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LITHOSTRUCTURAL MAPPING OF

KUFRI, JHALAR,
CHAMNAKI, SURRAKHI, KHURA AND NAUSHEHRA AREA,
CENTRAL SALT RANGE, DISTRICT KHUSHAB PUNJAB
PAKISTAN WITH SPECIAL EMPASIS ON SEISMIC RISK
ASSESSMENT OF ISLAMABAD AREA ON THE BASIS OF H/V
SPECTRAL RATIO AND RESONANCE FREQUENCY.

Submitted By:
M.Jehan Zeb,
BGLF09M048.

BS Geology
Session 2010-2014

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES


UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, SARGODHA-PAKISTAN

LITHOSTRUCTURAL MAPPING OF
KUFRI, JHALAR, CHAMNAKI,
SURRAKHI, KHURA AND NAUSHEHRA AREA, CENTRAL SALT RANGE,
DISTRICT KHUSHAB PUNJAB PAKISTAN WITH SPECIAL EMPASIS ON
SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT OF ISLAMABAD AREA ON THE BASIS OF H/V
SPECTRAL RATIO AND RESONANCE FREQUENCY.

Submitted By:
M.Jehan Zeb,
BGLF09M048.

Supervisor:
Co-supervisor:
Mr. Muhammad Kashif

Mr. S.M Talha Qadri

A thesis submitted to University of Sargodha in the partial fulfillment


for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Geology.

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF


SARGODHA, SARGODHA-PAKISTAN.

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

The project thesis entitled Litho structural Mapping of lithostructural mapping


of Kufri, Jhalar, Chamnaki, Surrakhi, Khura and Naushehra area, Central
Salt Range, District Khushab Punjab Pakistan And Seismic Risk Assessment
of Islamabad Area On The Basis Of H/V Spectral Ratio And Resonance
Frequency by M.Jehan Zeb is hereby submitted for the defense of the degree of
B.S. Applied Geology (4 years), session 2010-14, Department of Earth Sciences, the
University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Supervisor:
Mr. Muhammad Kashif
Assistant Professor.

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

This thesis by M.Jehan Zeb is hereby approved for the submission to the University
of Sargodha, Sargodha in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Geology.

Chairman:
Professor:

Associate

Prof.Dr. Khalid Mahmood

Mr.Zahid Naveed

Assistant Professor:

Assistant Professor:

Mr.Muhammad Kashif

Mr. Saif Ur Rehman

Assistant Professor:
Mr.M Fahadullah

Lecturer:
Mr. Abdul Hannan

Lecturer:
Mr. S.M. Talha Qadri

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I bow my head before Almighty Allah in gratitude for enabling
me to cope with this challenge and to his last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad
(P.B.U.H).
I take this opportunity to thank Chairman, Department of Earth Sciences
Prof.Dr.Khalid Mehmood for arranging the field programme and other
possible facilities.
The fieldwork was conducted under the supervision of Assistant
Prof.Muhammad Kashif, and I am very grateful to my supervisors for their
help and encouragement given to me. I am thankful to my teachers like
Assistant Prof.Saif ur Rrehman, Assistant Prof.Fahadullah Khan, Associate
Prof.Mr.Zahid Naveed, Lecturer Mr.Talha Qadri, Mr.Saeed Hassan and Mam
Mehreen. I would specially like to express my indebtedness to all Geology
Department staff.
I am especially thankful to my Parents, Uncles namely Raza Khan and
Musrif Khan and my Cousins namely Mujaib Rehman, Faizan Ahmed,
Afnan Ahmed and Reyan Ahmed who encouraged and supported me
throughout my study periods and my life. I extremely pay my regards to
my Dad and Mom who pray for my success day and night.
I am also thankful to all my hostel fellows namely Sajid Afridi, Zeshan
Afridi, Abdul Wahid Afridi, Jamil Afridi, Faseeh Afridi and Junaid Afridi for
their nice company during my hostel life.
And Finally, I dedicate this thesis work to my cute son namely Safwan
Afridi.

M.Jehan
Zeb Afridi

ABSTRACT

Tectonically, the study area lies in Southern part of the Sub-Himalaya and in the
Central part of the Salt Range. Salt Range is the surface expression of decollement thrust in
which basement rocks are not involved. The purpose of our field work was a comprehensive
study of Geology and related structural aspects of Kufri, Jhalar, Chamnaki, Surrakhi,
Khura and Naushehra area, Central Salt Range, District Khushab Punjab Pakistan in
the Central Salt Range Pakistan. The objective of our field tour work was to understand the
Stratigraphy, Structure Geology and Mapping techniques. It includes Litho structural
Mapping at scale of 1:10,000. Oldest rock unit, exposed in the study area is Kussak
Formation of Cambrian and the youngest one is Kalabagh Conglomerate of Pleictocene age.
The structural study reveals that the study area contains normal faults, thrust faults and back
thrust as well as it comprises of several anticlines, synclines and domes.

This thesis also include the portion of Geophysics which include the study for
Seismic Risk Assessment of Islamabad Area by using H/V Fourier
Spectral Ratios and Resonant Frequencies of Sediments Lying on
the Bed Rock. 10 sites have been covered in the study area to estimate
the thickness of soft soil on the bed rock by using H/V Fourier spectral
ratios and resonant frequencies of soft sediments lying on the bedrock.
The H/V curve shows a peak in amplification at the fundamental frequency
of the subsurface-that is when the resonance occurs. Characteristic site
period Ts, which is dependent on shear wave velocity and soil thickness is
also calculated for each site of study area. It is helpful in providing the
time period of vibration at which the most significant amplification can
occur.