
to...?" but when you're referring to something that you can do together, it's also
translated as "Shall we...?"

Formation
Verb Stem +/
We use for verb stems ending in vowels.

For example:

1. (juda) to give
+
() I want to give (something).

Verb stem + -/? (-l/eullae?)


For Example:
1. (gada) - "to go" --> ? (gallae?) "Do you want to go?" or "Shall we go?"
2. (sada) - "to buy" --> ? (sallae?) "Do you want to buy it?" or "Shall we
buy it?"

We use for verb stems ending in consonants.

For example:

1. (japda) to grab
- verb stem
+
() I want to grab.

Verb stem + -/? (-l/eullae?)


For Example:
1. (gada) - "to go" --> ? (gallae?) "Do you want to go?" or "Shall we go?"
2. (sada) - "to buy" --> ? (sallae?) "Do you want to buy it?" or "Shall we
buy it?"

Example Sentences

1. .
hanguk-euro gallaeyo.
"I want to go to Korea."

2. .
na-neun oneul gyeolhon hallae.
"I want to get married today."

3. .
saranghaebollaeyo.
"I want to give love a try.

?(naeil gachi yeong-hwa bollae?)


"Do you want to watch a movie together tomorrow?"

-nikka

-
so
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

-() (nikka) is the connective ending which is used to express the reason for an
action or state.
We can translate -() (nikka) as "because," "since," or "so."
We use -() when expressing a reason, along with - (gi ttaemune) and (seo). While we usually use the other two to express reasons related to the past tense,
we usually use -() to express a future decision or a command, or when we use it
to discuss a past action, it expresses something that was rightfully supposed to be that
way.

Formation
( Reason ) +()

1. "" is attached to the end of clauses that end in vowels.


2. "" is attached to the end of clauses that end in consonants.

1. (bissada): be expensive
(bissa) + (da) -> (bissa)- adjective stem
+ (bissa + nikka) -> (bissanikka)
2. (itda): have
(it) + (da) -> (it) - verb stem
+ + (it + eu + nikka) -> (itssunikka)
For example:

1. .(i gabang-eun bissanikka dareun


gabang-eul salgeyo)
This bag is expensive so I will buy another one.
2. .(naeil siheomi itsseunikka gongbuhaeya
hae)
I have a test tomorrow so I should study.

Example Sentences

1. .
oneul-eun deounikka eeokeoneul kyeoseyo.
"Today is hot, please turn on the air conditioner."

2. .
biga onikka gaji malja.

"It's raining, so let's not go."

3. .
i yeongwha jaemi eopseunikka dareun yeonghwa boja.
"Let's watch a different movie, this movie is boring."

4. .
haembeogeo-neun eoje meogeosseunikka, oneul-eun dareun geo meogeo.
"You ate hamburger yesterday, so eat something different today."

Notes
Sometimes, we can leave out the second clause and simply infer it from the context.

3. .
hangukeo-reul gongbu haryeogo hae.
"I plan on studying Korean."

Notes

Many times, we shorten this grammatical structure. The following are a few different
colloquial variations of this grammatical structure:

Original Construction:
-()

For example:

1. (jada) "to sleep"


(verb stem)
+
. "to intend to sleep"
. "to intend"

Abbreviated/Shortened Variations:

I. -()
We remove from the construction. As we remove from this construction,
there is no way to inflect politeness level.
Generally speaking, to end a sentence in this manner makes it is closer to the intimate
politeness level.

For example:

1. (jada) "to sleep"


(verb stem)
+
. "I intend to sleep."

II. -/
In addition to removing , we have changed the construction itself. This is closest to
the intimate politeness level.

For example:

1. (jada) "to sleep"


(verb stem)
+
. "I intend to sleep."

-eulge(yo)

-()
I will do A, let me do

Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

VST + '/()' [r/eulkke(yo)] is used to express "a will or an intention of the


speaker = will (VERB)".
VST + / [r/eulkke] is often used between 'friends' or is spoken to 'someone
younger'.
VST + / [r/eulkkeyo] is often spoken to 'the elderly' or to 'customers'.

Formation
Verb Stem + /() [r/eulkke(yo)] - "(the speaker) will do something for
(somebody else)"
{Rule #1} - () is attached to verb stems ending in a vowel (without a )
{Rule #2} - () is attached to verb stems ending in a consonant (with a )

Verb

Verb Stem +
/()

Becomes... Translation

1. {Rule #1}
"to buy"

+ ()

()

2. {Rule #2}
"to eat"

+ ()

() "(I) will eat (it for you)"

3. {Rule #1}
"to do"

+ ()

()

4. {Rule #2}
"to find / to search
for"

+ ()

() "(I) will find (it for you)"

"(I) will buy (you)


(something)"

"(I) will do (it for you)"

Example Sentences
1. ! ( + => )
Naega o-neul jeo-nyeok salkke! (salkkeyo)
"Dinner is on me tonight! = I will treat you to dinner tonight!"

2. , () ... ( + => )
Geokjeong maseyo, jega nameun eumsik(eul) da meogeulkkeyo...
"Please do not worry. I will eat all of the leftovers..."
3. , ! ( + => )
Naega igeoseul halkke, neon jeogeoseul haejwo!
"I will (work on) this. Can you (work on) that, please?"
4. , ? ( + => )
Naega yeogireul chajeulkke, neon jeogireul chajajul-lae?
"I will search here. Can you please search over there?"

neo, neohui, dangsin

, ,
you, you guys, you(formal)
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

Second-person pronouns are those which refer to the listener. Each word has their own
nuance, and specific relationship for which they should be used.
(neo) - 'You' - Singular - Generally, this second-person pronoun is used by a speaker
who holds a great deal of power in the relationship, or when both speakers share an
equal amount of power in the relationship. This word is used when the speaker does not
feel the need to respect the listener. (i.e. extremely close friends, older people talking to
younger people, people of high positions)
Note: A boss would not use this word because respect would be necessary in an office
atmosphere (even with the difference in social hierarchy).
(neohui) - 'You' - Plural - This would be used in situations when a speaker is
addressing a group and when he or she holds the power in the relationship. Just like the
singular (neo), it would be used when the speaker does not feel the need to respect
the other party. In most cases it is used towards children.
Note: (neohui) is often followed by the pluralizing suffix (deul).

(dangsin) - 'You' - Singular - A second-person pronoun that is often used for (1)
neutrality and distance (2) a term of endearment between a couple (typically married)
(3) speaking in a condescending or confrontational manner.
Note: (dangsin) is politer than (neo), but is still not considered very polite
because it is too direct to refer to someone as 'you' unless the two parties are on familiar
terms. Therefore it is often used to confront strangers, or those that have no prior
relationship.

