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Student: CONSTANTIN Liviu George



Real-time radiography (RTR), or real-time radioscopy, is a nondestructive test (NDT) method
whereby an image is produced electronically rather than on film so that very little lag time occurs
between the item being exposed to radiation and the resulting image. In most instances, the electronic
image that is viewed, results from the radiation passing through the object being inspected and interacting
with a screen of material that fluoresces or gives off light when the interaction occurs. The fluorescent
elements of the screen form the image much as the grains of silver form the image in film radiography.
The image formed is a positive image since brighter areas on the image indicate where higher levels of
transmitted radiation reached the screen. This image is the opposite of the negative image produced in
film radiography. In other words, with RTR, the lighter, brighter areas represent thinner sections or less
dense sections of the test object. Real-time radiography is a well-established method of NDT having
applications in automotive, aerospace, pressure vessel, electronic, and munition industries, among others.
The use of RTR is increasing due to a reduction in the cost of the equipment and resolution of issues such
as the protecting and storing digital images. Since RTR is being used increasingly more, these
educational materials were developed by the North Central Collaboration for NDT Education (NCCE) to
introduce RTR to NDT technician students. NCCE is a collaborative effort between
Northeast Iowa Community College (Peosta, IA) Cowley County Community College (Arkansas
City, KS), Southeast Community College (Milford, NE), Ridgewater Community College
(Hutchinson, MN) and Iowa State University (Ames, IA). Partial funding for this effort was provided by
the National Science Foundation.
An outline of the topics covered by this course is as follows:
1. Differences between film/filmless radiography
2. Equipment
3. Process control tests
4. Defect analysis and applications
5. Specifications
6. Procedure development

Radiografia in timp real (RTR) sau radioscopia in timp real este o metoda de testare
nedistructiva (NDT) prin care se produce o imagine computerizata in locul unui film, astfel
perioada de latentantre elementul fiind expus la radiaii i imaginea rezulta este mult mai mica.
In cele mai multe cazuri, imaginea computerizata care este vizualizata apare ca rezultat a
reactieii dintre radiatile care trec prin obiectul care este inspectat si cu un ecran cu material
florescent sau care lumineaza la acesta interactiune.Elementele florescente ale ecranului
formeaza imaginea in acelasi fel in care particulele de argint formeaza filmul radiografic.
Imaginea formata este o imagine pozitiva deoarece zonele mai luminoase idica zona unde
nivelul mai mare de radiatii transmis a atins ecranul. Aceast tip de imagine este opusul imaginii
negative produse in filmul radiografic. Cu alte cuvinte cu ajutorul RTR zona mai luminoasa
reprezinta sectiuni mai subtiri sau mai putin dense a obiectului inspectat.
Radiografia in timp real este o metoda bine stabilita din NDT si se aplica in industia
automotive, aerospatiala, a vaselor de presiune,de electronice , de munitie etc. Folosirea RTR
este in crestere deoarece costul cu echipamentele este mai mic , confera o rezolutie mult mai
buna si posibilitatea de stocare digitala a datelor. Decand utilizarea RTR este in crestere material
educationale ai fost create de catre North Central Collaboration for NDT Education (NCCE)
pentru a introduce RTR studentilor NDT . NCCE este o colaborare intre Northeast Iowa
Community College (Peosta, IA) Cowley County Community College (Arkansas
City, KS), Southeast Community College (Milford, NE), Ridgewater Community College
(Hutchinson, MN) and Iowa State University (Ames, IA). Partial funding for this effort was
provided by the National Science Foundation.

Subietele generale acoperite de acest curs sunt:

1. Diferentele intre radiografia cu film si cea in timp real
2. Echipamente
3. Teste a proceselor de control
4. Analiza defectelor si aplicatii
5. Specificatii
6. Proceduri


There are a number of differences between film radiograph and real-time radiograph. The four most
significant differences are the speed at which an inspection can be accomplished, quality of the image, the
equipment used and its related cost and, the method of image analysis and storage. In this section, some
of the most important differences are discussed.


One advantage of RTR is inspection speed. With film radiography, film is placed behind the area of
interest and exposed to radiation for a certain length of time. Exposure time can range from seconds to
several minutes. A snapshot or a still image, i.e., the way the area looked at a certain point in time is the
result. The film must be developed before viewing, a requirement that involves additional time. With
RTR, the image is available almost simultaneously as the radiation passes through the part. Lag time is
less than one second and, for all practical purposes, not really a consideration. This feature allows for
greatly increased inspection speed. For example, lengths of a welded joint a few feet long can be
inspected in less than a minute. With sample positioning equipment, the part can be moved, e.g., rotated
or tilted, so that the inspection area can be shifted and an entire part inspected in seconds. In film
radiography, a single panoramic shot can be used to obtain complete coverage (a shot for which film is
wrapped around the object); this can require radioactive isotope usage, and there is still the time required
for the exposure plus the time to develop and dry the film before viewing. Nonetheless, the region(s) of
interest (ROIs) can be viewed and reviewed much more quickly for RTR than for film radiography.

Diferente intre radiografia in timp real si radiografia pe film

Cele mai mari diferente intre aceste doua medote de radiografiere sunt viteza cu care are loc
inspectia, calitatea imaginii , echipamentul folosit, pretul, metoda de analiza si stocarea. In acest
capitol sunt prezentate cele mai importante diferente.

Viteza cu care are loc inspectia

Unul dintre cele mai importante avantaje ale RTR este viteza de inspectie. Cu metoda
clasica un film este pus in spatele zonei ce va fi inspecate si expus la radiatii pentru o anumite
perioada de timp. Timpul de expunere poate varia de la secunde la minute. O imagine in care se
observa zona la un anumit timp este create, filmul trebuie developat inainte de a fi vizionat ceea
ce duce la cresterea timpului. Cu RTR imaginea aparea aproape simultan cu radioatia care trece
prin obiect. Timpul de latenta este mai putin de o secunda, astfel se permite o viteza mult mai
mare de inspectie . De exemplu inspectia unui un cordon de sudura lunga de cativa metrii poate
fi inspectat in mai putin de un minut.
Cu echipamente de poziionare a probei, piesa poate fi mutat, rotita, sau inclinata pentru a putea
inspecta intreaga piesa in secunde. In radigrafia clasica un poza panoramica poate fi utilizata
pentru o acoperire completa ( pentru acesta filmul este pus pe toata piesa) aceasta poate avae
nevoie de folosirea izotopilor radioactivi la care s emai adauga si timpul necesar pentru
expunerea developarea si uscarea filmului inainte de vizionare. Folosid RTR zona poate fi vazuta
mult mai rapid


System resolution depends on a number of factors that include X-ray source focal-spot size,
magnification, and imaging system performance. Imaging system performance depends mainly on the
quality of the image intensifier, camera, frame grabber board, monitor or other components used. In
general, RTR systems are not able to resolve as small of a defect as can be resolved using film
radiography. This is primarily due to limitation of the image intensifier, which will be discussed in more
detail later. However, with the use of image processing program the performance of RTR systems can be
improved. Further, since magnification is easily accomplished with RTR systems equipped with sample
positioning systems resolution can be significantly improved especially when minifocus or microfocus xray tubes are used. Table 1 provides a comparison the performance between film radiography and various
RTR systems.

Film Radiograph

Conventional RTR

RTR with Image

Microfocus RTR





0.1 to 0.06 mm

0.5 to 0.25 mm

0.5 to 0.25 mm

Up to 0.05 mm


(0.004 to 0.002 inch)

1 to 2 percent

(0.02 to 0.01 inch)

3 to 4 percent

(0.02 to 0.01 inch)

0.5 to 1 percent

(0.002 inch)
0.5 to 1 percent


5 to 15 mins/image

Real time

1 to 30 sec/image

1 to 30 sec/image

Table 1. Performance comparison between film and various RTR system configurations.

Rezolutia imaginii
Rezolutia depinde de un numar mare factori in care intra si dimensiunea punctuli de focalizare a
sursei de raze-X, mrire i performana sistemului de formare a imaginii. Performana sistemului
de formare a imaginii depinde n principal de calitatea sistemului de marire a imaginii, camera
foto, monitorul sau alte componente folosite. In general sistemul RTR nu poate rezolva un defect
asa mic cum vede radiografia clasica asta depinde de sistemul de marire. Tutusi folosid programe
de editare a imaginii performatele pot fi imbunatatie. In plus deoarece marirea imaginii este usor
de realizat cu RTR echipat cu sisteme de pozitionare a esantionului rezolutia este imbunatatita
mai ales cand se folosesc tuburile de raze X minifocus si microfocus.

When magnification is used in an RTR system, the geometric unsharpness of the inspection setup needs
to be taken into consideration. The size of the X-ray tube focal-spot and the magnification factors,
namely the source-to-specimen and specimen-to-detector distances, are used to calculate the geometric
unsharpness of the inspection setup. Geometric unsharpness (Ug) is determined as follows:
Ug f b
where f = X-ray generator focal-spot size.
a = distance from x-ray source to front surface of material/object b =
distance from the material/object to the detector


Penumbra (Ug)
Figure 1. Sketch showing geometric variables that affect the penumbra

Tabelul 1 cuprinde o coparatie intre radiografia in timp real si radiografia cu film

Radiografia pe film

RTR clasic

RTR cu procesarea Microfocus


RTR procesarea

0.5 - 0.25 mm

0.5 - 0.25 mm

Pana la 0.05 mm

(0.004 - 0.002 inch)

Sensitivitatea 1 - 2 percent

(0.02 - 0.01 inch)

3 - 4 percent

(0.02 - 0.01 inch)

0.5 - 1 percent

(0.002 inch)
0.5 - 1 percent



1 - 30 sec/img

1 - 30 sec/img


0.1 - 0.06 mm

5 - 15 min/imagine

Cand marirea imaginii este folosinta intr-un sistem RTR inexactitatea geometrica a
configuratie trebuie sa fie luata in cosiderare. Marimea tubului de raze X si factorii de marire ,
distatele de la sursa la proba si de la probala la detector sunt folosite la calculul inexactotatii
Acesta se determina : Ug = f * b/a

Unde :
f = Marimea generatorului de raze C
a = distanta de la sursa de raze C la suprafata frontal a materialului
b= distanta de la material de detector

Figure 1. Schita aratand variabilele geometrice care afecteaza penumbra


Penumbra (Ug)

To minimize the penumbra, the test specimen is usually placed as close as possible to the detector and the
source is placed some distance from the sample. A greater the distance between the source and the object
will reduce geometric unsharpness. However, the intensity of the source decreases as the distance
increases. Therefore, the source should be placed only as far away as necessary to control the penumbra.
If the test object is placed in direct contact with the detector (like is often done in film radiograph) the
following formula can be used that takes into account the material thickness instead of the object-todetector distance.

Pentru a minimalize penumbra, probele de tes sunt de abicei asezate cat se poate de aproape de
detector si sursa este plasata la aceasi dinstanta de proba. Cu cat mai mare este distanta intre
sursa si obiect se reduce inaxactitate geometrica. Dar, intensitatea sursei scade cand distanta se
mareste. Deci, sursa trebuie asezata la o distanta minima posibila pentru a controla penumbra.
Daca proba este plasata in contact direct cu detectorul putem folosim urmatoarea formula care
tine cont de grosimea materialului.
Ug = f *t/d
Unde f= marimea generatorului de raze X
t = grosimea materialului
d = distanta de la sursa la sufrata frontal la probei
Ug f t
where f = X-ray generator focal spot size t
= the thickness of the material
d = distance from x-ray source to front surface of material/object

The allowable amount of unsharpness is controlled by specification being followed. In general, the
allowable amount is 1/100 of the material thickness up to a maximum of 0.040 inch.

Cantitaea de inexactitate permisa este controlata daca sunt urmate specificatiile. In general
aceasata este de 1/100 din grosimea materialului pana ma maxim 0.040 inch.


Sometimes the distance between test specimen and image detector is increased to obtain magnification
in the image. Magnification is especially useful when parts being inspected and their details are very
small. The farther the test specimen is from the image detector, the greater the magnification achieved.
The amount of magnification can be calculated using the following formula. M


where M = magnification

a = distance from the source to

the object b = distance from the object to the detector

X-ray Source



Figure 2. Sketch showing geometric variables that affect magnification.

In RTR, focal-spot sizes as small as 10 microns are used to allow for magnification of the image and yet
keep the penumbra to a minimum. One micron or micrometer (my-krh-mee-tuhr) equals one-millionth
of a meter (0.000001 meter, or .001 mm, or .00003937 inches, or 1/25,400 inch). If a newspaper sheet is .
003 inches thick, it is approximately 76 microns thick. One disadvantage of magnification is that the field
of view is decreased. When the viewable area becomes smaller, this generally increases the inspection

Marirea imaginii
Cateodata distanta intre proba si detectorul de imagine este marite pentru a obtine
marirea imaginii. Amplificare este in special folosita unde partile inspectate si detalile lor sunt
foarte mici
Cu cat proba este mai departe de detector amplificarea imaginii creste . Ea se poate calcula cu
formula : M= (a+b)/a
Unde :
a = distanta de la sursa la obiect
b = distanta de la obiect la detector

X-ray Source



Figure 2. Schita care arata variabilele geometrice ce afecteaza amplificarea

In RTR, puncte de focalizare de dimensiuni pana la 10 microni sunt folosite pentru a

amplifica imaginea si totusi penumbra este minima. . Un dezavantaj a amplificarii este ingustarea
campului visual . Acest lucru mareste timpul de inspectie .


Image enhancement technology, such as a television camera, can be used for film radiography. This is a
two-step process: getting the image on film, and enhancing it. Recent developments in which film is
digitized result in obtaining more information from a single film. This, too, is at least a two-step process
involving increased RTR. Image enhancement features in software can be used to improve the quality
and therefore the usefulness of the image obtained. Image enhancement signifies that the original image
is modified so that previously undetected information can be seen. In RTR, the enhancement is
performed after viewing the image on the monitor. Much less time is spent producing the enhanced
image than in film radiography. This is done usually to show low-contrast areas relating to cracks,
boundaries, voids, inclusions, or part orientations. Low-contrast sensitivity and resolution are poorer in
RTR than in film radiography.

Tehnologia de imbunatatire a imaginii cum este la camera foto sau la TV poate fi folosita
si la radiografii. Acesta este un process in doi pasi : captarea imaginii si imbunatatirea ei .
Imbunatatirea tehnologiei care a facut ca imaginea sa fie digitalizata a facut posibil sa se obtina
mai multa informatie. Si asta este un process in doi pasi ce creste durata RTR. Software-uri de
imbunatatire a imaginii pot fi folositi sa creasca calitatea deci utilitatea imaginii obtinute.
Imbunatatirea imaginii inseamna modificarea imaginii astfel incat sa se informatia nedetectata sa
fie vazuta. In RTR imbunatatirea imagnii este realizata dup ace imaginea este vazuta pe monitor.
Mult mai putin timp dureaza imbunatatirea imaginii decat in radiografierea clasica. Asta este

facuta pentru a arata zone de contrast scazut ale crapaturilor, marginilor , golurilor ,
incluziunilor. Senzitivitea de contrast este mai scazuta la RTR decat la radiografierea clasica.


Because an RTR system requires a number of system components, it generally costs more than a film
radiography set-up. The RTR systems aregennerally self-contained. In other words, the parts come into
one area, are X-rayed, imaged, and dispositioned all in the same area.

In film radiography, the part or source of radiation is brought to an area that may or may not be shielded.
If not shielded, then precautions must be taken to protect personnel against radiation hazard. This may
mean loss of production time if personnel must leave the area. The part is Xrayed with the use of film
and the film is developed a darkroom where manual or automatic processing can take place. Real-time
radiography usually takes place in a cabinet designed to keep exposure to radiation within regulations and
so the operator and others can work in proximity to the unit. This eliminates the loss of production time.
Also, since there is no darkroom needed to develop film, RTR save floor space. With RTR, there are no
hazardous film developing chemicals to dispose of.

Depending on what is to be inspected and the resolution needed, RTR systems consist of various
components. Cost depends on how elaborate the system is and can run from approximately $50,000 to
more than $200,000. Some microfocus X-ray tubes can cost more than $100,000 apiece. To learn the
exact cost of systems or components, the manufacturer must be contacted

Costul RTR

Pentru ca un sistem RTR este compus din mai multe componete, in general costa mai
mult decat un sistem de radiografie pe film . Sistemul RTR este in general autonom. Adica
piesele intra sunt scanate iar imaginea este afisata toate in aceasi zona.
In radiografierea clasica parte ace emana radiatii este pusa intr-o zona care poate sau nu sa fie
protejata. