magnetostrictiune

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magnetostrictiune

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The equivalent scheme of the magnetic circuit is shown in fig. 2; a simplified scheme is

obtained considering RF 0 .

In fig. 2: rm- magnetostrictive rod, mp-permanent magnet, f-flange. The

magnetostrictive rod is Terfenol-D.

of the magnetic circuit.

In the simplified scheme is considered only the magnetomotive force generated by the

the permanent magnet:

U mmM 0, B 0

(1)

=T S

S

RT T RS

(2)

R U

T

T

mM

U mmM H M lM

M k BM AM

(3))

R U

T

T

mM

RT OT

[ A / m]

lM

R

M OT (1 T )[Wb]

RS

BM M [T ]

k AM

HM

(4))

(5))

(6))

of magnetizing coil.

The induction in the centre of winding (in the magnetostrictive rod core) is calculated

with the relation, [1]:

N I

1

1

B T

[sh 1

sh

1 ][T ]

a1 2 ( 1)

(7))

By using the superposition principle (the magnetic flux into the branch of the circuit is

the algebric sum of the fluxes generated by the each magnetomotive forces), the magnetic

flux into the terfenol rod is:

BT BOT B T

(8))

In [4] shows a typical structure for the magnetostrictive actuator, the model for

calculating the electric and magnetic equivalent circuits is shown in fig. 4.

Magnetostrictive actuator performance can be expressed by the ratio of the main stream

(corresponding reluctance terfenol bar) and leakage flux.

Fig. 4. Electric and magnetic equivalent circuits of the drive coil and flux return paths of a

magnetostrictive actuator, [4].

lc

a2

,

and

a1

2a1

a1

, where rr is the radius of the rod-shaped magnetostrictive material, a1 and a2 the

rr

inner and outer radius of the magnetizing coil, and lc the length of the driver coil. An

estimate of the generated H field inside the coil and the corresponding leakage

inductance can then be derived if one assumes that the field penetrates a linear

homogeneous soft magnetic material, see eqs. (9) and (10).

( 1)

lc a1 ( 1)

(9)

2

Lleak 0 2Gcoil

N 2 (rr

( 2 1) ( 1)

( 1)

1

a1 ( 1)( 3))

6

(10)

reluctance of return flux ( R path )is small compared with the corresponding reluctance of

the leakage.

The fraction of the leakage inductance Lrel ,leak not contribute to the magnetostrictive

effect (frequency independent) that determines the magnetization current for a given

voltage can be written as:

Lrel ,leak

1

1

(( 2 1) 2 ( 1)( 3))

r

6

(11)

The quantity Gcoil is called Fabri factor of the magnetizing coil and is a function of

and , as shown in equation (12).

1 2

( 2 2 )1/2

G ( , ) ( 2 )1/2 ln[

] (12)

5 1

1 (1 2 )1/2

The maximum value Gcoil , G 0,179 , for 3 , 2 . For 1.1 and r 5 the

corresponding Lrel ,leak will be 72.6% . The usual coil geometry factor G is in the range

0.1 0.179 . Evidently there is a trade off between a high specific generated H field and

the low leakage inductance.

THE CALCULATION PARAMETERS OF ACTUATORS

MAGNETOSTRICTION COEFFICIENT

In terms of practical applications, magnetostriction coefficient is what determines the

choice of a particular type of magnetostrictive material.

The linear magnetostriction, , for magnetization of the material is less than the

saturation, and is defined as the relative change in length of the material under the

influence of an external magnetic field.

L

L

(13)

where:

L - rode extension from magnetostrictive effect;

L - core length of magnetostrictive rod (Terfenol-D).

The ratio of L / L in Terfenol-D is in the range of more than 1500 ppm, and can be up

to 4000 ppm at resonance frequency.

ESTIMATING FORCE FOR ON ACTUATORS

The mechanical force F follows from the stress T in the rod according to next relation:

Fa | T A |

(14)

where:

T - tractive effort of the characteristics of magnetostrictive material;

A - magnetostrictive core section.

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