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Medical Engineering & Physics

Manuscript Draft
Manuscript Number: MEP-D-16-00652
Title: Precision and Accuracy of Motion Tracking System for Pedicle Screw
Placement in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
Article Type: Paper
Section/Category: Regular Issue Paper
Keywords: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Spinal surgery; Motion
capture; Image guidance; Pedicle screws; Intraoperative Imaging
Abstract: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3-dimensional spinal
deformity involving lateral curvature and axial rotation. Surgical
intervention involves inserting pedicle screws into the spine, requiring
high accuracy to prevent damage to the spinal cord and blood vessels.
Motion capture systems have been widely used for gait analysis because of
its flexibility in position and orientation tracking. Pedicle screw
insertion in spinal surgery require accuracies of 1 mm and 5o in
translation and rotation. The objective of this study was to evaluate
Optitrack Prime 13W motion capture cameras to determine if they can
achieve adequate accuracy for screw insertion guidance. Static precision,
camera and tracked rigid body configurations, translational and
rotational accuracy were investigated. A 1-hour camera warm-up time was
required to achieve precisions of 0.15mm and 0.13o. A three-camera system
configuration with cameras at equal height but staggered depth achieved
the best accuracy. A triangular rigid body with 7.9 mm markers had
superior accuracy. The translational accuracy for motions up to 150 mm
was 0.25 mm while rotational accuracy was 4.9o for rotations in two
directions from 0o to 70o. Required translational and rotational
accuracies were achieved using this motion capture system.

*Highlights (for review)

Highlights

Accuracy of Optitrack Prime 13W cameras evaluated for spinal surgery


Optitrack cameras have 0.15mm static precision over 5 hours
Three camera system more accurate than four cameras
Cameras have accuracy of 0.25mm and 4.9o for rotations up to 70o

*Manuscript
Click here to view linked References

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Precision and Accuracy of Motion Tracking System for Pedicle Screw


Placement in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

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Andrew Chana, Janelle Aguillonb, Doug Hillc,d, Edmond Louc,d*

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Dr. Edmond H. M. Lou


6-110F, Clinical Science Building
8440 112 Street
Edmonton, AB
Canada, T6G 2B7. Tel.: +1 780 735 8212; fax: +1 780 735 7972.
E-mail address: elou@ualberta.ca (E. Lou)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, 1098 Research Transition Facility,


8308-114 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2V2
b

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, 12th Floor Donadeo Innovation Centre for Engineering (ICE), 9211 - 116 Street, Edmonton, Alberta,
Canada, T6G 1H9
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Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, 2D - Walter C Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre,


8440 - 112 Street, Edmonton , Alberta, Canada, T6G 2B7
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Alberta Health Services Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, 10230 111 Avenue NW, Edmonton,
Alberta, Canada, T5G 0B7
*Corresponding author:

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Abstract

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Keywords

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Highlights

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Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3-dimensional spinal deformity involving lateral curvature and axial
rotation. Surgical intervention involves inserting pedicle screws into the spine, requiring high accuracy to
prevent damage to the spinal cord and blood vessels. Motion capture systems have been widely used
for gait analysis because of its flexibility in position and orientation tracking. Pedicle screw insertion in
spinal surgery require accuracies of 1 mm and 5o in translation and rotation. The objective of this study
was to evaluate Optitrack Prime 13W motion capture cameras to determine if they can achieve
adequate accuracy for screw insertion guidance. Static precision, camera and tracked rigid body
configurations, translational and rotational accuracy were investigated. A 1-hour camera warm-up time
was required to achieve precisions of 0.15mm and 0.13o. A three-camera system configuration with
cameras at equal height but staggered depth achieved the best accuracy. A triangular rigid body with 7.9
mm markers had superior accuracy. The translational accuracy for motions up to 150 mm was 0.25 mm
while rotational accuracy was 4.9o for rotations in two directions from 0o to 70o. Required translational
and rotational accuracies were achieved using this motion capture system.

