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VspeedsWikipedia

Vspeeds
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inaviation,Vspeedsarestandardtermsusedtodefineairspeeds
importantorusefultotheoperationofallaircraft.[1]Thesespeeds
arederivedfromdataobtainedbyaircraftdesignersand
manufacturersduringflighttestingandverifiedinmostcountries
bygovernmentflightinspectorsduringaircrafttypecertification
testing.Usingthemisconsideredabestpracticetomaximize
aviationsafety,aircraftperformanceorboth.[2]
Theactualspeedsrepresentedbythesedesignatorsarespecifictoa
particularmodelofaircraft.Theyareexpressedbytheaircraft's
indicatedairspeed(andnotby,forexample,thegroundspeed),so
thatpilotsmayusethemdirectly,withouthavingtoapply
correctionfactors,asaircraftinstrumentsalsoshowindicated
airspeed.
Ingeneralaviationaircraft,themostcommonlyusedand
mostsafetycriticalairspeedsaredisplayedascolorcoded
arcsandlineslocatedonthefaceofanaircraft'sairspeed
indicator.Thelowerendsofthegreenarcandthewhitearc
arethestallingspeedwithwingflapsretracted,andstalling
speedwithwingflapsfullyextended,respectively.Theseare
thestallingspeedsfortheaircraftatitsmaximum
weight.[3][4]Theyellowrangeistherangeinwhichthe
aircraftmaybeoperatedinsmoothair,andthenonlywith
cautiontoavoidabruptcontrolmovement,andtheredlineis
theVne,theneverexceedspeed.

AsingleengineCessna150L'sairspeed
indicatorindicatingitsVspeeds.

AflightenvelopediagramshowingVS(stall
speedat1G),VC(corner/maneuveringspeed)and
VD(divespeed)

ProperdisplayofVspeedsisanairworthinessrequirement
fortypecertificatedaircraftinmostcountries.[5][6]

Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6

Regulation
RegulatoryVspeeds
OtherVspeeds
Machnumbers
V1definitions
References

Regulation
ThemostcommonVspeedsareoftendefinedbyaparticulargovernment'saviationregulations.IntheUnited
States,thesearedefinedintitle14oftheUnitedStatesCodeofFederalRegulations,knownastheFederal
AviationRegulationsorFARs.[7]InCanada,theregulatorybody,TransportCanada,defines26commonlyused

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VspeedsintheirAeronauticalInformationManual(AIM).[8]VspeeddefinitionsinFAR23,25andequivalent
arefordesigningandcertificationofairplanes,notfortheiroperationaluse.Thedescriptionsbelowareforuse
bypilots.

RegulatoryVspeeds
TheseVspeedsaredefinedbyregulations.Someofthedescriptionsprovidedaresimplified.

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Vspeed
designator
V1
V2
V2min

Description
Thespeedbeyondwhichthetakeoffshouldnolongerbeaborted.(SeeV1definitions
below)[7][8][9]
Takeoffsafetyspeed.Thespeedatwhichtheaircraftmaysafelybeclimbedwithoneengine
inoperative.[7][8][9]
Minimumtakeoffsafetyspeed.[7][8][9]

V3

Flapretractionspeed.[8][9]

V4

Steadyinitialclimbspeed.Theallenginesoperatingtakeoffclimbspeedusedtothepointwhere
accelerationtoflapretractionspeedisinitiated.Shouldbeattainedbyagrossheightof400
feet.[10]

VA

Designmaneuveringspeed.Thisisthespeedabovewhichitisunwisetomakefullapplicationof
anysingleflightcontrol(or"pulltothestops")asitmaygenerateaforcegreaterthanthe
aircraft'sstructurallimitations.[7][8][9][11]

Vat

Indicatedairspeedatthreshold,whichisusuallyequaltothestallspeedVS0multipliedby1.3or
stallspeedVS1gmultipliedby1.23inthelandingconfigurationatthemaximumcertificated
landingmass,thoughsomemanufacturersapplydifferentcriteria.IfbothVS0andVS1gare
available,thehigherresultingVatshallbeapplied.[12]Alsocalled"approachspeed".

