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D. Utz1,2,3 , T. Van Doorsselaere2 , O. K

uhner1 ,

2

2

N. Magyar , I. Calvo Santamaria , J. I. Campos Rozo4

1

Universit

atsplatz 5, AT8010 Graz, Austria

2

Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven,

BE3001 Leuven, Belgium

3

IAA - Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca, CSIC,

Glorieta de la Astronoma, s/n, ES18080 Granada, Spain

4

National Astronomical Observatory of Colombia

National University of Colombia,

Bogota, Colombia

Abstract. A long-lasting problem of solar physics is the topic of the heating of the outer

atmospheric layers of the Sun. Among the possible heating scenarios are wave driven

heating processes. In this scenario disturbances and turbulence in the photosphere of the

Sun causes the creation of waves which propagate upwards into the higher atmosphere

where these waves are at least partially damped and absorbed, causing heating of the

atmosphere.

It is thought nowadays that especially MHD waves play an important role in such

heating scenarios. The created MHD waves are guided along strong vertical magnetic

field configurations, so-called flux-tubes into the higher atmosphere. To obtain deeper

insights into this fascinating topic, numerical simulations are a useful tool at hand.

However, up to now it is still quite common to assume simple, meaning non horizontally stratified, flux tubes which feature in addition weak magnetic field strengths. While

this makes the modeling of the solar atmosphere and the magnetic field configuration

much easier, the results might be changed drastically by this simplifications. In the current contribution we wish to outline a method of how to construct self-consistence and

magneto-static flux tube atmospheres.

Key words: solar magnetic field, numerical simulations, flux tubes, MHD waves

1.

Introduction

It is well-known that the outer solar atmospheric layers are hotter than the

photosphere. Actually the temperature decreases with height up to the temCent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. vol (2016) 1, 1

before featuring an enormous rise in temperature by several magnitudes in

the transition region to finally end with a million degree Kelvin hot corona.

Due to radiation loses the solar atmosphere needs to be steadily heated up

to maintain such high temperatures. This constitutes the so-called coronal

heating problem, a fundamental problem of solar physics (e.g., Klimchuk,

2006).

Among the possible observed phenomena which could help to solve

the heating problem are wave processes. The principle idea is that photospheric dynamics creates all kind of waves which can propagate upwards

into the higher atmosphere where various processes such as reflection, refraction, mode conversion, damping and absorption can occur (see, e.g.,

Mathioudakis et al., 2013). The most favourite wave candidates nowadays

are of MHD origin as wave theory predicts that simple sound waves could

not penetrate into the higher atmosphere and would be already stopped in

the lower atmosphere (interested readers might delve deeper into the topic

by considering, e.g., Goossens et al., 2011).

Naturally these kind of waves propagate favourable along magnetic field

lines, especially along strong magnetic field concentrations which can be

seen in the solar photosphere as so-called magnetic bright points which

represent practically the cross-section of kG strong vertical magnetic flux

tubes (e.g., Utz et al., 2013). While there is a sparse literature dealing with

wave propagation from the viewpoint of observations, a higher interest was

paid to numerical simulations of such wave processes (to name a few: Jess

et al., 2009; Fedun et al., 2011). However, most of these simulations use

the one or other trick to circumvent problems arising out of a realistic solar

magnetic flux tube atmosphere. Among these unrealistic simplifications are

horizontal non-stratified flux tubes, i.e. they are assumed implicitly to be

isothermal and isochore (often even sharing the same values in their interior

with their surrounding), and generally they feature to weak magnetic field

strengths - only several hundreds of Gauss instead of a kG.

While these simplifications help tremendously in the treatment of the

numerical modeling problem, e.g. magneto-static considerations must not

be done or can be easily fullfilled as long as the magnetic field has a weak

influence on the surrounding plasma; or the correct treatment of the flux

tube expansion with height in the atmosphere is not that important (see

Utz, K

uhner, Van Doorsselaere, Magyar, Calvo Santamaria and I., 2016;

2

Utz, K

uhner, Van Doorsselaere, Hanslmeier, Veronig and Muller, 2016);

These simplifications have for sure an enourmous impact on the wave propagation as well as other wave related processes, such as mode conversion,

reflection, refraction, or resonant absorption (e.g., Magyar and Van Doorsselaere, 2016).

In this contribution we wish to outline a method with which it is possible

to construct quite arbitrary solar atmospheres containing several vertical,

expanding strong magnetic flux tubes, which are nevertheless nearly perfectly in magneto-static equilibrium.

2.

