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FINAL DATA SHEET

Experiment 5:

Power Measurement and Maximum Power Transfer

Table 5.1 Power Measurements


Internal Resistance (Rin): 466.3
Load Resistance (RL): 469.0
Trial
s
1

Voltage Source
(Vs)
1.038V

Load Voltage
(VL)
0.516V

Load Current
(IL)
1.2 mA

Load Power
(PL)
6.192x10-4 W

2.081V

1.032V

2.4 mA

2.4768x10-3 W

3.030V

1.507V

3.4 mA

5.1238x10-3 W

5.021V

2.503V

5.6 mA

14.0168x10-3 W

7.00V

3.477V

7.6 mA

26.425x10-3 W

9.00V

4.453V

10 mA

44.53x10-3 W

11.09V

5.512V

12.5 mA

68.9x10-3 W

13.03V

6.447V

14.5 mA

93.4815x10-3 W

16.02V

7.95V

18 mA

143.1x10-3 W

10

20V

9.95V

22.5 mA

223.875x10-3 W

Table 5.2 Maximum Power Transfer


Internal Resistance (Rin): 988

Load Voltage
(VL)
1.999V

Load Current
(IL)
14 mA

4.809V

4.850V

Trials

27.99x10-3 W

Load Resistance
(RL)
142.79

11 mA

52.899x10-3 W

437.18

11 mA

53.35x10-3 W

440.9

Load Power (PL)

-3

6.114V

9.5 mA

58.08x10 W

643.58

7.61V

8 mA

60.88x10-3 W

951.25

-3

8.31V

7.5 mA

62.33x10 W

1108

12.52V

2.8 mA

35.06x10-3 W

4471.43

-3

13.79V

1.5 mA

20.69x10 W

9193.33

14.53V

0.8 mA

11.62x10-3 W

18162.5

10

15.03V

0.2 mA

-3

3.006x10 W

SAMPLE COMPUTATION

75150

For Table 5.1


Load Power (PL) = (VL)* (IL)

Trial 1: (0.516V) * (1.2x10-3) = 6.192x10-4 W


Trial 2: (1.032V) * (2.4x10-3) = 2.4768x10-3 W
Trial 3: (1.507V) * (3.4x10-3) = 5.1238x10-3 W
Trial4: (2.503V) * (5.6x10-3) = 14.0168x10-3 W
Trial 5: (3.477V) * (7.6x10-3) = 26.425x10-3 W
Trial 6: (4.453V) * (10x10-3) = 44.53x10-3 W
Trial 7: (5.512V) * (12.5x10-3) = 68.9x10-3 W
Trial 8: (6.447V) * (14.5x10-3) = 93.4815x10-3W
Trial 9: (7.95V) * (18x10-3) = 143.1x10-3W
Trial 10: (9.95V) * (22.5x10-3) = 223.875x10-3W

For Table 5.2


Load Power (PL) = (VL)* (IL)
Load Resistance (RL) = VL / IL

Trial 1:
PL = 1.999V*14 mA = 27.99x10-3 W
RL = 1.999V/14 mA = 142.79
Trial 2:
PL = 4.809V*11 mA = 52.899x10-3 W
RL = 4.809V/11 mA = 437.18
Trial 3:
PL = 4.850V*11 mA = 53.35x10-3 W
RL = 4.850V/11 mA = 440.9
Trial 4:
PL = 6.114V*9.5 mA = 58.08x10-3 W
RL = 6.114V/9.5 mA = 643.58
Trial 5:
PL = 7.61V*8 mA = 60.88x10-3 W
RL = 7.61V/8 mA = 951.25
Trial 6:
PL = 8.31V*7.5 mA = 62.33x10-3 W
RL = 8.31V/7.5 mA = 1108
Trial 7:
PL = 12.52V*2.8 mA = 35.06x10-3 W
RL = 12.52V/2.8 mA = 4471.43
Trial 8:
PL = 13.79V*1.5 mA = 20.69x10-3 W
RL = 13.79V/1.5 mA = 9193.33
Trial 9:
PL = 14.53V*0.8 mA = 11.62x10-3 W

RL = 14.53V/0.8 mA = 18162.5
Trial 10:
PL = 15.03V*0.2 mA = 3.006x10-3 W
RL = 15.03V/0.2 mA = 75150

GRAPHS

Load Voltage vs. Load Resistance

Load Voltage (V)

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Load Voltage (VL)

Load resistance (ohms)

Load Current vs. Load Resistance

Load Current (mA)

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Load Current

Load Resistance (ohms)

Load Power vs. Load Resistance


0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
Load Power (Watts)

0.03

Load Power

0.02
0.01
0

Load Resistance (ohms)

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS

1.

How much internal resistance does an ideal voltage source have?

2.

How much internal resistance does an ideal current source have?

3.

The internal resistance of an ideal voltage is zero. An ideal voltage


source is a voltage source that supplies constant voltage to a circuit
despite the current which the circuit draws. This means that despite
the resistance which a load may be in a circuit, the source will still
provide constant and steady voltage. When an ideal voltage source has
zero internal resistance, it can drop all of its voltage perfectly across a
load in a circuit. Being that the source has zero internal resistance,
none of the power is wasted due to internal resistance.

The internal resistance of an ideal current source is infinite. The


characteristic of an ideal current or voltage source that makes them
ideal is the fact that neither of them dissipates any power because of
zero internal resistance. Now, since an ideal current source does not
dissipate power in its own internal resistance, the finite parallel resistor
is removed in the equivalent ideal current source circuit leaving an
infinite ohmic value internal resistance in parallel with the ideal current
source.

When is maximum power delivered from a practical source to a load?

When the load impedance equals the source impedance. The


maximum power transfer theorem states that, to obtain maximum
external power from a source with a finite internal resistance, the
resistance of the load must equal the resistance of the source as
viewed from its output terminals.

4.

What are the practical applications of the theory maximum power transfer?
Discuss briefly the different applications.

5.

Determine the maximum power that can be dissipated from the figure below.

6.

When a 4 load is connected to a given generator (practical source) its


terminal/load voltage is 160V. The generators efficiency is 90% when a 9
load is connected to it. Find:
a.
b.
c.
d.

7.

the
the
the
the

maximum power available from the generator.


power transfer efficiency and the power PL, if RL = 50.
power transfer efficiency and the load RL, if PL = 8kW.
load RL and the power PL, if the power transfer efficiency = 65%.

A practical source delivers 5A of current to a load of 5 and it delivers 2A of


current if the load is increased to 20. Find:
a.
b.
c.
d.

the
the
the
the

maximum power available from the source.


power transfer efficiency and the power PL, if the load RL = 10.
power transfer efficiency and the load RL, if PL = 45W.
load RL and the power PL, if the power transfer efficiency = 75%.

REFERENCES

http://www.learningaboutelectronics.com/Articles/Ideal-voltage-source.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_source
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_source
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_power_transfer_theorem