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CarbondioxideWikipedia

Carbondioxide
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Carbondioxide(chemicalformulaCO2)isacolorlessand
odorlessgasthatisvitaltolifeonEarth.Thisnaturally
occurringchemicalcompoundismadeupofacarbonatom
covalentlydoublebondedtotwooxygenatoms.Carbondioxide
existsinEarth'satmosphereasatracegasataconcentrationof
about0.04percent(400ppm)byvolume.[3]Naturalsources
includevolcanoes,hotspringsandgeysers,anditisfreedfrom
carbonaterocksbydissolutioninwaterandacids.Because
carbondioxideissolubleinwater,itoccursnaturallyin
groundwater,riversandlakes,inicecapsandglaciersandalso
inseawater.Itispresentindepositsofpetroleumandnatural
gas.[4]
Atmosphericcarbondioxideistheprimarysourceofcarbonin
lifeonEarthanditsconcentrationinEarth'spreindustrial
atmospheresincelateinthePrecambrianwasregulatedby
photosyntheticorganismsandgeologicalphenomena.Aspartof
thecarboncycle,plants,algae,andcyanobacteriauselight
energytophotosynthesizecarbohydratefromcarbondioxide
andwater,withoxygenproducedasawasteproduct.[5]
Carbondioxide(CO2)isproducedbyallaerobicorganisms
whentheymetabolizecarbohydratesandlipidstoproduce
energybyrespiration.[6]Itisreturnedtowaterviathegillsof
fishandtotheairviathelungsofairbreathinglandanimals,
includinghumans.Carbondioxideisproducedduringthe
processesofdecayoforganicmaterialsandthefermentationof
sugarsinbread,beerandwinemaking.Itisproducedby
combustionofwoodandotherorganicmaterialsandfossilfuels
suchascoal,peat,petroleumandnaturalgas.
Itisaversatileindustrialmaterial,used,forexample,asaninert
gasinweldingandfireextinguishers,asapressurizinggasinair
gunsandoilrecovery,asachemicalfeedstockandinliquid
formasasolventindecaffeinationofcoffeeandsupercritical
drying.Itisaddedtodrinkingwaterandcarbonatedbeverages
includingbeerandsparklingwinetoaddeffervescence.The
frozensolidformofCO2,knownas"dryice"isusedasa

Carbondioxide

Names
Othernames
Carbonicacidgas
Carbonicanhydride
Carbonicoxide
Carbonoxide
Carbon(IV)oxide
Dryice(solidphase)
Identifiers
CASNumber

spx?ref=124389)
3Dmodel(Jmol)

Interactiveimage(http://chema
pps.stolaf.edu/jmol/jmol.php?m
odel=O%3DC%3DO)
Interactiveimage(http://chema
pps.stolaf.edu/jmol/jmol.php?m
odel=C%28%3DO%29%3DO)

3DMet

B01131(http://www.3dmet.dn
a.affrc.go.jp/cgi/show_data.ph
p?acc=B01131)

BeilsteinReference

1900390

ChEBI

CHEBI:16526(https://www.eb
i.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebi
Id=16526)

refrigerantandasanabrasiveindryiceblasting.
ChEMBL

Carbondioxideisasignificantgreenhousegas.Sincethe
IndustrialRevolution,anthropogenicemissionsincludingthe
burningofcarbonbasedfossilfuelsandlandusechanges
(primarilydeforestation)haverapidlyincreasedits

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

124389(http://www.common
chemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.a

ChEMBL1231871(https://ww
w.ebi.ac.uk/chembldb/index.ph
p/compound/inspect/ChEMBL1
231871)

ChemSpider

274(http://www.chemspider.co
m/ChemicalStructure.274.htm
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concentrationintheatmosphere,leadingtoglobalwarming.
Carbondioxidealsocausesoceanacidificationbecauseit
dissolvesinwatertoformcarbonicacid.[7]

Contents
1 Background
2 Chemicalandphysicalproperties
2.1 Structureandbonding
2.2 Inaqueoussolution
2.3 ChemicalreactionsofCO2
2.4 Physicalproperties
3 Isolationandproduction
4 Applications
4.1 Precursortochemicals
4.2 Foods
4.2.1 Beverages
4.2.2 Winemaking
4.3 Inertgas
4.4 Fireextinguisher
4.5 SupercriticalCO2assolvent
4.6 Agriculturalandbiologicalapplications
4.7 Oilrecovery
4.8 Biotransformationintofuel
4.9 Refrigerant
4.10 Coalbedmethanerecovery
4.11 Minoruses
5 InEarth'satmosphere
6 Intheoceans
7 Biologicalrole
7.1 Photosynthesisandcarbonfixation
7.2 Toxicity
7.2.1 Below1%
7.2.2 Ventilation
7.3 Humanphysiology
7.3.1 Content
7.3.2 Transportintheblood
7.3.3 Regulationofrespiration
8 Seealso
9 References
10 Furtherreading
11 Externallinks

Background
Carbondioxidewasthefirstgastobedescribedasadiscrete
substance.Inabout1640,[8]theFlemishchemistJanBaptistvan
Helmontobservedthatwhenheburnedcharcoalinaclosed
vessel,themassoftheresultingashwasmuchlessthanthatof
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

l)
ECHAInfoCard

100.004.271(https://echa.europ
a.eu/substanceinformation//su
bstanceinfo/100.004.271)

ECNumber

2046969

Enumber

E290(preservatives)

GmelinReference

989

KEGG

D00004(http://www.kegg.jp/en
try/D00004)

MeSH

Carbon+dioxide(https://www.n
lm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2014/MB_
cgi?mode=&term=Carbon+diox
ide)

RTECSnumber

FF6400000

UNII

142M471B3J(http://fdasis.nlm.
nih.gov/srs/srsdirect.jsp?regno=
142M471B3J)

UNnumber

1013(gas),1845(solid)

InChI
SMILES

Properties
Chemicalformula

CO2

Molarmass

44.01gmol1

Appearance

Colorlessgas

Odor

Odorless

Density

1562kg/m3 (solidat1atmand
78.5C)

1101kg/m3 (liquidatsaturation
37C)

1.977kg/m3 (gasat1atmand
0C)

Meltingpoint

56.6C69.8F216.6K
(Triplepointat5.1atm)

Sublimation
conditions

78.5C109.2F194.7K
(1atm)

Solubilityinwater

1.45g/Lat25C(77F),100
kPa

Vaporpressure

5.73MPa(20C)

Acidity(pKa)

6.35,10.33

Magnetic
susceptibility()

20.5106cm3/mol
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theoriginalcharcoal.His
interpretationwasthattherestof
thecharcoalhadbeen
transmutedintoaninvisible
substancehetermeda"gas"or
"wildspirit"(spiritus
sylvestre).[9]
Thepropertiesofcarbondioxide
werestudiedmorethoroughlyin
Crystalstructureofdryice
the1750sbytheScottish
physicianJosephBlack.He
foundthatlimestone(calciumcarbonate)couldbeheatedor
treatedwithacidstoyieldagashecalled"fixedair."He
observedthatthefixedairwasdenserthanairandsupported
neitherflamenoranimallife.Blackalsofoundthatwhen
bubbledthroughlimewater(asaturatedaqueoussolutionof
calciumhydroxide),itwouldprecipitatecalciumcarbonate.He
usedthisphenomenontoillustratethatcarbondioxideis
producedbyanimalrespirationandmicrobialfermentation.In
1772,EnglishchemistJosephPriestleypublishedapaper
entitledImpregnatingWaterwithFixedAirinwhichhe
describedaprocessofdrippingsulfuricacid(oroilofvitriolas
Priestleyknewit)onchalkinordertoproducecarbondioxide,
andforcingthegastodissolvebyagitatingabowlofwaterin
contactwiththegas.[10]

