You are on page 1of 24

transformer

1882 Lucien Gaulard John Dixon Gibbs

8 12

8-1

8-1 primary winding
primary coilsecondary winding
secondary coil

N1

N2

8-1
188

V1

E1

E2

8-2

8-2
msin tE1
E2
d
dt
d sin t
N1 m
N1 mcos t
dt

E1 N1

N1 msin t

d
dt
d sin t
N2 mcos t
N2 m
dt

E2 N2

N2 msin t

E1 rms E2 rms

8-1

1
1
E1 rms
N1 m
2 fN1 m 4.44N1f
2
2

4.44N1fBmA

8-2

E2 rms

1
1
N2 m
2 fN2 m 4.44N2f
2
2

4.44N2fBmA
189

8-1
f

N1

N2

Bm

Hz

Wb

/
Wb/m2
m2

2000
200 310 3 60

E1 rms 4.44N1f

2000 4.44N160310 3
N1 2500
E2 rms 4.44N2f

200 4.44N260310 3
N2 250
2500 250


0 0
V1V2I1I2
d
dt
d
V2 E2 N2
dt
V1 E1 N1

190

8-3

N
V1
1 a
V2
N2
S1 S2 V1I1 V2I2
8-4

V1
I
2
V2
I1

8-38-4
8-5

V1
I
N
2 1a
V2
I1
N2
8-2

V1

V2

I1

I2

N1

N2

8-5
N1 N2 a 1V1 V2
N1
N2 a 1V2 V1

191

5 1000
20

V1
I
N
2 1a
V2
I1
N2
1000 20

5
V2
I1
V2 200I1 4
S2 V2I2 20020 4000
I1=4
I2=20
1000

V1

200

V2

8-3

4000

Io exciting current
ImIm
IcIc 90
8-6
8-6

Io Im Ic

192

Im Iosin

Ic Iocos

8-3

Io

Im

Ic

Io Im Ic Io Im Ic
8-4(c) Ic 0.3AIm 0.4A 90
|Io| 0.5A
8-18-2
8-4

Io

V1

E1

E2

()
V1 ()
Io ()
E2 ()
E1 ()

Io

Im

E1

V1

Ic

E2

8-4

193


V1 E1 cos 0Pc
8-7

Pc E1Ic E1I0cos 0 V1I0cos


I2
N2I2I2 ZL 8-8
8-8

I2

V2
ZL

N2I2
E1E2
I2IL18-9
8-9

IL1I2 N2N1
3
I0IL1 I2

leakage flux 1 2 8-5

leakage reactanceX1
X2

194


I1

N1

N2

I2

8-5

I2 I2R2 I2X2
8-10
8-10

V2 E2 I2R2 jI2X2

8-4

V2

E2

I2

R2

X2

Io IL1I1I1
I1R1 I1X1

8-11

I1 Io IL1
V1 E1 I1R1 jI1X1

8-5

V1

E1

I1

IL1

Io

R1

X1

195


8-6
8-7

I1

R1

V1

N1

X1

N2

E1

R2

X2

I2

E2

V2

ZL

8-6

I1
IL1

I1R1
j I1X1

V1' E1

Io

E1

E2

Im

j I2X2
Ic

V2

I2R2

V1
I2

8-7

196

220 40
0.2

Pc E1Ic E1Iocos 0 V1Iocos 0


Ic Io
40 220Ic 220Io0.2Ic 0.182Io 0.909
Im I2o I2c
0.9092 0.1822 0.891

0.182

0.891

N1 N2 a 1

197

8-2

8-8

I1

R1

X1

IL1

I2

R2

X2

IO

V1

Im

Bm

Ic
Gc

E1

N1

E2

V2

ZL

N2

8-8

8-9
8-10

I1

R1

I2
IL1 I2' a

X1

R2' a2R2

Io
Ic

X2' a2X2
Im

V1

E1 E2' aE2
Gc

V2' aV2

Bm

8-9
198

ZL' a2ZL

a a
a2 a
8-12

E2' aE2V2' aV2


I2'

I2
a

R2' a2R2
X2' a2X2ZL' a2ZL
a a a2
a2
8-13

E1'

