Er.

Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

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(With Implemented Case Example)





Originally Prepared For
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund Development Board


Now
Cost Free Circulation for the Public
In National Interest


By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Regional Manager
Operation Monitoring and Evaluation Division
RWSSFDB
September 2002-June 30, 2010
rameshksharma@gmail.com
+977 9841278544 (M)




Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

Preface



This manual have been prepared with the view to develop the new option of Rain Water
harvesting also among the communities of Rural Water and Sanitation Fund
Development Board. This system is yet to be tested in the RWSSFDB to incorporate
rainwater-harvesting facilities in the forth-coming RWSSFDB-II programs. The rain
water collection at the household level from the roof tops are the simplest way of rain
water harvesting that has been included in this manual.

This manual provides complete materials for construction of 2000 liters capacity Ferro
cement jars. This proposed system is very cost effective and useful for the communities
residing in such places where there is lack of water sources to develop the gravity/ground
water system. In the hill area where the sources are very far away the system of rainwater
harvesting have been observed gaining demand among people. In the remote area or in
the urban area to supplement the shortage of water for the rapidly growing population
rainwater harvesting is practiced as effective system.

There are other sector agencies like FINNIDA with major successful experience in the
rain water system development since 1992. GARDEP and ICIMOD also supported the
rainwater harvesting programs.

I am indebted to the entire FINNIDA organization and team members who heartily
shared their experiences and documentation that had been a great supported in course of
developing this manual. I would also like to mention the input of Er. P.C. Sharma
(Scientists and head, Material Sciences and Structural Research Center, Gaziabad India),
Er. Suresh Babu (Central for Science and Research N. Delhi India), Dr S.K. Sharma
(Member Central Ground Water board New Delhi) who shared their learning and
experiences to literate us in rain water harvesting systems and also courted us to different
observation visits while our training in IIT Roorkee on Sept-Oct 2001.





I
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
The Rain Water System Technology

In many parts of the world rainwater continues to be the only source of domestic water
supply. Rainwater as a source of water supply to meet the domestic drinking water needs
is not a new concept. This ancient and dying wisdom needs to be revived to meet modern
fresh water needs adequately, equitably and sustainably. This only requires
modernization from science and technology.

Rainwater may be collected from rooftop, platform catchment harvesting, and hill slope
catchment or through watershed management. In India Rural development work on
rainwater started in 1965, and there since organization like UNICEF and SWAJAL are
involved with others in researches and implementation of rainwater harvesting system.

In case of Nepal FINNIDA among with few other organizations had started developing
roof top rainwater harvesting system quite successfully since 1996, with Ferro cement
jars as cost effective new technology. The cost effectiveness for the Ferro jars are found
more in 6 m3 designs when tested by FINNIDA to presently adopted 2 m3 designs. The
FINNADA model of Ferro jar adopted in this manual follows Technical Design based on
Dr. Reissner’s theory, to check the hoop tension resistance, and the water tightness of the
jar. The Jars are made-up of thin walled reinforced concrete commonly constructed out of
cement mortar and reinforced with closely spaced layers of wire mesh called Ferro
cement.

In the roof top rainwater harvesting system, the surface area of the roof is used as
catchment. There is lees chance of fecal contamination over roof surface. The dust and
any waste participles over roof is flushed outside from a waste carrying pipe arrangement
before collection starts into the jar at every frequency of rain. Slope roofs with GI sheets
are ideal but with additional arrangement other roofs like flat roof with slight slope,
thatched roof also can be used as catchment for collecting rainwater. Single slope roof,
shells or arches are also suitable forms.

In Roof top rain water collecting system the water received over roof surface flows into
the gutters, and inter into an inflow system at a pre determined point after passing
through a strainer placed over inlet pipe. A bypass system installed in to the inflow
system removes the surface wash by sending out first 15 minutes rain. There can be also
an additional system of filter by where the water will pass and will store in scientifically
designed tanks, which maintain the quality of water.

Taps for above ground level and hand pump or bucket for underground system tanks are
used for distribution purpose.

