This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 2, MAY 2009

**Maiden Application of Bacterial Foraging-Based Optimization Technique in Multiarea Automatic Generation Control
**

Janardan Nanda, Fellow, IEEE, S. Mishra, Senior Member, IEEE, and Lalit Chandra Saikia

Abstract—A maiden attempt is made to examine and highlight the effective application of bacterial foraging (BF) to optimize several important parameters in automatic generation control (AGC) of interconnected three unequal area thermal systems, such as integral controller gains (KIi ) for the secondary control, governor speed regulation parameters (Ri ) for the primary control and frequency bias parameters (Bi ), and compare its performance to establish its superiority over genetic algorithm (GA) and classical methods. Comparison of convergence characteristics of BF, GA, and classical approach reveals that the BF algorithm is quite faster in optimization, leading to reduction in computational burden and giving rise to minimal computer resource utilization. Simultaneous optimization of KIi , Ri , and Bi parameters which surprisingly has never been attempted in the past, provides not only best dynamic response for the system but also allows use of much higher values of Ri (than used in practice), that will appeal to the power industries for easier and cheaper realization of governor. Sensitivity analysis is carried out which demonstrates the robustness of the optimized KIi , Ri , and Bi to wide changes in inertia constant (H), reheat time constant (Tr ), reheat coefﬁcient (Kr ), system loading condition, and size and position of step load perturbation. Index Terms—Automatic generation control, bacterial foraging technique, genetic algorithm, sensitivity analysis, speed regulation parameter.

Steam turbine reheat constant of area . Steam turbine reheat time constant of area (s). Steam turbine time constant of area (s). Frequency bias of area . Nominal system frequency (Hz). . (Hz/p.u.). Gain of integral controller in area . (i.e., frequency response characteristics of area ). . Simulation time (s). Incremental change in frequency of area (Hz). Incremental generation of area (p.u.). Incremental change in tie power of tie 1–2 (p.u.). Incremental change in tie power of tie 1–3 (p.u.). Synchronizing coefﬁcients. Number of parameters to be optimized. Number of bacteria. Swimming length after which tumbling of bacteria will be undertaken in a chemotactic loop. Number of iterations to be undertaken in a chemotactic loop . Maximum number of reproduction to be undertaken. Maximum number of elimination and dispersal events. Probability with which elimination and dispersal will continue. I. INTRODUCTION

NOMENCLATURE: , Subscript referred to area (1, 2, 3). Superscript denotes optimum value. Rated power of area (MW). Inertia constant of area (s). Incremental load change in area (p.u.). (p.u./Hz). Incremental generation change in area (p.u.). Governor speed regulation parameter of area . (Hz/p.u.MW). Steam governor time constant of area (s).

Manuscript received May 30, 2008; revised December 10, 2008. First published April 14, 2009; current version published April 22, 2009. Paper no. TPWRS-00421-2008. J. Nanda and S. Mishra are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India (e-mail: janardannanda@yahoo.co.in; sukumar@ee.iitd.ac.in). L. C. Saikia is with the National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam, India (e-mail: lcsaikia@yahoo.com). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2016588

,

M

ODERN power system consists of number of utilities interconnected together and power is exchanged between utilities over tie-lines by which they are connected. In order to achieve interconnected operation of a power system,

0885-8950/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

NANDA et al.: MAIDEN APPLICATION OF BACTERIAL FORAGING-BASED OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