VB

Designspeedformaximumgustintensity.[7][8][9]

VC

Designcruisespeed,usedtoshowcompliancewithgustintensityloading.[13]

Vcef

SeeV1generallyusedindocumentationofmilitaryaircraftperformance.[14]

VD

Designdivingspeed,thehighestspeedplannedtobeachievedintesting.[7][8][9]

VDF

Demonstratedflightdivingspeed,thehighestactualspeedachievedintesting.[7][8][9]

VEF

Thespeedatwhichthecriticalengineisassumedtofailduringtakeoff.[7]

VF

Designedflapspeed.[7][8][9]

VFC

Maximumspeedforstabilitycharacteristics.[7][9]

VFE

Maximumflapextendedspeed.[7][8][9]

VFTO

Finaltakeoffspeed.[7]

VH

Maximumspeedinlevelflightatmaximumcontinuouspower.[7][8][9]

VLE

Maximumlandinggearextendedspeed.Thisisthemaximumspeedatwhicharetractablegear
aircraftshouldbeflownwiththelandinggearextended.[7][8][9][15]

VLO

Maximumlandinggearoperatingspeed.Thisisthemaximumspeedatwhichthelandinggearon
aretractablegearaircraftshouldbeextendedorretracted.[7][9][15]

VLOF

Liftoffspeed.[7][9]

VMC

Minimumcontrolspeed.Mostlyusedastheminimumcontrolspeedforthetakeoffconfiguration
(takeoffflaps).SeveralVMCsexistfordifferentflightphasesandairplaneconfigurations:VMCG,
VMCA,VMCA1,VMCA2,VMCL,VMCL1,VMCL2.Refertotheminimumcontrolspeedarticlefora
thoroughexplanation.[7]

VMCA

Minimumcontrolspeedintheair(orairborne).Theminimumspeedatwhichsteadystraight
flightcanbemaintainedwhenanenginefailsorisinoperativeandwiththecorresponding
oppositeenginesettoprovidemaximumthrust,providedasmall(35)bankangleisbeing
maintainedawayfromtheinoperativeengineandtherudderisuseduptomaximumtomaintain

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straightflight.TheexactrequiredbankangleforVMCAtobevalidshouldbeprovidedbythe
manufacturerwithVMC(A)dataanyotherbankangleresultsinahigheractualVMC(A).Referto
theminimumcontrolspeedarticleforadescriptionof(pilotinduced)factorsthathaveinfluence
onVMCA.VMCAisalsopresentedasVMCinmanymanuals.
VMCG

Minimumcontrolspeedonthegroundisthelowestspeedatwhichthetakeoffmaybesafely
continuedfollowinganenginefailureduringthetakeoffrun.BelowVMCG,thethrottlesneedto
beclosedatoncewhenanenginefails,toavoidveeringofftherunway.[16]

VMCL

Minimumcontrolspeedinthelandingconfigurationwithoneengineinoperative.[9][16]

VMO

Maximumoperatinglimitspeed.[7][8][9]

VMU

Minimumunstickspeed.[7][8][9]

VNE

Neverexceedspeed.[7][8][9][17]

VNO

Maximumstructuralcruisingspeedormaximumspeedfornormaloperations.[7][8][9]

VO

Maximumoperatingmaneuveringspeed.[18]

VR

Rotationspeed.Thespeedatwhichthepilotbeginstoapplycontrolinputstocausetheaircraft
nosetopitchup,afterwhichitwillleavetheground.

Vrot

UsedinsteadofVR(indiscussionsofthetakeoffperformanceofmilitaryaircraft)todenote
rotationspeedinconjunctionwiththetermVref(refusalspeed).[14]

VRef

Landingreferencespeedorthresholdcrossingspeed.[7][8][9]
(Indiscussionsofthetakeoffperformanceofmilitaryaircraft,thetermVrefstandsforrefusal
speed.Refusalspeedisthemaximumspeedduringtakeofffromwhichtheairvehiclecanstop
withintheavailableremainingrunwaylengthforaspecifiedaltitude,weight,and
configuration.[14])Incorrectly,orasanabbreviation,somedocumentationreferstoVrefand/or
Vrotspeedsas"Vr."[19]

VS

Stallspeedorminimumsteadyflightspeedforwhichtheaircraftisstillcontrollable.[7][8][9]

VS0

Stallspeedorminimumflightspeedinlandingconfiguration.[7][8][9]

VS1

Stallspeedorminimumsteadyflightspeedforwhichtheaircraftisstillcontrollableinaspecific
configuration.[7][8]

VSR

Referencestallspeed.[7]

VSR

Referencestallspeedinlandingconfiguration.[7]

VSR

Referencestallspeedinaspecificconfiguration.[7]

VSW

Speedatwhichthestallwarningwilloccur.[7]

0
1

VTOSS

CategoryArotorcrafttakeoffsafetyspeed.[7][17]

VX

Speedthatwillallowforbestangleofclimb.[7][8]

VY

Speedthatwillallowforthebestrateofclimb.[7][8]

OtherVspeeds
SomeoftheseVspeedsarespecifictoparticulartypesofaircraftandarenotdefinedbyregulations.
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Vspeed
designator

Description

VBE

Bestendurancespeedthespeedthatgivesthegreatestairbornetimeforfuelconsumed.

VBG

Bestpoweroffglidespeedthespeedthatprovidesmaximumlifttodragratioandthusthe
greatestglidingdistanceavailable.