Refractiveindex
(nD)

1.00045

Viscosity

0.07cPat78.5C

Dipolemoment

0D
Structure

Crystalstructure

trigonal

Molecularshape

linear
Thermochemistry

Specific
heatcapacity(C)

37.135J/Kmol

Stdmolar
entropy(So298)

214Jmol1K1

Stdenthalpyof
393.5kJmol1
o
formation(fH 298)
Pharmacology
ATCcode

V03AN02(WHO(http://www.
whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code
=V03AN02))
Hazards

Safetydatasheet

Carbondioxidewasfirstliquefied(atelevatedpressures)in
1823byHumphryDavyandMichaelFaraday.[11]Theearliest
descriptionofsolidcarbondioxidewasgivenbyAdrienJean
PierreThilorier,whoin1835openedapressurizedcontainerof
liquidcarbondioxide,onlytofindthatthecoolingproducedby
therapidevaporationoftheliquidyieldeda"snow"ofsolid
CO2.[12][13]

See:datapage
SigmaAldrich(http://www.sig
maaldrich.com/MSDS/MSDS/
DisplayMSDSPage.do?country
=PL&language=ENgeneric&p
roductNumber=295108&brand
=ALDRICH&PageToGoToUR
L=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sig
maaldrich.com%2Fcatalog%2F
product%2Faldrich%2F29510
8%3Flang%3Dpl)

NFPA704

Chemicalandphysicalproperties

Structureandbonding
Lethaldoseorconcentration(LD,LC):

Thecarbondioxide
moleculeislinearand
centrosymmetric.The
twoC=Obondsare
equivalentandare
short(116.3pm),
[14]
consistentwithdoublebonding. Sinceitiscentrosymmetric,
themoleculehasnoelectricaldipole.Consequently,onlytwo
vibrationalbandsareobservedintheIRspectruman
antisymmetricstretchingmodeat2349cm1andadegenerate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

LCLo(lowest
published)

90,000ppm(human,5min)[2]

UShealthexposurelimits(NIOSH):
PEL(Permissible) TWA5000ppm(9000
mg/m3)[1]
REL
(Recommended)

TWA5000ppm(9000mg/m3)
ST30,000ppm(54,000
mg/m3)[1]
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pairofbendingmodesat667cm1.Thereisalsoasymmetric
stretchingmodeat1388cm1whichisonlyobservedinthe
Ramanspectrum.[15]

IDLH(Immediate 40,000ppm[1]
danger)
Relatedcompounds
Otheranions

Carbondisulfide
Carbondiselenide
Carbonditelluride

Othercations

Silicondioxide
Germaniumdioxide
Tindioxide
Leaddioxide

Relatedcarbon
oxides

Carbonmonoxide
Carbonsuboxide
Dicarbonmonoxide
Carbontrioxide

Inaqueoussolution
Carbondioxideissolubleinwater,inwhichitreversiblyforms
H2CO3(carbonicacid),whichisaweakacidsinceitsionization
inwaterisincomplete.
CO2+H2OH2CO3
Thehydrationequilibriumconstantofcarbonicacidis
(at25C).Hence,the
majorityofthecarbondioxideisnotconvertedintocarbonic
acid,butremainsasCO2molecules,notaffectingthepH.

Relatedcompounds Carbonicacid
Carbonylsulfide

TherelativeconcentrationsofCO2,H2CO3,andthe
2
deprotonatedformsHCO
3 (bicarbonate)andCO3 (carbonate)

Structureand
properties

Refractiveindex(n),
Dielectricconstant(r),etc.

Thermodynamic
data

Phasebehaviour
solidliquidgas

Spectraldata

UV,IR,NMR,MS

dependonthepH.AsshowninaBjerrumplot,inneutralor
slightlyalkalinewater(pH>6.5),thebicarbonateform
predominates(>50%)becomingthemostprevalent(>95%)at
thepHofseawater.Inveryalkalinewater(pH>10.4),the
predominant(>50%)formiscarbonate.Theoceans,being
mildlyalkalinewithtypicalpH=8.28.5,containabout120mg
ofbicarbonateperliter.

Supplementarydatapage

Exceptwhereotherwisenoted,dataaregivenfor
materialsintheirstandardstate(at25C[77F],
100kPa).

Beingdiprotic,carbonicacidhastwoaciddissociation
constants,thefirstoneforthedissociationintothebicarbonate
(alsocalledhydrogencarbonate)ion(HCO3):

verify(whatis

?)

Infoboxreferences

H2CO3HCO3+H+
Ka1=2.5 104mol/LpKa1=3.6at25C.[14]
Thisisthetruefirstaciddissociationconstant,definedas
,wherethedenominatorincludesonlycovalently
boundH2CO3anddoesnotincludehydratedCO2(aq).Themuchsmaller
andoftenquotedvaluenear4.16 107isanapparentvaluecalculatedon
the(incorrect)assumptionthatalldissolvedCO2ispresentascarbonic
acid,sothat

Stretchingandbendingoscillationsof
theCO2carbondioxidemolecule.
Upperleft:symmetricstretching.
Upperright:antisymmetric
stretching.Lowerline:degenerate
pairofbendingmodes.

.SincemostofthedissolvedCO2remainsasCO2

molecules,Ka1(apparent)hasamuchlargerdenominatorandamuchsmallervaluethanthetrueKa1.[16]

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Thebicarbonateionisanamphotericspeciesthatcanactasanacidorasabase,dependingonpHofthesolution.
AthighpH,itdissociatessignificantlyintothecarbonateion(CO32):
HCO3CO32+H+
Ka2=4.69 1011mol/LpKa2=10.329
Inorganismscarbonicacidproductioniscatalysedbytheenzyme,carbonicanhydrase.

ChemicalreactionsofCO2
CO2isaweakelectrophile.Itsreactionwithbasicwaterillustratesthisproperty,inwhichcasehydroxideisthe
nucleophile.Othernucleophilesreactaswell.Forexample,carbanionsasprovidedbyGrignardreagentsand
organolithiumcompoundsreactwithCO2togivecarboxylates:
MR+CO2RCO2M
whereM=LiorMgBrandR=alkyloraryl.
Inmetalcarbondioxidecomplexes,CO2servesasaligand,whichcanfacilitatetheconversionofCO2toother
chemicals.[17]
ThereductionofCO2toCOisordinarilyadifficultandslowreaction:
CO2+2e+2H+CO+H2O
TheredoxpotentialforthisreactionnearpH7isabout0.53Vversusthestandardhydrogenelectrode.The
nickelcontainingenzymecarbonmonoxidedehydrogenasecatalysesthisprocess.[18]

Physicalproperties
Carbondioxideiscolorless.Atlow
concentrations,thegasisodorless.
Athigherconcentrationsithasa
sharp,acidicodor.Atstandard
temperatureandpressure,the
densityofcarbondioxideisaround
1.98kg/m3,about1.67timesthatof
air.

