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c

c
CALCIUM (Ca++)
C "ITI " CAUI"
" MAL/PA"IC VALUE HYPECALCEMIA C "ITI " CAUI" HYPECALCEMIA HYP CALCEMIA
HYP CALCEMIA
c c *Œc Increased calcium absorption: *Œc Interference with absorption of
  

 c c  /c /c cccc c -5ŒcŒŒcc c.c calcium from I tract:
 c ŒcŒ)c c -5Œc)c'c)ccŒc c‰.Œ6• Œ6.c c*Œcc'c
ccc c‰c((c(c c •c%c5Œ.c
c*cc-01c2(c&cc c,(c2ŒŒc/c
 c c‰.Œc ecreased calcium excretion:
c3 c4c (Œc(/c(ŒŒc
c*Œcc c c''ŒŒ.c
  cc ''ŒŒ.4c
c*cc-01c2c c !cc c%c((c(c
   cc
3c/ccc4c c c'c6cŒ cÃ.(c c!ccc
c cÃ.(c Increased bone resorption of calcium: c~ccc c•c%c'ŒŒ.c2Œ)4
c c Œc c Ã.((. c!ŒcŒŒc(c ecreased ionized fraction of
cc c(.c c ~.cÃ.(.c Œc5Œ.c calcium:
c c c%(ccc%!c c ~c6c c,ŒcŒc29c7c4c c)
c 2.('54c c .5Œc c#Œc(c29c*)7c4c cŒc(Œc
Calcium in Foods c c%c c c'cŒŒŒc
c*((c(c cÃ.(((cŒ.cc
 !"c#$$%& cc c%c Malignancy that causes bone destruction and
* Œc(c c'c
c cc cÃŒc release of calcium or PTH into the bloodstream: c
* c rug induced:
c c c+.c c‰ cŒcccŒŒcc c
cŒc
c c c".c 6cccc cÃ.(Œc%!c
cŒc2c1+c*c
c 'c c,Œc)c c*Œc2/c‰)7c.( cÃ)7c c".(c (4c
c c c ./c(ccŒc .(/c)/c./c(.cc c,ŒcŒ(c c*c''c(Œcc
c c 1+c c'cc4c c ccc5c 'c'c
c Œcc c5c c"cc2‰/c(/c
c.c c"(cŒc
c (Œc c*(c ŒŒŒ.Œ/c.4c
ccc c,ccc
c (cc cÃ.(Œccc c".(c
cÃ5c~Œc#Œc c~(c
c )c c c c,ccccc
1+c urgical removal of parathyroid:
c cc c~.(c 28cŒcŒŒc'cc/c).c
cŒŒcc
c )cc c•c ŒŒ4c ccŒ(c
cÃ.((.c
c ŒŒc !c c,(c.c c%c
c!ŒcŒ)cŒcŒcŒc
c (c c6c Hemoconcentration of calcium: cÃ.(Œccc c(.cc
c ‰c(c c~.c c7cc2c''ŒŒ.4c
cc(.Œ.
c cc c!cŒŒc'c c%.
thers:c
c c 2).c4c c c'c"c
ther: c*7c.c
*"*+ , #$!+#+-%c ‰c
cŒc c*.c
#$$%& c cŒc(.Œc
cŒ.c c#cc
c )c c(.c
c+(Œc.(ŒŒc'c'Œ.c cÃ(ŒcŒc
c .c)c c‰6cc
c,(cc'Œc cÃ.(c
c Œc c%(c
c~7cc cÃ.(c
c .c c+.ccŒŒc
c~ŒŒ.c c+8cc
c!Œc.c(c c"(.c
c~.Œ.cc
c!c(c c c(.c
c!..c c$Œc2Œ4c
c~c
c&Œc

c
c

c The most prevalent electrolyteccc.cc


c regulatedc.ccparathyroid glandscccŒc'cVitamin cc
c ëë c'cc.7cŒŒcccccccc
c ŒŒcŒŒcc((5.c:c'.c6cc:cccc(/cc
c c(љ)protein c/ccc(љ)calcium ccccc
c (ј)calciumcc(ј)parathyroidchormoneccc((c
c (љ)calciumcc(ј)phosphorusccc.c((c
c
c cŒŒcŒŒcccccc c
Mc cŒc
Mc c'cc(c
Mc ŒcŒŒc2c(4c
Mc ŒŒc(Œ)cŒ.c
Mc cŒc
McŒc'c)ccŒŒcŒcŒŒcc5c
Mccc(ccc'ccccnot by itselfc