603

an electric energy system must be maintained at a desired operating level characterized by nominal frequency, voltage proﬁle and load ﬂow conﬁguration. This is achieved by close control of real and reactive powers generated through the controllable source of the system. Automatic generation control (AGC) plays a signiﬁcant role in the power system by maintaining scheduled system frequency and tie line ﬂow during normal operating condition and also during small perturbations. Many investigations in the area of isolated and interconnected power systems have been reported in the past. Almost all such past works pertain to the design of governor secondary controllers or supplementary controllers and surprisingly little attention has been paid to the design of governor primary control, i.e., selection of proper governor droop or governor speed regulation parameter (R) in Hz/p.u.MW. It is known that with only primary control (i.e., secondary or supplementary control absent) the smaller the governor droop the smaller the steady state error in frequency but in the presence of supplementary control there is nothing to be sacrosanct to use a small governor droop (of the order of 4% to 6% used in practice) as any large but credible value of R can also guarantee zero steady state error in frequency. However, what is the best value of R and its procedure for selection remains unexplored. A few works [5], [9], [19] have been reported to an extent for selection of governor speed regulation parameter R but no comprehensive approach or optimization procedure has been provided for selection of suitable value of R. Further, no valuable information is available regarding selection of suitable value of frequency bias setting (B) in the governor supplementary control loop, except that the value B should not be less than the area fre[3], [4]. Thus quency response characteristics parameter for multiarea AGC the problem of selection of optimum value of R and B for each area remained unsolved. Several approaches for control and optimization such as classical, optimal, genetic algorithm, fuzzy logic, particle swarm optimization, artiﬁcial neural network, etc. for the design of supplementary controller have been reported in literature [1]–[20]. For any optimization technique both the convergence and optimal value achieved are important. Classical integral or proportional integral controllers considering integral square error (ISE) criterion for optimization of their gains are quite in vogue. The optimization of gains for such classical controller, however, is quite involved and time consuming when traditional approach is used and the result may be far from optimal. In the traditional approach sequential optimization is used where one parameter is optimized at a time using ISE criterion keeping the other parameters ﬁxed and then repeating this operation for every other parameter in turn to complete one iteration of optimization. Several iterations are made using the said procedure so as to determine the overall minimum of the performance index for deciding the optimum parameters. When the number of parameters to be optimized is large, classical technique for optimization is certainly not the preferred one. Some authors [16], [17] have used genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize controller gains of a multiarea AGC system simultaneously more effectively than is possible with traditional approach. Surprisingly, till date no work has been reported to optimize secondary control parameters, primary control parame-

ters and frequency bias parameters simultaneously for an AGC system in order to explore and examine their optimum values for each area and their speciﬁc impact on the overall dynamics of the system as compared to when only secondary control gains are optimized, considering values of governor speed regulation and frequency bias parameters same as parameters normally used in practice. Simultaneous optimization of parameters may also throw new ﬁndings for governor operation and design. GA can effectively explore many region of search space simultaneously rather than a single region. Hence, GA is less sensitive to local minimum as compared to the conventional approach. GA manipulates the representation of potential solution, rather than the solutions itself. To overcome the possibility of being trapped into local minima only two operations crossover and mutation are performed. Recent research has identiﬁed some of the deﬁciencies in GA performance [13]. The premature convergence of GA degrades its efﬁciency and reduces the search capability. To overcome this problem a more recent and powerful computational intelligence technique bacterial foraging (BF) is available in which the number of parameters that are used for searching the total solution space is much higher compared to those in GA [14], [15] and hence the possibility of overriding local minimum in BF is much higher then in GA. BF technique meanwhile has been successfully applied in some of the areas of electrical engineering [18], [20] where they have shown the superiority of BF over GA. However, it has not been applied to AGC problem yet. In view of the above, the present work dwells in the application of BF technique for simultaneous optimization of several for secondary parameters such as integral controller gains control, governor speed regulation parameters for primary for AGC of a control loops and frequency bias parameters three unequal area thermal power system, provides critical analysis of the dynamic responses and compares them with those obonly (keeping tained with simultaneous optimization of and at values used in practice) or simultaneous optimization and only (keeping at values used in practice) so as of to explore what valuable ﬁndings are lost when all the parameters ( , , and ) are not optimized simultaneously. Further, the performance of BF technique is duly compared to the performance of GA and classical techniques to highlight its merits. , , and parameters obThe robustness of the optimum tained at the nominal operating condition is examined through sensitivity analysis by changing the loading pattern and several system parameters by a wide margin from their nominal values and also for changes in size and position of step load perturbation (SLP). II. SYSTEM INVESTIGATED Investigations have been carried out on three unequal area (area 1: 2000 MW, area 2: 4000 MW, and area 3: 8000 MW) systems. The systems are provided with single reheat turbines, integral controllers and have realistic generation rate constraints (GRC) of 3% per minute. The nominal parameters of the systems are taken from [8] and presented in the Appendix . MATLAB version 7.01 has been used to obtain dynamic responses. Per unit values of different parameters of