Example Sentences
(neo) - 'You' - Singular
? (Did you eat?)
This sentence can generally be used for the following relationships: close friends, older
people talking to younger people (when they are familiar), classmates of the same age,
etc.
(neohui) - 'You' - plural
?! (What are you doing?)
This sentence can generally be used for the following relationships: a mother scolding
her children, a teacher scolding students.
(dangsin) - 'You' - singular
(1) neutrality and distance
! (Think of your family!)
This sentence may be found in an advertisement.
(2) a term of endearment between a couple (typically married)
... . (Dear... I love you.)
Because it is used as a term of endearment, it can also be translated as 'dear' in this
situation.
(3)Speaking in a condescending or confrontational manner.
! (You threw it away!)
This sentence may be used to be confrontational with two people who are not on very
close terms.

-eul geosida

-
will, am going to
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use this grammar point to express a future action or an intention.


This is stronger than the other intentionals.
We can change the latter part, , to , , and in the present
tense, depending on the politeness levels.

Formation
Verb stem + -/

I. Verb stems ending in a vowel + -

1. [gada] to go
() + = [gal geosimnida]: "will go

[gal geoya] - intimate


[gal geo-yeyo] - standard
[gal geosimnida] or [gal geomnida] - formal

2. [boda] to see

() + = [bol geosida]: will see

[bol geoya] - intimate


[bol geo-yeyo] - standard
[bol geosimnida] or [bol geomnida] - formal

II. Verb stems ending in a consonant + -

1. [japda] to catch
() + = [jabeul geosida]: will catch

[jabeul geoya] - intimate


[jabeul geo-yeyo] - standard
[jabeul geosimnida] or [jabeul geomnida] - formal

III. Verb stems ending with - +

1. [salda] to live
() + = [sal geosida]: will live

[sal geoya]: - intimate


[sal geo-yeyo]: - standard
[sal geosimnida] or [sal geomnida] - formal

Example Sentences

1. !
jib-e gal geoya!
"I'm going to go home!"

2. ?
mwo meogeul geoyo?
"What are you going to eat?"

3. !
neo-rang an nol geoya!
"I'm not going to play with you!"

4. .
nado naeil yeonghwa bol geoya.
"I'm going to watch a movie tomorrow, too."

5. ? !
neo-man gyeolhonhae? nado gyeolhonhal geoya!

"You think only you can get married? I'm going to get married too!"

Notes
We often replace with . It is a pronunciation change that occurs in natural
conversation.

-go itda

-
-being doing
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

- is the present progressive and shows a continual action. We use it with action
verbs. We express tense and politeness level in the final verb (itda).

Formation
Action Verb Stem + (go itda)

1. (meokda) - "to eat"


- verb stem
- "to be eating"

2. (mogyokhada) - "to bathe"


- verb stem
+ - "to be bathing"

Example Sentences

1. , ?
jigeum, mwo hago isseoyo?
"What are you doing now?"

2. .
tellebijyeon bogo isseoyo.
"I'm watching TV."

3. ?
mwo bogo isseoyo?
"What are you watching?"

4. . .
syupeomaeniyo. syupeomaen-i haneul-eul nalgo isseoyo.
"Superman. Superman is flying in the sky."

Notes

We use the progressive to describe wearing articles of clothing. We use it to describe


the actual action of putting on an article of clothing. We also use it to describe the state
of wearing an article of clothing.
For example:

1. (ipda) to wear
.
jamba-reul ipgo isseoyo.
(He) is putting on a jacket.
OR
(He) is wearing a jacket.

2. (sseuda) to wear
.
moja-reul sseugo isseoyo.
(She) is putting on a hat.
OR
(She) is wearing a hat.

-a(eo/yeo) juda, -deurida

-(/) , -
do - as a favor
Category
Verb

TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

We can use the verb [juda] as the requestive when it's in an imperative sentence or
in a question. We use the requestive to request to an action from someone and we use it
in conjunction with action verbs. The action we request is always a request on behalf of,
or for the sake of a person (the speaker, a third party, etc.) or an entity (a group, a school,
etc.). The request we make must be on behalf of another party.

We can literally translate this phrase as "please do (verb) for (me)." We can conjugate
the final verb [juda], which literally means "to give," according to tense, politeness
level, and negation.

We can replace the final verb [juda] with its humbling version, [deurida] in
this grammatical construction. To use the humbling version, simply replace [juda]
with [deurida] and use the same grammatical pattern.
When the action itself is (to give) however, you use [juda] only once.

Formation
Action Verb + ( / / ) + or (the honorific form)
1. -[-a]: the final vowels [a] or [o]

[sada]: to buy
+ -> -> [sa] +
---> [sa juda]
---> [sa deurida]: the honorific form
2. -[-eo]: any other final vowels
[bil-lida]: to lend
+ -> -> [bilryeo] +
---> [bilryeo juda]
---> [bilryeo deurida]: the honorific form

3. -[-yeo]: verb [hada]


[seolgeoji-hada]: to wash dishes
+ -> -> [seolgeojihae] +
---> [seolgeojihae juda]
---> [seolgeojihae deurida]: the honorific form

Example Sentences

1. .[Ai-ege chaekgeul sa ju-eotda]


"I bought my child a book."
.[Eomeoni-kke chaegeul sa deuryeotda] - the
honorific form
"I bought my mother a book."

2. .[chingu-ege doneul bilryeo ju-eotda]


I lent my friend some money.

.[Seonbaenim-ege doneul bilryeo deuryeotda] the honorific form


I lent my senior some money.
3. .[Dongsaeng-i seolgeojihae jueotda]
My little brother washed dishes for me.
.[Naneun eomeonireul wihae
seolgeojihae deuryeotda]
I washed dishes for my mother.

Notes
When we use this construction in the question along with the grammatical pattern / () [-l / eulkka (yo)], the speaker is asking if he/she should perform that
specific action on behalf of the other person. When used as a question, we can translate
it as, "Should /Shall I (verb) for you?"
For example:

1. ?
jiwo julkka?
Shall I erase it (for you)?

2. ?
naga julkka?
Do you want me go outside (so that you can do things in private)?

** Note: It is also possible to say and to mean the same thing as the
sentences above. This is quite common, but it's more correct and clearer to say
and ?

-go(2)

-(2)
and
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

We use (go) to connect verbs together. Generally, we translate it as and in English,


and it works like the English conjunction "and." We also use it for connecting two or
more clauses together in a single sentence.

When we use it in a sequence of verbs, the last verb in the sequence does not carry
(go).

Formation
Verb Stem +
(Verb Stem 1) , (Verb Stem 2) , (Verb 3).

