Conventional Electrical Unit

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Conventional Electrical Unit

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electrical unit

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A conventional electrical unit (or simply conventional unit where there is no

risk of ambiguity) is a unit of measurement in the field of electricity which is

based on the conventional values of the Josephson constant and the von Klitzing

constant agreed by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM)

in 1988. These units are very similar in scale to their corresponding SI units,

but are not identical because of their different definition. They are

distinguished from the corresponding SI units by setting the symbol in italic

typeface and adding a subscript "90" eg, the conventional volt has the symbol

V90 as they came into international use on 1 January 1990.

This system was developed to increase the precision of measurements: The

Josephson and von Klitzing constants can be realized with great precision,

repeatability and ease. The conventional electrical units have achieved

acceptance as an international standard and are commonly used outside of the

physics community in both engineering and industry.

The conventional electrical units are quasi-natural in the sense that they are

completely and exactly defined in terms of fundamental physical constants. They

are the first set of measurement units to be defined in this way, and as such,

represent a significant step towards using "natural" fundamental physics for

practical measurement purposes. However, the conventional electrical units are

unlike other systems natural units in that some physical constants are not set

to unity but rather set to fixed numerical values that are very close (but not

precisely the same) to those in the common SI system of units.

Four significant steps were taken in the last half century to increase the

precision and utility of measurement units. In 1967 the Thirteenth General

Conference on Weights and Measures defined the second of atomic time in the

radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of

the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. In 1983, the seventeenth CGPM redefined

the metre in terms of the second and the speed of light, thus fixing the speed

of light at exactly 299,792,458 m/s. And in 1990, the eighteenth CGPM adopted

conventional values for the Josephson constant and the von Klitzing constant,

fixing the conventional Josephson constant at exactly 483,597.9 109 Hz/"V",

and the conventional von Klitzing constant at exactly 25 812.807 "" (again,

these volts and ohms are not precisely the same as the SI definitions but very

nearly equivalent).

Contents [hide]

1 Definition

2 Conversion to SI units

3 Comparison with natural units

4 References

[edit] Definition

Conventional electrical units are based on defined values of the Josephson

constant and the von Klitzing constant, which allow practical measurements of

electromotive force and electrical resistance respectively.

ConstantConventional (defined) value

(CIPM, 1988)Empirical value (in SI units)

(CODATA, 2006)

Josephson constantKJ90 = 483 597.9 GHz/V90KJ = 483 597.891(12) GHz/V

von Klitzing constantRK90 = 25 812.807 90RK = 25 812.807 557(18)

The conventional volt, V90, is the electromotive force (or electric potential

difference) measured against a Josephson effect standard using the defined

value of the Josephson constant, KJ90.

The conventional ohm, 90, is the electrical resistance measured against a

quantum Hall effect standard using the defined value of the von Klitzing

constant, RK90.

Other conventional electrical units are defined by the normal physical

relationships, as in the conversion table below.

UnitDefinitionSI equivalent (CODATA 2006)

conventional voltsee aboveV90 = (KJ90/KJ) V = [1 + 1.9(2.5) 108] V

conventional ohmsee above90 = (RK/RK90) = [1 + 2.159(68) 108]

conventional ampereA90 = V90/90A90 = [1 0.3(2.5) 108] A

conventional coulombC90 = A90s = sV90/90C90 = [1 0.3(2.5) 108] C

conventional wattW90 = A90V90 = V902/90W90 = [1 + 1.6(5.0) 108] W

conventional faradF90 = C90/V90 = s/90F90 = [1 2.159(68) 108] F

conventional henryH90 = 90sH90 = [1 + 2.159(68) 108] H

[edit] Comparison with natural units

See also: Natural units

Conventional electrical units can be thought of as a scaled version of a system

of natural units defined as

having consequence:

.

This is a more general (or less specific) version of either the particle physics

"Natural units" or the quantum chromodynamical system of units but that no unit

mass is fixed. Like n.u. or QCD units, with conventional electrical units any

observed variation over space or time in the value of the fine-structure

constant, , is attributed to variation in the Coulomb constant or vacuum

permittivity or, since the speed of light, c, is fixed, as a variation in the

vacuum permeability.

The following table provides a comparison of conventional electrical units with

other natural unit systems:

Quantity / SymbolPlanckStoneySchrdingerAtomicElectronicConventional

Electrical Units

speed of light in vacuum

Planck's constant

reduced Planck's constant

elementary charge

Josephson constant

von Klitzing constant

characteristic impedance of vacuum

electric constant (vacuum permittivity)

magnetic constant (vacuum permeability)

Newtonian constant of gravitation

electron mass

caesium ground state hyperfine

transition frequency

[edit] References

Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.; Newell, David B. (2008). "CODATA Recommended

Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006". Rev. Mod. Phys. 80:

633730. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.80.633.

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/codata.pdf.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conventional_electrical_unit"

Categories: Electromagnetism | Systems of units

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