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THE DESIGN ASPECTS OF THE MAGNETOSTRICTIVE ACTUATOR

The geometrical configuration of the magnetic circuit of actuator is presented in fig. 1.


The equivalent scheme of the magnetic circuit is shown in fig. 2; a simplified scheme is
obtained considering RF 0 .
In fig. 2: rm- magnetostrictive rod, mp-permanent magnet, f-flange. The
magnetostrictive rod is Terfenol-D.

Fig. 1. The geometrical configuration


of the magnetic circuit.

Fig. 2. Equivalent scheme of magnetic circuit.

In the simplified scheme is considered only the magnetomotive force generated by the
the permanent magnet:
U mmM 0, B 0

(1)

Kirchhoffs laws lead to the equation system:

=T S

S
RT T RS

(2)

R U
T
T
mM

The material equations are:


U mmM H M lM

M k BM AM

(3))

R U
T
T
mM

The results are:


RT OT
[ A / m]
lM
R
M OT (1 T )[Wb]
RS

BM M [T ]
k AM
HM

(4))
(5))
(6))

The geometrical configuration of the winding is presented in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. The geometrical configuration


of magnetizing coil.

The induction in the centre of winding (in the magnetostrictive rod core) is calculated
with the relation, [1]:
N I
1

1
B T

[sh 1
sh
1 ][T ]
a1 2 ( 1)

(7))

By using the superposition principle (the magnetic flux into the branch of the circuit is
the algebric sum of the fluxes generated by the each magnetomotive forces), the magnetic
flux into the terfenol rod is:
BT BOT B T

(8))

COMMENTS ON THE STRUCTURE OF MAGNETOSTRICTIVE ACTUATORS


In [4] shows a typical structure for the magnetostrictive actuator, the model for
calculating the electric and magnetic equivalent circuits is shown in fig. 4.
Magnetostrictive actuator performance can be expressed by the ratio of the main stream
(corresponding reluctance terfenol bar) and leakage flux.

Fig. 4. Electric and magnetic equivalent circuits of the drive coil and flux return paths of a
magnetostrictive actuator, [4].

A magnetizing coil can be described by the parameters, [4],

lc
a2
,
and
a1
2a1

a1
, where rr is the radius of the rod-shaped magnetostrictive material, a1 and a2 the
rr
inner and outer radius of the magnetizing coil, and lc the length of the driver coil. An
estimate of the generated H field inside the coil and the corresponding leakage
inductance can then be derived if one assumes that the field penetrates a linear
homogeneous soft magnetic material, see eqs. (9) and (10).

H coil Gcoil ( , ) NI coil

( 1)
lc a1 ( 1)

(9)

2
Lleak 0 2Gcoil
N 2 (rr

( 2 1) ( 1)

( 1)

1
a1 ( 1)( 3))
6

(10)

Uniform penetration of the magnetic field hypothesis is valid if the corresponding


reluctance of return flux ( R path )is small compared with the corresponding reluctance of
the leakage.
The fraction of the leakage inductance Lrel ,leak not contribute to the magnetostrictive
effect (frequency independent) that determines the magnetization current for a given
voltage can be written as:
Lrel ,leak

1
1
(( 2 1) 2 ( 1)( 3))
r
6

(11)

The quantity Gcoil is called Fabri factor of the magnetizing coil and is a function of
and , as shown in equation (12).
1 2
( 2 2 )1/2
G ( , ) ( 2 )1/2 ln[
] (12)
5 1
1 (1 2 )1/2
The maximum value Gcoil , G 0,179 , for 3 , 2 . For 1.1 and r 5 the
corresponding Lrel ,leak will be 72.6% . The usual coil geometry factor G is in the range
0.1 0.179 . Evidently there is a trade off between a high specific generated H field and
the low leakage inductance.
THE CALCULATION PARAMETERS OF ACTUATORS
MAGNETOSTRICTION COEFFICIENT
In terms of practical applications, magnetostriction coefficient is what determines the
choice of a particular type of magnetostrictive material.
The linear magnetostriction, , for magnetization of the material is less than the
saturation, and is defined as the relative change in length of the material under the
influence of an external magnetic field.

L
L

(13)

where:
L - rode extension from magnetostrictive effect;
L - core length of magnetostrictive rod (Terfenol-D).

The ratio of L / L in Terfenol-D is in the range of more than 1500 ppm, and can be up
to 4000 ppm at resonance frequency.
ESTIMATING FORCE FOR ON ACTUATORS
The mechanical force F follows from the stress T in the rod according to next relation:
Fa | T A |

(14)

where:
T - tractive effort of the characteristics of magnetostrictive material;
A - magnetostrictive core section.