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OFDM Signals Through Precoding

ARTICLE in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY APRIL 2007

Impact Factor: 2.64 DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2007.891409 Source: IEEE Xplore

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Slimane Ben Slimane

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OFDM Signals Through Precoding

Slimane Ben Slimane, Member, IEEE

AbstractOrthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM)

techniques allow the transmission of high data rates over broadband radio channels subject to multipath fading without the need

for powerful channel equalization. However, they are very sensitive to nonlinear effects due to the high peak-to-average power

ratio (PAPR) owned by their transmitted signals. This paper

proposes an efficient technique for reducing the PAPR of OFDM

signals. The proposed technique is data-independent and, thus,

does not require new processing and optimization for each transmitted OFDM block. The reduction in PAPR of the OFDM signal

is obtained through a proper selection of a precoding scheme that

distributes the power of each modulated symbol over the OFDM

block. The obtained results show that this precoding scheme is

an attractive solution to the PAPR problem of OFDM signals.

It is shown, through computer simulations, that the PAPR of

precoded OFDM signals approaches that of single-carrier signals.

The good improvement in PAPR given by the present technique

permits the reduction of the complexity and cost of the transmitter

significantly. The precoding schemes also take advantage of the

frequency variations of the communication channel and can provide considerable performance gain in fading-multipath channels.

Index TermsBandwidth efficiency, diversity gain, fading

multipath, low complexity, orthogonal-frequency-divisionmultiplexing (OFDM), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR),

power efficiency, precoding.

I. I NTRODUCTION

resulting in a demand for wireless systems that are

reliable and have a high spectral efficiency. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been considered as

a promising candidate to achieve high rate data transmission

in a mobile environment. Recently, OFDM systems have been

applied for fixed and mobile transmission. Some examples

of existing systems, where OFDM is used, are digital audio and video broadcasting, asymmetric-digital-subscriber-line

modems, and wireless local-area-networks systems, such as

the IEEE 802.11 and Hiperlan/2 [1][3]. Additionally, OFDM

is being considered for future broadband applications such

Manuscript received November 23, 2004; revised July 4, 2005, October 26,

2005, and February 21, 2006. The review of this paper was coordinated by

Prof. G. Saulnier.

The author is with the Radio Communication Systems Group, Department

of Communication Systems, the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44

Stockholm, Sweden (e-mail: slimane@radio.kth.se).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2007.891409

Due to the large number of subcarriers, OFDM systems have

a large dynamic signal range with a very high peak-to-average

power ratio (PAPR). As a result, the OFDM signal will be

clipped when passed through a nonlinear power amplifier at

the transmitter end. Clipping degrades the bit-error-rate (BER)

performance and causes spectral spreading [4], [5]. One way to

solve this problem is to force the amplifier to work in its linear

region. Unfortunately, such a solution is not power efficient.

Power efficiency is necessary in wireless communication as

it provides adequate area coverage, saves power consumption,

and allows small-size terminals. It is, therefore, important to

aim at a power efficient operation of the power amplifier with

low back-off values and try to prevent the occurrence of signal

clipping. This can be done through some manipulations of the

OFDM signal before transmission.

To achieve the above objective, several proposals have been

suggested and studied in the literature. For instance, we find

clipping with filtering, block coding, optimization with tone

reservation (TR), and selected mapping [6][14]. However,

most of these methods try to exploit the subcarrier symbols of

the OFDM block by creating some correlation between them.