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Spinal surgery; Motion capture; Image guidance; Pedicle screws;
Intraoperative Imaging;

Optitrack Prime 13W motion capture cameras have static precision of 0.15mm over six hours
Three camera system more accurate than four cameras
Translational accuracy at 0.25mm for translations up to 150mm
Rotational accuracy at 4.9o for rotations up to 70o in two directions

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Abbreviations

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Funding Sources

AIS: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, 3D: Three Dimensional, CT: Computed Tomography, RMS: RootMean-Square

This work was supported by Alberta Spine Foundation, Alberta Innovates: Technology Futures, Natural
Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

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Introduction

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Accuracy in insertion pedicle screws is critical to prevent complications including injury to nerve roots,
spinal cord or vascular structures, pedicle fracture, and instrumentation failure [4,5]. To maximize
accuracy, standardized free hand insertion techniques as well as fluoroscopic-based guidance and
computed tomography (CT) navigation have been developed [6,7].

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The free-hand method involves insertion of pedicle screws based on visible anatomical landmarks and
the tactile feedback, relying heavily on surgeon experience and correct identification of the anatomical
landmarks [6,8]. Breach rates for free-hand methods have been reported to range from 0.1% to 66.8%
[912]. Fluoroscopy is often used to confirm screw placement when free-hand methods are used,
though it can also be used to guide screw placement. CT navigation uses mobile intraoperative CT
systems, to allow for 3D reconstruction of bony anatomy, alongside motion capture cameras to localize
surgical tools relative to the bony anatomy. Breach rates for fluoroscopy range from 0-50.7% while
breach rates using CT guidance range from 7.5-7.9% [1317]. However, while the range of breach rates
appear to be decreased using image guidance methods, radiation exposure remains a concern for both
fluoroscopy and intraoperative CT, particularly in the pediatric population [7]. Furthermore, in the case
of intraoperative CT scans, screw insertional time is increased to allow for registration between image
and vertebral landmarks [18].

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Motion capture system has been used extensively in gait analysis, providing accuracy of within 1% error
for 120 mm translations [19]. As many small size and low cost motion capture systems are commercially
available, applying motion capture systems in intraoperative guidance of pedicle screw insertions has
grown in interest. Motion capture cameras have light emitting diodes that emit light into a capture area.
Markers in the capture area reflect the light back to the camera which then determine the size and
location of the marker [20]. Using multiple markers and cameras, the motion capture system is then
able to triangulate the actual position of markers in 3D space.

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In the surgical field, measurement error of surgical optical navigators has been shown to range from 0.21.9 mm, whether for placement of surgical instruments or measurements of landmarks [2123].
However, the theoretical accuracy required for pedicle screw placement has been found to be less than
1 mm and 5o [24]. In using motion capture for the purpose of guiding pedicle screw placement, ensuring
adequate accuracy within the capture volume of the operating table, while minimizing the form-factor
and cost of cameras is important.

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The objectives of this study are to evaluate Optitrack Prime 13W motion capture cameras for three
attributes: (1) to investigate the static precision of the motion capture system, (2) to determine the

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a spinal deformity characterized by lateral curvature, often
combined with vertebral rotation. It has an overall prevalence of 0.47-5.2%, with a higher prevalence
and severity in girls than in boys [1]. Surgery is recommended for patients with curvatures greater than
50o who have not yet reached skeletal maturity or have rapid curve progression and functional
impairment [2]. Posterior fusion surgery utilizing instrumentation has become the gold standard of
surgical treatment. Segmental pedicle screws are often used to attach the rods to the vertebral body [3].

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optimal camera and marker configuration for highest tracking accuracy and (3) to evaluate the
translational and rotational accuracy of the system for varying movement magnitudes.

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Methods

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Camera Specifications and Software Configuration

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The tracking software, Motive from the manufacturer (Tracker v. 1.10.0, NaturalPoint, United States),
was used to obtain motion tracking data. Calibration of the Optitrack system was completed with the
Optitrack CW-250 Calibration wand and the Optitrack CS-200 Calibration square for setting the origin.
The built-in calibration wanding process was used to calibrate the system which involved moving the
calibration wand throughout the entire capture volume for 30 seconds until the calibration accuracy was
shown to be exceptional by the software. Optitrack 7.9mm markers were placed on Optitrack M3 9mm
bases. The study evaluated the accuracy and precision of the built-in rigid body recognition system,
which is able to create a rigid body from three or more markers that are mounted on a single object.
Position and rotation values of the center of the rigid body were exported as XYZ translational
coordinates and Pitch, Yaw and Roll rotational angles using the XYZ Euler rotation convention.

