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Wearable Antennas

Submitted to:
Submitted by:
Dept. of Applied Physics
Shubham Singh

Delhi Technological University

Recently, the so-called body-centric communication (focused around the human
body) has become a very big importance in the eld of wireless communications.
The report presents the design of the wearable antenna made in microstrip
technique working at a frequency of 1.8GHz. The report also presents the results
of discussed numerical analysis of antennas on CST Microwave Studio.

The term wearable antenna means literally dedicated antenna (or
suitable) to wear. In simple terms it can be concluded that the wearable
antenna serves as element of clothes, whose purpose is performing tasks
directly related to telecommunications such as tracking and navigation,
remote computing and communication tasks related to public safety.
Recently, the so-called body-centric communication (focused around the
human body) has become a very big importance in the eld of wireless
communications. Typically, the requirements for this type of antennas
used in modern solutions include small size and weight, low cost, virtually
maintenance-free and no need for installation. Communications-type
body-centric sphere of interest lies in areas such as medical emergency,
re-ghting and, above all military. However wearable antenna can also be
used by athletes for example to monitoring


The main values characterizing the antenna radiator is a rectangular
width W and length L of the patch. The width of radiating patch is fairly
small eect on the shape of the antenna radiation pattern, but aect the
input impedance and antenna operating band. Increasing the width of the
radiator resulting in an increase in radiated power, expands bandwidth
and increases eciency. Critical parameter is the length of the radiator,
because it determines the resonant frequency of the antenna. It is
assumed that the ratio of emitter width to its length should be 1 < W/L <
2. In the case of an antenna designed assumes that relationship. Through

the parameterization values were assigned values of W and L satisfying

the above condition on the basis of the following relationships (2 and 3):


Using a xed antenna design in the previous section and simulation
environment CST Microwave Studio was the nal model was based on the
physical antenna. As a result of the design process nally selected
dielectric with parameters:
h 2 = 1.524mm,

2 = 2.6-Rogers-RT/ULTRALAM

Figure 2 shows the detailed dimensions of the created model. For such a
set model, set the basic parameters and characteristics of the antenna.
The lowest value of the VSWR was obtained at a frequency of 1.79GHz
(Fig. 3). This gives a deviation from the assumed antenna resonance
frequency equal to 10MHz, or approximately 0.56% f r.

Input resistance of designed antenna for frequency 1.79GHz is 49.25

(Fig. 3(b)). Fig. 4

Shows the radiation pattern of designed antenna. The radiation propagates

along the Z axis, used the screen causes the radiation propagated in the
direction of the human body is suppressed by about 15dB.

In order to verify the results obtained in the simulation the measurements
of electrical parameters and radiation characteristics of selected antenna
were performed. In order to investigate the antenna were measured the
following parameters: VSWR, radiation patterns and input impedance. The
measurement of VSWR and input impedance (real and imaginary part) of
the discussed active antennas in frequency domain are presented below
(Fig. 7)

Figure 5: Radiation pattern of the designed antenna (a) In polar co-ordinates (b) spatial coordinates

The results obtained by measuring conrm the correctness of performed

simulations clearly show that the parameters associated with the antenna
impedance matching in fact do not change (Fig. 6) without the insight of
whether the antenna is in free space or close to the human body. This is a
very desirable feature because the antenna during human movement
changes its distance in relation to the human body. In Figs. 7 and 8 shows the
comparison of the characteristics of radiation in two planes of polarization
measured in free space and near the body. The results obtained allow to

conclude that the human body introduces additional damping in the reverse
direction antenna. In the direction of the main stands no signicant change,
which is an advantage this construction of antenna.

Microstrip antennas are now widely used in the construction of modern
aerials, primarily in the so-called Antenna systems. Such technologies are
used both in the construction of radar antennas, Wi-Fi and cellular sector
antennas in UMTS. Antenna design is a modern solution for a compact
antenna device form, which is especially important in a situation to use it
on moving objects. The results of measurements show that the designed
and constructed antenna has a small inuence on the human body and its
performance characteristics. The measurement results fully conrm the
possibility of using planar antenna constructed as wearable antenna.