1. (syopinghada) "to shop"


verb stem =

2. (bap meokda) "to eat food"


verb stem =

3. (keopi masida) "to drink coffee"

( + ), + ( + ), + ( ) =

1. , , .
syopinghago bap meokgo keopi masida.
"To shop and eat and drink coffee."

Clause 1 + , Clause 2 (Clause 3, Clause 4, etc.)


*In this construction, we attach (go) to the verb stem in the clause.

1. (gongbuhada) "to study"

2. (gada) "to go"

, .
hangugeo gongbuhaetgo, jib-e gasseoyo.
"I studied Korean and went home."

Example Sentences

1. .
meok-go nol-go janeunge jeil pyeonhada.
"Eating, hanging out, and sleeping is the best."

2. .
gati bap meok-go yeonghwa boneunge deiteuipnida.
"Eating and watching a movie together is a date."

3. .
hakgyo-eseo sueop deu-go gongbu hago wasseoyo.
"I went to class, studied at school, and came back."

4. .
yojeum-e gongbuhago ilhaeyo.
"I study and work lately."

5. .
igeo meokgo jeogeot-do meokeullaeyo.
"I want to eat this one, and eat that one, too."

6. !
yeonghwa bogo bap meogeureo gaja.
"Let's watch a movie and go eat!"

7. ? , , .
eoje? geim hago, yeonghwa bogo, noraebang gasseo.
"Yesterday? I played games, watched a movie, and went to a karaoke club."

8. , .
sajin jjikgo, georeodanyeoyo.
"I take pictures and walk around."

Notes
The last verb in the sequence does not carry .

-gi jeone

-
before
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Intermediate

We use this grammatical pattern to set a timeline and express an action that occurs
before another action. This pattern emphasizes the last action in the construction. We
use the first action to give a time reference. We can translate this construction as "before
(verb1), (verb2)."

We use this pattern to connect two verbs. We express politeness level, tense, negation,
and mood through the second verb.

Formation
This construction uses two verbs. The second verb expresses the politeness level, tense,
negation, and mood.
For Example:

[Verb 1 - verb stem] + + [Verb 2]


Before [Verb 1], [Verb 2]

Verb 1 - (jada) to sleep


(ja) - verb stem
Verb 2 - (meokda) to eat

+ +
. (jagi jeon-e meokda) Before sleeping, eat.
. I ate before sleeping.
. I couldn't eat before sleeping.

Example Sentences

1. .
hanguk gagi jeon-e reosia gasseumnida.
"Before going to Korea, he went to Russia."

2. .
jagi jeon-e chaek-eul ilgeo.
"Read a book before sleeping."

3. .
jeo-neun nongguhagi jeon-e syawohaesseoyo.
"Before playing basketball, I took a shower."

Notes
This grammatical construction is actually the nominalization of Verb 1 followed by the
(jeone). (jeon) means "before" and (e) is the time marking particle.

tto

again
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(tto) is the word that means "again," and just like in English, this word can give off
various nuances depending on the tone of speech by the speaker.
Examples:
1. If you say it plainly, it just means "again" or "once again." For example:
A. ! (Tto boja!) "See you again!" (intimate)
2. If you say it with a rising tone, you can express sarcasm or surprise, like in this
lesson's dialogue.
A. . (Aiseukeurim meokja.) "Let's eat ice cream." (intimate)
B. ??? (Tto???) "Again???" (intimate)

Example Sentences
. (tto jeo-yeyo.) "It's me again."

mot

cannot, unable, incapable


Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

(mot) is an adverb that expresses impossibility, inability, strong denial, or strong


refusal. We use this adverb mostly with action verbs. We can translate this adverb as
"can't," "won't," "not (possible)," or "unable to."

Formation
(mot), an adverb, immediately precedes verbs.
[ + Verb]
For Example:
1. (nolda) "to play"
(mot nolda) "to not be able to play"
With [noun] + [ (hada)] verbs, we place (mot) between the [noun] and [
(hada)].
[Noun + ] verb
For Example:
1. (gongbuhada) "to study"
(gongbu mot hada) "to not be able to study"
With other (hada) verbs, which are not [noun] + [ (hada)] verbs, (mot)
immediately precedes the whole verbs.
Other verbs:
For Example:
1.
"to not be able to dislike"

Example Sentences

1. . .
manhi meogeosseoyo. keikeu-reul mot meogeoyo.
"I ate a lot. I can't eat cake."
2. ! !
sikkeureowo! na gongbu mot hae!
"It's too loud! I can't study!"
3. .
Jihye ssi-reul mot mannasseoyo.
"I wasn't able to meet Jihye."

-eul su itda , -eul su eopda

- ,-
can, cannot
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

-/ [-l/eul su itda] is a grammatical structure we use to express ability,


capability, or possibility (e.g., whether you can or can't speak English, or you can or
can't use a computer). We add this structure onto the end of both descriptive and action
verbs to express the possibility or capability of those verbs. We can translate this as
"can" or "able to."
We can conjugate the last verb, (itda), to express politeness level, tense, or mood.
Traditionally, the verb can inflect negation as well, but in this grammatical structure, the
negated form would come from the verb opposite to the verb [itda], which is -
[eopta]. We can translate the construction -/ [-l/eul su eoptda] as "cannot"
or "not able to."
However, when using the construction / [-l/eul su eoptda], this carries the
notion that the speaker (or subject of the sentence) was unable to do something because
he or she did not have the capacity to perform that activity. Using this structure implies

that the subject does not possess the ability to perform that action (i.e.,
meaning "I can't eat" ("I don't have the ability to eat")). When expressing the "can't"
because of factors other than inability, we use the impossibility adverb (mot).

Formation
Verb Stem + -/ or -/

Future / Present Tense


I. Verb stems ending in a vowel + - or -

1. [gada] to go
+ - => [gal su itda]: "to be able to go"
+ - => [gal su epda]: "to not be able to go"
2. [boda] to see
+ - => [bol su itda]: "to be able to see
+ - => [bol su eopda]: "to not be able to see"
3. [hada] - "to do"
+ - => [hal su itda]: "to be able to do"
+ - => [hal su eopda]: "to not be able to do"

II. Verb stems ending in a consonant + - or -

1. [itda]: "to exist" or "to have"


+ - => [itseul su itda]: "to be able to have ...
+ - => [itseul su eopda]: "to not be able to have"

