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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of HTC-Coals in


Pulverized Fuel Combustion Test Rig
Conference Paper June 2016

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5 authors, including:
Manoj Paneru

Jrg Maier

Universitt Stuttgart

Universitt Stuttgart

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Institut fr Feuerungs- und Kraftwerkstechnik


Prof. Dr. techn. G. Scheffknecht

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of HTC-Coals in


Pulverized Fuel Combustion Test Rig

Manoj Paneru*, Zhang Qing, Piotr Plaza, Jrg Maier, Gnter Scheffknecht
*Corresponding author: manoj.paneru@ifk.uni-stuttgart.de

41st International Technical Conference on Clean Coal & Fuel Systems


June 5 to 9, 2016 Sheraton Sand Key Clearwater, Florida USA

Content

o Introduction
o Fuel Properties
o Experimental Facility

o Combustion Tests (20kW)


o Combustion Tests (500kW)
o Test Summary
o Conclusion
2

Introduction
Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC)
--Biomass Pretreatment/upgrading

-- Elevated Temperature & Pressure


--Decomposition-Dehydration-Carbonisation

-- Product different names: HTC-Coal/Bio-Coal/Hydro-Char


Suitable for wet biomass/residues
New Range of CO2 neutral Bio-Fuels
Possible Utilization Pathway

http://www.energy-without-carbon.org/SyntheticCoal

--Combustion/Co-Combustion for heat/power production


3

Fuel properties
W

Fix-C

Cl

LHV

[%, ad]

[%, db]

[%, daf]

[%, daf]

[%, daf]

[%, daf]

[%, daf]

[%, daf]

[%, daf]

[MJ/kg, an]

Coal (EC)

2.53

12.2

35.8

64.3

80.9

5.30

1.45

0.557

0.009

26.2

Lignite (RL)

9.02

3.90

54.6

45.5

67.4

4.84

0.735

0.462

0.035

22.1

HTC-SG

3.62

5.75

69.6

30.4

68.3

5.83

3.31

0.361

0.003

25.6

HTC-DS

3.34

11.8

67.4

32.6

62.3

4.58

1.79

1.08

0.043

20.3

HTC-BW

6.96

16.4

78.0

21.9

60.8

6.35

1.41

0.183

0.170

18.3

Biomass (WP)

7.95

1.27

80.1

20.5

51.1

4.79

0.628

0.066

0.026

17.4

Fuel

Highly upgraded than the source material


Feed Stock Material

Removable of soluble impurities


Source material dependency

HTC-SG

Spent Grains

HTC-PM

Digested Slurry/Horse Manure

HTC-BW

Municipal Bio-Waste

--Heating values and ash content varies


--N, S & Cl comparable-higher-lower

Supplier: AVA-CO2 Forschung GmbH,


Karlsruhe, Germany

HTC as Fuel
HTC-SG

HTC-DS

HTC-BW

Coal

Lignite

Wood Pellets

1.4

Biomass

H/C [Atomic ratio]

1.2
1

Coal

0.8
0.6

0.4

Coal

Lignite

HTC-Coal 1

Wood

0.2
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

O/C [Atomic Ratio]

Much more than loss of volatiles

--Engineered coalification process


--Lignite like: In terms of coalification
--Restructuring of biomass matrix

Fuels under SEM


5

Experimental facility

Fig. 1:

20 kW facility electrically
heated

Fig. 2:

500 kW facility

Flame and burnout behaviour


Combustion & emission characterization
Parametric study

Emission behaviour/Emission control


Ash and deposit
Technical Scale (Pilot demonstration)
6

Combustion tests (20kW)


20 kW PF Combustion Facility
Mono-Combustion

Focus

Coal (EC)
Lignite (RL)
HTC-SG
HTC-DS

Combustion and
Emission Behaviour
NOx Behaviour

HTC-BW
Biomass (WP)

1300C to 1100C, : 1.15, FG:11.5 m3, STP/h

Co-Combustion

Focus

HTC-SG + EC

Combustion and
Emission Behaviour
NOx behaviour and
Staging

HTC-SG + RL

Fuel Feed varried: Excess O2 of 3 vol.-%

Total residence time: ~4.6 s (2.5 m down the


burner)
Co-firing blends: Pre-mixed (~20 th.-%)