RW harvesting is equally beneficiary for semi urban and urban water problem. In
Chhennai Indian a Metropolitan city largely harvests RW. Delhi Water Board has worked
out legal arrangement and Municipality does not pass any building design papers without
RWH or Rain Water Ground recharge system in the building map.

Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
II
Table of Contents
PART I General
Preface……………………………………………………………………… I
The Rain Water System Technology……………………………………………. II
List of Content…………………………………………………………………… III
1.1 List of Materials ………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 List of Tools…………………………………………………………… 2
1.3 Labour (Skilled and Unskilled)……………………………………….. 3
1.4 Scheme Cycle with Steps of Making Rain water Collection
System……………………………………………………. 4
1.4.1 Pre Development Phase…………………………………………. 4
1.4.2 Development Phase ……………………………………………… 4
1.4.3 Implementation Phase……………………………………………. 4
1.5 Important Construction Details………………………………………. 5
1.5.1 Construction of base Slab………………………………………… 5
1.5.2 Construction of HDPE Pipe Gutter……………………………… 5
1.5.3 Construction of Box (GI Sheet) Gutter…………………………… 6
1.6 Important Tips for Rain Water Jar Construction……………………… 7
1.7 Maintaining Water Quality………………………………………. 8

PART II Technical Drawings

1. Typical Rain Water Jar Section ………………………………………….. 9
2. Typical Rain Water Jar………………………………………………….. 10
3. Tap Assembling Details…………………………………………………. 11
4. Mold Outline Dimensions………………………………………………. 12
5. Steel Bar Mold Top View………………………………………………. 13
6. Lip Mold Brace For Metal Mold System………………………………. 14
7. Mold Lip Mold and Bottom Mold……………………………………… 15
(All the Technical Drawings Drawn in AUTOCAD by Ramesh Kumar Sharma,
Regional Manager RWSSFDB)

List of Figures

1. Fig. 1 Placing of 16 numbers of plain wires (3.5mm dia) on
Mold above prepared ground…………………………………………. 5
2. Fig. 2 Preparing HDPE main gutter pipe……………………………………. 5
3. Fig 3 Box Gutter of GI Sheet……………………………………………….. 6
(All the figures drawn by Ramesh Kumar Sharma, Portfolio Manager RWSSFDB)

Photographs and Case Example


List of Required Materials, Tools and Labour for the Construction
1.1 List of Materials for 10 numbers of 2000-liter capacities Ferro Cement jars with
Gutter System.


S.N. Materials Quantity
1 Cement 40 Bags
2 Sand 4 Cum
3 Aggregate (6mm) 0.5 Cum
4 Chicken wire mesh 22# 160 mtr
5 G.I. Plain wire 3.5 mm dia 60 kg
6 Binding wire 20# 3 kg
7 Tape with locking facility 10 nos
8 G.I. Nipple ½” ( 8” long with6 mm rod welded) 10 pcs
9 G.I. Nipple 1” ( 8” long with6 mm rod welded) 10 pcs
10 G.I. End cap 10 pcs
11 G.I. Socket ½” 10 pcs
12 Nails 4” (Roofing Nails) 2 kg
13 Nails 3” 2 kg
14 Jar Cover 10 nos
15 Mosquito net (Nylon) 10 mtr
16 Plastic Sheet (300#, 90 cm width) 55 mtr
17 Gutter Pipe (90 mm dia 2.5 kgf/cm2) 50 mtr
18 Gutter Pipe (63 mm dia 4 kgf/cm2) 30 mtr
19 Gutter Pipe (40 mm dia 6 kgf/cm2) 50 mtr
20 Thread seal tape 5 pcs (small)
21 Snow cem paint 20 kg
22 Galvanized Binding Wire 20# 4*5=20 kg
23 6 mm rod 2 kg













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Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
1.2 List of Tools (Useful up to making 100 Jars)