604

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 2, MAY 2009

Fig. 1. Transfer function model of a three-area thermal system considering generation rate constraints.

the unequal areas are considered to be same on their respective MW capacity bases. Hence, while modeling interconnected , areas of unequal capacities, the quantities , and are considered. The idea presented by Elgerd and Fosha [3] has been used for modeling the system. The transfer function model of a three-area system is shown in Fig. 1. III. BACTERIAL FORAGING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE A recent evolutionary computation technique, called BF scheme has been proposed by Passino [14], [15] in which the number of parameters that are used for searching the total solution space is much higher compared to those of GA. To overcome the possibility of being trapped in local minima, in GA only two operations (crossover and mutation) between the chromosomes are adopted. In BF, the foraging (methods of locating, handling, ingesting food) behavior of E.coli bacteria present in our intestine is mimicked. The control system of these bacteria that dictates how foraging should proceed can be subdivided into four sections namely Chemotaxis, Swarming, Reproduction, and Elimination and Dispersal. These operations among the bacteria are used for searching the total solution space. Thus the possibility of avoiding local minimum and achieving faster convergence is higher than GA. The brief descriptions of these operations are as follows. A. Chemotaxis This process is achieved through swimming and tumbling via Flagella. Depending upon the rotation of Flagella in each bacterium, it decides whether it should move in a predeﬁned direction (swimming) or altogether in different directions (tumbling), in the entire lifetime. To represent a tumble, a unit length random

, is generated; this will be used to deﬁne the direction, say direction of movement after a tumble. In particular

(1) represents the th bacterium at th chemotactic, where th reproductive and th elimination and dispersal step. is the size of the step taken in the random direction speciﬁed by the tumble. B. Swarming During the process of reaching towards the best food location it is always desired that the bacterium which has searched the optimum path should try to provide an attraction signal to other bacteria so that they swarm together to reach the desired location. In this process, the bacteria congregate into groups and hence move as concentric patterns of groups with high bacterial density. The mathematical representation for swarming can be represented by

(2)

NANDA et al.: MAIDEN APPLICATION OF BACTERIAL FORAGING-BASED OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

605

where is the cost function value to be added to the actual cost function to be minimized to present a time varying cost function. “S” is the total number of bacteria and “p” the number of parameters to be optimized which are present are in each bacterium. different coefﬁcients that are to be chosen properly. C. Reproduction The least healthy bacteria die and the other healthiest bacteria each split into two bacteria, which are placed in the same location. This makes the population of bacteria constant. D. Elimination and Dispersal It is possible that in the local environment the life of a population of bacteria changes either gradually (e.g., via consumption of nutrients) or suddenly due to some other inﬂuence. Events can occur such that all the bacteria in a region are killed or a group is dispersed into a new part of the environment. They have the effect of possibly destroying the chemotactic progress, but they also have the effect of assisting in chemotaxis, since dispersal may place bacteria near good food sources. From a broad perspective, elimination and dispersal are parts of the population-level long-distance motile behavior. IV. BACTERIAL FORAGING ALGORITHM In case of BF technique we assign each bacterium with a set of variables to be optimized and are assigned with random values within the universe of discourse deﬁned through upper and lower limit between which the optimum value is likely to fall. In , , and . Each bacterium our case they are is allowed to take all possible values within the range and the objective function which is ISE deﬁned by the following is minimized: (3) where is the simulation time. In this paper, the BF algorithm reported in [20] having better convergence characteristics is implemented as follows. 1) Step 1-Initialization: a) Number of parameters (p) to be optimized. In this paper it or ( and ) or ( , , and ) depending is either on the case. b) Number of bacteria (S) to be used for searching the total region. It is equivalent to number of chromosomes in GA. c) Swimming length after which tumbling of bacteria will be undertaken in a chemotactic loop. , the number of iteration to be undertaken in a chemod) . tactic loop , the maximum number of reproduction to be undere) taken. , the maximum number of elimination and dispersal f) events to be imposed over bacteria. , the probability with which the elimination and disg) persal will continue. This step is equivalent to mutation in GA.