Behaviour of HTC fuel in comparison to


conventional fuels
7

Combustion behaviour
100
CO [ppm]HTC-SG

90
80

CO [ppm]

CO [ppm]

70
60
50
40
30
20

CO [ppm] HTC-SG+EC

CO [ppm]-EC

30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0.3

10

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Distance down the burner [m]

0
HTC-DS
HTC-Coals

HTC-BW

EC

RL

WP

HTC-SG + HTC-SG +
EC
RL

Coal

Lignite

Wood

Co-Firing

Fig.: CO at the furnace exit (2.5m)

Similar and comparable CO at furnace exit


Higher CO near burner zone

CO [ppm]HTC-SG

CO [ppm]

HTC-SG

CO [ppm] HTC-SG+RL

CO [ppm]-RL

30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Distance down the burner [m]

-related to higher volatiles content


Fig.: CO profile for co-firing with coal (top) and with lignite (down)

Longer volatile combustion zone

Significantly influences by HTC share


8

NOx Emission
NOx [mg/m3] @ 6 vol.-% O2

1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

NOx [mg/m3] @ 6 vol-% O2

NOx [mg/m3] @ 6 vol-% O2

NOx [mg/m3] @ 6 vol.-% O2

HTC-SG

HTC-DS

HTC-BW

HTC-Coals

EC

RL

WP

Coal

Lignite

Biomass

1600

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
RL

HTC-SG + RL HTC-SG
Co-firing with Lignite

Fig.: NOx at the furnace exit (2.5m)

EC

HTC-SG +
EC

HTC-SG

Co-firing with Coal

Fig.: NOx at the furnace exit (2.5m)

HTC-Coal typically shows lower NOx


-Despite higher fuel-N
NOx in energy basis is lowest for HTC-coals
With lignite co-firing NOx increased
With coal co-firing NOx decreased
9

Fuel N to NOx
HTC-DS

HTC-BW

Coal

Lignite

Lignite

Wood Pellets

60

60

50

50

Fuel-N to NOx [%]

Fuel-N to NOx [%]

HTC-SG

40

30
20
10

HTC-SG + RL

HTC-SG

Coal

HTC-SG + EC

40
30

20
10

HTC-Coals

0
30

35

40

45

50

55 60 65 70
Volatile [wt-%, daf]

75

80

85

90

30

35

40

45

50
55
60
65
Volatile [daf, wt-%]

70

75

80

All HTC fuels shows lower Fuel-N to NOx conversion


Similar was observed for co-firing cases
Apparently related to fuel properties and its combustion behaviour

Very different behavior than expectedtypical for HTC Coals


Higher fuel-N in HTC Coals don't necessarily results higher NOx
10

NO profile (1200C)
CO [ppm]HTC-SG

750

NO [ppm]

NO [ppm] EC
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0

700
650
600
550

500
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

NO [ppm] HTC-SG

NO [ppm] HTC-SG +EC

900

Distance down the burner [m]

Fig.: NO and CO profile of HTC-SG

NO [ppm]

800

CO [ppm]

NO [ppm] HTC-SG

Coal

800
700

Co-firing

600

HTC-SG

500
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Distance down the burner [m]

Fig.: NO profile among various cases (coal co-firing)

HTC-SG shows:
Destruction of NO in near burner zone
Self-staging effect-correlated with CO profile
dominated by HTC-SG during co-firing

11

SO2 [mg/m3] @ 6 vol.-% O2

SO2 Emission
HTC-SG

HTC-DS

HTC-BW

Coal

Lignite

Wood Pellets

HTC-SG + EC

HTC-SG + RL

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Fuel-S [wt.-%, daf]

Fig.: SO2 at the furnace exit (2.5m) vs. Fuel-S

The SO2 shows a linear relationship with the fuel sulphur content.
Self-capture in ash relevant only for WP and Lignite
Despite of high calcium amount in HTC-SG the self-capture (in ash) was negligible
--Calcium remains as phosphates not available for SO2 capture
12

Combustion test (500 kW)


Combustion Parameters

Mono-Combustion

Focus

Coal (EC)
HTC-SG
Co-Combustion

Combustion, Flame and


Emission Behaviour
Ash and Deposition Issues

20th.%, 40%th.