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Static Testing

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The ten-minute trials involved continuous recording of the position and orientation at 120 FPS for 10
minutes. All the collected data were used to calculate the mean and standard deviation of these values
and the test were repeated three times. To determine if cameras required a heat-up time, two sets trials
were completed: the first with cameras recording data within five minutes of turning on from ambient
room temperature (20oC) and the second with cameras being pre-heated for an hour prior to recording.
The six-hour trial involved obtaining positional and rotational data every five minutes, acquiring data at
120 frames per second over two seconds to mimic the duration of a long spinal surgery.

Optitrack Prime 13W motion capture cameras (Prime 13W, NaturalPoint, United States) were selected
specifically due to their wide 82o x 70o field of view and small size at 6.9x6.9x2.2 cm. The cameras were
set at 120 frames per second and used 850 nm infrared light to minimize interference from overhead
lights. A schematic of camera positions relative to the capture volume is shown in Figure 1. Cameras
were mounted on tripods and placed at one side of the required capture volume with dimensions of
0.8m deep, 0.6m wide and 0.6m high. Cameras were then placed 0.8-1.2m vertically from the floor of
the capture volume and a horizontal distance of 1.0-1.2m from the closest face of the capture volume.
This setup was chosen to mimic an operating room where cameras would be placed at the head of the
patient above the operating space. The positions of cameras for evaluating camera configuration are
described under Camera and Rigid Body Configuration Testing.

The precision of the cameras was determined using two experiments: ten-minute trials and six-hour
trial. Precision was defined as the 95% confidence interval of the standard deviation of positional or
rotational data. A right triangle with dimensions of 9cm x 12cm x 15cm was created with a 3D printer
(Makerbot Replicator 2X, United States) to hold the markers in a stationary position (Figure 1).

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Camera and Rigid Body Configuration Testing

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Rigid body testing involved comparing the triangular marker configuration on the standard 7.9mm
markers (standard rigid body) and the 6.4mm markers (small markers) as well as a linear configuration
(thin rigid body) with 7.9 mm markers. Lastly, a custom 96mm calibration wand was compared to the
standard Optitrack CW-250 wand to determine if use of a smaller calibration wand with a comparable
size to the rigid body would affect accuracy. Ten translations of 40mm were performed for each trial.

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Motion Testing

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Rotational testing involved determining the accuracy of rotation values with varying magnitudes in
different directions. Euler angles were used, with the X direction along the vertical axis, the Y direction
as the long axis along the cameras and the Z direction being the short axis along the cameras (refer to
Figure 2). Rotation about the X-axis was measured with a digital protractor (Model 1702, General Tools
& Instruments, United States) with a listed precision of 0.3o. Rotations about the Y and Z-axis were
measured with 3D-printed analog protractors with a precision of 0.5o. A custom protractor built from
Lego (Lego, Denmark) combined with custom 3D-printed components using VeroWhitePlus (Objet30
Pro, Stratasys, United States) was built to provide rotations in each direction as shown in Figure 3b. To
test the accuracy of rotation, a set of rotation variables were tested which is summarized in Table 1.

To determine the optimal camera configuration, multiple camera positions were evaluated with
combinations of three or four cameras. Cameras at aligned or staggered at heights to a range of 15cm,
and cameras aligned or at staggered depths to a range of 20 cm as shown in Figure 2 were tested. An
object with known dimensions, a rigid body with three adjustable arms to mount markers, was created
with a 3D printer (Objet30 Pro, Stratasys, United States) and then attached onto a digital caliper
(Mitutoyo, Japan)(Figure 3a) was used to assess accuracy. The accuracy of the caliper was 0.01mm. The
rigid body was translated ten times by 40mm for each of the eight camera configurations, with the most
accurate camera positions being selected for further evaluating rigid body configurations.

Translation magnitude was tested with the rigid body mounted on a digital caliper and translated three
times by 10mm, 20mm, 40mm, 80mm and 150mm in X, Y and Z directions separately. The magnitude of
these movements was based on the translations required to move across the dimensions of the lumbar
vertebrae of a standardized phantom spine model at approximately 3 x 4 x 4 cm.