This work was performed with the numerical code MPI-AMRVAC (see, e.g.,

Porth et al., 2014) which stands for message passing interface adaptive mesh

refinement versatile advection code. It is a Fortran written code maintained

and hosted at the Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics of the KU

Leuven in Belgium. It is free for use and can be downloaded under the

following link: http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/ keppens/;

The code can be used very versatile as it includes various numerical

solvers for different physical problems such as hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, or special relativity magneto-hydrodynamics. Except of

these standard modules the code also supports the user with the possibility of including user defined physical modules. Also various additional

physical processes such as viscosity, gravity, or resistivity can be switched

on/off as well as varied in strength.

In our case we used the ideal MHD equations, meaning no electrical

resistivity as well as no viscosity, but with a full implemented energy equation (non isothermal and non polytropic) in a gravitational stratified atmosphere.

To simplify matters we modeled the background atmospheric temperature profile as a compound consisting of three distinctive regions with

isothermal temperatures, namely the photosphere with 5400 K, the chromosphere with 4700 K, and the corona with a million degree K. Moreover,

the transition between the atmospheric layers are modeled via hyperbolic

tangent functions. The whole atmospheric temperature profile with height

Cent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. vol (2016) 1, 3

1 + tanh((h hpcr )/wpcr )

+

2

1 + tanh((h hcrc )/wcrc )

(Tcor Tchr )

,

2

(1)

parameters are the temperatures in the different layers: Tpho , photospheric

temperature with 5400 K, Tchr chromospheric temperature with 4700 K,

and Tcor the coronal temperature with a value of 1 million degree K. Moreover hpcr and hcrc represent the heights of the transition from the photosphere to the chromosphere ( 150 km) as well as from the chromosphere to

the corona ( 2500 km). The final set of parameters describe the width of

the transition layers from one atmospheric region to the next one, depicted

as wpcr , width of the transition from the photosphere to the chromosphere

with an assumed value of 200 km and wcrc , width of the transition from

the chromosphere to the corona with a chosen value of 400 km.

In a next step we need to create out of the temperature profile the pressure and the density profile of the magnetic field free solar atmosphere. To

do so, we remember basic physics, namely the hydrostatic pressure equation

and the ideal gas law:

dp = g dz

(2)

P V = n R T,

(3)

universal gas constant, T is the temperature, is the density, g is the solar

surface gravity, and z the height in the atmosphere. After replacing n, and

V by , and , the molar mass and inserting the universale gas equation

into the hydrostatic equation we end up with:

p

dp =

dz.

(4)

R T (z)

This equation can be rewritten in such a way as to split the pressure terms

and the height dependent terms enabling an easy integration, yielding a

very similar equation to the well known barometric height formula:

Z

zh dz

.

(5)

p(h) = p0 exp

R z0 T (z)

4

atmospheric temperature profile with hyperbolic tangent functions lies in

the possibility of calculating analytic solutions Rfor the pressure and density

profile in the solar atmosphere. The integral dz/T (z) can be split in 4

domains under the approximation that tanh(x) goes to 1 for sufficient

large positive or negative values (for practical purposes we have chosen that

values to be 5 wpcr or 5 wcrc , respectively). Two domains show then a

constant temperature (chromosphere and corona) and can be solved by the

normal barometric scale height formula, while

R the two transition regions

practically follow the solution of the integral 1/(const + tanh(x))dx.

p0 exp R

Tr1 (h) ;h hpcr+ 5 wpcr

RTchr

p(h)

RTcor

(6)

Z

1

dh

Tr1 (h) =

1+tanh((hhpcr )/wpcr )

Tpho + (Tchr Tpho )

2

Z

1

Tr2 (h) =

dh

crc )/wcrc )

Tchr + (Tcor Tchr ) 1+tanh((hh

2

(7)

(8)

(9)

the pressure profile is continuous. After evaluating the pressure profiles the

density profiles can be calculated via the ideal gas law.

3.

A usual approach to construct divergence B field free magnetic field configurations is, e.g., given in Shelyag et al. (2010) and references therein, where

the authors use a vertical magnetic field profile Bz through the magnetic

flux tube as well as a so-called expansion function to construct, with the

help of a given mathematical formulation, a general field configuration for

Cent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. vol (2016) 1, 5

Bx (x, z) as well as Bz (x, z). The arising problem consists of how to know

in advance the vertical magnetic field profile Bz as well as the expansion

function. Besides, how to tune and adjust the created flux configuration to

approach an agreement between the modeled atmosphere and observations?

In our case we have chosen a different approach. As we have already

a certain picture of the vertical expansion of flux tubes in mind (similar

to an inverted bottle) we wished to have a more direct control on the

shape of the magnetic field configuration. In our case we assumed that a

horizontal cut through a magnetic flux tube would yield a profile similar

to a Gaussian curve. Moreover, we assume that a flux tube should expand

similar to a hyperbolic tangent with height, i.e. the vertical magnetic flux

tube expands in height and becomes more horizontal before merging with

neighbouring magnetic fields in the chromospheric canopy structure after

which the magnetic field lines become more vertical again. Thus we set up

the B(z) component as follows:

Bz0

B(x, z) =

exp

Bf c (z)

and

(x x0 )2

(z)

h h0

,

(z) = 0 + 1 1 + tanh

wf

(10)

(11)

Bf c (x, z) =

exp

(x x0 )2

(z)

dx.

(12)

Here one can change the shape of the flux tube via the set of parameters

from 0 , 1 , h0 , and wf , while the strength of the flux tube can be adjusted

by Bz0 and the position via x0 . 0 is responsible for the initial width of the

flux tube, while 1 controls the additional opening in height; h0 controls

the height of the opening and wf the speed of opening. Thus we have now a

flux tube model which can be adjusted easily to observed real parameters.

The necessary horizontal magnetic field strength Bx can be calculated via

the divergence B criterion. In 2 dimensions this would be

Bx Bz

+

= 0;

x

z

6

(13)

Bx (x + 1, z) = Bx (x 1, z) + (Bz (x, z + 1) Bz (x, z 1)) (x/z); (14)

Starting on the left lower boundary and running row by row through the

matrix, the corresponding divergence free Bx field for a given Bz field can

be reconstructed. The Bx zero point must be chosen by the user. As we wish

to have non inclined vertical magnetic flux tubes the absolute reference level

of Bx is chosen in such a way that Bx at the central position of the flux tube

is equal to 0. In the next chapter we will now discuss the important point of

how to obtain a magnetostatic solution for the generated atmosphere and

flux tube.

4.

normally leads to the necessity of solving Grad-Shafranov like problems.

In our case we do not wish to obtain an analytic solution but a numerical

solution consisting of local calculations on the available grid. The whole

solution is based on the idea that one could think of having in principle

only one free parameter, the pressure, to counteract the Lorenz force. Fortunately this is not true as we can, in a gravitational stratified atmosphere,

also adjust the density. This gives us two scalar fields (pressure and density)

to compensate for the 2 vector components of the Lorenz force. To have a

more detailed look into this we write the MHD force equation (consisting of

the gas pressure, Lorenz force and gravitation) for both vector components

down:

2

~ )

~ B

~

(B

B

~

~ P ~g = 0 (15)

~

F =

0

2 0

Bx x Bx Bz z Bx 2Bx x Bx + 2Bz x Bz

Fx =

+

x P = 0 (16)

0

0

20

Bx x Bz

Bz z Bz

2Bx z Bx + 2Bz z Bz

Fz =

+

z P g = 0; (17)

0

0

20

We see that we can use Equ. 16 now to constrain the scalar pressure field,

or in other words, use the scalar pressure field to fullfill the magnetostatic

condition for the x-component of the force equation. The derived numeric

Cent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. vol (2016) 1, 7

P (x + 1, z) = P (x 1) +

Bz z Bx Bz x Bz

0

0

2x

(18)

Bz (Bx (x, z + 1) Bx (x, z 1))

P (x + 1, z) = P (x 1) +

2x

2z 0

Bz (Bz (x + 1, z) Bz (x 1, z))

;

0

(19)

Thus we have found a rule of how to modify the pressure field to obtain a

horizontally force free magnetic field configuration. This rule can be applied

numerically by, e.g., going row by row from the left bottom to the right top

through the pressure matrix, which will, when employed, compensate for

the horizontal Lorenz force. Next we use Equ. 17 to generate an update rule

for the density field to compensate for the vertical Lorenz force. Rewriting

Equ. 17 for the density yields:

=

Bx x Bz

Bx z Bx z P

g 0

g 0

g

(20)

Bx (x, z) (Bz (x + 1, z) Bz (x 1, z))

g0 2x

Bx (x, z) (Bx (x, z + 1) Bx (x, z 1)) P (x, z + 1) P (x, z 1

g0 2z

g 2z

(21)

Again we can go row by row from left to right through the density matrix

and update the necessary density to compensate for the vertical total force

(Lorenz plus gravity). Thus we have now finally created a solar atmosphere

in which we can inscribe a flux tube (or also several by adding up the created

Bz fields before constructing the Bx field) which will be in magnetostatic

equilibrium. Via our method of creating the magnetostatic equilibrium we

also get in a natural and self consistent way an inside stratification (vertical

as well as horizontal) of the flux tube in all thermodynamic parameters

(pressure, density and as a consequence of both, temperature). Naturally

one could ask at that point the question, if on the real Sun small-scale

(x, z) =

550 G

0G

x-position in Mm

Figure 1: shows a three flux tube magnetic field configuration. The color represents the

total magnetic field strength. Black solid lines illustrate the magnetic field lines.

all the time dynamic processes (see, e.g., Utz et al., 2014)?

