Safety Alert

Manoj Choyal

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Heat stress is the heat load on the body from the combined contributors of metabolic heat production and external environmental factors. Heat stress causes the body's core temperature to rise. Hyperthermia occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate. The body is required to get rid of excess heat to maintain a constant internal temperature (37°C) The body’s best mechanism for removing any excess heat is through the evaporation of sweat. High humidity stops/decreases the evaporation of sweat and therefore no heat is lost.

Heat In
Manoj Choyal

Heat Out

Environmental:
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Individual:
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Air Temperature Radiant Heat Humidity Wind Speed

Age Gender Fitness Medical Condition Alcohol Consumption Clothing Physical Activity Weight Acclimatization

Manoj Choyal

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Hypo/De-hydration is the major factor causing heat illnesses. Dehydration leads to decreased physical and mental performance. Fact: Thirst only starts at 2% dehydration of body weight.
Prevention: • Drink plenty of fluids, don’t wait until thirsty • Drink small amounts and often • Avoid drinks that contain caffeine and alcohol which are diuretics • It is essential to replace the sodium lost through sweating

Symptoms: • Thirst • Decreased urine volume • Abnormally dark urine • Unexplained tiredness • Irritability • Lack of tears • Headache • Dry mouth • Dizziness

Manoj Choyal

If the water in the body is balanced, the urine will be a pale straw or lemonade color. When water loss from the body exceeds water intake, the kidneys need to conserve water, making the urine much more concentrated with waste products and subsequently darker in color. Dark yellow urine is a sure indicator that the individual is dehydrated and that the fluid consumption must be increased. Certain medicines and vitamins may cause the color of the urine to change. If any of these have been taken, this test is unreliable.

Manoj Choyal

HEAT RASH
Skin irritation caused by excessive sweating during hot, humid weather. It is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases.

HEAT CRAMPS
Muscle pain or spasms usually in the abdomen, arms, or legs, that occur due to electrolytes imbalance caused by profuse sweating.

HEAT FATIGUE
Temporary state of mental or psychological strain resulting from prolonged heat exposure.

HEAT SYNCOPE
Temporary state of mental or psychological strain resulting from prolonged heat exposure.

Manoj Choyal

HEAT EXHAUSTION is the body's response to an excessive loss of the water and salt, usually through excessive sweating.
Symptoms • Thirst • Headache • Weakness or fatigue • Heavy sweating • Complexion is red with rapid pulse • Body temperature is normal or slightly elevated • Dizziness, confusion • Nausea • Clammy, moist skin

HEAT STROKE is the most serious heatrelated disorder. It occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature.
Symptoms • Hot, dry skin • No sweating • Hallucinations • Chills • Headache • High body temperature 40°C • Confusion/dizziness • Slurred speech • Irrational behaviour • Loss of consciousness • Convulsion First Aid • Call medical attention immediately • Move person to shade • Remove clothing and wet skin • Increase local air velocity • Increase fluid intake if possible

First Aid • Rest in cool place • Drink plenty of fluids • Severe cases could take one or two days to recover • No known permanent side effects

Manoj Choyal

We also have a “Duty of Care” towards visitors Visitors need to be told of the hazards they need to be aware of during their visit, including hazards from heat, and what to do if the unexpected happens

Manoj Choyal

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