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- UNIT I
- Dynamics
- Problem 6 012
- Vibration & Fault Diagnosis
- Forced Damped Vibrations - Chirayu (Regular 48),Darshil Shah (d to d 08),Parth Bhatt(d to d 10)
- MT (Fall 2014)
- midas-NFX-Linear-Dynamic-Analysis-with-Damping.pdf
- Types of Earthquake Resistant
- midas-NFX-Linear-Dynamic-Analysis-with-Damping.pdf
- RUbber Mount
- Wind Analysis
- sd
- Theory of Vibrations - Saran - Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation
- Analysis and Design Systems 2nd (Cochin, Plass)
- Dynamics of Machines
- Vibration Analysis for Gears
- whitlock
- Static Response
- Monte Carlo Method
- API 618 Compressors

You are on page 1of 15

This guide starts from applications of linear dynamic response

and its role in FEA simulation. Fundamental concepts and

principles will be introduced such as equation of motion, types of

vibrations, role of damping in engineering and its types, linear

dynamic analyses, etc. Finally we will discuss how to choose

appropriate solution type for damping and introduce strength of

midas NFX for solving dynamic problems.

and Mechatronics; West Pomeranian University

of Technology, Poland

Dynamic analysis is strongly related to vibrations.

equilibrium position. Vibrations are initiated when an inertia element is displaced from its

equilibrium position due to an energy imported to the system through an external source.

Vibrations occur in many mechanical and structural

systems. Without being controlled, vibrations can

lead to catastrophic situations.

Vibrations of machine tools or machine tool chatter

can lead to improper machining of parts. Structural

failure can occur because of large dynamic

stresses developed during earthquakes or even

wind induced vibrations.

Figure 1: 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure

Vibrations induced by an unbalanced helicopter blade while rotating at high speeds can lead to

the blade's failure and catastrophe for the helicopter. Excessive vibrations of pumps,

compressors, turbomachinery, and other industrial machines can induce vibrations of the

surrounding structure, leading to inefficient operation of the machines while the noise produced

can cause human discomfort.

Vibrations as the science is one of the first courses where most engineers to apply the knowledge

obtained from mathematics and basic engineering science courses to solve practical problems.

Solution of practical problems in vibrations requires modeling of physical systems. A system is

abstracted from its surroundings. Usually assumptions appropriate to the system are made.

Basic engineering science, mathematics and numerical methods are applied to derive a computer

based model.

Page 2

The mathematical modeling of a physical system results in the formulation of a mathematical

problem. The modelling is not complete until the appropriate mathematics is applied and a

solution obtained.

The type of mathematics required is different for different types of problems. Modeling of any

statics, dynamics, and mechanics of solids problems leads only to algebraic equations.

Mathematical modeling of vibrations problems leads to differential equations.

In mathematical physics, equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of

a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.

Equations of motion are consisted of inertial force, damping force (energy dissipation) and

elastic (restoring) force.

The overall behavior of a structure can be grasped through these three forces.

mu(t )

INERTIA FORCE

cu (t )

DAMPING FORCE

ku(t )

RESTORING FORCE

p(t )

APPLIED FORCE

Damping Force describes energy dissipation mechanism which induces a force that is a

function of a dissipation constant and the velocity. This force is known as the general viscous

damping force.

The final induced force in the dynamic system is due to the elastic resistance in the system and

is a function of the displacement and stiffness of the system. This force is called the elastic force,

restoring force or occasionally the spring force.

The applied load has been presented on the right-hand side of equation and is defined as a

function of time. This load is independent of the structure to which it is applied.

Exact analytical solutions, when they exist, are preferable to numerical or approximate solutions.

Exact solutions are available for many linear problems, but for only a few nonlinear problems.

Page 3

Simple mechanical system is schematically shown in Figure 3. The inputs (or excitation) applied to

the system are represented by the force p(t). The outputs (or response) of the system are

represented by the displacement u(t). The system boundary (real or imaginary) demarcates the

region of interest in the analysis. What is outside the system boundary is the environment in which

the system operates.

Environment

System Boundary

of Variables

Parameters (m, c, k)

System Excitation

(Inputs)

u(t)

System Response

(Outputs)

System parameters are represented in the model, and their values should be known in order to

determine the response of the system to a particular excitation.

State variables are a minimum set of variables, which completely represent the dynamic state of a

system at any given time t. For a simple SDOF oscillator an appropriate set of state variables would

be the displacement u and the velocity du/dt.