Table 1: Rotational Variables Tested in Motion Capture System


Variable Changed
Description of Variable
Single Angles
30O and -60o rotations about each axis (six trials)
Multiple Angle
Combinations of -30o, 45o and -60o rotations about each axis (six trials)
Small Angles
Combinations of 5o and 10o about each axis. (eight trials)
Large Angles
Increments of 60o, 65o, 70o and 75o about two axes (twelve trials)
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With each variable, each combination was tested three times. Angle values were selected to cover the
range of motions of pedicle screw placement.

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Statistical Analysis
Accuracy for both translational and rotational tests was calculated as a root-mean-square (RMS) error
using the equation:

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(1)

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In equation (1), XN represents the position value being compared to the theoretical caliper measured
value Xo while N is the number of samples taken.

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The standard error of the mean value of the position was calculated as:

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(2)

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In equation (2), X is the mean value of the position, s is the standard deviation of the sampled position
values, N is the number of position values and t is the corresponding t value for that number of position
values at a 95% confidence interval.

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Results

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Static Testing

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A six-hour timeline of static position and rotation from the initial position is shown in Figure 5. A
decrease in position of more than 2mm was noted in the Y direction, while a decrease of more than
0.2mm was noted in both X and Z directions. Rotational precision was more consistent over six hours,
varying between -0.17o to 0.06o with a standard deviation of 0.03o.

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Camera and Rigid Body Configuration Testing

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Figure 7 compares the positional RMS accuracy and standard error of the standard triangular rigid body
on both 7.9mm and 6.4mm markers, the linear rigid body with standard 7.9 mm markers, and the

Figure 4 presents the 95% confidence interval of deviation from origin of rotation and position values for
both ten-minute trials and six-hour trials. For the ten-minute trials, cold-start positional precision was
0.76mm compared with the pre-heat trial at 0.07mm while rotational precision from cold start was
0.36o compared to 0.15o for the pre-heat condition. Six-hour positional precision was 0.74mm with cold
start compared with 0.15mm when omitting the first hour while rotational precision was 0.13o from cold
start compared with 0.12o with first hour omitted.

Figure 6 compares the position RMS accuracy and standard error between the eight configurations. The
configuration with best accuracy used three cameras with staggered height and aligned depth at
0.13mm while the poorest used four cameras with aligned heights and staggered depth at 0.53mm. The
configuration with best repeatability used three cameras with staggered heights and depths of cameras
at 0.03mm while the poorest used four cameras with staggered height and aligned depth at 0.12mm. On
average, three cameras were superior to four cameras at 0.109mm vs 0.190mm, staggered height
superior to aligned height at 0.143mm vs 0.156mm, and aligned depth superior to staggered depth at
0.122mm vs 0.177mm.

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custom 12cm wand for calibration. The RMS accuracy was 0.21mm for the standard rigid body, 0.21mm
for smaller markers, 0.51mm for thin rigid body and 0.28mm for custom wand. The standard error was
0.11mm for standard, 0.11mm for small markers, 0.09mm for thin rigid body and 0.20mm for custom
wand.

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Motion Testing

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Figure 9 compares the rotational RMS accuracy and standard error of varying magnitudes and directions
of rotation. The accuracy from single rotations was 1.7o, three rotations less than 60o at 3.8o, two
rotations less than 10o at 1.71o, two rotations between 60o and 69o at 4.9o and two rotations greater
than 70o at 6.7o. The standard error was less than 0.05o for all rotational tests.

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Discussion

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Camera configuration had surprising results, with three cameras superior to four cameras in both
accuracy and standard error. In addition, camera heights staggered being superior to aligned heights,
and aligned depths superior to staggered height. The variation in height ranged from 10-20cm while
depth variation ranged from 30-40mm. It is possible that keeping multiple cameras in close alignment
improves the redundancy of certain camera perspectives, allowing for improved accuracy in recording.
The three-camera system configured with staggered height and aligned depth was selected as the
superior configuration for the rest of the study. However, it is important to note that the potential for
occlusion of cameras in the operating room may require more cameras to be used.

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The standard rigid body has superior accuracy to the linear rigid body and smaller markers and custom
wand. The superiority of the standard rigid body was expected since having markers along two
dimensions of the three-marker plane would provide more spatial information for tracking than a linear
orientation. In particular, the Z direction has a significantly worse accuracy, likely due to the linear rigid

Figure 8 displays the RMS accuracy and 95% standard error of 10-150mm movements in each direction.
The RMS accuracy when translating 10mm, 20mm, 40mm, 80mm and 150mm was 0.13mm 0.14mm,
0.24mm, 0.12mm and 0.21mm while the standard errors were 0.09mm, 0.152mm, 0.127mm, 0.135mm
and 0.135mm, respectively.

The motion capture cameras collect spatial information at 120 frames per second resulting in
continuously fluctuating values even when markers are not moving. This study found that over ten
minutes, standard errors were greatly improved with an one hour pre-heat period at 0.06mm and 0.14o
compared with 0.76mm and 0.36o. The one hour pre-heat is practical in a surgical setting. Similarly, the
six hour tests showed an improved standard error at 0.15mm and 0.12o compared with 0.374mm and
0.14o. Having a larger standard error in the six-hour positional case was expected as uncontrolled
environmental conditions including temperature and lighting conditions could result in slight deviations
in camera or marker position. It is expected that the operating room would have similar changes over
the screw insertion period. Still, while preliminary testing has shown compatibility of the cameras with
operating room lights and surgical tools, performing accuracy tests in the operating room itself needs to
be completed to ensure transferability.

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body being aligned to the Z direction during movement. The 7.9mm markers would be more easily
tracked and visible than 6.4mm markers.

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Translational accuracy and error was superior in the X direction, while accuracy was poorer in the Z and
error was poorer in the Y directions, though overall accuracy and error both remained below 0.10mm,
regardless of direction. Accuracy travelling 40mm in the Z direction appeared to be an outlier. The X
direction is orthogonal to all three cameras, allowing for the greatest redundancy in motion capture. The
Y and Z directions however are at an angle with respect to the three cameras with motion that is largely
parallel to the cameras orientation. From these translational results, the RMS accuracy of the system
was deemed as 0.25mm, equivalent to the worst RMS accuracy from the translational tests. The
standard error of the measurements was 0.1mm which was less than the static precision of 0.15mm.
The standard error was greater than the ten-minute static precision value of 0.07mm over a 95%
confidence interval, which is expected because the tests involved moving the rigid bodies.

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Regarding rotation, the worst accuracy was for angles greater than 70o at 6.9o. The standard error was
very small relative to these angles with the worst error at 0.05o for angles greater than 70o. Angles
greater than 70o are considered too inaccurate for surgical use, given the poorest accuracy value of 9.1o
compared with the required accuracy of 5.0o.

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Limitations of this study can be grouped into sources of error in camera placement, and measurement
sources of error. Cameras were mounted on tripods which provided adequate stability for the duration
of the study. However, the relative positions of the cameras to each other were not precisely measured,
but were instead placed within the range of distances shown in Figure 2. Similarly, while translations
and rotations of the rigid body were done near the origin of the capture volume, the location of the
tests were not precisely measured. Translations and rotations were done in two directions to minimize
hysteresis. Given the final setting of the motion capture system being in an operating room, these
conditions were deemed adequate and realistic to evaluate accuracy, though further testing in the
operating room is planned for future study.

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Focusing on measurement errors, the digital caliper was not independently recalibrated prior to usage.
The accuracy of the three-directional protractor was 0.3o for the digital protractor and 0.5o for the
analog protractor which would affect repeatability and accuracy of measurements. Considering that
errors for rotations between 60-65o had an accuracy of 4.9o, the resolution of these measurements
devices may preclude usage of motion capture even at 60o. To ensure that motions were in the correct
direction, the digital caliper and three-directional protractor was aligned to the calibration square when
defining X, Y and Z directions. To further minimize error, the magnitude of translations in any direction
was defined as the magnitude of translation overall, not only in the direction of movement. However,
the magnitude of rotation in any direction was not taken as the overall magnitude of rotation,
potentially underestimating the actual accuracy of orientation measurements.