Carbondioxidepressuretemperature
phasediagramshowingthetriple
pointandcriticalpointofcarbon
dioxide

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

Carbondioxidehasnoliquidstate
atpressuresbelow5.1standard
Sampleofsolidcarbondioxideor
atmospheres(520kPa).At1
"dryice"pellets
atmosphere(nearmeansealevel
pressure),thegasdepositsdirectly
toasolidattemperaturesbelow78.5C(109.3F194.7K)andthe
solidsublimesdirectlytoagasabove78.5C.Initssolidstate,carbon
dioxideiscommonlycalleddryice.

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Liquidcarbondioxideformsonlyatpressuresabove5.1atmthetriplepointofcarbondioxideisabout518kPaat
56.6C(seephasediagramatleft).Thecriticalpointis7.38MPaat31.1C.[19][20]Anotherformofsolidcarbon
dioxideobservedathighpressureisanamorphousglasslikesolid.[21]Thisformofglass,calledcarbonia,is
producedbysupercoolingheatedCO2atextremepressure(4048GPaorabout400,000atmospheres)ina
diamondanvil.Thisdiscoveryconfirmedthetheorythatcarbondioxidecouldexistinaglassstatesimilartoother
membersofitselementalfamily,likesilicon(silicaglass)andgermaniumdioxide.Unlikesilicaandgermania
glasses,however,carboniaglassisnotstableatnormalpressuresandrevertstogaswhenpressureisreleased.
Attemperaturesandpressuresabovethecriticalpoint,carbondioxidebehavesasasupercriticalfluidknownas
supercriticalcarbondioxide.

Isolationandproduction
Carbondioxidecanbeobtainedbydistillationfromair,butthemethodisinefficient.Industrially,carbondioxideis
predominantlyanunrecoveredwasteproduct,producedbyseveralmethodswhichmaybepracticedatvarious
scales.[22]
Thecombustionofallcarbonbasedfuels,suchasmethane(naturalgas),petroleumdistillates(gasoline,diesel,
kerosene,propane),coal,woodandgenericorganicmatterproducescarbondioxideand,exceptinthecaseofpure
carbon,water.Asanexample,thechemicalreactionbetweenmethaneandoxygen:
CH4+2O2CO2+2H2O
Itisproducedbythermaldecompositionoflimestone,CaCO3byheating(calcining)atabout850C(1,560F),in
themanufactureofquicklime(calciumoxide,CaO),acompoundthathasmanyindustrialuses:
CaCO3CaO+CO2
Ironisreducedfromitsoxideswithcokeinablastfurnace,producingpigironandcarbondioxide:[23]
Carbondioxideisabyproductoftheindustrialproductionofhydrogenbysteamreformingandammonia
synthesis.Theseprocessesbeginwiththereactionofwaterandnaturalgas(mainlymethane).[24]
AcidsliberateCO2frommostmetalcarbonates.Consequently,itmaybeobtaineddirectlyfromnaturalcarbon
dioxidesprings,whereitisproducedbytheactionofacidifiedwateronlimestoneordolomite.Thereaction
betweenhydrochloricacidandcalciumcarbonate(limestoneorchalk)isshownbelow:
CaCO3+2HClCaCl2+H2CO3
Thecarbonicacid(H2CO3)thendecomposestowaterandCO2:
H2CO3CO2+H2O
Suchreactionsareaccompaniedbyfoamingorbubbling,orboth,asthegasisreleased.Theyhavewidespread
usesinindustrybecausetheycanbeusedtoneutralizewasteacidstreams.
Carbondioxideisabyproductofthefermentationofsugarinthebrewingofbeer,whiskyandotheralcoholic
beveragesandintheproductionofbioethanol.YeastmetabolizessugartoproduceCO2andethanol,alsoknownas
alcohol,asfollows:

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C6H12O62CO2+2C2H5OH
AllaerobicorganismsproduceCO2whentheyoxidizecarbohydrates,fattyacids,andproteins.Thelargenumber
ofreactionsinvolvedareexceedinglycomplexandnotdescribedeasily.Referto(cellularrespiration,anaerobic
respirationandphotosynthesis).Theequationfortherespirationofglucoseandothermonosaccharidesis:
C6H12O6+6O26CO2+6H2O
Photoautotrophs(i.e.plantsandcyanobacteria)usetheenergycontainedinsunlighttophotosynthesizesimple
sugarsfromCO2absorbedfromtheairandwater:
nCO2+nH2O(CH2O)n+nO2
Carbondioxidecomprisesabout4045%ofthegasthatemanatesfromdecompositioninlandfills(termed"landfill
gas").Mostoftheremaining5055%ismethane.[25]

Applications
Carbondioxideisusedbythefoodindustry,theoilindustry,andthe
chemicalindustry.[22]Thecompoundhasvariedcommercialusesbut
oneofitsgreatestuseasachemicalisintheproductionofcarbonated
beveragesitprovidesthesparkleincarbonatedbeveragessuchas
sodawater.

Precursortochemicals
Inthechemicalindustry,carbondioxideismainlyconsumedasan
ingredientintheproductionofurea,withasmallerfractionbeingused
Carbondioxidebubblesinasoftdrink.
toproducemethanolandarangeofotherproducts,[26]suchasmetal
carbonatesandbicarbonates.Somecarboxylicacidderivativessuchas
sodiumsalicylatearepreparedusingCO2bytheKolbeSchmittreaction.[27]
InadditiontoconventionalprocessesusingCO2forchemicalproduction,electrochemicalmethodsarealsobeing
exploredataresearchlevel.Inparticular,theuseofrenewableenergyforproductionoffuelsfromCO2(suchas
methanol)isattractiveasthiscouldresultinfuelsthatcouldbeeasilytransportedandusedwithinconventional
combustiontechnologiesbuthavenonetCO2emissions.[28]

Foods
Carbondioxideisafoodadditiveusedasapropellantandacidityregulatorinthefoodindustry.Itisapprovedfor
usageintheEU[29](listedasEnumberE290),US[30]andAustraliaandNewZealand[31](listedbyitsINSnumber
290).
AcandycalledPopRocksispressurizedwithcarbondioxidegasatabout4x106Pa(40bar,580psi).When
placedinthemouth,itdissolves(justlikeotherhardcandy)andreleasesthegasbubbleswithanaudiblepop.