As a result, the reduction in PAPR achieved by these techniques

is relative and is obtained at the expense of either an additional

complexity to the OFDM transceiver, a high coding overhead,

and/or the need of some kind of transmitter/receiver symbol

handshake. Signal companding is another method that has been

proposed and studied in the literature [15], [16]. Companding is

a nonlinear transformation applied on the OFDM signal giving

quite low PAPR values. However, such a nonlinearity operation

destroys the OFDM orthogonality property and degrades its

performance, especially in fading-multipath channels. Other

possible alternative solutions is then to try to exploit other

parameters of the OFDM signal. Exploiting the subcarrier

waveforms of the OFDM signal appears as an attractive solution

for reducing the PAPR of OFDM signals. This approach has the

potential of reducing the PAPR of the OFDM signal without

affecting the bandwidth efficiency of the system and, thus,

leaves the chance to use coding for channel protection. Such

an approach has been adopted in [17], where a set of subcarrier

waveforms was proposed. It has been shown that the PAPR of

OFDM signals can be reduced if the subcarrier waveforms have

different shapes. It has also been shown in [17] that subcarrier

waveform shaping in OFDM is a form of precoding scheme,

where each OFDM block is linearly transformed by a shaping

matrix before modulation and transmission. In the literature,

SLIMANE: REDUCING THE PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO OF OFDM SIGNALS THROUGH PRECODING

diversity gain of OFDM signals and of trying to take advantage

of the frequency selectivity of the multipath-fading channel

[18][22]. For instance, in [18], linear constellation precoding

(LCP), together with subcarrier grouping, has been designed

to maximize both diversity and coding gains. It has been

shown that subcarrier grouping can reduce the complexity of

the receiver without affecting the maximum possible diversity

and coding gains. However, Liu et al. [18] did not investigate

the implication of LCP on the signal variations of the OFDM

signal. Clearly, regardless of the LCP scheme used, the PAPR of

the OFDM will increase as the number of subgroup increases.

This has been shown in [19], where the numerical results

showed that the lowest PAPR ratio is obtained when only

one group is used. However, using LCP with only one group

will make the receiver too complex and limits the number of

subcarriers that can be used. In fact, the precoder proposed

in [19] was designed based on maximizing the diversity gain

and minimizing the PAPR of the OFDM signal simultaneously.

However, their design procedure is quite different from the

method proposed in this paper.

In this paper, we consider precoding as a way of reducing

the PAPR of OFDM transmitted signals. Precoding in OFDM

systems consists of multiplying the modulated data of each

OFDM block by a precoding matrix before OFDM modulation

[inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT)] and transmission.

A predefined precoding matrix is used in the OFDM system,

and thus, no handshake is needed between the transmitter and

the receiver. Having the same precoding matrix for all OFDM

blocks will also avoid all the processing needed in block-based

optimization methods. A design procedure for good precoding

schemes is proposed and analyzed in this paper. We will show

that it is possible to reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals through

precoding without destroying the detectability property of the

different symbols of the OFDM block. The obtained results

show that, with a good precoding matrix, the PAPR of OFDM

modulated signals can be made very close to that of singlecarrier signals. With a small overhead, the obtained PAPR

results are better than that obtained in [19].

This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the OFDM

system model is introduced. Definition of the PAPR of OFDM

signals and the design procedure of the precoding scheme are

described in Section III followed by some illustrative examples.

The performance of the precoded OFDM signal in fadingmultipath channels is treated in Section IV. Some discussions

and conclusions are given in Section V.

II. S YSTEM M ODEL

An OFDM system with multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK)

modulation and a total of N baseband-modulated symbols per

OFDM block is considered in this paper. As shown in Fig. 1,

the transmitter consists of a baseband (complex) modulator

followed by a precoder and the conventional OFDM modulator

(IDFT). The incoming information data is first modulated in

baseband using a bandwidth-efficient modulation (MPSK-type

modulation). The baseband-modulated stream, with data rate

1/Ts , is grouped into blocks of length N symbols each. Each

687

matrix, denoted P , and defined as

p

0.0

p1.0

P =

..

.

pL1,0

p0,1

p1,1

..

.

..

.

p0,N 1

p1,N 1

..

.

pL1,1

pL1,N 1

(1)

matrix, L = N + Np is the total number of subcarriers, and

Np is the extra subcarriers (overhead) used with 0 Np < N .

When no precoding is used, the matrix P reduces to an N N

identity matrix, and no overhead is used.

Consider, without loss of generality, the zeroth OFDM block,

and let us define the set of N baseband-modulated data symbols

of such a block by the following column matrix (vector):

X = [X0 , X1 , . . . , XN 1 ]T

(2)

Xi =

Es j (0 +d 2

M ),

e

T

d {0, 1, . . . , M 1}

(3)

The precoding process (matrix) transforms this vector into a

new vector of length L with

Y = P X = [Y0 , Y1 , . . . , YL1 ]T

(4)

where

Yi =

N

1

i = 0, 1, . . . , L 1.

pi,m Xm ,

(5)

m=0

subcarriers of the OFDM-modulation scheme. In this case, the

equivalent lowpass of the OFDM transmitted signal can be

written as follows:

x(t) =

L1

i=0

Yi ej2i T ,

Tg t < T

(6)

688

Tg = GTs is a time guard interval introduced between consecutive OFDM blocks at the transmitter to prevent the possible

problem of intersymbol interference, which can be caused by

the communication channel, and to preserve the orthogonality

between the OFDM subcarriers. This guard interval is, in

general, ignored at the receiver before demodulation and signal

detection.

