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# Special Issue 2, Volume VI, May 2011

## EVALUATION OF CARRYING CAPACITY THREEROW

SLEWING ROLLER BEARING
Stanisaw Borkowski1, Marek Krynke2, Jacek Selejdak3
Summary: In this paper the numeric model a flexible three-row roller slewing bearing is
presented. Characteristic of static carrying capacity with flexibility bearings rings
and flexibility their fastening to carrying frames of machines for different kinds
fastening screws, bearings clearances and initial clamping have been determinate.
Those characteristics with characteristic of capacity for bearing about rigid rings
have been compared.
Key words: heavy machinery, slewing bearing, static carrying capacity, finite element method
(FEM).

INTRODUCTION
Slewing bearings are important ensembles of working machines, they perform the role
of rotation mechanisms and link the two parts of the machine, the chassis with the bodywork.
Determination of bearing capacity requires the use of precise computational methods. The
main parameter determining conditions of slewing bearings is their static carrying capacity
determined by the corresponding characteristics built in the coordinate system: axial force Q tilting moment M at a given radial load H (1). The analytical methods for calculating load
capacity is usually adopted, that the rings of slewing bearings are not deformable, which
include causes the screws do not affect the bearing's carrying capacity (2). In terms of real
work bearing this assumption is not satisfied (3). This article applies to determine the static
carrying capacity threerow slewing roller bearing taking into account flexibility of the rings
and flexibility of the mounting screw connection of bearing. Three-row roller slewing ring
bearings has three seat-rings, which separate the upper, lower and radial races, via which the
load of each row of the rollers may be specified. It may bear different loads simultaneously
and its load capacity is the largest one among the four models (single-row four-point bearing,
double-row ball bearing, cross-roller bearing, three-row roller bearing). Thanks to the large
size of its axle and radius, it is sturdy and especially suitable for heavy-duty machines which

Prof. n. techn. i n. ekonom. dr hab. in., Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Management,
Institute of Production Engineering, al. Armii Krajowej 19 B, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland, Tel.: +48 34 325
03 90, Fax: +48 34 361 38 76, E-mail: bork@zim.pcz.pl;
2
Dr in., Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Management, Institute of Production
Engineering, al. Armii Krajowej 19 B, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland, Tel.: +48 34 325 03 67, Fax: +48 34 361
38 76+420, E-mail: krynke@zim.pcz.pl;
3
Dr in., Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Management, Institute of Production
Engineering, al. Armii Krajowej 19 B, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland, Tel.: +48 34 325 03 67, Fax: +48 34 361
38 76+420, E-mail: jacek.s@zim.pcz.pl;

Borkowski, Krynke, Selejdak: Evaluation of carrying capacity threerow slewing roller bering

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## Special Issue 2, Volume VI, May 2011

require large working radius. such as bucket-wheel excavators, wheeled cranes, ship cranes,
ladle turret, heavy-duty mobile cranes etc. (fig. 1).

## Fig. 1 Examples of applications threerow slewing roller bearing

The load-carrying capacity for slewing bearings is frequently calculated assuming nondeformability of the bearing rings (5). But in certain circumstances, especially for bearings
with large diameters applied in constructions which do not guarantee sufficient rigidity of the
bodies with the bearing rings mounted on them, the above assumption can lead to overly large
errors. This is why the methods, which allow the susceptibility of the bearing rings to taken
into account and mounted bolts as well as the susceptibility of load-carrying structures of
working machines, should be applied to determine the capacity of slewing bearings.
Computational models of the bearings, which take into consideration the above mentioned
factors, are built from finite elements. Slewing bearings need the special methods of
modelling due to their specific features (6,7).
three-row slewing roller bearings.

## 1. THE MODEL OF BEARING WITH FLEXIBILITY RINGS

1.1 The basic assumptions of the model
The basic assumption is to adopt a deformable bearing rings and built rings at not
deformable structures heavy-duty machines. The consequence of this assumption is
displacement of the upper part of the heavy-duty machines with respect to the lower part as
a rigid elements and the projection of the mutual displacement on the operation plane of
tilting moment is a straight line. Considered bearing shown in Figure 2.