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Leaveningagentscausedoughtorisebyproducingcarbondioxide.Baker'syeastproducescarbondioxideby
fermentationofsugarswithinthedough,whilechemicalleavenerssuchasbakingpowderandbakingsodarelease
carbondioxidewhenheatedorifexposedtoacids.
Beverages
Carbondioxideisusedtoproducecarbonatedsoftdrinksandsodawater.Traditionally,thecarbonationofbeerand
sparklingwinecameaboutthroughnaturalfermentation,butmanymanufacturerscarbonatethesedrinkswith
carbondioxiderecoveredfromthefermentationprocess.Inthecaseofbottledandkeggedbeer,themostcommon
methodusediscarbonationwithrecycledcarbondioxide.WiththeexceptionofBritishRealAle,draughtbeeris
usuallytransferredfromkegsinacoldroomorcellartodispensingtapsonthebarusingpressurizedcarbon
dioxide,sometimesmixedwithnitrogen.
Winemaking
Carbondioxideintheformofdryiceisoftenusedinthewinemakingprocesstocooldownclustersofgrapes
quicklyafterpickingtohelppreventspontaneousfermentationbywildyeast.Themainadvantageofusingdryice
overregularwatericeisthatitcoolsthegrapeswithoutaddinganyadditionalwaterthatmaydecreasethesugar
concentrationinthegrapemust,andthereforealsodecreasethealcoholconcentrationinthefinishedwine.
Dryiceisusedduringthecoldsoakphaseofthewinemakingprocesstokeepgrapescool.Thecarbondioxidegas
thatresultsfromthesublimationofthedryicetendstosettletothebottomoftanksbecauseitisdenserthanair.
Thesettledcarbondioxidegascreatesahypoxicenvironmentwhichhelpstopreventbacteriafromgrowingonthe
grapesuntilitistimetostartthefermentationwiththedesiredstrainofyeast.
Carbondioxideisalsousedtocreateahypoxicenvironmentforcarbonicmaceration,theprocessusedtoproduce
Beaujolaiswine.
Carbondioxideissometimesusedtotopupwinebottlesorotherstoragevesselssuchasbarrelstoprevent
oxidation,thoughithastheproblemthatitcandissolveintothewine,makingapreviouslystillwineslightlyfizzy.
Forthisreason,othergasessuchasnitrogenorargonarepreferredforthisprocessbyprofessionalwinemakers.

Inertgas
Itisoneofthemostcommonlyusedcompressedgasesforpneumatic(pressurizedgas)systemsinportable
pressuretools.Carbondioxideisalsousedasanatmosphereforwelding,althoughintheweldingarc,itreactsto
oxidizemostmetals.Useintheautomotiveindustryiscommondespitesignificantevidencethatweldsmadein
carbondioxidearemorebrittlethanthosemadeinmoreinertatmospheres,andthatsuchweldjointsdeteriorate
overtimebecauseoftheformationofcarbonicacid.Itisusedasaweldinggasprimarilybecauseitismuchless
expensivethanmoreinertgasessuchasargonorhelium.WhenusedforMIGwelding,CO2useissometimes
referredtoasMAGwelding,forMetalActiveGas,asCO2canreactatthesehightemperatures.Ittendstoproduce
ahotterpuddlethantrulyinertatmospheres,improvingtheflowcharacteristics.Although,thismaybedueto
atmosphericreactionsoccurringatthepuddlesite.Thisisusuallytheoppositeofthedesiredeffectwhenwelding,
asittendstoembrittlethesite,butmaynotbeaproblemforgeneralmildsteelwelding,whereultimateductilityis
notamajorconcern.
Itisusedinmanyconsumerproductsthatrequirepressurizedgasbecauseitisinexpensiveandnonflammable,and
becauseitundergoesaphasetransitionfromgastoliquidatroomtemperatureatanattainablepressureof
approximately60bar(870psi,59atm),allowingfarmorecarbondioxidetofitinagivencontainerthanotherwise
would.Lifejacketsoftencontaincanistersofpressuredcarbondioxideforquickinflation.Aluminiumcapsulesof
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CO2arealsosoldassuppliesofcompressedgasforairguns,paintballmarkers,inflatingbicycletires,andfor
makingcarbonatedwater.Rapidvaporizationofliquidcarbondioxideisusedforblastingincoalmines.High
concentrationsofcarbondioxidecanalsobeusedtokillpests.Liquidcarbondioxideisusedinsupercritical
dryingofsomefoodproductsandtechnologicalmaterials,inthepreparationofspecimensforscanningelectron
microscopyandinthedecaffeinationofcoffeebeans.

Fireextinguisher
Carbondioxidecanbeusedtoextinguishflamesbyfloodingtheenvironmentaroundtheflamewiththegas.It
doesnotitselfreacttoextinguishtheflame,butstarvestheflameofoxygenbydisplacingit.Somefire
extinguishers,especiallythosedesignedforelectricalfires,containliquidcarbondioxideunderpressure.Carbon
dioxideextinguishersworkwellonsmallflammableliquidandelectricalfires,butnotonordinarycombustible
fires,becausealthoughitexcludesoxygen,itdoesnotcooltheburningsubstancessignificantlyandwhenthe
carbondioxidedispersestheyarefreetocatchfireuponexposuretoatmosphericoxygen.Theirdesirabilityin
electricalfirestemsfromthefactthat,unlikewaterorotherchemicalbasedmethods,Carbondioxidewillnot
causeshortcircuits,leadingtoevenmoredamagetoequipment.Becauseitisagas,itisalsoeasytodispenselarge
amountsofthegasautomaticallyinITinfrastructurerooms,wherethefireitselfmightbehardtoreachwithmore
immediatemethodsbecauseitisbehindrackdoorsandinsideofcases.Carbondioxidehasalsobeenwidelyused
asanextinguishingagentinfixedfireprotectionsystemsforlocalapplicationofspecifichazardsandtotal
floodingofaprotectedspace.[32]InternationalMaritimeOrganizationstandardsalsorecognizecarbondioxide
systemsforfireprotectionofshipholdsandenginerooms.Carbondioxidebasedfireprotectionsystemshavebeen
linkedtoseveraldeaths,becauseitcancausesuffocationinsufficientlyhighconcentrations.AreviewofCO2
systemsidentified51incidentsbetween1975andthedateofthereport,causing72deathsand145injuries.[33]

SupercriticalCO2assolvent
Liquidcarbondioxideisagoodsolventformanylipophilicorganiccompoundsandisusedtoremovecaffeine
fromcoffee.Carbondioxidehasattractedattentioninthepharmaceuticalandotherchemicalprocessingindustries
asalesstoxicalternativetomoretraditionalsolventssuchasorganochlorides.Itisusedbysomedrycleanersfor
thisreason(seegreenchemistry).Itisusedinthepreparationofsomeaerogelsbecauseofthepropertiesof
supercriticalcarbondioxide.

Agriculturalandbiologicalapplications
Plantsrequirecarbondioxidetoconductphotosynthesis.Theatmospheresofgreenhousesmay(ifoflargesize,
must)beenrichedwithadditionalCO2tosustainandincreasetherateofplantgrowth.[34][35]Atveryhigh
concentrations(100timesatmosphericconcentration,orgreater),carbondioxidecanbetoxictoanimallife,so
raisingtheconcentrationto10,000ppm(1%)orhigherforseveralhourswilleliminatepestssuchaswhitefliesand
spidermitesinagreenhouse.[36]
Inmedicine,upto5%carbondioxide(130timesatmosphericconcentration)isaddedtooxygenforstimulationof
breathingafterapneaandtostabilizetheO2/CO2balanceinblood.
Ithasbeenproposedthatcarbondioxidefrompowergenerationbebubbledintopondstostimulategrowthof
algaethatcouldthenbeconvertedintobiodieselfuel.[37]

Oilrecovery
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Carbondioxideisusedinenhancedoilrecoverywhereitisinjectedintooradjacenttoproducingoilwells,usually
undersupercriticalconditions,whenitbecomesmisciblewiththeoil.Thisapproachcanincreaseoriginaloil
recoverybyreducingresidualoilsaturationbybetween7percentto23percentadditionaltoprimary
extraction.[38]Itactsasbothapressurizingagentand,whendissolvedintotheundergroundcrudeoil,significantly
reducesitsviscosity,andchangingsurfacechemistryenablingtheoiltoflowmorerapidlythroughthereservoirto
theremovalwell.[39]Inmatureoilfields,extensivepipenetworksareusedtocarrythecarbondioxidetothe
injectionpoints.

