You are on page 1of 988

Dedicated to my sons, Randall, Jeffrey, and Thomas

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License.
To view a copy of this license, visit
or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan
Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Copyright © 2000 by H. Jerome Keisler.


How does the infinitesimal calculus as developed in this book relate to the traditional
(or E , 6) calculus? To get the proper perspective we shall sketch the history of the
Many problems involving slopes, areas, and volumes, which we would today
call calculus problems, were solved by the ancient Greek mathematicians. The
greatest of them was Archimedes (287-212 B.C.). Archimedes anticipated both the
infinitesimal and the E, 6 approach to calculus. He sometimes discovered his results
by reasoning with infinitesimals, but always published his proofs using the "method of
exhaustion," which is similar to the E , 6 approach.
Calculus problems became important in the early 1600's with the develop-
ment of physics and astronomy. The basic rules for differentiation and integration
were discovered in that period by informal reasoning with infinitesimals. Kepler,
Galileo, Fermat, and Barrow were among the contributors.
In the 1660's and 1670's Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
independently "invented" the calculus. They took the major step of recognizing the
importance of a collection of isolated results and organizing them into a whole.
Newton, at different times, described the derivative of y (which he called the
"fluxionHof y) in three different ways, roughly

(1) The ratio of an infinitesimal change in y to an infinitesimal change in x.

(The infinitesimal method.)
(2) The limit of the ratio of the change in y to the change in x, AylAx, as Ax
approaches zero. (The limit method.)
(3) The velocity of y where x denotes time. (The velocity method.)
In his later writings Newton sought to avoid infinitesimals and emphasized the
methods (2) and (3).
Leibniz rather consistently favored the infinitesimal method but believed
(correctly) that the same results could be obtained using only real numbers. He
regarded the infinitesimals as "ideal" numbers like the imaginary numbers. To justify
them he proposed his law of continuity: "In any supposed transition, ending in any
terminus, it is permissible to institute a general reasoning, in which the terminus may