E1
V
V1' 1
a
a

I1' aI1IL1' aIL1


Io' aIoIm' aImIc' aIc
Gc' a2GcBm' a2Bm
R1'

R1
X
X1' 21
a2
a

X1
R1
'
R1' a2 X1 a2 I ' aI I R
L1
L1
2
2
I1 aI1
'

8
X2

I aIo
'
o

Ic' aIc

Im' aIm

G a Gc

Bm'
a2Bm

V1
V1' a
'
c

E1
E1' a E2

8-10

V2

ZL

199

8-9 Io IL1
8-11
R1

X1

I1 IL1

R2'=a2R2

X2'=a2X2

I2'
Io

Gc

V1

Bm

V2'

Req1=R1+a2R2

Xeq1=X1+a2X2

V1

V2'

8-11

8-11 R1X1
R2'X2'Req1
Xeq1 8-10
Req2Xeq2

200

8-14

Req1 R1 a2R2 a2Req2


Xeq1 X1 a2X2 a2Xeq2
Zeq1 a2Zeq2
R1
R
R2 eq1
a2
a2
X
X
Xeq2 21 X2 eq1
a
a2
Z
Zeq2 eq1
a2
Req2

8-6

Req1

Xeq1

Zeq1

Req2

Xeq2

Zeq2

2 0.002
30

Req1 R1 a2R2 2 3020.002 3.8


3.8

10
Req1Req2

Req1 Req2

Req1 Req2

Req1 Req2

201

3300 9
0.01 30

8-3

base valueSbaseVbase
IbaseZbase
8-15Per
Unit valuePU SpuVpuIpu
Zpu

8-15

SbaseVbaseIbase
Zbase 4 Sbase
Vbase8-16
8-16

Sbase
Vbase
V
V 2
Zbase base base
Ibase
Sbase
Ibase

202

500kVA 22.8kV
0.02

Vbase2
Sbase
228002
1040

500000

Zbase

0.021040 20.8
20.8

100kVA22kV/220V
10

Vbase2 220002
4840

Sbase 100000
10

0.002
4840

Zbase

Zbase

Vbase2
2202

0.484
Sbase 100000

Zeq2

Zeq1
10

0.001
a2
1002

203

0.001

0.002
0.484

0.002

0.002

500kVA 22.8kV
20.8 500kVA 22.8kV

204

N1

I1

N2

V1

I2

V2

N1
V
I
1 2
N2
V2
I1

I1

R1

X1

IL1

I2

R2

X2

Io

V1

Ic

Im

Gc

Bm

E1

N1

E2

V2

ZL

N2

205

V1

V2
a
a

I2

I1
a
a2

R2

R1
a2
a2

X2

X1
a2
a2

Z2

Z1
a2
a2

G2

G1
a2
a2

B2

B1
a2

Sbase
Vbase
V
V 2
Zbase base base
Ibase
Sbase
Z
Zpu
Zbase
Ibase

206


8-1 -

N1 N2 f
m
1
1
Nf
Nf
4.44N2f m

4.44 1 m
4.44 2 m

4.44N1f

3000V 200V
0.01 60Hz

200

150

75

60

220V/110V60Hz 220V50Hz
12

20

12

8-1 -

I
N
E1
1 2
E2
I2
N1

E1
I
N
2 1
E2
I1
N2

3300V/220V 160

I
N
E1
1 1
E2
I2
N2
E
I
N
2 1 1
E1
I2
N2

4200

420

240

2400

3150V 105V

2400
120V

80

3300V

100V 3000V

22
110
3
110 75 45 15

207

30 3000V
10A

480

1000

1500

30000 VA

220V/110V 1

0.5

0.25

6.6kV/220V
0.8
120A

3.2

12

A
8-1

110V/220V

12

12
110V

110V

21
220V

208

21
110V

3300V/220V 1 2kW

10

5.5

0.6

200 30
0.3

3.5

0.5

5.5

1.5 A

100kVA2000V/100V 1
2000V 1200

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

8-2

1 0.01
a 10

0.02

0.01

8-3

2200V/110V50kVA
10
9.68

0.484

193.6

0.0242

1000kVA 70kV
0.002pu
0.002

35

9.8

14

209

3000V 20A
3 Z

8-2

210