The OFDM-bandpass signal is related to its equivalent lowpass by the following expression:

s(t) = x(t)ej2fc t

(7)

In the linear case (when no power amplifier is used) and

for large values of number of subcarriers, the spectrum of

conventional OFDM signals goes to an ideal band-limited

rectangular spectrum. This means that the OFDM signal within

each block appears as Gaussian with very high variations from

one sample to the next. Thus, the power spectral density of the

modulated signal will be broadened by the nonlinear distortions

of a high-power amplifier. The PAPR is one way to measure

such variation of the transmitted signal.

III. PAPR OF P RECODED OFDM

The PAPR of the precoded OFDM transmitted signal of (6)

can be defined as follows:

PAPR =

max |x(t)|2

.

E |x(t)|2

(8)

of precoder used at the transmitter. Our objective in this paper

is to select a precoder that minimizes the above expression.

Combining (6) and (5), the equivalent lowpass of the OFDM

transmitted signal can be rewritten as follows:

x(t) =

L1

Yi ej2i T

i=0

N

1

m=0

Xm

L1

j2i Tt

pi,m e

0 t < T (9)

i=0

just an extension by periodicity.

Using the above equation in (8), we can relate the PAPR

of the OFDM signal to the different entries of the precoding

matrix. For OFDM systems with MPSK modulation schemes

and uncorrelated symbols within each OFDM block, the PAPR

of the OFDM signal at a given time instant t can be upper

bounded as follows:

1

PAPR(t)

N

2

N 1 L1

j2i Tt

pi,m e

m=0 i=0

(10)

PAPRmax = max PAPR(t)

0t<T

1

max

=

N 0t<T

2

N 1 L1

j2i Tt

pi,m e

(11)

m=0 i=0

which represents the average-energy-per-transmitted symbol.

We notice that the PAPR of the OFDM signal is a function of

the size of the OFDM block and the entries of the precoding matrix. Since the size of the OFDM block is fixed, one can reduce

the PAPR of the signal by a proper selection of the precoding

matrix P . However, selecting the proper matrix is not an easy

task because its entries are complex numbers and they can take

any value, which makes computer-search methods very difficult

to use. Thus, before doing any precoding design, we should take

a closer look at the PAPR expression given in (10).

From (10), we define a set of time limited (complex) function

{pm (t)} as follows:

L1

j2i Tt

, 0t<T

pm (t) = i=0 pi,m e

(12)

0,

otherwise

for m = 0, 1, . . . , N 1.

With the above definition, the PAPR of the precoded OFDM

signal can be rewritten in terms of pm (t) as

1

PAPR(t)

N

N 1

2

|pm (t)|

(13)

m=0

N positive functions within the time interval 0 t < T . This

gives some hint on how to select the entries of the precoding

matrix P . A possible solution is to make sure that the peak

amplitudes of the N functions |pm (t)|, m = 0, 1, . . . , N 1

do not occur at the same time instant within the interval of

definition. By ensuring that the peak power of the OFDM signal

can be reduced without altering the average signal power.

A possible set of functions that avoids having the peak

amplitudes to occur at the same time instant can be obtained

by selecting the different entries such that the different functions are cyclic shifts of each other within the time interval

0 t < T . In other words, we can impose the following relation between the different functions:

p0 (t mTs + T ), 0 t < mTs

(14)

pm (t) =

p0 (t mTs ),

mTs t < T

and solve for the entries of the precoding matrix P .

By letting p(t) = p0 (t), we can relate all the different functions to this mother function p(t) with

L1

t

j2 im

N ej2i T ,

0t<T

pm (t) = i=0 pi,0 e

(15)

0,

otherwise

where pi,m are the entries of the precoding matrix P in (1).

SLIMANE: REDUCING THE PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO OF OFDM SIGNALS THROUGH PRECODING

It is clear that if p0 (t) has only one amplitude peak, then all

the other functions will also have one amplitude peak and all the

amplitude peaks will not occur at the same time instant. Hence,

this format will certainly reduce the peak-to-average ratio of the

precoded OFDM scheme.

