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OPNET Simulation and Network design Report


(Overall weightage- 66%)
Learning Outcomes
1. Demonstrate an understanding of how the basic networking components work and
how they can be put together to implement a system.
2. Demonstrate an in-depth working knowledge of layered protocols, standards,
hardware, and software components.
3. Demonstrate an understanding of the LAN and WAN technology, architecture and
have the knowledge required to select and deploy and use internetworking tools and
technology in multiprotocol environments.
Objectives
Parts A to D:
Requires you to compare the performances of shared and switched Ethernet LANs under
different scenarios. You should produce a report that will contain the graphs produced by the
simulation runs requested for each model, and the answers to the questions as requested in
this document. Make sure you collect all graphs for the relevant steps and processes.
Part E:
Using the knowledge gained from the OPNET simulation you are required to produce a
network design for an organization with appropriate network equipments and transmission
medium. Emphasis is given to the justifications provided in recommending the appropriate
solutions to the organizations scenario. Therefore, substantial critical analysis and research is
required.
Requirements (Parts A to D)
For the following steps and processes you will set up Ethernet LANs using two different
devices: hubs and switches. A hub forwards the packet that arrives on any of its inputs on all
the outputs regardless of the destination of the packet. On the other hand, a switch forwards
incoming packets to one or more outputs depending on the destination(s) of the packets. You
will study how the throughput and delay of packets in a network are affected by the
configuration of the network and the types of switching devices that are used.
Therefore, perform the following tasks accordingly:

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Part A. Creating your Switch LAN

Create a new project and give it a name with your initials followed the keywordSwitchLAN. The current scenario should come under HubOnly. The environment of
the network is in an office which covers an area of 100m X 100m.
You are required to use a 16 port hub in an Ethernet environment with the following
configurations- Center Node Model = ethernet16_hub, Periphery Node Model =
ethernet_station, Link Model = 10BaseT, Number=16, X=50, Y=50, and Radius = 42.
You should assign a name to the hub and any configurations to the workstations
should apply across.
Subsequently, the traffic generated by each workstation should have the following
configurations: ON State Time = constant (200), OFF State Time = constant (0),
Interarrival Time = exponential (0.02), Packet Size = Constant (1500).
Calculate the average traffic that each workstation will generate followed by the total
traffic in the network. Name both results as Result_1.
Following, obtain/collect the statistics of the network including : Ethernet delay,
Traffic received (in bits/sec) by sinks/receivers, and Traffic sent (in bits/sec) by
sources, across all workstations. Also collect the Collision count statistics generated
by the Hub. Finally, run the simulation for a duration of 2.0 minutes.

Part B. Creating a different scenario called Hub low load

Create a separate scenario called- Hub_Low_Load. For this scenario use the following
values for the traffic generated by each workstation: Interarrival Time = exponential
(0.08).
Subsequently, calculate the average traffic that each workstation will generate followed
by the total traffic in the network.
Perform the simulation of configurations you have made so far for both the HubOnly in
part A and the current Hub_Low_Load. Collect the results for both scenarios.
For this Hub_Low_Load scenario, obtain the statistics for the traffic source (i.e. Traffic
Sent in bits/sec) and traffic sink (i.e. Traffic received in bits/sec). You could view both
statistics as- Stacked statistics and using the Time average mode.
Copy the graph(s) above and compare both statistics. Name this task as Result_2.
Following, switch to the HubOnly scenario and display the same statistics as for the
Hub_Low_Load.
Similarly, copy the graph(s) above and compare both statistics. Name this task as
Result_3. Next, you need to determine the collision count within the hub of both the
HubOnly and Hub_Low_Load scenarios therefore, it is recommended that you display
the results as Overlaid statistics.
Copy the graph(s) for both scenarios and compare both statistics. Name this task as
Result_4. From the above statistics pertaining to the Collision count of both scenarios,
how does this results help to explain the difference between the received and sent traffic.
Give your explanation and name it Result_5.