Borkowski, Krynke, Selejdak: Evaluation of carrying capacity threerow slewing roller bering

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Source: Author

## In addition, it is assumed that:

surfaces of the raceway and rolling elements are a perfect shape, and one row of rollers
are of equal diameter,
load torque is transmitted only by the horizontal axis rollers,
materials of rings and rolling elements are homogeneous and isotropic.

In calculation of the capacity of rolling slewing bearings are the two major issues
directly affect to bearing rollers:
determining the maximum force which can be loaded roller and the associated maximum
deformation of roller,
determine the nature of the relation between the load and the deformation of roller, and in
fact the mutual closeup the bearing race.
It was assumed that the border-load of roller about diameter d is the force that causes
relative plastic deformation (1)
pl dop
2 10 4 .
(1)
d
The maximum force that can be loaded roller is calculated from the relation (2):
Pdop 123,57 f H d l [N]
(2)
where: d, l [mm] diameter and length of the active roller, fH correction coefficient of
hardness (8).
Deformation of roller, and thus close up bearing race, determines the relation:

c Pw

(3)

## where: c constant dependent on geometry and materials in contact elements,

w exponent specifying the non-linearity characteristics of the roller (2).

## 1.2 FEM model of three-row roller bearings

The results of a series of works about slewing bearings fastened to the structures of
working machines, such as (3, 9), indicate a significant effect of deformation on the

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## Special Issue 2, Volume VI, May 2011

superstructure of bearing internal load distribution in bearing. At the stage of calculating the
catalog carrying capacity is practically no possibility of taking account of deformation for
future applications of bearing. It was assumed that the flexibility bearing is mounted by group
of flexibility screws to the mounting rings (bearing support) in the working machine, but the
specific surfaces of these rings move as not deformable surfaces. Currently, to calculate the
deformation of machine structures the most commonly used finite element method (9), the
numerical model of bearing was performed in the ADINA program (10). For the
discretization of the bearing rings used 8-node solid elements, like for the rings of the bearing
support. To model the rollers were used the rod elements with a suitably defined non-linearity
of the material, ensuring the transfer only compressive forces (7). Fixing the bearing is done
by screws mounted with a clamp preliminary, to model the screws were used the special beam
elements which are assigned, founded the preload force. Figure 3 shows the model of bearings
used in the samplecalculations.

Source: Author

Fig. 3 The FEM model grid of three-row roller bearing with the divided rings
Half of the bearing and rings of enclosure were assumed for analysis. Suitable boundary
conditions resulting from model symmetry were introduced into the model. Adequate contact
surfaces between the bearing rings and enclosure rings were defined. The friction factor equal
to 0.15 was assumed in the contact zone of the elements. Under-surface of enclosure ring, to
which external bearing ring is fixed, was rigidly supported. Internal ring is fixed on the upper
surface of enclosure ring. The rigid connection between nodes placed on this surface (slave
nods) and central node (master node) placed in the centre of gravity of nodes slave was
imposed on the upper surface of enclosure ring. Pairs of nodes, formed in such a way, create
rigid spider with master node as a central point. External load in the form of concentrated
force and concentrated moment is imposed on the master node. When model undergoes
deformation, slave nodes are forced to displacement and rotation in such a way that distance
between slave and master nodes stays constant and that rotations of slave nodes are identical
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## Special Issue 2, Volume VI, May 2011

as adequate rotations in the main node. The bearing load is generated by given overturning
moment M, axial force Q and radial force H (Fig. 2).