We also notice from the above expression that the entries

of the precoding matrix are related to each other. Furthermore,

all the entries of the different columns of the precoding matrix

are directly obtained from the entries of the first column. This

indicates that we only need to find the first column of the matrix

P , which will of course simplify the design of the precoder

considerably. In fact, from (15), we notice that having a mother

function p(t), we can extract all the entries of the precoding

matrix from p(t) as

pi,m = pi,0 ej2 N

im

j2 im

N

=e

1

T

T

p(t)e2i T dt

t

(16)

time interval 0 t < T .

Theorem 1: With a precoding matrix designed according

to (16), the maximum PAPR of uncoded OFDM transmitted

signals is upper bounded as

PAPRmax N

PAPRmax

1

max

=

N 0tT

N 1

2

|pm (t)|

(18)

m=0

precoded OFDM signal becomes

1

max

=

N 0tT

PAPRmax

N 1

precoding matrix are obtained from its first column.

A very important property of OFDM modulation is the

separability of the N transmitted symbols of each OFDM block

at the receiver for detection. For regular OFDM, each symbol

is transmitted over a different subcarrier, and hence, symbol

separability at the receiver is ensured by the orthogonality property between the different subcarriers. In precoded OFDM, each

symbol is spread by the precoding matrix over more than one

subcarrier, as shown in (5). Hence, the orthogonality property

between the different subcarriers alone is not enough to separate

the different symbols of the block in precoded OFDM. As a result of precoding, crosstalk between the different symbols of the

block will exist at the receiver, and symbol-by-symbol detection

is no longer optimum. However, with a proper selection of the

precoding matrix, we can eliminate this possible crosstalk and

allow simple symbol-by-symbol detection for precoded OFDM

signals. This can be done by selecting the precoding matrix as

an orthogonal matrix, i.e., a precoding matrix that satisfies the

following relation:

P P = I

L1

pi,m pi,k =

i=0

1,

0,

m=k

m = k.

L1 2

i j2(mk) i

1

T,

N =

P

e

0,

T i=0

T

T

|p ( (t, m))|

(19)

p(t)ej2f t dt

(24)

For large number of subcarriers (N 1), the above condition can be approximated by an integral as

(1+)/T

s

where

(t, m) =

(23)

m=0

t mTs ,

mTs t < T .

m=k

m = k

where

P (f ) =

(22)

some manipulations, the symbol-separability condition of the

precoded OFDM signal becomes

2

2

T

1 1

|p(t)| dt

N Ts

(21)

Hermitian transpose of the matrix P .

Using (1), the above condition can be written as follows:

(17)

matrix (no precoding).

Proof: From (13), the maximum PAPR of the precoded

OFDM transmitted signal is upper bounded as

689

|P (f )|2 ej2(mk)Ts f df =

(20)

the upper bound of (17) is obtained.

Note that with this precoding scheme, the PAPR of the

precoded OFDM signal is always reduced in comparison with

that of conventional OFDM. This improvement in PAPR is

valid for any number of subcarriers N . The design of such a

T,

0,

m=k

m = k

(25)

time instant t = (m k)Ts . Denoting this function by q(t)

1+

Ts

|P (f )|2 ej2f t df

q(t) =

0

(26)

690

preserved when q(t) satisfies the following criterion:

T, m = 0

q(mTs ) =

(27)

0, m = 0

which is simply the Nyquist criterion [23, p. 276].

The above conclusion indicates that in order to preserve

the symbol-separability property of the OFDM scheme, the

function p(t) should have a bandwidth of at least 1/Ts . A

bandwidth comparable to the bandwidth of the OFDM signal.

To summarize, a precoding matrix designed according to the

following two criteria.

1)

pi,m = pi,0 ej2 N

im

j2 im

N

=e

1

T

T

p(t)e2i T dt

t

with

(1+)/T

s

Psrc (f )ej2f t dt

psrc (t) =

0

and

=

LN

Np

=

N

N

|P (f )|2 ej2(mk)Ts f df =

T,

0,

For large number of subcarriers N , the entries of the precoding matrix can be written as

j2 im

N

pi,m = pi,0 e

m=k

m = k

j2 im

N

=e

j2 im

N

can reduce the PAPR of the OFDM signal without altering the

symbol-separability property of the OFDM scheme.