VBR

Bestrangespeedthespeedthatgivesthegreatestrangeforfuelconsumedoftenidenticalto
Vmd.[20]

VFS

Finalsegmentofadeparturewithonepowerplantfailed.[21]

Vimd

Minimumdrag[22]

Vimp

Minimumpower[22]

VLLO

Maximumlandinglightoperatingspeedforaircraftwithretractablelandinglights.[9]

Vmbe

Maximumbrakeenergyspeed[22][23]

Vmd

Minimumdrag(perlift)oftenidenticaltoVBR.[20][23](alternativelysameasVimd[24])

Vmin

Minimumspeedforinstrumentflight(IFR)forhelicopters[17]

Vmp

Minimumpower[23]

Vms

Minimumsinkspeedatmedianwingloadingthespeedatwhichtheminimumdescentrateis
obtained.Inmoderngliders,VmsandVmchaveevolvedtothesamevalue.[25]

Vp

Aquaplaningspeed[26]

VPD

Maximumspeedatwhichwholeaircraftparachutedeploymenthasbeendemonstrated[27]

Vra

Roughairspeed(turbulencepenetrationspeed).[9]

VSL

Stallspeedinaspecificconfiguration[9][23]

Vs1g

Stallspeedat1gloadfactor

Vsse

Safesingleenginespeed[28]

Vt

Thresholdspeed[23]

VTD

Touchdownspeed[29]

VTGT

Targetspeed

VTO

Takeoffspeed.(seealsoVLOF)[30]

Vtocs

Takeoffclimboutspeed(helicopters)[17]

Vtos

Minimumspeedforapositiverateofclimbwithoneengineinoperative[23]

Vtmax

Maxthresholdspeed[23][31]

Vwo

Maximumwindoworcanopyopenoperatingspeed[32]

VXSE

Bestangleofclimbspeedwithasingleoperatingengineinalight,twinengineaircraftthe
speedthatprovidesthemostaltitudegainperunitofhorizontaldistancefollowinganengine
failure,whilemaintainingasmallbankanglethatshouldbepresentedwiththeengineoutclimb
performancedata.[28]

VYSE

Bestrateofclimbspeedwithasingleoperatingengineinalight,twinengineaircraftthespeed
thatprovidesthemostaltitudegainperunitoftimefollowinganenginefailure,while
maintainingasmallbankanglethatshouldbepresentedwiththeengineoutclimbperformance
data.[15][28]

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Zerorateofclimbspeedinatwinengineaircraft[23]

Machnumbers
WheneveralimitingspeedisexpressedbyaMachnumber,itisexpressedrelativetothespeedofsound,e.g.
VMO:Maximumoperatingspeed,MMO:MaximumoperatingMachnumber.[7][8]

V1definitions
V1isthecriticalenginefailurerecognitionspeedortakeoffdecisionspeed.Itisthespeedabovewhichthe
takeoffwillcontinueevenifanenginefailsoranotherproblemoccurs,suchasablowntire.[9]Thespeedwill
varyamongaircrafttypesandvariesaccordingtofactorssuchasaircraftweight,runwaylength,wingflap
setting,enginethrustusedandrunwaysurfacecontamination,thusitmustbedeterminedbythepilotbefore
takeoff.AbortingatakeoffafterV1isstronglydiscouragedbecausetheaircraftwillbydefinitionnotbeableto
stopbeforetheendoftherunway,thussufferinga"runwayoverrun".[33]
V1isdefineddifferentlyindifferentjurisdictions:
TheUSFederalAviationAdministrationdefinesitas:"themaximumspeedinthetakeoffatwhichthe
pilotmusttakethefirstaction(e.g.,applybrakes,reducethrust,deployspeedbrakes)tostoptheairplane
withintheacceleratestopdistance.V1alsomeanstheminimumspeedinthetakeoff,followingafailure
ofthecriticalengineatVEF,atwhichthepilotcancontinuethetakeoffandachievetherequiredheight
abovethetakeoffsurfacewithinthetakeoffdistance."[7]
TransportCanadadefinesitas:"Criticalenginefailurerecognitionspeed"andadds:"Thisdefinitionis
notrestrictive.Anoperatormayadoptanyotherdefinitionoutlinedintheaircraftflightmanual(AFM)
ofTCtypeapprovedaircraftaslongassuchdefinitiondoesnotcompromiseoperationalsafetyofthe
aircraft."[8]