## 2. THE CALCULATION RESULTS OF BEARING LOAD-CARRYING

CAPACITY
Numerical calculations of load bearing is done by iteration. To determine the initial
values of the load, can be use the results of analytical calculations (11). For an assumed load
is carried out numerical model calculations and determines the load distribution on the
individual rollers. Calculations progress to achieve the limit values of the load in one of the
rows of bearings, this follows from the strength condition for rollers:
(4)
P1 P1 dop , P2 P2 dop
In Figures 4 and 5 presents the results of calculations obtained for three-row slewing
bearing, which has the following parameters: pitch diameter dt1 = 2641 mm, dt2 = 2650 mm,
dimensions and the number of rollers in the carrying, supporting and side row: d1 = 40 mm,
l1 = 36,8 mm, z1 = 168, d2 = 36 mm, l2 = 33,2 mm, z2 = 168, d3 = 25 mm, l3 = 22,8 mm,
z3 = 204, hardness of the raceway 52 HRC. In the presented model, each of the rings is
mounted on 84 or42 bolts M36 class 8.8 and 12.9 of the preload 395 kN and 660kN.
Simulation of the bearing clearance s = 0,05 mm and initial clamp = 0,05 mm, = 0,1 mm
performed by using shifted characteristics of rollers material determined for the nominal
state (12).
On the presented graphs the load carrying capacity is different for flexible bearing,
especially at high value of tilting moment. In calculation of the rigid bearing, the maximum
value of tilting moment is limited by load capacity of carrying row. In the case of flexible
bearing, due to detachment from the supporting structure rings the bearing rings, load
distribution is changed and in the whole operating range of bearing its load capacity is limited
by the capacity of carrying row.
Figure 4 shows how the effect on the carrying capacity bearing the number of bolts
used. You can see a distinct change in the bearing capacity depending on the number and type
of bolts. In the case of a small number of bolts and their low-classes strength carrying
capacity bearing decreases considerably because of its stiffness decreases, the more that
threerow slewing roller bearing has subdivided ring up. For the flexible bearing the rollers in
a supporting row are load by smaller forces and on the greater part of the circuit, as shown in
the work (13).
The static load characteristics which are illustrated in Figure 5 highlight the decline in
carrying capacity in the case of bearing clearances. A more extensive discussion of the issue
presented in the work (12). Analyzing the impact the initial clamp, you will see a slight
increase in load capacity, but only for a specific range of the bearing operation and at small
values of the initial clamp. By the occurrence of larger values of the initial clamp will be a fall
carrying capacity, which confirms the results of analytical from works (1, 14). Should
remember that the initial clamp causes a significant, negative growth friction torque in rolling
bearings (14).

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1
10000

## 1 - analytical model (11)

2 - 84 bolts 12.9
3 - 84 bolts 8.8
4 - 42 bolts 12.9
5 - 42 bolts 8.8

8000

M [kNm]

3
6000

4
5

4000

2000

0
0

2000

4000

6000

## 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Q [kN]

Source: Author

Fig. 4 Comparison of the carrying capacity of threerow slewing roller bearing depending
on the class and number of screws used (M36 - 8.8 M36 - 12.9)

10000

## 1 - analytical model (11)

2 - 42 bolts M36-12.9
3 - 42 bolts M36-12.9 (s = 0.05)
4 - 42 bolts M36-12.9 (= 0.05)
5 - 42 bolts M36-12.9 ( = 0.1)

4
2

M [kNm]

8000

6000

3
5

4000

2000

0
0

2000

4000

6000

## 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Q [kN]

Source: Author

Fig. 5 Characteristics of the nominal carrying capacity of threerow slewing roller bearing
(42 bolts M36 - 12.9), with clearance of 0,05 mm and initial clamp 0,05 mm and 0,1 mm

CONCLUSION
Computational models of slewing bearings due to their complexity must be subject to
varying the simplistic. This also applies to the calculation of carrying capacity of bearing of
the finite element method.
Based on the calculation model of threerow slewing roller bearing with flexibility
rings found a significant reduction in carrying capacity of bearing at the a large tilting
moment. This can be explained in such a way that the deformation of the rings on the part of
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## Special Issue 2, Volume VI, May 2011

the circuit due to the considerable moment tilting values, makes that the load of rollers in
a row supportive can not reach the limit load. As a result, the carrying capacity in the bearing
with of flexibility rings across the load characteristics the bearing is determined by the load
capacity of carrying row rollers. When there are large axial forces, while small tilting
moment, carrying capacity of bearing with rigid rings and carrying capacity of bearing with
flexible rings is very similar - this corresponds to a scope of work the bearing when the load is
transferred only by carrying row rollers.
Was found a significant effect the mountings screws on the carrying bearing capacity,
both their number and the maximum load. Fixing a large number of screws significantly
decreased the susceptibility of the whole of cantilever subassembly, hence increase the
carrying bearing capacity.
Simulation of the clamps initial in bearing confirms the results obtained in previous
works, however, the use of the initial clamp in many situations is not recommended.

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(1)

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## (11) KRYNKE M. Analityczny model obliczeniowy oysk tocznych wiecowych. PAK, 7,

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Reviewer:

## Prof. dr hab. in. Eugeniusz Mazanek

Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
and Computer Science, Institute of Mechanics and Machine Design

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