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Finally display the Delay statistic for both the HubOnly and Hub_Low_Load as an
Overlaid statistics. Copy the graph(s) and suggest an explanation for the difference
between the 2 scenarios. Name this task as Result_6.

Part C. Creating a different scenario using additional Hub and Switch

For this scenario an additional hub and as well a switch would be deployed to
determine its affect to the performance of the network. This new scenario is calledHub_and_Switch. Ensure that you will choose a similar configuration hub to be added
and an Ethernet switch with 16 ports as the additional device.
Subsequently, adopt the 10BaseT link to connect together the hubs and switch
whereby the switch would be in the middle of both hubs. Run the simulation and
collect the results for this new scenario. Use the overlaid statistics to view the results
for both the HubOnly and this Hub_and_Switch scenarios.
Next determine the collision count for the first hub in the network. Perform this for
both the HubOnly and Hub_and_Switch scenarios. Then determine the Collision
count for the second hub of the Hub_and_Switch scenario.
Copy the graph(s) and explain the differences in results between the 2 scenarios.
Name this task as Result_7. Identify the number of collision domains for each
scenario and justify your answer. Name this task as Result_8.
Proceed to determine the Traffic received in bits/sec for both HubOnly and
Hub_and_Switch scenarios. Copy the graph(s) and explain the differences in results
between the 2 scenarios. Name this task as Result_9.
Then determine the Delay in seconds for both the scenarios in the Ethernet network.
Copy the graph(s) and explain the differences in results between the 2 scenarios by
considering the expected delay for a packet transmission. Name this task as
Result_10.

Part D. Creating the scenario for a Switch only environment

In this scenario you are required to create TWO (2) new scenarios. The first scenario
involve the use of one switch. Therefore, you can replace the HubOnly scenario hub
with a switch and name the scenario- SwitchOnly.
Next, you need to create a scenario which contains two switches connected via a
10BaseT link and save it under- Two_Switches. After creating both scenarios run
them as normal. Copy the graphs showing the two new networks. Name this task as
Result_11.
Then compare the difference in performance in terms of Delay, and Collision count,
between the 4 scenarios (i.e. HubOnly, Hub_and_Switch, SwitchOnly and
Two_Switches) ignore the Hub_Low_Load scenario.
Copy the graph(s) and explain the differences in results between the 4 scenarios by
considering the expected delay for a packet transmission Name this task as Result_12.

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Part E. Network design


You work as the network administrator in a company and the company has two hub-based Local
Area Networks (LANs) which are connected by two routers. The current topology is shown in
Figure 1 and the descriptions of the components are given in Table 1. You have modelled the
current topology very carefully so that you can easily apply improvements to it. You are going to
improve the following parameters.
HTTP page response time
DB query response time

Item

Model description

Company area
Workstations
Hub (site_A)
Hub (site_B)
Server located at
site B
Site_A_router
Site_B_router
Router to router
connection
Other links

10 Kilometre x 10 Kilometre
Ethernet_wkstn
ethernet16_hub
ethernet16_hub
Ethernet_server
Ethernet2_slip8_gtwy
Ethernet2_slip8_gtwy
T1 link to connect site_A_router to
site_B_router
10BaseT

Object
Pallet
N/A
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet

X
location
N/A
3.0
7.0
9.0

Y
location
N/A
7.0
3.0
3.0

Router
Router
Links

5.0
5.0
N/A

6.5
3.5
N/A

Links

N/A

N/A

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Application
Config
Profile Config

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Configured with default applications

Ethernet

N/A

N/A

Configured to generate HTTP or Web


(Heavy) and Database Access (Heavy)
requests

Ethernet

N/A

N/A

The current network


You start a project with area of 10 Kilometre x 10 Kilometre and name the scenario current.
You have modelled the LANs in OPNET using the Ethernet technology and Rapid
Configuration from the Topology menu as shown in below figures.