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Conclusion
The Optitrack Prime 13W system was evaluated for its accuracy in usage in the operating theatre for
motion capture of surgical tools. The system exceeded translational accuracy requirements at 0.25mm
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compared to the required 1mm standard. However, rotational accuracy met the 5o requirement only in
rotations less than 70o at 4.9o. A three-camera configuration with each camera aligned at the same
depth while having varying heights to cover the camera area was selected as the configuration to be
used in the operating theatre.

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Conflict of interest: Nothing to declare

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Funding: This work was supported by Alberta Spine Foundation, Alberta Innovates: Technology
Futures, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

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Ethical approval: Not applicable

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11

Figure Legends

Figure 1: 3D printed right triangle used for holding markers in place for static testing.
Figure 2: Schematic of camera position relative to capture volume. Blue (translucent) region shows
capture volume. For camera configuration testing, depth was varied by 20cm in either direction and
15cm in either direction while overall width was kept constant at 60cm.
Figure 3: (a) Rigid body mounted on a digital caliper for translational testing, (b) Mounting of rigid body
on a three-directional protractor for rotational testing.
Figure 4: Rotational and translational deviation over 95% confidence interval for cold-start over 10
minutes, cold-start over 6 hours, pre-heat over 10 minutes, and omitting the first hour of the cold-start
6-hour trial as pre-heat over five hours.
Figure 5: Positional and rotational value deviation from initial value over six hours, sampled every five
minutes from cold-start.
Figure 6: Positional RMS accuracy (bar chart) and 95% standard error (diamond with error bars)
comparing eight camera configurations: three to four cameras, aligned or staggered heights, aligned or
staggered depths, in X, Z and Y directions.
Figure 7: Positional RMS accuracy (bar chart) and 95% standard error (diamond with error bars) from
7.9mm marker rigid body compared with 6.4mm markers, linear rigid body and custom 12cm wand for
calibration
Figure 8: Positional RMS accuracy (bar chart) and 95% standard error (diamond with error bars) at
10mm, 20mm, 40mm, 80mm and 150mm in X, Z and Y directions
Figure 9: Rotational RMS accuracy (bar chart) and 95% standard error (diamond with error bars)
comparing rotation in only X, Y and Z directions, three angle combinations at 30o, 45o and 60o, two angle
combinations at <10o degrees, two angles combinations at>60o degrees and two angle combinations at
>70o. Error bars are too small to be visualized on the figure.

No color is required for any figures in print.

Figure 1
Click here to download high resolution image

Figure 2
Click here to download high resolution image

Figure 3
Click here to download high resolution image

Deviation from Origin of Rotation and Position (o or mm)

Figure 4

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Pitch

Yaw

Roll

Rotation
Cold (10 minutes)

Cold (6 hours)

Y
Position

Pre-Heat (10 minutes)

Pre-Heat (5 hours)

Figure 5

0.2

Time (minutes)
0
0

60

120

180

240

300

Rotation and Position from Origin (o or mm)

-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
-1.2
-1.4
-1.6
-1.8
-2
-2.2
-2.4

Pitch

Roll

Yaw

X Position

Y Position

Z Position

360

Figure 6

0.70

0.60

Position (mm)

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
3 Cameras,
3 Cameras,
3 Cameras,
Aligned Height, Staggered Aligned Height,
Aligned Depth Height, Aligned Staggered
Depth
Depth

3 Cameras,
Staggered
Height,
Staggered
Depth

4 Cameras,
4 Cameras,
4 Cameras,
Aligned Height, Staggered Aligned Height,
Aligned Depth Height, Aligned Staggered
Depth
Depth

4 Cameras,
Staggered
Height,
Staggered
Depth

Figure 7

0.70

0.60

0.50

Position (mm)

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
Standard Rigid Body
-0.10

Small Markers

Thin Rigid Body

Custom Wand

Figure 8

0.35

0.30

Translational Accuracy (mm)

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
10 mm

20 mm

40 mm

Distance Translated (mm)

80 mm

150 mm

Figure 9

8.00

7.00

Rotational Accuracy (o)

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
X-only

Y-only

Z-only

Multi-Angle

<10 Degrees

>60 Degrees

>70 Degrees