Biotransformationintofuel
ResearchershavegeneticallymodifiedastrainofthecyanobacteriumSynechococcuselongatustoproducethe
fuelsisobutyraldehydeandisobutanolfromCO2usingphotosynthesis.[40]

Refrigerant
Liquidandsolidcarbondioxideareimportant
refrigerants,especiallyinthefoodindustry,
wheretheyareemployedduringthe
transportationandstorageoficecreamand
otherfrozenfoods.Solidcarbondioxideis
called"dryice"andisusedforsmallshipments
whererefrigerationequipmentisnotpractical.
Solidcarbondioxideisalwaysbelow78.5C
atregularatmosphericpressure,regardlessof
theairtemperature.
Comparisonofphasediagramsofcarbondioxide(red)andwater
Liquidcarbondioxide(industrynomenclature
(blue)asaloglinchartwithphasetransitionspointsat1atmosphere
R744orR744)wasusedasarefrigerantprior
tothediscoveryofR12andmayenjoya
renaissanceduetothefactthatR134acontributestoclimatechange.Itsphysicalpropertiesarehighlyfavorable
forcooling,refrigeration,andheatingpurposes,havingahighvolumetriccoolingcapacity.Duetotheneedto
operateatpressuresofupto130bar(1880psi),CO2systemsrequirehighlyresistantcomponentsthathavealready

beendevelopedformassproductioninmanysectors.Inautomobileairconditioning,inmorethan90%ofall
drivingconditionsforlatitudeshigherthan50,R744operatesmoreefficientlythansystemsusingR134a.Its
environmentaladvantages(GWPof1,nonozonedepleting,nontoxic,nonflammable)couldmakeitthefuture
workingfluidtoreplacecurrentHFCsincars,supermarkets,andheatpumpwaterheaters,amongothers.Coca
ColahasfieldedCO2basedbeveragecoolersandtheU.S.ArmyisinterestedinCO2refrigerationandheating
technology.[41][42]
Theglobalautomobileindustryisexpectedtodecideonthenextgenerationrefrigerantincarairconditioning.
CO2isonediscussedoption.(seeSustainableautomotiveairconditioning)

Coalbedmethanerecovery
Inenhancedcoalbedmethanerecovery,carbondioxidewouldbepumpedintothecoalseamtodisplacemethane,
asopposedtocurrentmethodswhichprimarilyrelyontheremovalofwater(toreducepressure)tomakethecoal
seamreleaseitstrappedmethane.[43]

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Minoruses
Carbondioxideisthelasingmediuminacarbondioxidelaser,
whichisoneoftheearliesttypeoflasers.
CarbondioxidecanbeusedasameansofcontrollingthepH
ofswimmingpools,bycontinuouslyaddinggastothewater,
thuskeepingthepHfromrising.Amongtheadvantagesofthis
istheavoidanceofhandling(morehazardous)acids.Similarly,
itisalsousedinthemaintainingreefaquaria,whereitis
commonlyusedincalciumreactorstotemporarilylowerthe
pHofwaterbeingpassedovercalciumcarbonateinorderto
allowthecalciumcarbonatetodissolveintothewatermore
freelywhereitisusedbysomecoralstobuildtheirskeleton.

Acarbondioxidelaser.

UsedastheprimarycoolantintheBritishadvancedgascooledreactorfornuclearpowergeneration.
Carbondioxideinductioniscommonlyusedfortheeuthanasiaoflaboratoryresearchanimals.Methodsto
administerCO2includeplacinganimalsdirectlyintoaclosed,prefilledchambercontainingCO2,orexposuretoa
graduallyincreasingconcentrationofCO2.In2013,theAmericanVeterinaryMedicalAssociationissuednew
guidelinesforcarbondioxideinduction,statingthatadisplacementrateof10%to30%ofthegaschambervolume
perminuteisoptimalforthehumaneeuthanizationofsmallrodents.[44]
Carbondioxideisalsousedinseveralrelatedcleaningandsurfacepreparationtechniques,andinPaintballTanks.

InEarth'satmosphere
CarbondioxideinEarth'satmosphereisatracegas,currently
(early2016)havinganaverageconcentrationof402partsper
millionbyvolume[3][45][46](or611partspermillionbymass).
Atmosphericconcentrationsofcarbondioxidefluctuateslightly
withtheseasons,fallingduringtheNorthernHemispherespring
andsummerasplantsconsumethegasandrisingduringnorthern
autumnandwinterasplantsgodormantordieanddecay.
Concentrationsalsovaryonaregionalbasis,moststronglynear
thegroundwithmuchsmallervariationsaloft.Inurbanareas
concentrationsaregenerallyhigher[47]andindoorstheycanreach
10timesbackgroundlevels.
Theconcentrationlevelsofcarbondioxidehaverisendueto
humanactivitiessinceWWII.[49]Combustionoffossilfuelsand
deforestationhavecausedtheatmosphericconcentrationof
carbondioxidetoincreasebyabout43%sincethebeginningof
TheKeelingCurveofatmosphericCO2
[50]
theageofindustrialization. Mostcarbondioxidefromhuman
concentrationsmeasuredatMaunaLoa
activitiesisreleasedfromburningcoalandotherfossilfuels.
Observatory
Otherhumanactivities,includingdeforestation,biomassburning,
andcementproductionalsoproducecarbondioxide.Volcanoes
emitbetween0.2and0.3billiontonsofcarbondioxideperyear,whilehumanactivitiesemitabout29billion
tons.[51][52]
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Carbondioxideisagreenhousegas,absorbingandemittinginfrared
radiationatitstwoinfraredactivevibrationalfrequencies(seethesection
"Structureandbonding"above).Thisprocesscausescarbondioxideto
warmthesurfaceandloweratmospherewhilecoolingtheupper
atmosphere.IncreasesinatmosphericconcentrationsofCO2andother

YearlyincreaseofatmosphericCO2:

longlivedgreenhousegasessuchasmethane,nitrousoxideandozonehave
correspondinglystrengthenedtheirabsorptionandemissionofinfrared
radiation,causingtheriseinaverageglobaltemperaturesincethemid20th
century.Carbondioxideisofgreatestconcernbecauseitexertsalarger
overallwarminginfluencethanalloftheseothergasescombinedand
becauseithasalongatmosphericlifetime(hundredstothousandsofyears).

Notonlydoincreasingcarbondioxide
concentrationsleadtoincreasesin
[48]
globalsurfacetemperature,but
average.
increasingglobaltemperaturesalso
causeincreasingconcentrationsof
carbondioxide.Thisproducesapositivefeedbackforchangesinducedby
otherprocessessuchasorbitalcycles.[57]Fivehundredmillionyearsagothe
carbondioxideconcentrationwas20timesgreaterthantoday,decreasingto4
5timesduringtheJurassicperiodandthenslowlydecliningwithaparticularly
swiftreductionoccurring49millionyearsago.[58][59]
Inthe1960s,theaverageannual
increasewas37%ofthe20002007

CO2inEarth'satmosphereifhalf
ofglobalwarmingemissionsare
notabsorbed. [53][54][55][56]
(NASAcomputersimulation).

