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Control System

Hardware
Thanh Vo-Duy
Department of Industrial Automation
thanh.voduy@hust.edu.vn

Content
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Triangular model of Control Systems


Field Instruments
Power/Energy Distribution
Signal Condition and Conversion
Controllers
Supervisor

Triangular model of Control


Systems
Supervisor
HMI, PC, Display
Controllers
PLC, MCU, DSP,
FPGA, PLD, ASIC...

Signal Condition and Conversion


ADC, DAC, Opamp,
Opto-coupler, Driver, Relay...
Power/Energy Distribution
Power Electronics: Inverter, Rectifier, DC/DC
Hydraulics/Pneumatics: Pump, Valve...

Field Instruments
Actuators: Motors, Valve, Piston .
Measurements: Sensors

Triangular model of Control


Systems
Some examples

1. Field Instruments
1.1. Actuator
Motors

Electrical Motors

DC Motors

Stepper Motor

Brushed DC Motor

BLDC Motor

AC Motors

Induction Motor
(Asynchronous Motor)

Synchronous Motor

Reluctance Motor

PM Motor

1. Field Instruments
1.1. Actuators
Valves
ON/OFF Valves
Controlled Valves

Piston

1. Field Instruments
1.2. Measurements: Sensors
Speed/Position
Current
Voltage
Temperature
Pressure
Motion
.

1. Field Instruments
Some examples of Sensors
Speed/Position sensors
Encoder
Absolute Encoder

Resolver

1. Field Instruments
Some examples of Sensors
Current sensors
Current Transformer

Hall Effect sensor

1. Field Instruments
Some examples of Sensors
Motion Sensors (MEMS)
Accelerometer

Gyroscope

1. Field Instruments
Notes on Sensor Output

Current: 0 1A, 0 5A
Voltage: 0 5VDC, 0 10VDC
Pulse
Communication: SPI, I2C,
Digital n-bit

2. Power/Energy Distribution
2.1. Power Electronics
Rectifier

Inverter

2. Power/Energy Distribution
2.1. Hydraulic/Pneumatic

3. Signal Condition and


Conversion
3.1. Signal Conditioning
Measurements

Controller

Power

380/220VAC

5V

10V

0..20mA

~5A

3.3VDC
MCU, DSP, FPGA...

High power
Inverter, DC/DC...

3. Signal Condition and


Conversion
3.1. Signal Conditioning
Harmonize measurement/control signal with control
system
Noise filter
Isolation
Normally used components

Opamps
Voltage dividing resistors
Optocouplers
Driver circuits

3. Signal Condition and


Conversion
3.2. Analog/Digital Converter ADC, DAC
Conversion time
Number of bit:
Output characteristic: Digital, Communication
For ADC:

For DAC

2 1
+



=
2 1

()

()

3. Signal Condition and


Conversion
3.3. Driver

3. Signal Condition and


Conversion
3.4. Relay
DC Coil Relay: 12V, 24V,
AC Coil Relay: 110V, 220V,
Switch on/off high power object
Switch on/off different voltage level

3. Signal Condition and


Conversion
3.5. Exercise
Design a signal conditioning circuit to measure
instantaneously 220VAC by using 5V Microcontroller
N
L
Hint:

Isolation &
Voltage
Divider

Voltage
Amplifier

ADD

DC Offset

MCU

4. Controllers
4.1. Microcontroller/Microprocessor
Power PC (IBM)
1999
History
64bit
1993

32 bit
AT&T: BELLMAC-32A
1985
1976
1971

1960

2005

Intel: Multi Core


1990

Intel: Pentium,
Xeon, Celeron

1982
Motorola: 680xx
ARM I
Zilog: Z-80
TI: VXL 16bit

Intel:
4004, 8008,
8080
Fairchild
Semiconductor:
First Commercial Chip
Commercialize
Integrated Chips

Increase Transistor
Computer on Chip

VLSI
and 32 bit

32bit replaced by
64bit

Multi-core era

4. Controllers
4.1. Microcontroller/Microprocessor
Von Newmann Architecture

4. Controllers
4.1. Microcontroller/Microprocessor
Harvard Architecture

4. Controllers
4.1. Microcontroller/Microprocessor
Super Harvard Architecture - SHARC

4. Controllers
4.1. Microcontroller/Microprocessor
Digital Signal Processor DSP

4. Controllers
4.1. Microcontroller/Microprocessor
Microcontroller = (Microprocessor + Peripheral)

4. Controllers
4.1. Microcontroller/Microprocessor
Microcontroller = (Microprocessor + Peripheral)

4. Controllers
4.2. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays FPGAs
ICs that can be configured by customer
Contain 64 10,000 logic cells
Program with Hardware Description Lang. (HDL)

4. Controllers
4.2. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays FPGAs
Example

4. Controllers
4.3. Programmable Logic Controllers PLCs
A digital computer for industrial process control
Contain Digital I/O, Analog I/O, Communication
Integrate PID, work as a small DSC

5. Supervisor
5.1. Personal Computer PC
Interface, Parameter Setup, Printing, Storage,
Minimize control system
Communication: TCP/IP, USB, RS232
Programming Language: Labview, CVI, C#, .NET

5. Supervisor
Without PC

5. Supervisor
Without PC

5. Supervisor
With PC

5. Supervisor
With PC

5. Supervisor
5.2. Human Machine Interface HMI display
For local display and control
Suitable for PLC
Use graphic software and tool

5. Supervisor
5.3. LCD Display
Matrix LCD: 16x2, 16x4
Color LCD
Good for Microcontroller: Debug, Display,

Exercises
1. Design circuit that convert signal output from
Current Transformer 500/5 to work with 3.3V
Microcontroller
2. Design a circuit that connect LAS 100-TP and 5V
Microcontroller
3. Design a Power Supply with input: 220VAC,
output +/-12VDC, 5VDC, 3.3VDC. Transformer can
be used
4. Design the circuit that convert 4..20mA signal to
0 5VDC.