You introduce the server from the Ethernet object pallet and connect it to the site_B hub with a
10BaseT cable. You bring site_A_router and site_B_router from the router object pallet and set
the locations to (5.0, 6.5) and (5.0, 3.5), respectively. These are ethernet2_slip8_gtwy routers.
Then you connect the routers to the corresponding hubs with 10BaseT cables. You connect
site_A_router to site_B_router by a T1 link from the object link object pallet. You configure

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the application config with the default applications. All the workstations (Ethernet_wkstn) are
generating requests based Web browsing (heavy HTTP1.1) and Database Access (Heavy)
applications. You select appropriate statistics to collect Global HTTP page response time and DB
query response time.

The improved network


First of all, you duplicate the current scenario and name it proposed. You realise that the hub
can be easily replaced by a switch. The company has given you two choices - CISCO 1900 and
CISCO 2948 as shown in Figure. You have picked ONLY one type of switch to replace both the
hubs. However, while replacing the hubs by switches, you make sure that the location i.e. (x, y)
location of the device is the same.

You also decide to replace the routers with better ones. You were given two choices by the
company CISCO 2501 and CISCO 2620 as shown in Figure. Again you have picked ONLY one
type of router to replace both routers. However, you ensure that the (x, y) location of the routers
were NOT changed at all.

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You replace all the 10BaseT cables with 100BaseT cables. The improved network is shown in
Figure below.

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Simulate the current and proposed scenarios for 1 hour and answer the following questions.
1. Explain HTTP page response time and DB query response time
(4 Marks)
2. Justify your choice for switch between CISCO 1900 and CISCO 2948
(4 Marks)
3. Justify your choice for router between CISCO 2501 and CISCO 2620
(4 Marks)
4. Show and compare the time_average HTTP page response time for current and
proposed scenarios in Overlaid Statistics view. Also calculate percentage of
improvement.
(4 Marks)
5. Show and compare the time_average DB query response time for current and
proposed scenarios in Overlaid Statistics view. Also calculate percentage of
improvement.
(4 Marks)

Performance Criteria
DISTINCTION
Distinctive work will exhibit a high level of penetration and discernment in analysis and
outstanding cogency and clarity in communication. The supporting report should be
exceptionally well-substantiated in its analysis, reasoning, and conclusions within each area.
Student should have provided appropriate OPNET diagrams for Part A- D. The performance
of each scenario is critically evaluated providing appropriate evidence for the network
evaluation. Appropriate equations are used to draw out proper network calculations and these
equations are explained in a detailed manner.The network model should be accurate and
authentic. You have to explore the ways of increasing the performance of the network and
provide conclusions on what changes will be working best for the given scenario. You have to
provide high quality of evidence e.g screenshots from your OPNET simulation to aid your
conclusions.

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MERIT
A student should be able to show further evidence of knowledge, understanding and
application of the module material. The supporting report should be well written and
supported throughout in its analysis, reasoning and conclusions.
Student should have provided appropriate OPNET diagrams for Part A- D. The performance
of each scenario is critically evaluated providing appropriate evidence for the network
evaluation. The network model should be accurate and authentic. You have to explore the
ways of increasing the performance of the network and provide conclusions on what changes
will be working best for the given scenario.
PASS: 50-59%
There should be satisfactory evidence of knowledge, understanding and application of the
module material in the supporting report. Generally, the report will be less effective in
conveying meaning. Student should have submitted a working solution with no or less test
cases and a report which will provide evidence of knowledge.
Student should have provided appropriate OPNET diagrams for Part A- D. The performance
of each scenario is explained using these diagrams. The network model should be accurate
and authentic.
FAIL: 0-49%
Work at this level will generally be of very low standard where it may even fail to meet at
least 20% of the basic requirements listed above. Work that is not documented adequately,
lacks referencing and does not display proper program structure would fall in this category.