Localconcentrationsofcarbondioxidecanreachhighvaluesnearstrong
sources,especiallythosethatareisolatedbysurroundingterrain.AttheBossoletohotspringnearRapolanoTerme
inTuscany,Italy,situatedinabowlshapeddepressionabout100m(330ft)indiameter,concentrationsofCO2
risetoabove75%overnight,sufficienttokillinsectsandsmallanimals.Aftersunrisethegasisdispersedby
convectionduringtheday.[60]HighconcentrationsofCO2producedbydisturbanceofdeeplakewatersaturated
withCO2arethoughttohavecaused37fatalitiesatLakeMonoun,Cameroonin1984and1700casualtiesatLake
Nyos,Cameroonin1986.[61]
Humanmadecarbondioxide(CO2)continuestoincreaseabovelevelsnotseeninhundredsofthousandsofyears.
Currently,abouthalfofthecarbondioxidereleasedfromtheburningoffossilfuelsremainsintheatmosphereand
isnotabsorbedbyvegetationandtheoceans.[53][54][55][56]

Intheoceans
Carbondioxidedissolvesintheoceantoformcarbonicacid(H2CO3),bicarbonate(HCO3)andcarbonate
(CO32).Thereisaboutfiftytimesasmuchcarbondissolvedintheoceansasexistsintheatmosphere.Theoceans
actasanenormouscarbonsink,andhavetakenupaboutathirdofCO2emittedbyhumanactivity.[62]
Astheconcentrationofcarbondioxideincreasesintheatmosphere,theincreaseduptakeofcarbondioxideintothe
oceansiscausingameasurabledecreaseinthepHoftheoceans,whichisreferredtoasoceanacidification.This
reductioninpHaffectsbiologicalsystemsintheoceans,primarilyoceaniccalcifyingorganisms.Theseeffects
spanthefoodchainfromautotrophstoheterotrophsandincludeorganismssuchascoccolithophores,corals,
foraminifera,echinoderms,crustaceansandmollusks.Undernormalconditions,calciumcarbonateisstablein
surfacewaterssincethecarbonateionisatsupersaturatingconcentrations.However,asoceanpHfalls,sodoesthe
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concentrationofthision,andwhencarbonatebecomesundersaturated,structuresmadeofcalciumcarbonateare
vulnerabletodissolution.[63]Corals,[64][65][66]coccolithophorealgae,[67][68][69][70]corallinealgae,[71]
foraminifera,[72]shellfish[73]andpteropods[74]experiencereducedcalcificationorenhanceddissolutionwhen
exposedtoelevatedCO2.
Gassolubilitydecreasesasthetemperatureofwaterincreases(exceptwhenbothpressureexceeds300barand
temperatureexceeds393K,onlyfoundneardeepgeothermalvents)[75]andthereforetherateofuptakefromthe
atmospheredecreasesasoceantemperaturesrise.
MostoftheCO2takenupbytheocean,whichisabout30%ofthetotalreleasedintotheatmosphere,[76]forms
carbonicacidinequilibriumwithbicarbonate.Someofthesechemicalspeciesareconsumedbyphotosynthetic
organismsthatremovecarbonfromthecycle.IncreasedCO2intheatmospherehasledtodecreasingalkalinityof
seawater,andthereisconcernthatthismayadverselyaffectorganismslivinginthewater.Inparticular,with
decreasingalkalinity,theavailabilityofcarbonatesforformingshellsdecreases,[77]althoughthere'sevidenceof
increasedshellproductionbycertainspeciesunderincreasedCO2content.[78]
NOAAstatesintheirMay2008"Stateofthesciencefactsheetforoceanacidification"that:
"Theoceanshaveabsorbedabout50%ofthecarbondioxide(CO2)releasedfromtheburningoffossilfuels,
resultinginchemicalreactionsthatloweroceanpH.Thishascausedanincreaseinhydrogenion(acidity)ofabout
30%sincethestartoftheindustrialagethroughaprocessknownas"oceanacidification."Agrowingnumberof
studieshavedemonstratedadverseimpactsonmarineorganisms,including:
Therateatwhichreefbuildingcoralsproducetheirskeletonsdecreases,whileproductionofnumerous
varietiesofjellyfishincreases.
Theabilityofmarinealgaeandfreeswimmingzooplanktontomaintainprotectiveshellsisreduced.
Thesurvivaloflarvalmarinespecies,includingcommercialfishandshellfish,isreduced."
Also,theIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC)writesintheirClimateChange2007:Synthesis
Report:[79]
"Theuptakeofanthropogeniccarbonsince1750hasledtotheoceanbecomingmoreacidicwithanaverage
decreaseinpHof0.1units.IncreasingatmosphericCO2concentrationsleadtofurtheracidification...Whilethe
effectsofobservedoceanacidificationonthemarinebiosphereareasyetundocumented,theprogressive
acidificationofoceansisexpectedtohavenegativeimpactsonmarineshellformingorganisms(e.g.corals)and
theirdependentspecies."
Somemarinecalcifyingorganisms(includingcoralreefs)havebeensingledoutbymajorresearchagencies,
includingNOAA,OSPARcommission,NANOOSandtheIPCC,becausetheirmostcurrentresearchshowsthat
oceanacidificationshouldbeexpectedtoimpactthemnegatively.[80]
Carbondioxideisalsointroducedintotheoceansthroughhydrothermalvents.TheChampagnehydrothermalvent,
foundattheNorthwestEifukuvolcanoatMarianasTrenchMarineNationalMonument,producesalmostpure
liquidcarbondioxide,oneofonlytwoknownsitesintheworld.[81]

Biologicalrole
Carbondioxideisanendproductofcellularrespirationinorganismsthatobtainenergybybreakingdownsugars,
fatsandaminoacidswithoxygenaspartoftheirmetabolism.Thisincludesallplants,algaeandanimalsand
aerobicfungiandbacteria.Invertebrates,thecarbondioxidetravelsinthebloodfromthebody'stissuestotheskin
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(e.g.,amphibians)orthegills(e.g.,fish),fromwhereitdissolvesinthewater,ortothelungsfromwhereitis
exhaled.Duringactivephotosynthesis,plantscanabsorbmorecarbondioxidefromtheatmospherethanthey
releaseinrespiration.

Photosynthesisandcarbonfixation

Figure2.OverviewoftheCalvincycleandcarbon
fixation

Carbonfixationisa
biochemicalprocessby
whichatmosphericcarbon
dioxideisincorporatedby
plants,algaeand
(cyanobacteria)into
energyrichorganic
moleculessuchasglucose,
thuscreatingtheirown
foodbyphotosynthesis.
Photosynthesisuses
carbondioxideandwater
toproducesugarsfrom
whichotherorganic
compoundscanbe
constructed,andoxygenis
producedasabyproduct.