2. [japda] to catch
+ - => [jabeul su itda]: "to not be able to catch...
+ - => [jabeul su eopda]: "to not be able to catch"
III. Verb stems ending with + - or -
1. [alda] to know
+ - => [al su itda]: "to not be able to know...
+ - => [al su eopda]: "to not be able to know"
Example Sentences
1. .
hakgyo gal su eopseoyo.
"I wasn't able to go to school." ("I didn't have the ability to.")
2. , .
son-i apaseo, sseul su eopseoyo.
"I can't write because my hand hurts."
3. .
yeongguk-e sal su isseumnida.
"I can live in England."
4. .
malhal su eopseoyo.
"I can't tell you."
5. ?
naeil-do ol su isseoyo?
"Can you come again tomorrow?"
6. ?
jeonyeok-e yeonghwa boreo gal su isseoyo?
"Can you go see a movie (with me) tonight?"
7. ?
jadongcha jom billil su isseoyo?
"Can I borrow (your) car for a while?"
8. ?
jeo dowajul su isseoyo?
"Can you help me?"
9. .
jeo-neun hangukeo hal su eopseoyo.
"I can speak Korean." (standard politeness level)

10. .
jeo-neun hangukeo hal su eopseoyo.
"I can't speak Korean." (standard politeness level)
11. .
gimchi-reul meogeul su eopseumnida.
"I can't eat kimchi." (formal politeness level)
12. .
gimchi-reul meogeul su isseumnida.
"I can eat kimchi." (formal politeness level)

ssi

Mr.Ms.
Category
Honorifics
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

(ssi) is an honorific suffix, which is used to show respect. Generally speaking, when
two people meet for the first time and are on an even keel, this suffix will be used.
Whenever a title is not applicable [e.g. (sajangnim), (seonsaengnim),
kinship terms], the honorific suffix is used. This should be used with people you meet
for the first time.
(ssi) should be used only with given names, and not family names. When it is used
only with family names, it can be rude.

Formation
[] + []
[given name] + [ssi]
or

[ + ] + []
[family name + given name] + []

Example Sentences
1. ?
sara ssi-neun hakseng-iseyo?
Are you a student sara?
2. ?
bakjunho ssi-neun nuguseyo?
Who is Park Junho?
3. ... .
minji ssi... junhwahaejuseyo.
Minji... Please call me.

-eulkkayo?, -halkkayo?

-?, -?
shall we, let's, why don't we
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

We use the volitional form to express intention on the part of the speaker or to invite
someone to do something in informal situations. Specifically, we use when asking
someone if one would like to do something with the speaker, or with a group that
includes the speaker. In English, we can translate this as, "shall we...?" In addition to
inviting someone to do something, we also use it to ask for one's opinion, view, or
appraisal about a certain fact. In this specific usage, we can translate it as "will it be
(verb)?" This form is a sentence ender.
Formation

-/? - (-l / eulkkayo) - Standard Politeness Level


-/? - (-l / eulkkayo) - Intimate Politeness Level
I. Verb stem ending in a vowel + -? (-lkkayo?)
1. [boda] "to see, to watch"
- verb stem
+ ?
?[bolkkayo?] "Shall we watch?" (Standard Politeness Level)
?[bolkka?] "Shall we watch?" (Intimate Politeness Level)

II. Verb stem ending in a consonant + - ? (-eulkkayo?)


[jaemi-itda] "to be fun, to be interesting"
- verb stem
+ - (jaemiit) + (-eulkkayo?)
? (jaemiisseulkkayo?) "Will it be fun?" / "What do you think?" (Standard
Politeness Level)
? (jaemiisseulkka?) "Will it be fun?" / "What do you think?" (Intimate
Politeness Level)

Example Sentences
1. ?
uri oneul yeonghwa bolkkayo? (Standard Politeness Level)
"Shall we see a movie today?"
2. ?

sukje-reul haesseulkkayo? (Standard Politeness Level)


"Will (he) have done the homework?" ("What do you think?")
3. ?
i chaek-i jaemiisseulkka? (Intimate Politeness Level)
"Will this book be interesting?" ("What do you think?")
4. ?
gwangju-ro galkka? (Intimate Politeness Level)
"Shall we go to Gwangju?"

itda

to exist, there is
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

The verb (itda) expresses existence. Do not confuse this with the Korean copula
(ida), which expresses equation. We can use the verb (itda) to express
existence, location, or possession.
We can use (itda) to say "to have" (possession).

For Example:
1. .
jeo-neun namjachingu-ga issseumnida.
"I have a boyfriend." (Literally, "I, boyfriend, exists" - "A boyfriend exists for
me.")
We can use (itda) to say "to be" (location).

For Example:
1. .
jeo-neun hakgyo-e issseumnida.
"I am at school." (Literally, "I, school, at, exist" - "I exist at school.")
We can also use (itda) to express "to be" (existence).
For Example:
1. .
yeogi goyangi-ga issseumnida.
"A cat is here." (Literally, "here, cat, exist" - "A cat exists here.")

Formation
(dictionary form)
(verb stem)
For Example:
1. - Conjugated in the formal simple present tense.
2. - Conjugated in the standard simple present tense.
3. - Conjugated in the intimate simple present tense.
4. - Conjugated in the formal present interrogative.
Example Sentences
1. .
cheonho ssi-neun yeojachingu-ga issseumnida.
"Cheonho has a girlfriend."
2. .
hanguk-e kimchi-ga issseumnida.
"There is kimchi in Korea."
3. .
eunju ssi-neun jib-e issseumnida.
"Eunju is at home."
Notes

The opposite of (itda), meaning "to exist," is (eoptda), meaning "to not
exist."

Related Expressions
(eoptda)

eoptda

to not exist
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

(eoptda) is the verb that expresses "to not exist." Do not confuse this with the
negative Korean copula (anida), meaning "to not be." This can express absence
or lack of possession.
We can use (eoptda) to express "to not be" (absence, non-existence).
For Example:
1. .
kimchi-ga eoptseumnida.
"There is no kimchi." (Literally, "kimchi, not exist" - "kimchi does not exist")
We can use (eoptda) to express "to not have" (possession).
For Example:

1. .
jeo-neun chingu-ga eopsseumnida.
"I don't have friends." (Literally, "I, friend, not exist" - "Friends do not exist for
me")
Formation
- Dictionary form
- Verb stem
For Example:
1. - Conjugated in the formal simple present tense.
2. - Conjugated in the standard simple present tense.
3. - Conjugated in the intimate simple present tense.
4. - Conjugated in the formal present interrogative.
Example Sentences
1. .
jeyun ssi-neun chingu-ga eopsseumnida.
"Jaeyun does not have friends. "
2. .
yeogi nayeong ssi-ga eopsseumnida.
"Nayeong is not here."
3. .
jeo-neun yeojachingu-ga eopssseumnida.
"I don't have a girlfriend."
Notes
The opposite of (eoptda), meaning "to not have," is (itda), meaning "to
have."

ida, imnida

,
I am, to be
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level

Level
Absolute Beginner

(name/noun) + (imnida)
This pattern becomes the predicate of a sentence when followed by a noun.