h) The location of each bacterium P (1-p, 1-S, 1) which is . speciﬁed by random numbers within i) The value of C(i), which is assumed to be constant in our case for all bacteria to simplify the design strategy. , , and . It j) The value of and is to be noted here that the value of must be same so that the penalty imposed on the cost function through “ ” of (2) will be “0” when all the bacteria will have same value, i.e., they have converged. After initialization of all the above variables, keeping one variable changing and others ﬁxed the value of “J” proposed in (3) is obtained by running the simulation of Fig. 1 using the parameters contained in each bacterium. Corresponding to the minimum cost, the magnitude of the changing variable is selected. Similar procedure is carried out for other variables keeping the already optimized one unchanged. In this way all the variables of Step I-Initialization are obtained and are presented below. , , , , , , , , , and . The value of p is equal to the number of parameters to be optimized. 2) Step-2 Iterative Algorithm for Optimization: This section models the bacterial population chemotaxis, swarming, repro). duction, elimination, and dispersal (initially, For the algorithm updating automatically results in updating of “P”. 1) Elimination-dispersal loop: 2) Reproduction loop: 3) Chemotaxis loop: a) For , calculate cost for each bacterium as follows. . • Compute value of cost Let [i.e., add on the cell-to-cell attractant effect obtained through (2) for swarming behavior to the cost value obtained through (3)]. to save this value since • Let we may ﬁnd a better cost via a run. • End of For loop. take the tumbling/swimming deb) For cision • Tumble: Generate a random vector with each element , a random . number on • Move: let (4) Fixed step size in the direction of tumble for bacterium is considered. • Compute and then let

(5)

606

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 2, MAY 2009

Fig. 2. Flow chart for bacterial foraging algorithm.

• Swim: ; (counter for swim length). i) Let (have not climbed down too ii) While long) . • Let (if doing • If and better), let let

(6) and use this to compute the new • Else, let . This is the end of the while statement. if (i.e., go to b) to c) Go to next bacterium process the next bacterium. , go to step 3. In this case, continue chemotaxis If since the life of the bacteria is not over. Reproduction , a) For the given and , and for each let be the health of the bacterium (a measure of how many nutrients it got over its life time and how successful it was at avoiding noxious substance). Sort bacteria (higher cost means in order of ascending cost lower health). bacteria with highest values die b) The and other bacteria with the best value split (and the copies that are made are placed at the same location as their parent). , go to 2; in this case, we have not reached the If number of speciﬁed reproduction steps, so we start the next generation in the chemotactic loop. , with probability Elimination-dispersal: For , eliminates and disperses each bacterium (this keeps the number of bacteria in the population constant) to a random location on the optimization domain.

Fig. 3. Comparison of responses of Case A ( , : ; : ), Case B ( , , . (a) Frequency ) and Case C ; ; deviation in area 1 versus time. (b) Frequency deviation in area 2 versus time. (c) Frequency deviation in area 3 versus time. (d) Deviation in the tie line power connecting area 1 and area 2 versus time. (e) Deviation in the tie line power connecting area 1 and area 3 vs. time, (f) Deviation in the tie line power connecting areas 2 and 3 versus time.

0 425

K R B =

K R = 24 B = (K R B )

=

4) 5)

Fig. 4. Convergence characteristics of classical, GA, and BF algorithm.

6)

The ﬂow chart of the bacterial foraging algorithm is shown in Fig. 2. V. RESULT AND ANALYSIS The three unequal area system described in Section II is considered for the studies. Dynamic responses are obtained considering 1% SLP in area 1. The cost J obtained using (3) is given to the BF technique. Three cases are examined.

7)

NANDA et al.: MAIDEN APPLICATION OF BACTERIAL FORAGING-BASED OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

607

Fig. 5. (a) Comparison of frequency deviation in area 1 as a function of time for 70% loading with , , corresponding to 70% loading and 50% loading. (b) Comparison of frequency deviation in area 1 as a function of time for 30% , , corresponding to 30% loading and 50% loading. (c) loading with Comparison of deviation in tie line power connecting areas 1 and 2 as a function of time for with , , corresponding to nominal : : and . :

K R B K R B K = 0 625 K R B K = 0 625

K =05

Fig. 5 (continued) (d) Comparison of frequency deviation n area 1 as a function of time for 3% SLP in area 1 with , , corresponding to 1% SLP in area 1 and 3% SLP in area 1. (e) Comparison of frequency deviation in area 1 as a , , corresponding to 1% function of time for 1% SLP in area 2 with SLP in area 1 and 1% SLP in area 2. (f) Comparison of frequency deviation in area 1 as a function of time for 1% SLP in area 3 with , , corresponding to 1% SLP in area 1 and 1% SLP in area 3.

K R B K R B K R B

A) The three integral gains for the three areas are ﬁrst optimized simultaneously by BF technique, and keeping their speed regulation parameters as used in practice. The frequency bias settings three optimum values of integral gains found are , , and . Dynamic responses are shown in Fig. 3(a)-(f).

B) Six variables (parameters) consisting of and are simultaneously optimized by BF for all of the three areas. The six opkeeping timum value of variables (parameters) obtained are , , , , , and . Dynamic responses are given in Fig. 3(a)-(f).

608

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 2, MAY 2009

TABLE I OPTIMUM VALUES OF VARIABLES AT DIFFERENT SYSTEM CONDITIONS AND SYSTEM PARAMETERS

C) Nine variables (parameters) , , and for the three areas are simultaneously optimized by BF technique satisfying the con. To evaluate the merits of BF technique the straint , and is also tried both through optimization of the classical and GA techniques. In case of GA a population size of 30 with 900 number of generation having mutation probability 0.07 and crossover probability 0.83 is considered. The convergence characteristics of BF, GA, and classical techniques are depicted in Fig. 4. From Fig. 4 it is quite clear that from among the three techniques the convergence of BF is the fastest though the ﬁnal value of cost function is almost same. Here we have considered “number of J evaluation” as the abscissa to obtain a platform for comparison of different techniques. The “number of J evaluation” will be nearly equal to the scaled value of computational time since for our problem the calculation of “J” takes almost all the computational time. Hence, a faster converging algorithm will reduce computational burden. The nine optimum values of variables (parameters) obtained through BF are , , , , , , , and ). The dynamic responses are given in Fig. 3(a)-(f). Critical analysis of the dynamic responses clearly reveals that for cases A and B the responses are practically same. However, it and are simultaneously optimized is observed that when (even to the tune of 15% in area 1) we get higher values of which is up to four times higher than 4% normally used in practice. High values of speed regulation parameters are preferred as they are supposed to facilitate simpler and cheaper design of governors [5]. Comparing the responses for cases A, B, and C it is evident that the responses for case C are the best from the view point of peak deviation, settling time and magnitude of oscillations. along with It is clear that simultaneous optimization of and has proved valuable in providing the best dynamic response, thereby highlighting the signiﬁcance for optimum sefor different areas rather than the usual practice lection of for each area. For the speciﬁc three unof keeping nearly equal to 3.5 equal area system studied area 1 needs nearly equal to 1.6 times of times of , area 2 needs

and area 3 needs nearly equal to 1.7 times of . BF technique helped signiﬁcantly in handling efﬁciently simultaneous optimization of several parameters and provided valuable information to suitable selection of governor droops and frequency bias settings for different areas in a multiarea system for AGC. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the robustness of , , and obtained at nominal conditions to the optimum from wide changes in the system loading condition by its nominal loading of 50%, wide changes in system parameby from their nominal values ters such as H, , and (given in the Appendix), and change in position and size of SLP. , , and at changed loading conThe optimum value of ditions, changed system parameters and changed positions and sizes of SLP are provided in Table I. Dynamic responses are depicted in Fig. 5 for each changed condition with their corre, , and and compared to sponding optimum values of , , and at the the responses corresponding to optimized nominal condition. Critical examination of all frequency and tie responses clearly reveals that responses are more or less same. Only six sample responses are provided in Fig. 5 to justify the , , and obsaid statement. Thus the optimum values of tained at the nominal parameters and nominal loading of 50% need not be reset for wide changes in the system loading or system parameters or size and location of SLP. VI. CONCLUSION An attempt has been made for the ﬁrst time to apply a powerful computational intelligence technique like BF to simultaneously optimize effectively several important parameters such as , , and for AGC of a three unequal area thermal system with reheat turbines and generation rate constraint. Results reveal that BF technique performs much better then GA and classical techniques. , , and provides not Simultaneous optimization of only the best dynamic response for the system but also reveals new knowledge that different areas can have different optimum values of R and several areas may have much higher values of R, with some area even having a value close to four times the value of 4% used in practice. Such high values of R revealed through simultaneous optimization are recommended for adoption in practice for easy and cheaper realization of governors. Further, for best dynamic response, it is to be appreciated that different areas may have different optimum frequency bias pa) and some area may even rameters B (observing always