Ribulose1,5bisphosphate
carboxylaseoxygenase,commonlyabbreviatedtoRuBisCO,istheenzyme
involvedinthefirstmajorstepofcarbonfixation,theproductionoftwo
moleculesof3phosphoglyceratefromCO2andribulosebisphosphate,as

Overviewofphotosynthesisand
respiration.Carbondioxide(at
right),togetherwithwater,form
oxygenandorganiccompounds
(atleft)byphotosynthesis,which
canberespiredtowaterand
(CO2).

showninthediagramatleft.
RuBisCOisthoughttobethesinglemostabundantproteinonEarth.[82]
Phototrophsusetheproductsoftheirphotosynthesisasinternalfoodsourcesandasrawmaterialforthe
biosynthesisofmorecomplexorganicmolecules,suchaspolysaccharides,nucleicacidsandproteins.Theseare
usedfortheirowngrowth,andalsoasthebasisofthefoodchainsandwebsthatfeedotherorganisms,including
animalssuchasourselves.Someimportantphototrophs,thecoccolithophoressynthesisehardcalciumcarbonate
scales.AgloballysignificantspeciesofcoccolithophoreisEmilianiahuxleyiwhosecalcitescaleshaveformedthe
basisofmanysedimentaryrockssuchaslimestone,wherewhatwaspreviouslyatmosphericcarboncanremain
fixedforgeologicaltimescales.
Plantscangrowasmuchas50percentfasterinconcentrationsof1,000ppmCO2whencomparedwithambient
conditions,thoughthisassumesnochangeinclimateandnolimitationonothernutrients.[83]ElevatedCO2levels
causeincreasedgrowthreflectedintheharvestableyieldofcrops,withwheat,riceandsoybeanallshowing
increasesinyieldof1214%underelevatedCO2inFACEexperiments.[84][85]
IncreasedatmosphericCO2concentrationsresultinfewerstomatadevelopingonplants[86]whichleadstoreduced
waterusageandincreasedwateruseefficiency.[87]StudiesusingFACEhaveshownthatCO2enrichmentleadsto
decreasedconcentrationsofmicronutrientsincropplants.[88]Thismayhaveknockoneffectsonotherpartsof
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ecosystemsasherbivoreswillneedtoeatmorefoodtogainthesameamountofprotein.[89]
Theconcentrationofsecondarymetabolitessuchasphenylpropanoidsandflavonoidscanalsobealteredinplants
exposedtohighconcentrationsofCO2.[90][91]
PlantsalsoemitCO2duringrespiration,andsothemajorityofplantsandalgae,whichuseC3photosynthesis,are
onlynetabsorbersduringtheday.ThoughagrowingforestwillabsorbmanytonsofCO2eachyear,amature
forestwillproduceasmuchCO2fromrespirationanddecompositionofdeadspecimens(e.g.,fallenbranches)as
isusedinphotosynthesisingrowingplants.[92]Contrarytothelongstandingviewthattheyarecarbonneutral,
matureforestscancontinuetoaccumulatecarbon[93]andremainvaluablecarbonsinks,helpingtomaintainthe
carbonbalanceofEarth'satmosphere.Additionally,andcruciallytolifeonearth,photosynthesisbyphytoplankton
consumesdissolvedCO2intheupperoceanandtherebypromotestheabsorptionofCO2fromtheatmosphere.[94]

Toxicity
Carbondioxidecontentinfreshair(averagedbetweensealeveland
10kPalevel,i.e.,about30km(19mi)altitude)variesbetween
0.036%(360ppm)and0.041%(410ppm),dependingonthe
location.[96]
CO2isanasphyxiantgasandnotclassifiedastoxicorharmfulin
accordancewithGloballyHarmonizedSystemofClassificationand
LabellingofChemicalsstandardsofUnitedNationsEconomic
CommissionforEuropebyusingtheOECDGuidelinesforthe
TestingofChemicals.Inconcentrationsupto1%(10,000ppm),it
willmakesomepeoplefeeldrowsyandgivethelungsastuffy
feeling.[95]Concentrationsof7%to10%(70,000to100,000ppm)
maycausesuffocation,eveninthepresenceofsufficientoxygen,
manifestingasdizziness,headache,visualandhearingdysfunction,
andunconsciousnesswithinafewminutestoanhour.[97]The
physiologicaleffectsofacutecarbondioxideexposurearegrouped
togetherunderthetermhypercapnia,asubsetofasphyxiation.

Mainsymptomsofcarbondioxidetoxicity,by
increasingvolumepercentinair. [95]

Becauseitisheavierthanair,inlocationswherethegasseepsfromtheground(duetosubsurfacevolcanicor
geothermalactivity)inrelativelyhighconcentrations,withoutthedispersingeffectsofwind,itcancollectin
sheltered/pocketedlocationsbelowaveragegroundlevel,causinganimalslocatedthereintobesuffocated.Carrion
feedersattractedtothecarcassesarethenalsokilled.Childrenhavebeenkilledinthesamewaynearthecityof
GomabyCO2emissionsfromthenearbyvolcanoMt.Nyiragongo.[98]TheSwahilitermforthisphenomenonis
'mazuku'.
AdaptationtoincreasedconcentrationsofCO2occursinhumans,includingmodifiedbreathingandkidney
bicarbonateproduction,inordertobalancetheeffectsofbloodacidification(acidosis).Severalstudiessuggested
that2.0percentinspiredconcentrationscouldbeusedforclosedairspaces(e.g.asubmarine)sincetheadaptation
isphysiologicalandreversible,asdecrementinperformanceorinnormalphysicalactivitydoesnothappenatthis
levelofexposureforfivedays.[99][100]Yet,otherstudiesshowadecreaseincognitivefunctionevenatmuchlower
levels.[101][102]Also,withongoingrespiratoryacidosis,adaptationorcompensatorymechanismswillbeunableto
reversesuchcondition.
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Below1%
TherearefewstudiesofthehealtheffectsoflongtermcontinuousCO2exposureonhumansandanimalsatlevels
below1%andthereispotentiallyasignificantrisktohumansinthenearfuturewithrisingatmosphericCO2levels
associatedwithclimatechange.[103]OccupationalCO2exposurelimitshavebeensetintheUnitedStatesat0.5%
(5000ppm)foraneighthourperiod.[104]AtthisCO2concentration,InternationalSpaceStationcrewexperienced
headaches,lethargy,mentalslowness,emotionalirritation,andsleepdisruption.[105]Studiesinanimalsat0.5%
CO2havedemonstratedkidneycalcificationandbonelossaftereightweeksofexposure.[106]Astudyofhumans
exposedin2.5hoursessionsdemonstratedsignificanteffectsoncognitiveabilitiesatconcentrationsaslowas
0.1%(1000ppm)CO2likelyduetoCO2inducedincreasesincerebralbloodflow.[101]Anotherstudyobserveda
declineinbasicactivitylevelandinformationusageat1000ppm,whencomparedto500ppm.[102]
Ventilation
PoorventilationisoneofthemaincausesofexcessiveCO2concentrationsinclosedspaces.Carbondioxide
differentialaboveoutdoorconcentrationsatsteadystateconditions(whentheoccupancyandventilationsystem
operationaresufficientlylongthatCO2concentrationhasstabilized)aresometimesusedtoestimateventilation
ratesperperson.HigherCO2concentrationsareassociatedwithoccupanthealth,comfortandperformance
degradation.ASHRAEStandard62.12007ventilationratesmayresultinindoorlevelsupto2,100ppmabove
ambientoutdoorconditions.Thusiftheoutdoorconcentrationis400ppm,indoorconcentrationsmayreach2,500
ppmwithventilationratesthatmeetthisindustryconsensusstandard.Concentrationsinpoorlyventilatedspaces
canbefoundevenhigherthanthis(rangeof3,000or4,000).
Miners,whoareparticularlyvulnerabletogasexposureduetoaninsufficientventilation,referredtomixturesof
carbondioxideandnitrogenas"blackdamp,""chokedamp"or"stythe."Beforemoreeffectivetechnologieswere
developed,minerswouldfrequentlymonitorfordangerouslevelsofblackdampandothergasesinmineshaftsby
bringingacagedcanarywiththemastheyworked.Thecanaryismoresensitivetoasphyxiantgasesthanhumans,
andasitbecameunconsciouswouldstopsingingandfalloffitsperch.TheDavylampcouldalsodetecthigh
levelsofblackdamp(whichsinks,andcollectsnearthefloor)byburninglessbrightly,whilemethane,another
suffocatinggasandexplosionrisk,wouldmakethelampburnmorebrightly.