Temperature profile maintained by flame

Profile measurements (L2-L15)

300 kW (Operational)

Fuel Feed: 300 kW thermal


=1.15
Excess O2 of 3 vol.-%
Co-firing blends: Mixed in the burner

Furnace end
measurements

Behaviour of HTC fuel in comparison to Coal


Total height 7.5 m

13

500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Unburned Carbon[%]

2
1.5
1

0.5
100%HTC-SG

40%HTC-SG

20%HTC-SG

10%HTC-SG

CO[ppm]

CO[ppm]

CO[ppm]

10%HTC-SG 20%HTC-SG 40%HTC-SG 100%HTC-SG

2.5

EC-Coal

EC-Coal

CO[ppm]

Unburned Carbon [%]

CO[ppm]

CO [ppm, dry]

Combustion behaviour

Fig.: CO at the furnace exit

Furnace end lower CO with HTC


Also reflected from unburnt fraction in ash

Unburned Carbon =

CAs

Ao=ash content in fuel (wf)


As=ash content in burn-out ash sample (wf)
CAs=Carbon content in burn-out ash sample(wf)

Slightly higher particle size do not showed negative influence on combustion


14

Flame behaviour
Furnace Temperature [C]
1300

Temperature [C]

1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
L4 L8 L26 L4 L8 L26 L4 L8 L26 L4 L8 L26 L4 L8 L26
100%EC-Coal 10%HTC-SG 20%HTC-SG 40%HTC-BT 100%HTC-BT

HTC-Flame

Coal-Flame
EC-Coal Temp. [C]

Long flames---Soot formation and

Lower temperature achieved


Delayed heat release
Peak temperature shifted downwards

1500

Flue gas temperature [C]

destruction (visual observation)

100%th. HTC-SG Temp. [C]

1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900

HTC-SG

Coal

800
0

Level down the burner

10

11

12

15

NOx Emission
NOx [mg/m3] @ 6 vol-% O2

NOx [mg/m3] @ 6 vol.-% O2


1000
900
800
700
600
500

400
300
200
100
0
HTC-SG

40% HTC-SG + EC 20% HTC-SG + EC

EC

Fig.: NOx at the furnace exit

Lower NOx for HTC mono-firing


Co-firing increased

Different than observe in electrically heated furnace


--probably related to temperature profile

16

NO profile (HTC-SG)
CO[%]
8

500

400

300

200

CO [vol.-%]

NO [ppm]

NO[ppm]
600

0
0

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Level down the burner

Fig.: CO and NO along the furnace center 500 kW (right)

The absolute value of NO is higher in 20 kW facility


--probably related to higher temperature maintained by electric heating
However in both cases facilities HTC-SG shows
--Lower Fuel-N to NOx conversion

--Extended CO rich zone


--and self reduction of NO facilitated in the CO rich zone

Fuel-N to NOx of HTC type fuels need further study/evaluation


17

Test Summary
Combustion behaviour/flame behaviour
Stable flames and good combustion performance
Slower volatile combustion indicated by longer CO rich zone
Black clouds in flame (probably soot ) in the upper-middle zone
Early stage combustion behaviour--impacts burner and boiler design/operation
well as emission (especially NOx)

18

Test Summary
Emission Behaviour
Lower fuel-N to NOx conversion
Self reduction of NO in flame
--relate to the combustion behaviour
Fuel-N to NO pathway of HTC fuels interesting area of further research

Ash and deposit issues

Lower alkalis content (less slagging/fouling problems expected)


Cl and S fairly low specific deposit/corrosion should not be a big issue
Higher amount of phosphorous in ash issues with catalyst poisoning/deactivation
issues with ash utilization

19

Conclusion

HTC-Coal are new range of CO2 neutral fuels

Pilot scale combustion tests promising


Requires more Know How

--on early stage combustion behaviour and its impact


--on fuel-N to NO pathway

Thanks
20

Acknowledgement

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-Energy-2011-1) under grant agreement no.:
282873. (Bioboost: " Biomass based energy intermediates boosting biofuel production ").
http://bioboost.eu/home.php

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