NANDA et al.: MAIDEN APPLICATION OF BACTERIAL FORAGING-BASED OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

609

have value of B to the tune of three times of rather than usual for all areas. selection of , Sensitivity analysis reveals that the optimum values of , and at the nominal loading condition are quite robust and need not be reset for wide changes in system loading condition or in system parameters such as , , and H from their nominal values or to changes in the size and position of step load perturbation. APPENDIX Nominal system parameters of the multiarea thermal system investigated: , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . REFERENCES

[1] C. Concordia and L. K. Kirchmayer, “Tie-line power frequency control of electric power system,” AIEE Trans, III-A, vol. 72, pp. 562–572, Jun. 1953. [2] C. Concordia and L. K. Kirchmayer, “Tie-line power frequency control of electric power system: Part II,” AISE Trans, III-A, vol. 73, pp. 133–146, Apr. 1954. [3] O. I. Elgerd and C. E. Fosha, “Optimum megawatt-frequency control of multiarea electric energy systems,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-89, no. 4, pp. 556–563, Apr. 1970. [4] C. E. Fosha and O. I. Elgerd , “The megawatt-frequency control problem-A new approach via optimal control theory,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-89, no. 4, pp. 563–577, Apr. 1970. [5] J. Nanda and B. L. Kaul, “Automatic generation control of an interconnected power system,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 385–390, May 1978. [6] M. L. Kothari, P. S. Satsangi, and J. Nanda, “Sampled data automatic generation control of interconnected reheat thermal systems considering generation rate constraints,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100, no. 5, pp. 2334–2342, May 1981. [7] J. Nanda, M. L. Kothari, and P. S. Satsangi, “Automatic generation control of an interconnected hydrothermal system in continuous and discrete modes considering generation rate constraints,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 130, pt.D, no. 1, pp. 17–27, Jan. 1983. [8] O. I. Elgerd , Electric Energy Systems Theory an Introduction, 2nd ed. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill, 1983, pp. 299–33. [9] L. Hari, M. L. Kothari, and J. Nanda, “Optimum selection of speed regulation parameters for automatic generation control in discrete mode considering generation rate constraints,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. C, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 401–406, Sep. 1991. [10] F. Beaufays, Y. Abdel-Magid, and B. Widrow, “Application of neural network to load frequency control in power systems,” Neural Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 183–194, 1994. [11] M. Djukanovic, M. Novicevic, D. J. Sobajic, and Y. P. Pao, “Conceptual development of optimal load frequency control using artiﬁcial neural networks and fuzzy set theory,” Int. J. Eng. Intell. Syst. Elect. Eng. Commun., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95–108, 1995. [12] G. A. Chown and R. C. Hartman, “Design & experience of fuzzy logic controller for automatic generation control (AGC),” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 965–970, Aug. 1998. [13] M. A. Abido, “Optimal design of power-system stabilizers using particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 406–413, Sep. 2002.

[14] K. M. Passino, “Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed optimization and control,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 52–67, Jun. 2002. [15] Y. Liu and K. M. Passino, “Biominicry of social foraging for distributed optimization: Models, principles and emergent behaviors,” J. Optim. Theory Appl., vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 603–623, Dec. 2002. [16] S. P. Ghoshal and S. K. Goswami, “Application of GA based optimal integral gains in fuzzy based active power-frequency control of nonreheat and reheat thermal generating systems,” Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 67, pp. 79–88, 2003. [17] S. P. Ghoshal, “Application of GA/GA-SA based fuzzy automatic generation control of a multi-area thermal generating system,” Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 70, pp. 115–127, 2004. [18] S. Mishra, “A hybrid least square-fuzzy bacterial foraging strategy for harmonic estimation,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61–73, Feb. 2005. [19] J. Nanda, A. Mangla, and S. Suri, “Some new ﬁndings on automatic generation control of an interconnected hydrothermal system with conventional controllers,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 187–194, Mar. 2006. [20] S. Mishra and C. N. Bhende, “Bacterial foraging technique-based optimized active power ﬁlter for load compensation,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 457–465, Jan. 2007. Janardan Nanda (F’06) has been a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India, since 1973. He served as Head of the Electrical Engineering Department, Dean (UGS), and member, Board of Governors at Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, during 1984–90. His ﬁeld of interest comprises power system analysis, dynamics, control, optimization, and application of computational intelligence to power system problems. Prof. Nanda is a fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, and a fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences. He has served as chairman or member of many national expert committees and has many national awards and lifetime achievement awards to his credit.

