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CHEMISTRY

Investigatory
Project

Kamal Singh
12th A
K.V. 2 Colaba
Mumbai

FERTILIZERS

Certificate
This is hereby to certify that the
original and genuine investigation
work has been carried out to
investigate about the subject matter
and the related data collection and
investigation has been completed

solely, sincerely and satisfactorily by


Kamal Singh a student of class 12th
A of Kendriya Vidyalaya 2 Colaba
Mumbai , regarding his project
titled
Fertilizers .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
EXAMINER
SIGNATURE

TEACHER SIGNATURE

It would be my utmost
pleasure to express my
sincere thanks to my
Chemistry teacher

Mrs.Shilpa Rana mam in


providing a helping hand in
this project. Her valuable
guidance, support and
supervision all through this
project are responsible for

attaining its present form. I


would also like to thank my
parents and friends as they
encouraged me to put forward
my project.

CONTENTS
Background of study
Statement of the problem
Hypothesis
Significance of the study
Score and Limitation
Definition of terms
Experimentation and

Analysis

Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
Plants need to be fertilized because most soil
does not provide essential nutrients required for
optimum growth. Even if the person is lucky enough
to start with great garden soil, as your plants grow,
they absorb nutrients and leave the soil less fertile.
Nutrients in the soil also help plants grow strong.
Some nutrients that plants need are nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and
sulfur.
Fertilizers, also known as food elements, are
materials produced to supple these elements in a
readily available form of plant use. It helps to make
plants grow faster which help some farmers and
gardeners for their business. Choosing the right
fertilizer help us to get everything we need from the
plants we eat or from the meat of animals that eat
plants. Plants are factories that do all of the work to
process the basic elements of life and make them
available to us.

Fertilizers help feed the world. The FARO has


stated that after land and water, fertilizers are
probably the most important input leading to
increased yields. It is inherently difficult to estimate
the share of fertilizers in increasing agricultural
output since so many factors are involved. It has
been estimated that fertilizer contribute about 40%
of the nitrogen in human protein consumption, it
follows that nearly one third of this protein depends
on fertilizers. Therefore, it is important for us to
know which fertilizers to use for us to sustain
properly the needs of every plant.
Increased crop production largely relies on the type
of fertilizers used to supplement essential nutrients
for plants. Fertilizer application is required to
replace crop land nutrients that have been consumed
by previous plant growth with the ultimate goal of
maximizing productivity and economic returns. Now
a day, there is increased emphasis on the impact on
soil environment due to continuous use of chemical
fertilizers. The impact of chemical fertilizer
application on agricultural land is seen not only in
terms of the soil quality but also on the survival of
soil organisms dwelling there in. Chemical fertilizers
provide three major plant nutrients; nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium or NPK. However, the
ever increasing cost of commercial fertilizer products
driven, in part, by the inevitable depletion of global
phosphorus, is forcing producers to look for
alternative sources like bio-fertilizers and other
organically-based solutions. In literature, some
researchers have concluded the chemical fertilizers

to be harmful for soil organisms but on the


contradictory they have been supported too to be
beneficial as far as their food supply is concern. The
primary advantages of using biosolids as a fertilizer
alternative are cost efficiencies and the presence of
nutrients and organic matter. Returning these
valuable materials back to the soils is a critical
element in long-term sustainability.

Statement of the
problem
This research aim to compare 2 different brand of
fertilizer: Chemical fertilizer and Citrus Sinensis
Peeling (bio-fertilizers), specifically the researchers
sought to answer the following questions:

How do the researchers determine the effectively


of these product?
What are advantages and disadvantages of using
these fertilizers?
Which fertilizer will make plants grow faster and
healthier?
Which fertilizer is better and safer to use: Citrus
Sinensis Peeling or branded fertilizer?

Hypothesis
The researchers will determine the effectivity of the
product by testing the effectivity of 2 brand of
fertilizer in separate plants (Plant A and Plant B).
After the testing, the researchers will record the
result and make a statement about the research.

