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INDUCTION MOTOR

S. P. KHADE

Director (Technical) Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, Mumbai, India

spkhade@hotmail.com

AbstractInduction motor is the most common drive. The performance of the motor can be predicated by use of

equivalent circuit. All the parameters in the equivalent circuit can be determined and measured. The leakage reactance of

stator and rotor are measured as sum of stator reactance X1 and the referred reactance of rotor as X2. The separation is done

by thumb rule. This paper attempts to separate these two parameters experimentally

I.

INTRODUCTION

the sum of stator and rotor leakage reactance,

hereafter referred as reactance.

The separation of these reactances for

squirrel cage motor is done by thumb rules. As per

IEC standard, the separation is decided as X1/X2 = 1

for single cage motor and X1/X2 = 0.67 for double

cage motor. The IEC also permits the separation of

X1 and X2, by use of design details. Till VVVF drive

became popular, the separation of X1 and X2 was not

very important, but with increase use of VVVF drive,

such separation will be important. NEMA also uses

similar thumb rules.

The separation of reactance is achieved by

carrying out block rotor test, dc stator resistance

measurement and two additional new tests. The new

tests not carried out so far, are described below,

before giving the experimental results.

These two tests are named as no stator test

and no rotor test. In no stator test, measurement is

carried out on rotor and in no rotor test it is done on

stator. A datasheet of motor was available hence for

the purpose of this paper block rotor test & dc stator

resistance measurement strictly speaking were not

necessary.

II.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

The points A & B (Fig.1) are shown as

diametrically opposite but they can be any points on

rotor. The circular ring is shown in the familiar shape

of delta and ab, bc and ca are the three phases of the

rotor impedance. Whatever may be the actual values

of resistance and impedance between point A & B,

the ratio of impedance (or reactance) and resistance

of the measured values between point A & B will be

the same for any phase due to symmetry.

Z

Z

=

=

=

NO STATOR TEST

the rotor is done between the short circuiting rings of

a rotor

Point A & B are diametrically opposite on the two

short circuiting rings (Fig 1). The measurement is

done between these two points. The measurement can

be difficult as the values are very small. The rotor can

be shown as a closed ring or a delta as shown in

Fig.2.

as r2/X2 or r2/l2 where l2 is an inductance.

From the transformer theory we know that

r2 = T2r2 and X2 = T2X2.

The reflected resistance and reactance is decided

by the square of the turns ratio T.

49

International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (p): 2320-2084,

Rac = Z cos = 0.7625

Therefore

R

= 10.48 = K

R

factor K indicated above. The factor K is

found to vary from design to design of motors.

Therefore

=

X X

The ratio of r2/X2 and r2/X2 will be always equal

for transformers. But this equality will not hold good

for the induction motor. In the transformer the

frequency of primary and the secondary is same. The

skin effect will increase the resistance on both sides

equally and hence the equality will hold good even

after the skin effect. But in induction motor, the rotor

frequency will be between 1 to 2Hz and the frequency

of stator will be the power frequency. The skin effect

needs to be considered. The equality (1) above is

modified as

IV.

MEASUREMENT OF R2 AND X2 , NO

STATOR TEST

measured as indicated above. The measurement gave

the values of inductance and resistance. Resistance

measured between short circuiting rings was 9

and the inductance varied between 1.2 to 1.6 H. The

average value of 1.4 mH is considered

Therefore,

= /H

=K

X

X

Where K is the ratio of ac resistance to dc

resistance.

The resistance of the rotor will be almost a dc

resistance whereas the resistance of stator will be that

measured at 50Hz.

III.

When this resistance gets reflected on stator side, the

same needs to be multiplied by the factor K.

Therefore the ratio will be

6.42 10.48 = 67.37 m/mH

NO ROTOR TEST

this test the Voltage was applied to stator after

removing the rotor. The voltage, current and power or

power factor are measured to work out the resistance.

I. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The experimental setup gave the value of

inductance and hence it was used for the calculation.

No rotor test

Voltage

Current

Inductance

V

IU IV IW

mH

140

80 80 80

3.58

V.

RESISTANCE OF ROTOR

rotor and the stator. The values are worked out as per

the usual way. Several readings were taken but only

one is below to illustrate the method used.

Voltage

(V)

365

Z

V

3 I

Power Factor

(pf)

0.20

0.20 = 0.160

But r2 = 87.3 m

Therefore,

Sin = 89.92/140

= 0.6422

Cos = 0.7547

=

Current

(A)

263

data sheet it is 72.7 m.

Therefore r2 = 160 72.7 = 87.3m

Since reactance and inductances are directly

related

r2/X2 is replaced by, r2/L2

= 80 23.14503.5810-3 volts

= 89.92 V

Therefore

87.3

= 1.29 mH

67.37

The total inductance measured is 2.65 mH

As per data sheet it is 2.73 mH

The value of 2.73 mH is

Considered for calculation

Therefore L1 + L2 = 2.73 mH

L2 is worked out as 1.29 mH

Therefore L1 = 1.44 mH

L =

3 80

Rdc = 72.7 m (data sheet)

50

International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (p): 2320-2084,

Central Railway, iii) Mr. Sukhvinder Singh, Sr. DEE

TRS Ajni Locoshed iv) Mr. Shailendra Tripathi, Chief

Electrical Engineer, CLW v) Mr. R P Mishra, CTM

CLW

The author wishes to thank Mr. Martin

Dopplebauer of Karlsruher Institute of Technology for

valuable guidance. The errors if any are entirely of the

author.

CONCLUSION

The separation of X1 and X2 experimentally will

help in better design and improving the performance

of the induction motor. The knowledge of accurate

value of r2/X2 can help in improving the software for

VVVF drive. The measurement of X2 during service

will be useful to understand the soundness of motor.

The failure of the motor can be predicated more

scientifically.

REFERENCES

[1] M.G. Say, Performance and design of A C

Machines.

[2] IEC 60034 - 12.

Datasheet of ABB for motor 6FRA6068.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

For the experimental result, the author wishes to

thank i) Mr. Mahadev Dorugade of Hindustan Motors

Manufacturing Company

51

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