S. Mishra (M’97–SM’04) received the B.E. degree from University College of Engineering, Burla, Orissa, India, and the M.E. and Ph.D. degrees from Regional Engineering College, Rourkela, Orissa, India, in 1990, 1992, and 2000, respectively. In 1992, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, University College of Engineering Burla as a Lecturer and subsequently became a Reader in 2001. Presently, he is an Associate Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India. His interests are in soft computing applications to power system control and power quality and renewable energy. Dr. Mishra has been honored with many prestigious awards, such as the INSA Young Scientist Medal in 2002, the INAE Young Engineer’s Award in 2002, and recognition as the DST Young Scientist in 2001 to 2002. He is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineering.

Lalit Chandra Saikia received the B.E. degree from Dibrugarh University, Assam, India, in 1993 and the M.Tech. degree in power systems in 2007 from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India. Since, 2000, he has been working as a Lecturer at the National Institute of Technology (formerly known as Regional Engineering College), Silchar, India. His interests include soft computing applications to power system control and power quality.

- The Hindu Diary of Events 2015-16
- Back Pain Remedies in Telugu
- The Hindu Diary of Events 2014-2015
- Power Systems Notes for GATE and Competitive Exams !
- Controls Systems Notes for GATE and Competitive Exams
- Network Theory Notes for GATE Exam
- Electrical Measurements for GATE & Competitive Exams !
- Questions on Dc Basics and Networks
- Banking Important Interview Questions
- Five Year Plans in India
- Digital Electronics Notes
- Electrical engineering Interview Questions and Answers
- eddhylosses
- General Awareness Model Paper 2010
- A Textbook of Electrical Technology by Rajput
- List of Famous Books and Authors
- Design of Power System Stabilizer

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful0.0 (0)

- elk-22-5-4-1208-79by alborzcgs
- A Level-set Method for Vibration and Multiple Loads Structural Optimizationby vincentseow
- Evolutionary Programming Based Economic Dispatch for Units With Non Smooth Fuel Cost Functions (1) (1)by Đặng Văn Tài
- [2010] A Hybrid Method for Voltage Stability Constrained Optimal Reactive Power Dispatchby Mitchelfl

- Eee
- Bacteria foraging
- Application of Bacterial Foraging Optimisation as a De-noising filter
- ijasa010203.pdf
- Darwin_Manuscript_2
- Elecrical Power Systems
- M.Tech (CIVIL) Structural Engineering.pdf
- Operation Research
- OptiStruct_04_Size Optimization of a Welded Bracket - OS-4010
- 10.1.1.89.7177(2)
- Finite Element Analysis Approach for Crankshaft Optimization - KOEL
- Design Optimization
- main
- Metcalfe Jacobs 2010
- M.tech Syllabus
- Reduction Process of Weight for Folding Stroller byGoal Driven Optimization
- Spectrum Management in Multiuser Cognitive Wireless Networks Optimality and Algorithm, IEEE-2011
- Assisted Radio ion - Telcofan Lieven Vanthomme
- 00682765
- IJARCCE 144
- Bundle for optimization
- Dss_10
- BE
- 4221946 Working Model Chapter3
- elk-22-5-4-1208-79
- A Level-set Method for Vibration and Multiple Loads Structural Optimization
- Evolutionary Programming Based Economic Dispatch for Units With Non Smooth Fuel Cost Functions (1) (1)
- [2010] A Hybrid Method for Voltage Stability Constrained Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch
- DS Linear Programmimg
- Structure of Linear Programming Problem
- Maiden Application of Bacterial Foraging Optimization Technique in Multiarea Automatic Generation Control

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.