References
1.Love,MichaelC.(2005)."2".BetterTakeoffs&Landings.McGrawHill.pp.1315.ISBN0070388059.
Retrieved20080507.
2.Craig,PaulA.(2004)."1".MultiengineFlying(3rded.).McGrawHill.pp.36.ISBN0071421394.Retrieved
20080507.
3.FederalAviationAdministration(July2008)."Title14:AeronauticsandSpacePART23AIRWORTHINESS
STANDARDS:NORMAL,UTILITY,ACROBATIC,ANDCOMMUTERCATEGORYAIRPLANESSubpartG
OperatingLimitationsandInformationMarkingsAndPlacards,Part23,23.1545".Retrieved20080801.
4."Pilot'sHandbookofAeronauticalKnowledgeChapter7"(PDF).FAA.Retrieved20100129.
5."Pilot'sHandbookofAeronauticalKnowledgeChapter8"(PDF).FAA.Retrieved20100129.
6.FederalAviationAdministration(July2008)."Title14:AeronauticsandSpacePART25AIRWORTHINESS
STANDARDS:TRANSPORTCATEGORYAIRPLANESSubpartGOperatingLimitationsandInformation
AirplaneFlightManual,Part25,25.1583".Retrieved20080801.
7."ElectronicCodeofFederalRegulationsChapter14.1".FederalAviationAdministration.Retrieved20080507.
8.TransportCanada(October2012)."AeronauticalInformationManualGEN1.0GENERALINFORMATION"
(PDF).Retrieved20130101.
9.Peppler,I.L.:FromTheGroundUp,page327.AviationPublishersCo.Limited,OttawaOntario,TwentySeventh
RevisedEdition,1996.ISBN0969005490
10.CAP698:CivilAviationAuthorityJARFCLExaminations:AeroplanePerformanceManual(PDF).CivilAviation
Authority(UnitedKingdom).2006.pp.Section4MRJT1Page3.ISBN0117906530.Retrieved20091209.
11.FAAAdvisoryCircular2319AAirframeGuideforCertificationofPart23Airplanes,Section48(p.27)(http://rgl.f
aa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/d1a4060f22939f36862572eb0061ca3f/$FILE/A
C%202319A.pdf)Retrieved20120106
12.PANSOPS,VolumeI,PartI,Section4,Chapter1,1.3.3
13.FARPart23.335
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14.MILSTD3013A
15.Pilot'sEncyclopediaofAeronauticalKnowledge.FederalAviationAdministration.2007.pp.G16.ISBN9781
602390348.Retrieved20080512.
16.FederalAviationAdministration.(February2009)."Title14:AeronauticsandSpacePART25AIRWORTHINESS
STANDARDS:TRANSPORTCATEGORYAIRPLANESSubpartBFlightControllabilityandManeuverability
25.149Minimumcontrolspeed.".Retrieved20090216.
17.BellHelicopterTextron:BellModel212RotorcraftFlightManual,pageII.BellHelicoptersTextronPublishers,Fort
Worth,Texas,Revision3,1May1998.BHT212IFRFM1
18.USA14CFR23.1557(http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgFAR.nsf/0/2A0AA756267EFE8F8525
6687007232CC?OpenDocument)Retrieved20120106
19.TPUBINTERMEDIATEFLIGHTPREPARATIONWORKBOOKAPPENDIXA(http://www.tpub.com/content/avi
ation2/P862/P8620053.htm)
20.Brandon,John(October2008)."FlightTheory:Airspeedandthepropertiesofair".FlySafe.raa.asn.au.Archived
fromtheoriginalon1November2008.
21.airplanedriver.net(n.d.)."CessnaCitation".Retrieved20090214.
22.Bristow,Gary(n.d.).AcetheTechnicalPilotInterview.Retrieved20090120.
23.Croucher,Phil(2007).CanadianProfessionalPilotStudies.Retrieved20090120.
24."TransportationSafetyBoardofCanadaA05W0109".Retrieved20100326.
25."WillsWingHangGliderMfg.".Retrieved20160531.
26.Croucher,Phil(2007).CanadianProfessionalPilotStudies.Retrieved20090120.
27."SR20Pilot'sOperatingHandbook".CirrusDesign.2004:8.
28.FlightSimAviation(2009)."AviationRulesofThumbVSpeedsAbbreviationsList".Retrieved20090119.
29.E.G.Tulapurkara,Chapter10PerformanceanalysisVITakeoffandlanding(http://nptel.ac.in/courses/101106041/
Chapter%2010%20Lecture%2032%2022122011.pdf),retrieved18November2015
30.C130HerculesPerformanceCharts.
31.TheFreeDictionary(2009)."VTMAX".Retrieved20090119.
32.BlueRidgeAirWorks(n.d.)."Cessna1524843HGeneralInfo".Retrieved20090213.
33."TakeoffSafetyTrainingAid"(PDF).FederalAviationAdministration.p.3."V1.[...](1)Themaximumspeedby
whicharejectedtakeoffmustbeinitiatedtoassurethatasafestopcanbecompletedwithintheremainingrunway,or
runwayandstopway"

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