We can translate (imnida) as "to be" ("be" verb).


(imnida) is a "be" verb. Actually, its original form is (ida), meaning "to
be"; however, the polite form becomes (imnida). Korean people often use
(imnida) when saying their names.

Formation
name + (imnida), meaning "to be"
nationality + (imnida)

Example Sentences
Names:
1. .
Jeoneun Keuris imnida.
"(I) am Chris."
2. .
Yoko imnida.
"(I) am Yoko."
3. .
Lin imnida.
"(I) am Linn."
Nationalities:
1. .
Jeoneun migooksalam imnida.
"(I) am American."

2. .
ilbonsaram imnida.
"(I) am Japanese."
3. .
joonggooksaram imnida
"(I) am Chinese."

Notes
(imnida) is formal language of (ida) "to be."
But Koreans don't often say "I + Name + " or "I + Nationality + ."

-aseo, -eseo (2)

-, - (2)
because, for the reason of, so
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

This grammatical structure indicates the cause or reason for a consequence. It is a nonfinal ending, and thus we typically introduce a consequential sentence after this
structure. However, we commonly use it as a sentence ending because many times we
can infer the consequential sentence. We use it mostly with descriptive verbs (some
action verbs are exceptions).

Formation
-(/),
provides the reason for .

[verb] + -(/)
1. [bappeuda]: "to be busy"
+ -> [bappaseo] : "because I am busy..."
2. [yeppeuda]: "to be pretty"
+ -> [yeppeoseo] : "because you are pretty..."
Example Sentences
1. , .
bappaseo, mot wasseoyo.
"I was busy, so I couldn't come."
2. , .
sul-i johaseo, eoje-do sul masyeosseoyo.
"Because alcohol is good, I drank again yesterday."
3. .
yeppeoseo jeonhwahaetji.
"Because you're pretty, I called."
Notes
Here are examples of situations where we must imply the consequential sentence.
For Example:
: ? [oe neutge watseo?]
Father: "Why did you come late?"
: ... [chaga makyeoseo...]
Son: "Because there was traffic..."
We should make the ending of the sentence , meaning "I was late."

-aseo, -eseo (2)

-, - (2)
because, for the reason of, so
Category
Conjunction
TOPIK Level
Level

Beginner

This grammatical structure indicates the cause or reason for a consequence. It is a nonfinal ending, and thus we typically introduce a consequential sentence after this
structure. However, we commonly use it as a sentence ending because many times we
can infer the consequential sentence. We use it mostly with descriptive verbs (some
action verbs are exceptions).
Formation
-(/),
provides the reason for .
[verb] + -(/)
1. [bappeuda]: "to be busy"
+ -> [bappaseo] : "because I am busy..."
2. [yeppeuda]: "to be pretty"
+ -> [yeppeoseo] : "because you are pretty..."
Example Sentences
1. , .
bappaseo, mot wasseoyo.
"I was busy, so I couldn't come."
2. , .
sul-i johaseo, eoje-do sul masyeosseoyo.
"Because alcohol is good, I drank again yesterday."
3. .
yeppeoseo jeonhwahaetji.
"Because you're pretty, I called."

Notes
Here are examples of situations where we must imply the consequential sentence.
For Example:
: ? [oe neutge watseo?]
Father: "Why did you come late?"

: ... [chaga makyeoseo...]


Son: "Because there was traffic..."
We should make the ending of the sentence , meaning "I was late."

-do

-
too, also
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

We use the particle - (-do) to express that a statement we already expressed holds true
for another noun. If we issue a statement and that statement holds true for another
person or thing, we use the particle - (-do). We attach this particle directly to the noun
it is modifying. This correlates with the English words "too" and "also."
Formation
This is a very simple particle to use. It is simply suffixed to the end of the noun it is
modifying.
For Example:
1. .
jeo-neun seonsaengnim-imnida
"I am a teacher."
.
jeo-do seonsaengnim-imnida
"I am also a teacher."
Here, we replace the topic-marking particle -/ (-eun/-neun) with the augmentative
particle - (-do).

Example Sentences
1. .
jeo-neun seonsaengnim-imnida
"I am a teacher."
.
uri nuna-do seonsaengnim-imnida
"My sister is also a teacher."
2. .
jeo-neun chuwoyo
"I'm cold."
.
minji-ssi-do chuwoyo
"Minji is also cold."

neunyo, eunyo

,
How about?
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

When asking questions, one can ask about another person or thing outside of the
conversation (a noun) by saying the noun and then attaching -/? (-eun/neunyo?).
The question asked prior is applied to this new question "How about...?" This is used
much like the English "How about...?"
-? (-eunyo?) is applied to nouns that end in consonants.
-? (-neunyo?) is applied to nouns that end in vowels.
Formation
[noun] + -/? (-eun/neunyo?) - "How about [noun]?"

Example Sentences
? (beoseu-neunyo?) - "How about the bus?"
? (sajangnim-eunyo?) - "How about the boss?"

eul,reul

,
object-marking particle
Category
Particle
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

-/ (eul/reul) is an object-marking particle. It marks the object of the sentence, the


noun that the verb of the sentence is acting upon. We typically use this particle in
conjunction with action verbs.
We attach (eul) to nouns that end in consonants.
We attach (reul) to nouns that end in vowels.

Formation
[ ] + []
[batchim-euro kkeutna-neun mokjeokgyeok] + [eul]
[objects ending in a consonant] + [eul]
[ ] + []
[bachim-i eops-neun mokjeokgyeok] + [reul]
[object not ending in a consonant] + [reul]

Example Sentences

1. .
jjamppong-eul meokeosseumnida.
"I ate jjampong."
2. .
sindi ssi-neun aeksyeon yeonghwa-reul silheoyo.
"Sindy doesn't like action movies."
3. ?
hangukeo-reul johahajyo?
"You like Korean, right?"

Notes
We often drop particles, such as the object-marking particle, in speech, and we simply
infer them from the context.

johahada, sireohada

,
like, dislike
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

The verb (joahada), which means "to like." The sentence order in Korean is
different than it is in English. In English, the basic sentence order is Subject Verb
Object. In Korean, however, the word order is Subject Object Verb. So we often find
the verb (joahada) at the end of simple sentences, with the object coming in
front.

The verb (sireohada), which means "to not like." The sentence order in
Korean is different than it is in English. In English, the basic sentence order is Subject
Verb Object. In Korean, however, the word order is Subject Object Verb. So you'll

often find this verb (sireohada) at the end of simple sentences, with the
object coming in front.

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Formation
The word order in Korean sentences is Subject Object Verb. Often in Korean, we can
omit the subject, so a sentence can often start with simply the object and then end with
the verb.
As an example, we will look at the phrase (jeoneun gimchi
joahaeyo), which means "I like kimchi."

Example Sentences
(soju) meaning "rice wine" (similar to vodka)
.
jeoneun soju joahaeyo.

(gimchi) meaning "fermented Chinese cabbage"


.
jeoneun gimchi sireohaeyo.
(bibimbab) meaning "vegetables and other toppings over rice"
.
jeoneun bibimbab sireohaeyo.

Notes
Remember: the word order for Korean is Subect + Object + Verb.

anida

to not be
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

(anida) is the Korean negative copula. This is roughly equivalent to the English
verb "to not be." Using (anida) is the most useful and basic way to identify that
people and objects are not something. (topic and particle) + [Noun]+. This
expresses that the (topic) of the sentence is not the [noun]. If the topic is not included in
the sentence, it must be inferred.

Formation
The verb stem is "" (ani). This does not have any irregular conjugations.

(animnida) is the formal simple present conjugation of (anida).


(anieyo) is the standard simple present conjugation of (anida).
(aniyaa) is the casual simple present conjugation of (anida).
(animnikka) is the formal interrogative conjugation of (anida).

Example Sentences
.
(jeo-neun byeonhosa-ga animnida.)
I am not a lawyer.
.
(bora-neun hakseng-i animnida.)
Bora is not a student.
.
(igeo-neun yeonghwa-ga anieyo.)
This is not a movie.

Notes
Just like the affirmative copula, "," the negative copula, "," cannot be used
to express existence.

igeo, geugeo, jeogeo

, ,
this thing, that thing, the thing
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

(igeo), (geugeo), (jeogeo) are demonstrative pronouns, which we can


express as "this," "that," and "that over there," respectively. These words are pronouns
and we use them just as we use nouns.

(igeo) means "this."


(geugeo) means "that." It indicates the speaker is far from item under discussion
but the listener is close to it.
(jeogeo) means "that." It indicates both the speaker and listener are far from the
item under discussion.
All three of these have corresponding written forms.
Spoken:
, ,
Written:
, ,

Formation
We can break down the written form of these words as such:
[demonstrative modifier] + = , ,
For Example:
1. (geot) means "thing."
Literally, (igeot) means "this thing," (geugeot) means "that thing,"
and (jeogeot) means "that thing over there."
In spoken Korean, however, they are as follows:
[demonstrative modifier] + = , ,
(geo) means "thing."
Example Sentences
1. .
igeo-neun je chaek-iya.
"This is my book."
2. ?
jeogeo-neun nugukkeo-eyo?
"Who is that over there?"
3. ? .
geugeoyo? geugeo-neun moja-imnida.
"That? That's a hat."

je, nae, ni, uri, jeohui

, , , ,
my, your, our (informal and formal)
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

We use possessive pronouns to attribute ownership of an object to someone. Like any


other pronoun, these replace the nouns. We use different possessive pronouns according
to the speakers relationship with the listener. Humbling pronouns, neutral pronouns,
and intimate pronouns, all indicate the relationship between the listener and the speaker.

Formation
In reality, possessive pronouns are a contraction of pronouns and the possessive particle.

1. = (jeo-ui) - +
first person humbling pronoun + possessive particle
We use (je) to humble oneself in the presence of someone the speaker
respects.

2. = (na-ui) - +
informal first person pronoun + possessive particle
We use (nae) in informal contexts where the speaker feels that (je) is too
polite and inappropriate for the relationship with the listener. We use (nae)
when the speaker does not feel the need to show the highest respect to the
listener.

3. = (neo-ui) - +
informal second person pronoun + possessive particle
We use (ni) in informal contexts when the speaker feels very comfortable
with the listener and the power relationship is at least equal. We commonly use
it when the speaker has the upper hand in the relationship.

4. = + - ()
humbling first person plural noun + (possessive particle)
We actually drop the possessive particle for this possessive pronoun (as we
do in many cases.) We use this possessive particle in formal situations such
as when the speaker does not know the listener well, or when the listener holds
much of the power in the relationship.

5. = + - ()
intimate first person plural pronoun + (possessive particle)
We actually drop the possessive particle for this possessive pronoun (as we
do in many cases.) We use this possessive particle in informal situations when
the speaker feels that (jeohui) is too polite.

Example Sentences

1. .
je chingu-ga hoju-e sarayo.
My friend lives in Australia.

2. .
nae cha-ga jukeosseo.
My car broke down (died).

3. .
ni yeonpil jwo.
Give me your pencil.

4. .
uri jib-eun neolbeo.
My home is big. (neutral/intimate)

5. .
jeohui jip-eun jobayo.
My home is small. (polite)

gwaenchana?

?
okay?
Category
Verb
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

? (gwaen-chan-a), which means "Are you all right?" is a very common


expression we use to ask whether or not someone is feeling okay.
You can add (jom), which means "some," "a little," or "a few," right before
(gwaen-chan-a) to make it sound more natural.

For Example:

1. ?
jom gwaen-cha-a?
"Are you all right?"

The expression ? "Are you all right?" is very similar to ? (eo-ddae), which
means "How is?"/"How about?" As you will see below, you can use these phrases in
conjunction to ask about someone's condition. You can review them in Absolute
Beginner Season 2 Lesson 5.

Formation
Specific Body Part (noun) + particles (/) + ( jom) + ? (gwaen-chan-a):
"Is your (noun) all right/okay?"

Example Sentences
1. () ?
Meo-ri-neun (jom) gwaen-chan-a?
"Is your head okay?"
2. ? ?
Pal-eun jom eo-ddae? Pal-eun gwaen-chan-a?
"How is your arm? Is it all right?"
3. ? ?
Bae-neun jom eo-ddae? Bae-neun jom gwaen-chan-a?
"How is your stomachache? Is it okay?"
4. ? ?
Da-ri-neun eo-ddae? Da-ri-neun jom gwaen-chan-a?
"How is your leg? Is it all right?"

sutja(nai)

()
Numbers for counting age
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

The Native Korean numbers have distinct words for numbers in the tens' place.
10 is (yeol) 20 is (seumul) 30 is (seoreun) 40 is (maheun)
To construct the numbers in between these numbers, simply say the number in the tens'
place, (i.e. 10, 20, 30), and then the number in the ones' place.
21 = 20 + 1 = + =
25 = 20 + 5 = + =
37 = 30 + 7 = + =
42 = 40 +2 = + =
For numbers past 40, Korean speakers typically switch from the native-Korean numbers
to the Sino-Korean numbers. The Sino-Korean numbers will be introduced in the next
lesson.
Reciting Age
When reciting age, the counter, (sal) is attached to the end of a number. This counter
means "years of age." And when a counter is attached to the end of these numbers (the
Native Korean numbers), numbers 1 through 4 change slightly in pronunciation.
(hana)
(hana) changes to (han) when something is attached to the number.
(dul)
(dul) changes to (du) when something is attached to the number.
(set)
(set) change to (se) when something is attached to the number.