Note that by selecting a precoding matrix satisfying (27),

we basically obtain an OFDM signal similar to a single-carrier

signal due the wide bandwidth of the set of functions {pm (t)}

and the cyclic shifting in time. However, this precoding scheme

does not remove any of the properties of OFDM, where as

discussed in the following sections, simple (single tap) equalization is still possible. It should also be mentioned that this

scheme is also different from single-carrier signals with cycle

prefix and frequency equalization [24]. In the latter, a cyclic

prefix is added at the transmitter and both fast Fourier transform

and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) operators are done

at the receiver. The proposed precoded scheme in this paper is

an OFDM scheme and does not alter any of the structure and

properties of OFDM systems.

In the following example, we illustrate a possible precoding

scheme designed based on the technique just described above

and evaluate the PAPR of the corresponding precoded OFDM

signal.

A. Example

A well-known function that satisfies the Nyquist criterion is

the raised cosine function [23, p. 547]. Consider the square root

of a raised cosine function, which is denoted psrc (t), and having

a Fourier transform [23, p. 547]

Ts sin f2Ts ,

0 < f Ts

1

(28)

Psrc (f ) = Ts ,

Ts f Ts

T sin (f Ts 1) + , 1 < f 1+

s

Ts

Ts

(30)

precoder.

With the above definition, the entries of the precoding matrix

P can be computed according to (16) with the mother time

function p(t) defined as follows:

psrc (t T /2), 0 t < T

p(t) =

0,

otherwise.

2)

(1+)/T

s

(29)

= (1)i e

1

Psrc

T

T

1

T

i

N Ts

p(t)e2i T dt

t

(31)

(28) in the above equation and rearranging terms, the entries of

the precoding matrix become

pi,m = pi,0 ej2 N

im

with

pi,0

(1)i

i

sin

2Np ,

N

(1)i

=

,

N

(1)

cos (iN ) ,

2Np

N

(32)

0 i < Np

Np < i N

N iL1

was replaced by Np /N . It is observed that once we know the

number of symbols per OFDM block N and L, we can easily

compute the entries of the precoding matrix P . The parameter

L is a design parameter and will depend on the extra subcarriers

used, since L = N + Np . It is easy to verify that this precoding

matrix satisfies the orthogonality condition given in (21). We

refer to this precoder as Precoder 1.

Another precoding scheme, referred to as Precoder 2, can be

obtained by using the raised cosine function as the base function

which has a Fourier transform [23, p. 547]

Ts sin2 fTs ,

0 < f Ts

1

(33)

Prc (f ) = Ts ,

Ts f Ts

T sin2 (f Ts 1) + , 1 < f 1+

s

instead of (28).

Ts

Ts

SLIMANE: REDUCING THE PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO OF OFDM SIGNALS THROUGH PRECODING

Fig. 2. Maximum PAPR ratio of the precoded OFDM signal for different

number of subcarriers. With no precoding, we have PAPRmax = 18 dB for

N = 64 and PAPRmax = 21 dB for N = 128.

the precoded OFDM signal and compare it to that of the

conventional scheme. Fig. 2 shows the maximum PAPR of the

precoded OFDM signal for different number of subcarriers and

for two different precoders where an over sampling of eight

was used. The entries of the precoding matrix of Precoder 1

are based on (28) and that of Precoder 2 are based on (33). The

entries of the two precoding schemes are related as

|pi,m | (of Precoder 2) = |pi,m |2 (of Precoder 1)

(34)

The results of Fig. 2 clearly show the potential of this

precoding scheme. It is observed that with a proper selection of

the precoding parameters, the maximum PAPR of the OFDM

signal can be reduced considerably. We can conclude that the

PAPR of this precoded OFDM signal is not far from the PAPR

of the single-carrier-modulated signals. In fact, a single carrier

with a rolloff factor of 35% has a maximum PAPR of about

4 dB [25], which is quite close to the maximum PAPR of

the precoded scheme when = 35% and Precoder 1 is used

(about 4.1 dB from Fig. 2). We also notice that the PAPR

of the precoded OFDM signal is now almost independent of

the number of subcarriers. This result is very pleasing, given

the fact that the PAPR of conventional OFDM (no precoding)

grows as 2 ln(N ) and can become very large as N increases

[26]. For instance, for the two cases considered in Fig. 2, the

max PAPR of regular OFDM is 18 dB for the case of N = 64

and 21 dB for the case of N = 128. This is at least 7- and 9-dB

worse than the precoded OFDM scheme, respectively. It can

also be seen that the worst PAPR is obtained with the DFT

matrix ( = 0), and then, it decreases very fast when adding

some overhead.