Humanphysiology
Content
Thebodyproducesapproximately2.3pounds(1.0kg)ofcarbondioxideperdayperperson,[107]containing0.63
pounds(290g)ofcarbon.Inhumans,thiscarbondioxideiscarriedthroughthevenoussystemandisbreathedout
throughthelungs,resultinginlowerconcentrationsinthearteries.Thecarbondioxidecontentofthebloodisoften
givenasthepartialpressure,whichisthepressurewhichcarbondioxidewouldhavehadifitaloneoccupiedthe
volume.[108]
Inhumans,thecarbondioxidecontentsareasfollows:

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Referencerangesoraveragesforpartialpressuresofcarbondioxide
(abbreviatedPCO2)
Unit Venousbloodgas
kPa

5.5[109]6.8[109]

mmHg 4151

Alveolarpulmonary
Arterialbloodcarbondioxide
gaspressures
4.8

4.7[109]6.0[109]

36

35[110]45[110]

Transportintheblood
CO2iscarriedinbloodinthreedifferentways.(Theexactpercentagesvarydependingwhetheritisarterialor
venousblood).
Mostofit(about70%to80%)isconvertedtobicarbonateionsHCO
3 bytheenzymecarbonicanhydrasein
[111]
+
theredbloodcells,
bythereactionCO2+H2OH2CO3H +HCO
3.
5%10%isdissolvedintheplasma[111]
5%10%isboundtohemoglobinascarbaminocompounds[111]

Hemoglobin,themainoxygencarryingmoleculeinredbloodcells,carriesbothoxygenandcarbondioxide.
However,theCO2boundtohemoglobindoesnotbindtothesamesiteasoxygen.Instead,itcombineswiththeN
terminalgroupsonthefourglobinchains.However,becauseofallostericeffectsonthehemoglobinmolecule,the
bindingofCO2decreasestheamountofoxygenthatisboundforagivenpartialpressureofoxygen.Thedecreased
bindingtocarbondioxideinthebloodduetoincreasedoxygenlevelsisknownastheHaldaneEffect,andis
importantinthetransportofcarbondioxidefromthetissuestothelungs.Conversely,ariseinthepartialpressure
ofCO2oralowerpHwillcauseoffloadingofoxygenfromhemoglobin,whichisknownastheBohrEffect.
Regulationofrespiration
Carbondioxideisoneofthemediatorsoflocalautoregulationofbloodsupply.Ifitsconcentrationishigh,the
capillariesexpandtoallowagreaterbloodflowtothattissue.
BicarbonateionsarecrucialforregulatingbloodpH.Aperson'sbreathingrateinfluencesthelevelofCO2intheir
blood.Breathingthatistoosloworshallowcausesrespiratoryacidosis,whilebreathingthatistoorapidleadsto
hyperventilation,whichcancauserespiratoryalkalosis.
Althoughthebodyrequiresoxygenformetabolism,lowoxygenlevelsnormallydonotstimulatebreathing.
Rather,breathingisstimulatedbyhighercarbondioxidelevels.Asaresult,breathinglowpressureairoragas
mixturewithnooxygenatall(suchaspurenitrogen)canleadtolossofconsciousnesswithouteverexperiencing
airhunger.Thisisespeciallyperilousforhighaltitudefighterpilots.Itisalsowhyflightattendantsinstruct
passengers,incaseoflossofcabinpressure,toapplytheoxygenmasktothemselvesfirstbeforehelpingothers
otherwise,oneriskslosingconsciousness.[111]
TherespiratorycenterstrytomaintainanarterialCO2pressureof40mmHg.Withintentionalhyperventilation,
theCO2contentofarterialbloodmaybeloweredto1020mmHg(theoxygencontentofthebloodislittle
affected),andtherespiratorydriveisdiminished.Thisiswhyonecanholdone'sbreathlongerafter
hyperventilatingthanwithouthyperventilating.Thiscarriestheriskthatunconsciousnessmayresultbeforethe
needtobreathebecomesoverwhelming,whichiswhyhyperventilationisparticularlydangerousbeforefree
diving.
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Seealso
Acidosis
Alkalosis
Arterialbloodgas
Boschreaction
Bottledgas
Carbogen
Carbondioxidesensor
Carbonsequestration
Chemicalequilibrium
EcoCuteasrefrigerants
Emissionstandards
Indoor_air_quality
Kayaidentity
LakeKivu

LakeKivu
Listofleastcarbonefficientpowerstations
Listofcountriesbycarbondioxideemissions
Meromicticlake
pCO2
pH
pKa
Sabatierreaction
GilbertPlass(earlyworkonCO2andclimate
change)

References
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2."Carbondioxide".ImmediatelyDangeroustoLifeandHealth.NationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth
(NIOSH).
3.NationalOceanic&AtmosphericAdministration(NOAA)EarthSystemResearchLaboratory(ESRL),Trendsin
CarbonDioxide(http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/#mlo)Valuesgivenaredryairmolefractionsexpressedin
partspermillion(ppm).Foranidealgasmixturethisisequivalenttopartspermillionbyvolume(ppmv).
4."GeneralPropertiesandUsesofCarbonDioxide,GoodPlantDesignandOperationforOnshoreCarbonCapture
InstallationsandOnshorePipelines".EnergyInstitute.Retrieved20120314.
5.DonaldG.KaufmanCeciliaM.Franz(1996).Biosphere2000:protectingourglobalenvironment.Kendall/HuntPub.
Co.ISBN9780787204600.Retrieved11October2011.
6.FoodFactories(http://www.legacyproject.org/activities/foodfactories.html).www.legacyproject.org.Retrieved201110
10.
7.OceanAcidification:ANationalStrategytoMeettheChallengesofaChangingOcean.Washington,DC:National
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Furtherreading
Seppanen,FiskandMendell,AssociationofVentilationRatesandCO2ConcentrationswithHealthand
OtherResponsesinCommercialandInstitutionalBuildings,IndoorAir1999.
Shendell,Prill,Fisk,Apte1,Blake&Faulkner,AssociationsbetweenclassroomCO2concentrationsand
studentattendanceinWashingtonandIdaho,IndoorAir2004.
Soentgen,Jens,Hotair:ThescienceandpoliticsofCO2.In:GlobalEnvironment,Vol7,March2014,
pp.134171.

Externallinks
InternationalChemicalSafetyCard0021(http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0021.htm)
CID{{{1}}}(https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/280)fromPubChem
CarbondioxideMSDS(http://sdsdata.org/68399)byAmerigasintheSDSdata.orgdatabase.
CDCNIOSHPocketGuidetoChemicalHazardsCarbonDioxide(http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0
103.html)
CO2CarbonDioxideProperties,Uses,Applications(http://www.uigi.com/carbondioxide.html)
DryIceinformation(http://www.dryiceinfo.com/science.htm)
TrendsinAtmosphericCarbonDioxide(http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends/)(NOAA)
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CarbonDioxidePartOne(http://www.periodicvideos.com/videos/mv_carbon_dioxide_one.htm)and
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Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carbon_dioxide&oldid=762169205"
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