The equation of motion for SDOF mechanical system may be derived using the free-body diagram

approach.

m mass

c damping coefficient

k stiffness coefficient

p(t) applied force

Page 4

u(t) mass velocity

u(t) mass acceleration

Free Undamped Response

General solution:

mu(t ) ku(t ) 0

u (t )

u 0

sin n t u0 cos n t

Natural frequency: n

k rad

[

]

m

s

entities

Free Damped Response

General solution:

c ccr 2 km 2mn

u(t ) ( A Bt )e ct / 2 m

Underdamped solution:

u(t ) e ct / 2 m ( A sin d t B cos d t )

c ccr

c ccr

Overdamped System

Underdamped System

d n 1 2

Damped natural

frequency

c

ccr

Damping

ratio

(t ) ku(t ) p(t )

mu

Page 5

3.1 Eigenvalue Analysis/Normal Modes/Modal

Analysis of the Normal Modes or Natural

Frequencies of a structure is a search for its

resonant frequencies. By understanding the

dynamic

characteristics

of

a

structure

experiencing oscillation or periodic loads, we can

prevents resonance and damage of the structure.

Mass

Stiffness

Structure

Natural

Frequencies

Normal Mode

Shapes

Constraints

Normal Mode shape the characteristic deflected shape of a structure as it resonates

Executed in the time domain, it obtains the

solution of a dynamic equation of equilibrium

when a dynamic load is being applied to a

structure.

Though the load and boundary conditions

required for a transient response analysis are

similar to those of a static analysis, a difference is

that load is defined as a function of time.

Mass

Stiffness

Response in Time

Domain

Structure

Constraints

Damping

A technique to determine the steady state

response of a structure according to sinusoidal (

harmonic) loads of known frequency.

Frequency Response is best visualized as a

response to a structure on a shaker table.

Adjusting the frequency input to the table gives a

range of responses.

Mass

Stiffness

Structure

Constraints

Damping

Response in Freq.

Domain

u (t ) F / k

sin(t )

2

(1 -

)2 ( 2 / n )2

Page 6

response - Displacement

for frequency response

experiment

Dynamic loads can be applied directly on your model or as time or frequency dependent

static loadings.

Dynamic Analysis

(Eigenvalue Analysis)

Linear or Nonlinear

Analysis

Modal Superposition Method

Linear Analysis

Frequency Response

Analysis

*Not Covered in this guide

Page 7

5. Damping

Damping is the phenomenon by which mechanical energy is dissipated (usually by conversion

into internal thermal energy) in dynamic systems. Knowledge of the level of damping in a dynamic

system is important in the utilization, analysis, and testing of the system. In structural systems,

damping is more complex, appearing in several forms.

itself. Internal (material) damping results from

mechanical energy dissipation within the material

due to various microscopic and macroscopic

processes.

Mechanical Damping

- Internal

- External

- Distributed

- Localized

External damping comes from boundary

effects. An important form is structural

damping, which is produced by rubbing

friction: stick-and-slip contact or impact.

Another form of external damping is fluid

damping.

All damping ultimately comes from frictional effects, which may however take place at different

scales. If the effects are distributed over volumes or surfaces at macro scales, we speak of

distributed damping. Damping devices designed to produce beneficial damping effects, such as

shock absorbers, represent localized damping.

It is not practical to incorporate detailed microscopic representations of damping in the dynamic

analysis of systems. Instead, simplified models of damping that are representative of various types

of energy dissipation are typically used.

Damping Models

General Viscous

Damping

Modal damping

Rayleigh damping

Page 8

Structural /

Hysteretic

Coulomb

Fluid

The following types of damping are available inside the midas NFX:

- Proportional Damping (Rayleigh; classic)

- Hysteretic/Structural Damping

- Direct Damping values

- Frequency dependent damping

- Modal Damping

- Coulomb damping, requires special modelling techniques

- Rayleigh Damping (Proportional)

- Damper element Property

- Structural Damping

Case Manager

- Overall and Elemental Damping

- Modal Damping

- Coulomb Damping

Functions

features

Page 9

midas NFX are used in various projects to investigate dynamic characteristics of a large range of

industrial products. Some of the examples are shown below.

Case 1

pressure level (SPL) analysis

Mode Frequency

performance of a cellphone

speaker is evaluated under

different sound pressure

levels.

1,778 Hz

3ND

1,801 Hz

4ND

9,457 Hz

5ND

9,679 Hz

Displacement / Frequency

Case 2

(midas NFX application from YUDO STAR Automation)

Mode

Natural

Frequency

1st Mode

6.0Hz

2nd Mode

8.2Hz

3rd Mode

14.6Hz

for resonance avoidance design in order to

avoid the resonance which happens at 15Hz

under repetitive load.

Page 10

2ND

Stress

mode shapes of the structure. We can also

observe that maximum displacement was 0.4

mm, it occurred at around 1000Hz. At this

frequency the suspension structure reached

its maximum stress of 250MPa.

seismic load through response spectrum

analysis.

1,046 Hz

6ND 10,217 Hz

determine natural frequencies of the speaker

components. Then frequency response

analysis was performed to calculate stresses

and deformation shapes of the speaker

components according to different frequency

spectrums.

servo robot arm was investigated both to

avoid resonance during machine operation

and to ensure structural safety during

earthquakes.