When the number of subcarriers N is large, the maximum of

the PAPR will occur only very seldom, and thus, the measure

of such a parameter may not give the whole picture about the

dynamic variations of the OFDM signal. As shown in (8), the

PAPR is a random variable and takes the values between zero

691

with and without precoding. Precoder 1 is used, and N = 64.

and PAPRmax . A better measure of the PAPR of communication signals is then to consider the complementary cumulative

distribution function defined as

PPAPR = Pr(PAPR PAPR0 )

where PAPR0 is the PAPR threshold.

Fig. 3 illustrates the complementary cumulative distribution

function of the PAPR of the precoded OFDM signal for the

case of N = 64 subcarriers and Precoder 1. It is observed that

the proposed precoding scheme provides considerable gain in

PAPR for the OFDM signal when compared to that of conventional OFDM. Fig. 4 shows the complementary cumulative

distribution of the PAPR of the precoded OFDM signal for the

case of Precoder 2. We also notice here similar results where the

precoded OFDM scheme outperforms conventional OFDM in

terms of PAPR. It is also observed that Precoder 2 is a bit worse

than Precoder 1, which is consistent with the results of Fig. 2.

In both figures, the results were obtained with an oversampling

equal to four. Compared to the case of the DFT matrix [19], we

notice that with little overhead, the PAPR of the OFDM signal

can be reduced with a reduction that depends on the amount

of overhead. For instance, the PAPR can be reduced by about

1.5 dB with an overhead of 10% and by about 3 dB with an

overhead of 20% at a complementary CDF value of 103 .

To assess the effects of the number of subcarriers on the

signal variations of the precoded OFDM signal, we have looked

at the complementary cumulative distribution function of the

precoded OFDM signal for different number of subcarriers.

This is illustrated in Fig. 5 as a function of the PAPR threshold.

Similar to the results of the maximum PAPR, we notice that

the complementary distribution function of the PAPR of the

precoded scheme is not very sensitive to the number of subcarriers and especially at high values of the PAPR threshold. Fig. 6

compares the performance of this precoded scheme to that of

the TR method [7] for the case of N = 256 subcarriers and

an overhead of = 5%. It is observed that precoding provides

lower PAPR values for OFDM signals as compared to the TR

692

with and without precoding. Precoder 2 is used, and N = 64.

precoded OFDM signal for N = 256 and overhead = 5%. Results from [7]

are also shown for comparison purposes.

this case in this section and see what kind of reliable lowcomplexity detector(s) can be used.

A. Channel Model

The fading channel considered in this paper is a fadingmultipath channel with coherence bandwidth smaller than the

total bandwidth of the OFDM system and, thus, seen as

frequency-selective fading. The fading process is assumed to be

stationary and slowly varying compared with the block duration

of the OFDM signal, such that it is approximately constant

during at least one block length.

The complex baseband representation of the fadingmultipath channel impulse response can be described by [23]

h( ) =

F ADING -M ULTIPATH C HANNELS

As already shown in the previous section, it is possible to

design precoding schemes that reduce the PAPR of OFDM

signals without altering the properties of symbol separability

of the OFDM block at the receiver. Thus, when the communication channel is ideal (additive interference only), the

performance of the precoded OFDM system will be identical to

that of conventional OFDM. However, any frequency variation

of the communication channel will destroy this orthogonality

property and can degrade the system performance. We will treat

hl ( l )

(35)

l=0

precoded OFDM signal for different number of subcarriers.

method, 1-dB better than optimum TR, and 1.5-dB better than

TR with 40 iterations at a complementary CDF of 103 .

Notice that the precoding scheme discussed above is just an

example and that several other schemes may exist!

P

1

where hl is a complex random-variable tap weight with variance pl , l is the time delay of the lth path, and P is the

total number of received paths. The tap weights are assumed

independent for different paths.