Significance of the
study
The study is beneficial to:
1.
Farmers and gardeners- the benefit of this
study will help them to improve the quality of
their products, save time with their work, and get
a higher profit.
2.
Environment- the benefit of this study will
help our environment by helping the soil and
plants to sustain their needs and provide the
essential nutrients required for optimum growth.
3.
Agricultural company- the benefit of this
study will help them to give a good service to
their customers by giving them a high and good
quality products (ex: rice, vegetables, and fruits)
4.
Community- the benefit of this study will help
the community
to sense this as a source of
income if made into a business.

Score and Limitation


The following information of this research will
come from different textbooks, surveys of different
researchers, information stated of the product, and
some information in the internet about the subject
which is plants and fertilizers. The factors to

consider covered by this study are to evaluate the


effectiveness, cost, and functionality of the fertilizer.
Through the study shows high feasibility, there are
still boundaries that shall be set to further facilitate
the research process. In the study, there shall be two
set-ups; thus set-up A: plant fertilized with citrus
sinensis peelings, set-up B: plant fertilize with
branded fertilizer. The researchers will then identify
its difference.
The following limitations are:
Sunlight is one of the important materials in
doing this study. Without sunlight, this
experiment cant be processed.
Some informations gathered from surveys,
questionnaires and reference materials.
Cost and availability that will be covered from
this study.
Time management

Definition of terms

The following technical terms are defined in


this study.
Nitrogen- tasteless odorless gaseous chemical
element
Phosphorus- poisonous waxy chemical element
Potassium- silver white metallic chemical
element
Calcium- a soft gray alkaline earth metal, fifth
most abundant element by mass in the earths
crust.
Sulfur- an abundant, multivalent non-metal
Citrus Sinensis- the scientific name of sweet
oranges. It is what most consumers commonly
buy.

Experimentation

The research about the comparison between 2


different brands of fertilizer was aimed to help the
community to be aware of the importance of
fertilizers and also to give them the information in
which fertilizer to use for their plants. Books,
internet, and other references materials were used
as the primary sources of information to strengthen
the researchers view on this topic. But these were
not enough, so experiments were conducted by the
researchers to gain additional information.
A.

Materials:

Pot A and Pot B


Good quality of soil
Seeds to be use (any
kind of plant: pechay)
Water
Sunlight
Branded Fertilizer
Orange peelings

Methodology
Procedure:

1.
Sow seeds thinly on shallow furrows across
the seed pot, and cover lightly with fine topsoil.
Do not broadcast seeds when sowing to avoid
thick germination in one place.
2.

Water the seed pot daily. Watering and other


cultural management practices should be
regularly done.

3.
Apply liberal amount of fertilizer (Citrus
Sensis Peeling for pot A and branded fertilizer for
pot B) at the base of the plants, then cover
lightly with soil and water immediately.
4.
Water the plant whenever necessary or
depending on your own judgment or observation
of the plant
5.
Always remember to give both pots a
presence of sunlight for their process of growing.
6.

Every week, measure the height of both


plants.

Observe
As long as the researchers followed the
procedures, success of experimentation will be

achieved. Factors such as sunlight could affect


the study. In addition, if this is not available,
possible that this study could fail. However,
researchers could try it once more again and
again until the study is evaluated.

Analysis of fertilizers
Elements:
NITROGEN:
Major fertilizers containing N:
(a) Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)
(b) Potassium nitrate (KNO3)
(c) Urea (NH2CONH2)
(d) Ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4]

Preparation:
Most of nitrogen fertilizers are obtained form
synthetic NH3. This chemical compound is used as
gas or in water
solution or it is converted to salts.
Nitrogen Deficiencies
(a) Pale, green, yellow leaves
(b) Stunted growth
Nitrogen in Excess
(a) Lower disease resistance
(b) Weaken stem
(c) Decay maturity
(d) Lower fruit quality

PHOSPHORUS:
Major fertilizers containing P:
(a)DAP Diammonium phosphate [(NH4)2PO4]
(b)Ca3(PO4)2 Calcium phosphate
(c)Triple phosphate and super phosphate
Preparation:
Most phosphoric fertilizers are obtained by the
treatment of calcium phosphate with H2SO4 and
phosphoric
fertilizers. Calcium phosphate is mainly derived from
phosphate rock and bones. Phosphate rock is found
in

deposits of sedimentary origin laid down on beds of


ocean floor.
Phosphorus deficiencies
(a) Pale purple colour on the underside of leaves
(b) Reduced flower, fruits and seed production
Advantages of P:
1. Encourage cell division
2. Hastens maturity, offsetting quick growth caused
by N
3. Encourage root growth
4. Increase disease resistance
Phosphorous in excess
1. Causes dehydration of roots
2. Increase soluble
salt content of medium
POTASSIUM:
Major fertilizers containining K:
1. Potassium chloride (Potash)
2. Potassium nitrate (KNO3)

Preparation:
It is the seventh most abundant element found in
earths crust. Potassium chloride which is principal
commercial
form of potash and some KNO3 is also used for
production of potash fertilizer.
Potassium deficiencies:

1. Leaves appear dry and scorched


2. Irregular yellow areas on the surface
Advantages of K:
1. Increase disease resistance
2. Encourage healthy root and stems
3. Essential for starch formation
4. Efficient use of CO2
Potassium in excess
1. Affects soil acidity
2. Reduced flower, fruit and seed production

Fertilisers V
Experiment
1. Take a
pinch of
fertilizer +
few drops of
dil. H2SO4
2. Take a
pinch of
fertilizer +
few drops of
conc.
H2SO4

Observation
No reaction

Inference
Dil. group
absent

No reaction

Conc. group
absent

3. Take 1 ml
No reaction
of soda
extract and
acidify it with

Volatile group
absent

dil
HCl. Add few
drops of BaCl2
soln. to it.
4. A pinch of
fertilizer +
few drops of
NaOH soln.
Heat it.

No reaction

Zero group
absent

5. Take 1 ml
of O.S
(original
solution) in a
solution
and to it add
few drops of
dil. HCl

No reaction

1st group
absent

6. Take 1 ml
of O.S
(original
solution) in a
solution,
to it add few
drops of dil.
HCl. Warm
the solution,
and pass H2S
gas.

No reaction

2nd group
absent

7. Take 1 ml
No reaction
of O.S
(original
solution) in a
solution
and to it add
few drops of
dil. HCl .add
few drops
of conc.
HNO3.heat it.
Cool it. Add a
pinch of solid
NH4Cl
followed by
excess of
NH4OH.
8. Take 1 ml
No reaction
of O.S
(original
solution) in a
solution
and to it add
few drops of
dil. HCl. Add a
pinch of
solid NH4Cl
followed by
excess of
NH4OH. Warm
the solution
and pass H2S

3rd group
absent

IV group
absent

gas.
9. Take 1 ml
White ppt
of OS + few
drops of dil.
HCl + a pinch
of solid NH4Cl
+ 1 or 2 ml of
(NH4)2CO3

V group
present, may
be
Ba2+, Kr2+
or Ca2+

10. Filter the White ppt


white
precipitate,
take a part of
it, and
dissolve it in
minimum
amount of
CH3COOH.
Now add
(NH4)2C2O4

Ca2+
confirmed.

11. Flame
test

Ca2+
confirmed.

Brick red
flame

RESULT
Fertilizer has Ca2+ as cation. (The fertilizer detected
is Vermi Compost).
*****

FertilizerIII
Experiment

Observation

Inference

1. Take 1 ml
Prussian blue Nitrogen
of Lassaigne colour
present in
Solution
elemental
(L.S.)* in a
form.
test
tube and to it
add few
drops of
freshly
prepared
ferrous
sulphate
solution.
Heat it. Cool
it. Add few
drops of
conc. H2SO4

RESULT
The given fertilizer has N in elemental form. (The
fertilizer detected is urea).

(Urea)

O.C.N + Na NaCN

FERTILIZER 5(vermi compost)


Ca2+ (aq) + CO32(aq) CaCO3 (s) +2CH3COOH + CaCO3
Ca [CH3COO]2 + H2O +CO2+Ca2+ (aq) +C2O42CaC2O4(s)

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Following Books and websites were a source for
my project.

Wikipedia
NCERT Chemistry Textbook for class 12
ECO CORP.
Google