1ND

Case 3

(midas NFX application)

In this project the dynamic characteristics of brake disc were reviewed to avoid squeal noise

caused by vibration. Through frequency response analysis, we can observe that at around 7000

Hz, frequencies of Nodal Diameter Mode and In-Plane Compression Mode are very close,

where squeal noise is most likely to occur. Therefore, a design modification is needed to

separate 2 frequencies to avoid squealing problems.

Natural

Mode

frequency

2ND

1027 Hz

3ND

2394 Hz

4ND

3897 Hz

5ND

5468 Hz

1st IPC

7014 Hz

6ND

7045 Hz

7ND

8592 Hz

8ND

10068 Hz

2nd IPC

10285 Hz

1st IPC

6ND

Case 4

(midas NFX application)

In this project, natural frequency analysis and frequency response analysis were performed to

predict the happening of cracks on the body and piping of a marine refrigeration machine under

vibration loads.

100

Pipe Frequency

Part frequency

Response Function response

X-direction

Y-direction

10

Z-direction

100

PipeFrequency

Part frequency

Response Function response

X-direction

Y-direction

10

Z-direction

0.1

0.1

0.01

0.01

0.001

0.001

0.0001

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

70

80

90

100

0.0001

0

100

10

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

70

80

90

100

PipeFrequency

Part frequency

Response Function response

X-direction

Y-direction

10

Z-direction

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

Page 10

10

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

70

80

90

100

7.1 Easiness to be learned and adopted

Despite all the benefits that simulation can bring to product design, adopting simulation driven

design approach in a well established team can be sometimes challenging.

To fully leverage the capabilities of FEA simulation and create maximum values, design

engineers need to learn FEA software as well as some specialized engineering knowledge.

Sometime design engineers need to work together with analysis specialist in the team to

complete a more complex analysis.

midas NFX is well-known for its fast learning curve to both analysis specialists and product

designers. midas NFX divides its interface into Designer Mode and Analyst Mode to fit the

needs of simple and powerful analysis in one software.

Designer mode aims to help design engineers who aspire to take that intellectual leap from CAD

design to FEA simulation. It is equipped with automation tools such as automatic simplification,

auto-meshing, analysis wizards, etc., as well as powerful meshing algorithms and highperformance solvers.

Analyst mode provides experienced analyst full flexibility to build and analyze finite element

models in the way you want. One can use different types of elements for modeling, and also

generate mesh manually. There are also tools to create and edit geometry that can help the user

tweak with the geometry without the inconvenience of returning to the CAD platform.

With the auto-update function, user can create analysis template with which when model is

redesigned, analysis can be directly performed on the model without having to assign all the

analysis condition again and again. Besides time saving, you can also extend knowledge of the

analysis specialist by asking a specialist to create the template so that the design engineers can

use it later in the design simulation iterations.

New product are designed in CAD tools, many CAD tools are available on the market, and even

in one team different CAD tools are usually being used. Therefore, CAD compatibility is another

critical capacity to consider.

midas NFX is fully compatible with CAD, 13 most commonly used CAD formats are supported,

including Parasolid, CATIA V4/V5, UG, Pro/E, SolidWorks, Soild Edge, Inventor, STEP, IGES,

ACIS. Nastran format (.nas; .bdf) can also be import for analysis.

Models directly taken from CAD designs are usually with excessive detailing. Especially

electronic components, machine parts include many small holes, fillets, lines, faces which are

not only unnecessary but also will lead to inefficient analysis. Common practice is to clean up the

geometry model first before meshing and analyzing it.

Page 12

midas NFX is equipped with automatic and manual simplification tools to handle effectively the

clean up work. With several clicks such detailing can be automatically detected, selected and

removed. This will save you considerably amount of time.

Furthermore, midas NFX is equipped with geometry creation and editing tools. Simple

modifications to the model can be directly done in midas NFX without going back to CAD tools.

Dynamic analysis provides the output related to the nature of the problem:

Natural vibration analysis can extract natural vibration frequencies and the associated mode

shapes

The response analysis refers to the calculation of the response, which can be displacements,

strain, or stress, when the system is subjected to time or frequency varying excitation forces

A good software provides result visualization in the most appropriate manner, as well provides

tools to extract flexibly any result at any location of interest. Advanced requirements such as

drawing value tables and graphs should also be satisfied.

Result visualization is one of the biggest strengths of midas NFX. The software provides

different kinds of contour maps. With ISO Surface, overheated locations can be easily

discovered. Interactive graph for incremental solution provides an excellent possibility to

investigate and validate your model during solution phase.

midas NFX has the provision for automatic report generation. The reports include all the

information related to the model, right from the geometry to the result graphs and tables. The

automatic reports can be generated in MS-Word or 3D PDF format. The former can use default

or custom templates whereas the latter is an interactive report with animated illustrations of the

model in a 3D view.

Page 13

fast, affordablee FEA ?

Or type following address

www.midasnfx.com/Downloads/trial.asp

Contact Us at

Website: www.midasNFX.com

Email: Info@MidasUser.com

Telephone: +82-31-789-4040

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