B. Receiver Structure

Passed through the channel, the equivalent lowpass of the

received precoded OFDM signal during the zeroth block interval is given by

r(t) =

P

1

hl x(t l ) + z(t),

Tg t < T

(36)

l=0

where z(t) is complex Gaussian random process with zeromean and power spectral density N0 , and Tg is the time guard

interval.

SLIMANE: REDUCING THE PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO OF OFDM SIGNALS THROUGH PRECODING

693

spread of the fading-multipath channel, the output sample of

subcarrier i, after demodulation, is obtained as

1

Di =

T

T

r(t)ej2 T t dt

i

= T Hi Yi + Zi ,

i = 0, 1, . . . , L 1

(37)

variable with zero-mean and variance N0 , and Hi is the channel

frequency response at subcarrier i with

Hi =

P

1

hl ej2ii /T

Fig. 7. Discrete representation of the precoded OFDM scheme and its receiver

structure.

(38)

l=0

2 2 =

P

1

pl .

l=0

information (CSI) needs to be known at the receiver. For

wireless systems employing coherent OFDM modulation techniques such as HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a systems, one

or two complete OFDM symbols are provided in the preamble

in order to support channel estimation. For the proposed precoded OFDM scheme, the pilot symbols are precoded the same

way as the information data symbols. As shown in (37), a priori

knowledge of the transmitted precoded pilot signal facilitates

the generation of the CSI vector at the receiver. Denoting by

[C0 , C1 , . . . , CN 2 , CN 1 ] the pilot OFDM symbol, the CSI at

subcarrier i can be obtained from (37) as

i = Di = Hi + Zi ,

H

T Yi

T Yi

i = 0, 1, . . . , L 1 (39)

where

Yi =

N

1

pi,m Cm ,

i = 0, 1, . . . , L 1

m=0

the pilot OFDM symbol and the precoding matrix.

Considering all the received subcarrier samples during the

zeroth OFDM block, the expression in (37) can be rewritten in

a matrix form as follows:

D = T HP X + Z

(40)

where X is as given in (2), Y is as given in (4)

Z = [Z0 , Z1 , . . . , ZL1 ]T

(41)

separate the modulated symbols Xm s using the received vector

given in (40) and make a decision on the transmitted symbols.

It is observed that when the channel is frequency selective, a

direct multiplication of the vector D by the precoding matrix

P does not give a perfect separation, and crosstalk between

the different modulated symbols will remain. Several detection

techniques that deal with this type of signal separation have

appeared in the literature. The optimum detector is of course

the maximum-likelihood sequence-estimation detector where

all the N symbols are detected jointly. However, such a detector

has a complexity that increases exponentially with N and is not

practical even for moderate number of subcarriers. Fortunately,

much simpler detection schemes do exist and can provide very

good performance in fading-multipath channels [27][34].

In this paper, we consider the minimum-mean-square-error

(MMSE) detector, which is basically a one-tap equalizer per

subcarrier. In this detector, each element of the received vector

is first weighted using the following weighting parameter:

Gi =

H

i

i |2 + 2 / 2

|H

z

s

i = 0, 1, . . . , L 1

the variance of the data-transmitted symbol. The parameter Gi

is used to compensate for the channel phase and to minimize

interference between the modulated symbols of the OFDM

block. The obtained vector is then multiplied by the precoding

matrix P . The block diagram of the OFDM system using this

receiver structure is illustrated in Fig. 7. In matrix form, the

received vector after weighting and multiplication by the matrix

P is written as follows:

V = P GD

= T P GHP X + Z

H = diag{H0 , H1 , . . . , HL1 }.

(42)

(44)

G = diag{G0 , G1 , . . . , GL1 }

is the noise vector, and H is an L L diagonal matrix representing the channel coefficients of the different subcarriers with

(43)

(45)

transmitted symbols of the OFDM block are then carried out

using the vector V .

694

TABLE I

CHANNEL MODELS FOR HIPERLAN/2 IN DIFFERENT INDOOR SCENARIOS

depends on the coherence bandwidth of the channel, and better

performance is obtained when the coherence bandwidth of the

channel is small (ex. channel B in Fig. 8). In our simulation, we

have considered only channels A and B as these two channels

have a maximum delay spread less than the guard interval and

do not introduce any ISI between consecutive blocks. We have

also checked the system performance with other values for

and the DFT matrix; the obtained results are similar to that

given in Fig. 8.

V. C ONCLUSION

Fig. 8.

In this section, the performance of the precoded OFDM

scheme is evaluated through computer simulations for different

multipath radio channels. The system parameters were adjusted

according to the HIPERLAN/2 standard [1] with an OFDM

modulation using coherent QPSK and having a total of N = 64

subcarriers. The entries of the precoding matrix are obtained

from (28) with an overhead of = Np /N = 10%. This gives a

total of L = 70 subcarriers for the OFDM system. The guard

interval used in the simulation is Tg = 0.25 T. The MMSE

detector discussed in the previous section is employed at the

receiver, where we have assumed that perfect CSI is available.

The multipath radio channel considered in this paper is as

specified in [35]. It contains different channel models, representing different environments, and with tapped delay lines

with a total of 18 taps. Each tap suffers independent Rayleigh

or Rician fading with a mean corresponding to an exponentially

average power-delay profile. The main parameters (normalized

to the block duration T ) of the channel models are given in

Table I.

Fig. 8 shows the average bit-error probability of the precoded OFDM scheme as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio

for channels A and B with the assumption of perfect CSI.

Also included in the figure is the average bit-error probability

of conventional OFDM (no precoding). It is observed that

precoding takes advantage of the frequency selectivity of the

communication channel and improves the system performance

considerably, which is consistent with previously reported

for OFDM transmission. The proposed method is based on

signal precoding, where each data block is multiplied by a

precoding matrix prior to OFDM modulation and transmission. This method is data-independent and, thus, avoids blockbased optimization. It also works with an arbitrary number of

subcarriers and any type of baseband modulation used. The

PAPR distribution function of the OFDM transmitted signal

was investigated for two suggested precoding schemes. The

obtained results showed that precoding can reduce the PAPR

of OFDM signals considerably. In terms of BER performance,

it has also been shown that the proposed precoding scheme

is similar to the previously proposed precoding schemes for

OFDM as it takes advantage of the frequency variation of the

fading-multipath channel and improves the BER of OFDM signals. Compared to conventional OFDM (no precoding), relative

power gains of up to 15 dB for a bit-error probability of 104

can be obtained, depending on the frequency selectivity of the

channel.

The implementation complexity of the proposed technique

is acceptable, since it does not require any optimization from

one OFDM block to the next. The technique is also very

flexible, and it can be used for OFDM and discrete multitone

transmissions.

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[16] G. Ren, H. Zhang, and Y. Chang, A complementary clipping transform

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[17] S. B. Slimane, Peak-to-average power ratio reduction of OFDM signals

using pulse shaping, in Proc. VTC, 1998, pp. 20672071.

[18] Z. Liu, Y. Xin, and G. B. Giannakis, Linear constellation precoding

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695

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systems, in Proc. ICUPC, 1993, pp. 975979.

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Sweden, May 1994, pp. 16651669.

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[32] D. N. Kalofonos, M. Stojanovic, and J. G. Proakis, On the performance

of adaptive MMSE detectors for a MC-CDMA system in fast fading

Rayleigh channels, in Proc. PIMRC, Sep. 811, 1998, pp. 13091313.

[33] T. Mueller, K. Brueninghaus, and H. Rohling, Performance of coherent OFDM-CDMA for Broadband mobile communications, Wirel. Pers.

Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 295305, 1996.

[34] S. B. Slimane, Partial equalization of multi-carrier CDMA in frequency selective fading channels, in Proc. IEEE ICC, New Orleans, LA,

Jun. 1820, 2000, pp. 2630.

[35] J. Medbo, H. Andersson, P. Schramm, H. Asplund, and J.-E. Berg,

Channel models for HIPERLAN/2 in different indoor scenarios,

EURO-COST, Bradford, U.K., COST 259 TD(98)70, Apr. 1998.

B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the

University of Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, QC, Canada,

in 1985, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from

Concordia University, Montreal, QC, in 1988 and

1993, respectively.

During the period of 19931995, he worked as

a Research Associate and Part-time Instructor at

Concordia University. He is currently an Associate

Professor with the Radio Communication Systems

Group, Department of Communication Systems,

the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. His research

interest is in the area of wireless communications with special emphasis on

digital-communication techniques for fading channels, error-control coding,

relay communications, spread-spectrum communications, and multicarriertransmission techniques.

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