This has to be answered of course by observations.

5.

A test example

We employ now the derived method to obtain a solar flux tube atmosphere

with 3 expanding vertical magnetic flux tubes. The central flux tube has a

positive polarity and features a field strength of around 500 G, representing

a network element, while the neighbouring flux tubes have opposite polarity, are weaker with around 120 G and represent internetwork magnetic

elements situated around 2 Mm far away from the network element (2 to

2.5 granular mean diameters). The magnetic field configuration is shown in

Fig. 1. Displayed is the total magnetic field strength sqrt(Bx2 +Bz2 ) together

with the corresponding magnetic field lines.

Figure 2 illustrates the obtained pressure, density, and temperature

Cent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. vol (2016) 1, 9

stratifications for the magnetic flux tube atmosphere. Clearly one can see

the starting evacuation of the strong magnetic element in the lower atmosphere (photosphere and chromosphere). Another interesting feature is the

heated chromospheric upper section of the flux tube which is well known

from chromospheric Ca II H observations (Ca bright points). The last obvious feature is that the expanding magnetic field leads to a strong horizontal magnetic field canopy which obviously needs to be cooler to be

in pressure equilibrium. Therefore, even without explicitly implementing a

chromospheric temperature minimun, solving the magnetostatic conditions

leads automatically to a chromospheric temperature drop and minimum

within the magnetic canopy layer. Here one should remember that our initial temperature profile would have featured a chromospheric temperature

of 4700 K and would have been isothermal after the transition down from

the photospheric temperature.

6.

In this short paper we outlined rigorously how one can set up a solar flux

tube atmosphere, spanning from the phtosphere to the corona. After detailing how the atmosphere and the flux tubes can be constructed we described

thoroughly how to solve for the magnetostatic conditions within the numerical domain. The shown approach gives us the flexibility of setting up an

atmosphere in 2D with various flux tubes and shapes at different positions

which are in the beginning in a good magnetostatic equilibrium. An additional advantage of solving the magnetostatic conditions directly within the

numerical box lies in obtaining corresponding and self-consistent plasma

stratifications (pressure, density, and temperature) for a given magnetic

field configuration. In the future we wish to apply photospheric disturbances to our created atmosphere to investigate in detail wave propagation

phenomena.

Acknowledgments

This research received support by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P27800.

Additional funding was possible through an Odysseus grant of the FWO

Vlaanderen, the IAP P7/08 CHARM (Belspo), and GOA-2015-014 (KU

Leuven).

10

Density map

3

25 Mpa

0.5 kg/m

2500 Pa

0.001 kg/m3

x-position in Mm

x-position in Mm

Temperature map

10000 K

3000 K

x-position in Mm

Figure 2: the pressure, density, and temperature stratifications for the previous shown

flux tube configuration to obtain magnetostatic conditions.

11

References

Fedun, V., Shelyag, S., and Erdelyi, R.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 727, 17.

Goossens, M., Erdelyi, R., and Ruderman, M. S.: 2011, Space Sci. Rev.

158, 289338.

Jess, D. B., Mathioudakis, M., Erdelyi, R., Crockett, P. J., Keenan, F. P.,

and Christian, D. J.: 2009, Science 323, 1582.

Klimchuk, J. A.: 2006, Sol. Phys. 234, 4177.

Magyar, N., and Van Doorsselaere, T.: 2016, ArXiv e-prints .

Mathioudakis, M., Jess, D. B., and Erdelyi, R.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev.

175, 127.

Porth, O., Xia, C., Hendrix, T., Moschou, S. P., and Keppens, R.: 2014,

Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 214, 4.

Shelyag, S., Mathioudakis, M., Keenan, F. P., and Jess, D. B.: 2010, Astron.

Astrophys. 515, A107.

Utz, D., del Toro Iniesta, J. C., Bellot Rubio, L. R., Jurcak, J., Martnez

Pillet, V., Solanki, S. K., and Schmidt, W.: 2014, Astrophys. J. 796, 79.

Utz, D., Jurcak, J., Hanslmeier, A., Muller, R., Veronig, A., and K

uhner,

O.: 2013, Astron. Astrophys. 554, A65.

Utz, D., K

uhner, O., Van Doorsselaere, T., Hanslmeier, A., Veronig, A. M.,

and Muller, R.: 2016, Astron. Astrophys. p. submitted.

Utz, D., K

uhner, O., Van Doorsselaere, T., Magyar, N., Calvo Santamaria,

I., and I., C.: 2016, in I. Dorotovic (ed.), 23th National Solar Physics

Meeting, p. in press.

12

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