S.N. Tools Quantity
1 Jar mold 4 set (with 4*400 M of 20
mm dia. HDPE pipes)
2 Mixing plates 4 pc (GI plain sheet 24#)
3 Steel Pan 4 no
4 Building Trowel 10 pc
5 Pointing Trowel 10 pc
6 Finishing Trowel (Wooden) 4 pc
7 Stone cutting Hammer, 500 gm 4 pc
8 Steel Scissors 4 pc
9 Combination Pliers 4 pc
10 Claw Hammer 2 pc
11 Carpenter’s Saw 18” 4 pc
12 Heating Plate 6” 2 pc
13 Pipe Wrench 14” 2 pc
14 Hacksaw frame 2 pc
15 Hack Blade 24 pc
16 Teflon cover bag 6” dia 4 pc
17 Soft brush 4” 4 pc
18 Plastic Tank (2000 ltr) 2 no
19 Measuring Tape 3 m 4 nos
20 Shovel 4 nos
21 Putting Patti 4 pc
















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Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

1.3 Labour


Skill and Unskilled labour required to make 1 Jar


Sn Description Skill Labour Unskilled Labour
1 Ferro Cement jar
2000 liter
7 man days 7 man days
2 Pipe Gutter 0.5 man days 0.5 man days
3 Mold fabrication 6 man days 8 man days



























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Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

1.4 RWSSFDB Scheme Cycle Design For Rain Water System





































1.4.1 (Pre Development Phase) Existing FB Scheme Cycle
Rainwater Collection Technology is useful for Hardship area, where there is water source
far away or water quality is not good, this may be determined by Pre feasibility
appraisal/analysis and community demand assessment.
1.4.2 (Development Phase) 6-8 month
Community preparation: Pre feasibility, Mass meeting, water source/resource mapping,
Health /socio economic survey, awareness and sanitation trainings and other related
software activities CAP A1-A14 as conducted in Development Phase software programs
1.4.3 (Implementation Phase) 6-10 month

A) Construction Part: Steps to make rainwater collection system:
1. Preparation of Steel mold frames wrapped with 20 mm diameter HDPE pipes
2. Preparation for construction of base slab, mixing coarse sand for the base slab in
1:2.5 ratio
3. Placing Mold Panels and fixing the mold on the base slab after 3 days.
4. Wrapping 22# wire mesh and 10# plain wire around the mold.
5. First coat of plastering (1:2.5 cement mortar) with rough surface out side mold.
6. Fixing the Lip Mold after application of first coat plaster and fill up the lid with the
same cement mortar of 1:2.5
7. Second coat of plaster 13 mm thick (1:2.5 cement mortar) for smooth surface
8. Curing: Wrapping with jute sack starts curing immediately after the initial setting of
the plastered surface and continues for a minimum of seven days.
9. Jar Mold Remove: After 2 days from completion of second coat plaster.
10. Jar Inside Surface Cleaning: With application of water and using brush.
11. Fittings, Fixtures: By piercing fitting and fixtures are placed in the Jar wall and
cement mortar is applied for sealing the joints.
12. Inside Plaster: 13 mm (1:2.5 cement mortar) with smooth surface including cement
punning.
13. Gutters: Used HDPE pipes or manufactured out of galvanized plain sheets (Box
gutters).
B) Software Part
14. RWSSFDB A1-A14 activities as per manual.
15. Rain water construction trainings for CT, VMW
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
1.5 Important Construction Details

1.5.1 Construction of Base Slab

• Ground leveled and compacted, sand is sprayed over and plastic sheet is laid
• Base slab mold is placed on firm ground over the plastic sheet.
• 16 numbers of plain wires of 3.5 mm diameter (10#) are placed diagonally as
shown.
• Placing of the cement sand mortar on base slab mold properly.
• Curing Base slab for minimum 3 days.











Fig 1. Placing of 16 numbers of plain wires (3.5mm dia) on Mold above prepared ground.

1.5.2 Construction of HDPE Pipe Gutters

• 90 mm diameter HDPE pipes equal to the roof length to be used as gutter to
collect water from the roof. It is cut in one side longitudinally.
• This 90 mm main gutter pipe is fixed to the roof eaves with the help of 2-inch
thick metal clamps made up of 22-gauge plain sheet at an interval of 10m.
• One end of the gutter pipe is capped as end cap where as 63 mm diameter down
pipe is fixed to the other end.
• The bottom end of the down pipe is made to reach up to the plinth level of the
house and properly capped.
• 40 mm diameter delivery pipe is fixed with the down pipe at the height of the jar’s
top level.




One side of the HDPE cut longitudinally


Fig 2. Preparing HDPE main gutter pipe.
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Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

1.5.3 Construction of Box Gutters



• Box gutters are of GI sheets placed in the longitudinal side of the roof (if there is
existing box gutter, it is used for gutter purpose).
• This box gutter is fixed to the roof eaves with the help of 2-inch thick metal
clamps made up of 22-gauge plain sheet at an interval of 10m.
• One end of the gutter pipe is capped as end cap where as 63 mm diameter down
pipe is fixed to the other end.
• The bottom end of the down pipe is made to reach up to the plinth level of the
house and properly capped.
• 40 mm diameter delivery pipe is fixed with the down pipe at the height of the jar’s
top level.






Molded Plain GI sheet





Fig 3. Box gutter of GI sheet



















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Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

1.6 Additional Tips for Rain Water Jar Construction

• Cement should be of free from mud and of good quality.
• Undesired mud may be removed by washing sand before use.
• Cement sand mortar should be made properly in 1:2.5 ratio.
• Mix cement and sand on the mixing plate in dry stage properly before putting
water into it.
• Level the ground surface, put some sand over it while making base plate.
• Do not tight mold panels very tightly to each other while assembling the mold.
• Cover the whole jar with plastic immediately after completing the plasterwork.
• Do not remove the mold panels from the jar until two days after completing of
external plastering.
• After removing the mold, inside of the jar should be cleaned properly.
• Curing should be done at least for seven days after the jar is made. Outside of the
jar should be covered with wet sacks and water should be filled up to the tap level
inside the jar, for proper curing.


































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Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

1.6 Maintaining Water Quality


• Dust and trashes should be well washed away prior to filling up the jars each time
by letting water flow to the ground for at least 20 minutes.
• The Water jars should always be covered.
• Stored water, may become a suitable place for mosquito breeding, therefore the
mouth of the jar should always be covered by net.
• The time of collection being intermittent and the water quantity less, the water
should only be used for core domestic purposes.
• Aware children not handle the jar for retaining water quality.
• Properly lock the tap after using each time.
• Whenever water reaches bottom of the jar the wash out should be opened and jar
should be properly cleaned.
• The jar should not be filled from water from pond, canal and flood which may be
polluted and may cause disease like diarrhea, dysentery etc. to the whole family.
• The rainwater in itself is safe and clean. However unlearned roof and the wrong
way of using it may pollute the water soon.
• The wer pot/jar to be used inside the house should be covered and separate pot
should be used to take out water from the water pot/ jar.
























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Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
PART II 1. Design and Drawings

CL
Hard base with Sand packing (10cm thick)
TYPICAL RAIN WATER JAR SECTION
Metal Tank Cover 22# ( Dia 82cm)
Inlet pipe from Roof (Gutter)
Filter Chamber with Sand and Screen (If
needed)
vertical Bar Dia 3.25 mm; GI plainwire 10#
@ 22.5 cm C/C (16 Nos)
Horizontal Bar Dia 3.25 mm; GI plainwire
10# @ 20 cm C/C (8 Nos)
Polythine Sheet Lining
RCC Work 1:2:4 (63 mm thick)
12.5 mm Cement Plaster with punning
Jar Inter Connection Pipe If Needed
Chiken Wire Mess Binding 21#
(Single Layer Whole Surface
Double Layer up to 90 cm height from Bottom)
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund
Development Board
Rain Water Drawing No 1
Drawings Prepared By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Portfolio Manager / RWSSFDB
Date: Sept 10, 2002
PART II TECHNICAL DESIGN AND DRAWINGS
9
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

TYPICAL RAIN WATER JAR
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund
Development Board
Drawings Prepared By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Portfolio Manager / RWSSFDB
Rain Water Drawing No 2 Date: Sept 10, 2002
All Dimensions are in mm
200 Liters is Total Volume of Jar
Note : Bottom Drain is opposite Service
tap Shown on Same Size
Compacted Soil on 100mm Hard
Core where Soil is Soft
Bottom Slab
Mosquito Proof Screen
Galvanised Sheet Metal Cover
CL
10
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

All Dimensions are in mm
Date: Sept 10, 2002 Rain Water Drawing No 3
Drawings Prepared By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Portfolio Manager / RWSSFDB
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund
Development Board
RAIN WATER JAR TAP ASSEMBLING DETAIL
200
TAP ASSEMBLING DETAIL
63 mm PCC 1:2:4
12.5 mm Cement Plaster 1:2:5
(Two Coats outside One Coat inside)
Cement Punning Inner
Bottom Drain
1" GI Pipe 250 mm long
1" GI End Cap
1
2
" GI Pipe 250 mm long
1/2" GI Socket
1/2" Brass Tap
Jar Wall
40
11
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
11
RAIN WATER JAR MOLD OUTLINE DIMENTION
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund
Development Board
Drawings Prepared By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Portfolio Manager / RWSSFDB
Rain Water Drawing No 4 Date: Sept 10, 2002
All Dimensions are in mm
MOLD OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
For Steel bar Mould System
1600 dia
1450 dia
1250 dia
1050 dia
700 dia 630
CL
RAIN WATER JAR STEEL BAR MOLD TOP VIEW
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund
Development Board
Drawings Prepared By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Portfolio Manager / RWSSFDB
Rain Water Drawing No 5 Date: Sept 10, 2002
All Dimensions are in mm
Completed Cage Top View
BAR LIST
RIB BARS 1.83 m * 48 pc = 87.84 m
Hoop Bar 1. 2.25
2. 5.08
3. 4.60
4. 3.98
5. 3.35
Top Rib Bar (#1)
20 Space Between Bars ( 8 Locations)
Even Space 6 Rib Bars per Section
Cut point
12
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

RAIN WATER JAR LIP MOLD BRACE FOR METAL MOLD SYSTEM
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund
Development Board
Drawings Prepared By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Portfolio Manager / RWSSFDB
Rain Water Drawing No 6 Date: Sept 10, 2002
All Dimensions are in mm
Flat Bar 120*4 (2200 Long)
Handle Flat Bar 20*4 (200 long each)
Material list
Material Outside Ring Inside Ring Total
Flat Bar 20*4 mm 2.20 m 2.51+0.40 2.91 m
Round Bar dia 8 mm 1.51 m - 1.51 m
Outside Ring Brace
Flat Bar 80*4 (2510 long)
6 mm dia Bar
100 dia
Inside Ring Brace
RAIN WATER JAR
Lip Mold Brace for Metal Mold System
For Steel bar Mould System
13
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

RAIN WATER JAR MOLD LIP MOLD AND BOTTOM MOLD
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund
Development Board
Drawings Prepared By: Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Portfolio Manager / RWSSFDB
Rain Water Drawing No 6 Date: Sept 10, 2002
Flat Bar 60*5
Jar Jip Mold
3.25 mm dia wire (10#)
Bottom Slab Mold
3.25 mm dia wire reignforcing
total 16 number slots
Tie hook to close mold
Hole for center post
Outside Lip Mold Galvanised Steel Metal 80*2500
Hole for center post Hole for center post
Inside Lip Mold Brace made from 8 mm dia bar
700 mm diameter welded
Inside Lip Mold gelvanised sheet metal 120*2200
Outside
Inside
Outside Lip mold Support 8 mm dia Bar 2500
Inside Lip Mold
Outside Lip Mold
Inside and outside Molds
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

Baudhagumba RWH Scheme Palpa, 6 m3 Jar with filter and tap (NGO SRDCN).
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal











Filter Making Details
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal





Scheme Rolabas Palpa: NGO SCAD















Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
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CASE EXAMPLE
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal
• |-· |- =+=- =·· +·= ¤·= | == =- ==+
• -:+=-.- -=- · --(- ¤-= ¤+=

===+ |·¤--
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• +===- ¤-º· += =- =·+
• -+º+ ====- += ==|·- ~º+
• -·-=¤ -¤ ==-+ =¤ +== |···-
• ==-+ += =· =-·==- =|-º+
Er. Ramesh Kumar Sharma RWH doc Nepal

Be Good: Do Good





LOVE ALL, SERVE ALL

HELP EVER, HURT NEVER



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