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The idea of creating a unified Europe was not a new one.

In the 9th Century, the


Frankish emperor Charlemagne dominated much of Europe. At the beginning of the
19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte attempted to control most of Europe. In the 1930s,
Adolph Hitler intended to conquer all of Europe. The key words here are dominated,
control, and conquer. Throughout history, wars were fought in Europe over land,
religion, and resources all with devastating results. At the end of World War II, it
finally became apparent that violence and hatred could not unify Europe. 1 Therefore,
in order to explore the functioning of European Union being the Apex institution in
the Europe becomes highly warranted. Moreover to analyse its role in peace keeping
operations present research work attempts to conduct an analytical perspective on the
foreign and security policy of European Union. Its noteworthy to consider that, since
form its inception, i.e. in 1993 the European Union has played a pivotal role into the
holistic development and growth of the Europe.
Its pertinent to note that, post-cold war era had transformed the world from bipolar to
unipolar. Similarly it also preached the importance of co-operation rather than
competition. Thats the reason; many nations paved the ways to the mutual cooperation with each other. When it comes to the diversified and naturally enriched
continent like Europe it becomes quintessential to understand their common notion of
oneness. Indeed Europe had been the platform of world wars still it has shown the
audacity and passion to unite together by leaving all its eco-politico-socio and legal
differences. Thus, its not less than any miracle that, the most conflicting interests of
the nations like Britain and Germany are being found working hand in hand to settle
peace across the Europe. The European security policy has followed several different
paths during the 1990s, developing simultaneously within the Western European
Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization 2 and the European Union itself. However,
there is a mammoth backdrop trailed to the present form of the foreign security policy
of the EU and its functioning.
These footprints of economic, political and legal development of Europe can be traced
back till 1948 wherein formation of Western European Union 3 took place by virtue of
Treaty of Brussels.4 The seeds of futuristic alliances and mutual co-operation were

being sown at this institution. However, in 1949 the formation of Council of Europe 5
had endeavoured to unite most of the European portion under one roof. Nevertheless
due to the inherent lacuna of nonbinding legal enforcement it left a scope for next
generation institution for Europe. However, most of the further development occurred
in economic sphere rather than security and defence demands of the Europe. The
formation of European Economic Community (EEC) by virtue of Treaty of Rome 6
and European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) in 19577 had paved a way to
the mutial co-operation of European stated apart from economic issues. This
ultimately resulted into merger of above institutions into some of the most efficient
and tight knotted institutions of Europe till date, viz, European Commission 8,
European Council9 and European Parliament.10
The journey of European institutions had travelled very simultaneous to the cold war
era. Till 1992 many of the European nations were joined the above mentioned united
agencies of Europe. However, the most important development towards the future of
unified Europe occurred with the collapse of Berlin Wall and signifying the end of
cold war is formation of European Union by virtue of Treaty of Maastricht in 1992. 11
This newly formed institution literally nurtured the Europe with all holistic and
philanthropic manner including justice, defence, foreign policy and home affair issues
etc.
However, despite of unified and stronger economic framework, the European Union
had inherent lacunae of foreign and security framework. Initially, the security and
defence component of the CFSP was limited and the EU had to rely on the Western
European Union (WEU), which in turn was to a significant extent dependent on the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). However, the amendments introduced by
the Treaty of Amsterdam enabled a substantial development of this security and

defence component. This potential was seized by the Cologne 12 and Helsinki
European Councils which initiated the development of a Common European Security
and Defence Policy (ESDP).
Its pertinent to note that, The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) which
formerly known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), is a major
element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union (EU).
As far as Foreign policy is concern, EU seeks to preserve peace & strengthen
international security promote international cooperation develop & consolidate
democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights & fundamental freedoms. 13
The EU is a key player on issues ranging from Iran's nuclear programme and
stabilising Somalia and the wider Horn of Africa to global warming. Its joint foreign
and security policy, designed to resolve conflicts and foster international
understanding, is based on diplomacy; trade, humanitarian aid, security and defence
often play a complementary role. Being world's largest donor of development finance,
the EU is uniquely well-placed for cooperation with developing countries. The sheer
demographic and economic weight of the 28-nation bloc makes it a major power. It is
the worlds biggest trader, with the worlds second currency, the euro. The trend
towards joint foreign policy decisions strengthens its arm. Thus, common foreign
policy of EU has been on the progressive path since its inception.