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IntroductiontoPowerWorldSimulator:

InterfaceandCommonTools
I13:FaultAnalysis

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FaultAnalysis
Analysisofpowersystemparametersresulting
fromagroundorlinetolinefaultsomewhere
inthesystem
Simulatorcontainsatoolforanalyzingfaultsin
anautomaticfashion
Canperformsingleandthreephasefaults
Faultsmaybeanalyzedoneatatimeorina
batchmode,similartoSimulatorsContingency
Analysis
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FaultAnalysisDialog
ProcessFaultsinBatchMode

ProcessaSingleFault
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FaultAnalysis
Faulttypesinclude:
Singlelinetoground
Linetoline
Doublelinetoground
Threephasebalanced

Thegeneralfaultanalysistoolcanbeaccessed
inrunmodeby:Tools ribbontabFault
Analysis
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Example
OpenB7FaultExample.pwb
Nosequencedataexists,soallfaultanalysisdata
fieldsaresettodefaults

RuntheFaultAnalysistoolfromrunmodeby:
Tools ribbontabFaultAnalysis
ClicktheLoadData button
Confirmreplacingsequencedata
LoadB7FaultExample.aux
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SequenceDataforFaultAnalysis
Formats
PowerWorldAuxiliaryfile(*.aux)
PTISequenceDatafile(*.seq)

Sequencedatacansimilarlybesavedtothe
sametypesofexternalfiles;however,
Simulatorwillstoresequencedatawiththe
loadflowcase(*.pwb)ifyousavethecase
afterloadingthesequencedata
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FaultDialog:SequenceData
Specificdataforeachobjecttypeonthesetabs

Mutualimpedancerecord
(loadedfromaux)

Loadandsavesequencedataas
atextfile(*.auxorPTI*.seq)
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SequenceDataforFaultAnalysis
Simulatordefaultszerosequenceparameters
to2.5timesthepositivesequenceimpedances
PTIassumesthatareopeninthezero
sequencemodelifnozerosequencedatais
specifiedinthe*.seqdatafile
Whenreadingin*.seqfiles,Simulatorgivesthe
abilitytoassumethisbehavior

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SequenceDataforFaultAnalysis
Sequencedataisrequiredforvariousdevices:
Generators
Internalsequenceimpedances
Neutraltogroundimpedance

TransmissionLines
Zerosequenceimpedance
Zerosequencelineshuntadmittance

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SequenceDataforFaultAnalysis
Transformers
Zerosequenceimpedanceandlineshuntadmittance
Phaseshifts,enteredasPhaseintheloadflowdata
Transformergroundingconfiguration,asacombination
ofWye,GroundedWye,andDeltaconnections

Loads
Negativeandzerosequenceload,asanadmittance
Setonabusbasis,withadmittancegivenistotal
admittanceforallloadsatthatbus

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SequenceDataforFaultAnalysis
Transmissionlinemutualimpedance(zero
sequencemutualimpedancebetweenpartor
alloftwotransmissionlines)
Faultdataforalldevices(exceptmutual
impedances)canbeenteredonthe
InformationDialogs

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SingleFault
SwitchtotheSingleFault page,andchoose
FaultedBusnumber3
Leaveasbusfault,singlelinetoground,zero
faultimpedance
ClickCalculate
Thecasewillbesolvedfirsttomakesurethe
analysiswillbevalid
Thefaultanalysiscalculationisalinearized
calculationabouttheoperatingpoint
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FaultDialog:SingleFault
Locationandtypeoffault

SummaryResults:FaultCurrent

Choosefaulted
device:list
dependson
location(busor
inlinefault)
DetailedResults:Displayedinthegridsonthesetabs
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FaultType
Determineswhichcalculationstoperform
Singlelinetoground:assumesphaseAtoground
Linetoline:assumesphaseBtophaseC
Doublelinetoground:assumesphaseBtophaseC
toground
Threephasebalanced

Anonzeroimpedancetogroundmayalsobe
specified;defaultis0(exceptforlinetoline)
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SingleFault:Results
ResultsaredisplayedonsixtabsheetsontheSingle
Fault page
Perphasebusvoltagemagnitude(p.u.),angle(deg.),and
TheveninImpedance(atthefaultbus,addcolumnsto
display)
Perphasebranchfromandtobuscurrentmagnitude,with
currentdirectionatBOTHendsdefinedAWAYfromthe
terminalbus
Perphasegeneratorcurrentmagnitudeandangle(deg.),
withcurrentdirectiondefinedOUTofthegenerator
Perphaseloadandswitchedshuntmagnitude,withcurrent
directiondefinedAWAYfromtheterminalbus
Ybusmatrices
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VisualizationofResults
Faultvoltagesandcurrentscanbevisualizedon
aonelinediagram
OntheOptions page,selectasinglephaseorAll
PhasesfromtheOnelineDisplay optiongroup
WhenasinglephaseorAllPhasesisselected,
Simulatorsearchesforandreplacesthefollowing
typesoftextfieldsontheonelinediagram:

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VisualizationofResults
Busvoltagefieldsreplacedwithphasevoltage
magnitude(s)inp.u.
Busanglefieldsreplacedwithphasevoltageangle(s)in
degrees
BranchMWorAmpfieldsreplacedwithphasecurrent
magnitude(s)inAmpsorp.u.,asspecified
BranchMVARfieldsreplacedwithphasecurrentangle(s)
indegrees
GeneratorMWfieldsreplacedwithphasecurrent
magnitude(s)inAmpsorp.u.,asspecified
GeneratorMVARfieldsreplacedwithphasecurrent
angle(s)indegrees
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FaultDialog:Options
CanchoosePreFaultProfile(defaultisSolved
PowerFlow);recalculatefaultifchangesaremade

EnabledOptions
dependonselected
PreFaultProfile

SetOnelineDisplaytoPhaseA

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VisualizationofResults
Onlyfields
switchedtofault
analysisresults
willremainon
oneline
Currentsshownare
magnitudeonly;
wouldneedto
includeanglesto
determinedirection
Optionon
SingleFault
pagetoset
UnitstoAmps
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VisualizationofResults
Thephaseofthefaultdatadisplayedonthe
diagramcanbequicklytoggledtoadifferent
phasebyclickingonthedropdownarrowon
theFaultAnalysistoolbarbuttonandchoosing
anewvisualizationsetting

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SettingtheFaultLocation:
BusorInLine
FaultLocationmaybesetontheFaultAnalysisDialog
SingleFault page
Alternately,youcanrightclickonabusortransmission
lineontheonelinediagram,andselectFaultfromthe
menutohavethefaultlocationfieldsautomaticallyset
SelectingFaultforabuswillsetthebusnumberfield
SelectingFaultforatransmissionlinewillsetthefromand
tobusnumbers,thecircuit
identifier,andtheapproximateline
locationasapercentageofthelength
oftheline
Anyofthesefieldscanstillbechanged
manually
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InLineFault
Calculatedbasedonalocationgivenasa
percentagedistancefromtheFromendoftheline
Insertsatemporarybusandlinesegments
representingthefaultpointoftheline;reflected
ontheonelinediagram
Calculationsperformedthesameasabusfaultat
thetemporarybus
Example:setFaultLocationasinline,onthe
branchbetweenbuses3and4,at50%downthe
line
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InLineFault
Location

TemporaryBusforfaultlocation
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FaultCurrentattemporarybus
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ProcessingMultipleFaults:
FaultDefinitions
SelecttheFaultDefinitionspagetoanalyze
multiplefaultsinbatchmode,similarto
ContingencyAnalysis
ClicktheAutoinsertbutton
ChooseSinglebus andkeeptheotherdefaults
ClickDoInsertFaultrecords

Canalsoinsertfaultsmanually

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AutoInsert
AutoInsertoptionssimilartothosein
ContingencyAnalysis

Saveautoinsertoptionstoauxfile
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FaultDefinitions
ClickRunFaults

Specifylocation(In
linefaultsonly)

Select2differentFaultTypes;
defaultsare3phasebalanced
andsinglelinetoground
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Faultimpedance

Onlyspecificresults
available:faultcurrentsand
Theveninimpedances
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FaultAnalysis:FinalNotes
Thefaultanalysisformcanbeclosedwhilea
faultiscalculatedwithoutclearingthefault;
thevalueswillremaininmemoryuntil
manuallyclearedorthecaseissavedorclosed
ADoubleLinefaultautomaticallyusesaFault
Impedanceof999+j999andignorestheFault
Impedancesettings;useaDoubleLineto
GroundfaulttospecifyadesiredFault
Impedance
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FaultAnalysis:FinalNotes
Beforevisualizingfaultanalysiscurrentsinp.u.,
youmayneedtofirstchangethenumberof
decimalplacesforthebranchandgenerator
MWandMVARfields
OnceSequenceDataisloadedfromanexternal
file,savingthecasefilewillstorethesequence
datawiththe*.pwbaswell

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