(net)
(net) changes to (ne) when something is attached to the number.

Formation
'- (han sal) - 1 year of age.
- (du sal) - 2 years of age.
- (se sal) - 3 years of age
This rule also applies to numbers that end in the numbers 1 through 4 (i.e. 11, 12, 13, 14,
21, 22, 23, 24, 31, etc.) and all counters, not just the counter for age (sal).

- (yeolhan sal) - 11 years of age.


- (yeoldu myeong) - 12 people.
- (seumulse sal) - 23 years of age.
- (seoreunne jang) - 34 sheets of paper.

Example Sentences
25.
(jeo-neun seumuldaseotsal-imnida.) - "I am 25 years old

sutja(sigan)

()
numbers for checking time
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level

Level
Beginner

1 () - hana (han)
2 () - dul (du)
3 () - set (se)
4 () - net (ne)
5 - daseot
6 - yeoseot
7 - ilgob
8 - yeodeol
9 - ahob
10 - yeol
11 () - yeolhana (yeolhan)
12 () - yeoldul (yeoldu)
To state an hour, simply state the hour with a Native-Korean number and add the
counter (si).
Korean Romanization English
han si 1 oclock
du si 2 oclock
se si 3 oclock
ne si 4 oclock
daseot si 5 oclock
yeoseot si 6 oclock
ilgob si 7 oclock
yeodeol si 8 oclock
ahob si 9 oclock
yeol si 10 oclock
yeolhan si 11 oclock
yeoldu si 12 oclock
Note: Numbers one through four change slightly in pronunciation when a counter, such
as (si - hour), follows. Please refer to the following.
Typical Pronunciation Pronunciation Change Number with (si)

(hana) (han) (han si)


(dul) (du) (du si)
(set) (se) (se si)
(net) (ne) (ne si)
To express minutes, state the minute using a Sino-Korean number and add the counter
(bun), which means minute.
Korean Romanization English
o bun 5 minutes
sip bun 10 minutes
sibo bun 15 minutes
isip bun 20 minutes
isibo bun 25 minutes
samsip bun 30 minutes
samsibo bun 35 minutes
sasip bun 40 minutes
sasibo bun 45 minutes
osip bun 50 minutes
osibo bun 55 minutes
For 1:15, the construction is (han si sibo bun), literally "1 o'clock, 15
minutes." Please see the following examples.

Example Sentences
1:00 - (han si)
8:00 - (yeodeolp si)
3:10 - (se si sip bun) - note the pronunciation change for 3
7:15 - (ilgop si sipo bun)
5:30 - (daseot si samsip bun)
9:45 - (ahop si sasipo bun)
12:57 - (yeoldu si osipchil bun)

il, nal

,
days
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

There are native Korean names used to express the number of days. Sino-Korean
numbers + (il) is a more formal usage than the native names for the number of days.

Example Sentences
1 day = (haru) = 1 (iril)
2 days = (iteul) = 2 (iil)
3 days = (saheul) = 3 (samil)
4 days = (naheul) = 4 (sail)
5 days = (dassae) = 5 (oil)
6 days = (yeossae) = 6 (yugil)
7 days = (ire) = 7 (chiril)
8 days = (yeodeure) = 8 (paril)
9 days = (aheure) = 9 (guil)
10 days = (yeolheul) = 10 (sibil)
15 days = (boreum) = 15 (siboil)

-yo

-
politeness particle
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

- (-yo) is sometimes used as a politeness particle. Generally speaking, if the - (-yo)


particle is left out, it becomes the intimate politeness level (sometimes known as the
casual politeness level). You can add - (-yo) onto nouns, verbs conjugated into the
intimate politeness level, grammatical structures, as well as many other parts of speech.
When - (-yo) is added, as its title suggests, makes the word or sentence polite. This is
in the standard politeness level.
This is used to show to the listeners that you are respecting them. Typically this
politeness particle is used in everyday speech, without active knowledge of it. Also,
sometimes with active effort to be polite, it is added on at the end.

Formation
[] + []
[noun] + [yo]
[ ] + []
[Verbs, intimate politeness level] + [yo]

Example Sentences
(aninde) - but it\'s not
(anindeyo) - but it\'s not (polite)
? (chingu-neun wa?) - Is your friend coming?
? (chingu-neun wayo?) - Is your friend coming? (polite)

? (hakgyo?) - School?
? (hakgyoyo?) - School? (polite)

Hanjaeo sutjawa hamkke ssuiineun danwui myeongsa


counting units used with sino-Korean numbers
Category
Counting Units
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(Hanjaeo sutjawa hamkke ssuiineun danwui


myeongsa) "Counting Units Used with Sino-Korean Numbers"
These are the counting units we use with Sino-Korean numbers.

Formation
1. Counting Units used with Sino-Korean numbers
"Unit in English" / Korean / Romanization
1. "Korean money" / / won
2. "Minutes" / / bun
3. "Serial numbers" / / beon
4. "Months of the year and days of the month" / , / wol, il
5. "Months" / / gaewol
6. "Portions of food" / / bun
7. "Weeks" / / ju
8. "Years" / / nyeon
9. "Floors" / / cheung
Note: For more information on the counting units we use with Sino-Korean numbers,
please look for Counting Units used with Sino-Korean Numbers in the Grammar Bank.

Remembering all the categories of counting units used with Sino-Korean Numbers is
quite difficult. Give yourself enough time to learn them!

Example Sentences
1. 35,000.
Igeoteun samman dcheon won imnida.
"This is thirty-five thousand Korean won."
2. 2.
3 45 .
Jigeumeun se si sa sip o bun imnida.
"It's three-forty-five."
Note: We use Pure Korean numbers for "hours," (si), and Sino-Korean
numbers for "minutes," (bun).
1. 468 .
I mulgeonui beonhoneun sabaek yuksip pal beon imnida.
"The serial number for this product is #468."
2. 9 6 .
Oneuleun gu wol yuk il imnida.
"Today is September sixth."

Notes
Here is a list of some of the Sino-Korean numbers.
Number / Korean / Romanization
1 / / il
2//i
3 / / sam
4 / / sa
5//o
6 / / yuk
7 / / chil

8 / / pal
9 / / gu
10 / / sip
11 / / sip il
12 / / sip i
13 / / sip sam
20 / / i sip
30 / / sam sip
40 / / sa sip
50 / / o sip
60 / / yuk sip
70 / / chil sip
80 / / pal sip
90 / / gu sip
100 / / baek
1,000 / / cheon
10,000 / / man
100,000 / / sip man
1,000,000 / / eok

Hoching (ajeossi, ajumma, jagi)How to call Mr.Ms.Honey

(, , )
how to call Mr.Ms.Honey
Category
Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

In Korea many people do not refer to each other by names but rather by titles. This
applies to siblings, cousins, friends, professors, and even strangers. Strangers have titles
according to the age they seem. And this can create some difficulties because of the fact
that age must be guessed.
(ajeossi) - This title is used for older men approximately in their 30's and above.
There is no exact age when one is regarded as (ajeossi), but it generally means
that the person is not considered young any more. This phrase is neither considered rude,
nor impolite.
(ajumeoni) - This title is used for older women approximately in their mid
30's and above. Again, there is no exact age when one is regarded as
(ajumeoni), but it is used when the person is not considered young anymore.
Because of this, it can also be taken as an insult by women who want to consider
themselves as young. This phrase is neither considered rude, nor impolite, but is
something that women do not desire to be called. Also, many Koreans call
'(Ajumma) for shorten way, but it is considered rude in some cases.
(haksaeng) - This word means 'student.' This word is used for young people who
are (or seem to be) in High School or University. This is a general term for young
people, both male and female of this age, and it is not considered rude, nor impolite.

/ (Jagi / Dangshin) - This word means 'Honey, Darling' This word is used for a
wife/husband/boyfriend/girlfriend who are in serious relationship. Both men and
women can be called by this. It is not considered rude, not impolite.

Example Sentences
, . (Ajeossi, Jamkanmanyo.) Hey, Mister. Hold on a sec.
, . (Ajumma, eogi jumun jeom batdajuseyo). Excuse

me but please take an order please.


, . (Haksaeng, Igeok jjom dowajeo) Excuseme (Young guy) but
please help this.
, . (Jagi, saranghae) Honey, I love you.

juseyo

please give me Category


Noun
TOPIK Level
Level
Absolute Beginner

Noun + ... (juseyo) is a very useful and basic expression in Korean that we use to
politely request something.
We can simply translate (juseyo) as "please give me..."

Formation
Noun + ... (juseyo)
To form this kind of phrase, simply use a noun(s) that you want to request and add
(jooseyo) right after the noun(s).

Example Sentences
For Example:
1. .
Mul juseyo.
"Please give me some water."

Item: (mul) "water"


"Please give me...": ... (juseyo)
"Please give me [item]": (mul juseyo)
"English": "Please give me some water.
And...
1. .
Keopi juseyo.
"Please give me some coffee."
Item: (keopi) "coffee"
"Please give me...": (juseyo)
"Please give me [item]": (keopi juseyo)
"English": "Please give me some coffee."

Related Expressions
(juseyo) is a formal expression.
The informal expression would be (jwo).
For Example:
1. (formal) = (informal)
2. (formal) = (informal)

wie

on top of
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
-

Level
Beginner

(wi-e) means "on top of, over," or "above." This is a combination of two words:
(wi), meaning "up" or "above," and (e), which means "at, to," or "in." Therefore
together, + (wi-e) has the meaning of "on top of (something)." The word that
(wi-e) modifies comes before (wi-e). When we use (wi-e) on its own, it
means "up there."

Formation
For Example:
Noun + = "on top of/over/above" + Noun
1. (jadongcha) "car"
+
(wi-e) "on top of"
Becomes
jadongcha wi-e
"on top of the car" / "on the car"

Example Sentences
Korean
Romanized
. Chaeksang wi-e
isseo.
Chaeksang wi-e
.
nwa.
. Chaeksang wi-e
eopseo.
Wi-e isseoyo.
.
.

Geogi wi-e bwa.

"English"
"It's on the table."
"Please put it on the
table."
"It's not on the table."
"It's up there."
"Check up there."

mite

under, beneath
Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

(mit-e) means "below, under," or "beneath." (mit-e) is a combination of two


words, (mit) and (e). (mit) is a noun that means, "under, below," or "beneath."
(e) means, "at, to," or "in." So together, (mit-e) means, "under (something)."
The word that (mit-e) modifies comes before (mit-e). When we use
(mit-e) on its own, it means "under there."
Formation
For Example:
Noun + = "under/below/beneath" + Noun
1. (uija) "chair"
+
(mit-e) "under"
Becomes
uija mit-e
"under the chair"

Example Sentences
Korean
Romanized
"English"
Uija
mi-teo
isseo.
"It's under the table."
.
.
.

Uija mi-te eopseo. "It's not under the


table."
Mi-te eopseoyo. "It isn't down there."

Mi-teo chajabwa. "Search down there."

Mit-e dwo.

"Please put it under


there."

an

not, don't (intentionally)


Category
Adverb
TOPIK Level
1
Level
Absolute Beginner

(an) is an adverb which functions to negate a verb. It is typically translated as "not"


or "do not." It is usually used with action verbs, and placed before the verb. When used
in conjunction with action (hada) verbs, it is usually placed after the (hada)
noun and right before (hada). For non-action (hada) verbs, it is placed before
the whole verb.

Formation
[] + []
[an] + [dongsa]
[do not] + [verb]
[] + [] + [ ]
[myeongsa] + [an] + [hada dongsa]
[noun] + [not] + [hada verb]
[] + [ ]
[an] + [hada dongsa]
[not] + [hada verb]

Example Sentences
1. .
oneul hakgyo an gasseoyo.
I didn't go to school today.
2. .
jeo-neun gongbu an haeyo.
I don't study.

3. .
keopi-reul an johahaeyo.
I don't like coffee.

-do doeda

-
may, can
Category
Sentence Ending Particle
TOPIK Level
Level
Beginner

- (do doeda) is a grammatical construction that asks for, or gives permission to


conduct a certain activity. This construction can be translated as "May I... (verb)?" or
"Is it alright to (verb)," when it is used as a question. When it is used to give someone
permission, it can be translated as "You may (verb)" or "It's alright if you (verb)." It is
used in conjunction with action verbs. The final verb, expresses tense and
politeness level.
Negation occurs in the front of the construction before the verb. The negation of this
structure can be translated as "May I not (verb)?" or "Is it ok if I don't (verb)" when
used to ask for permission. When it is used to allow someone, or to tell someone they
don't have to do something it can be translated as "You don't have to (verb)."

Formation
Action Verb Stem + // Conjugation +
(jada) - to sleep
+ +
+ ( + = - contraction)
- To be allowed to sleep.
. . ? (Teacher. My head hurts. May I sleep?)

Example Sentences
1., . ?
(Dad, I finished eating. May I use the computer?)
2. .
(Jiyun may also come.)
3. ?
(May I call tomorrow?)
4. ?
(Is it alright if I don't drink this?)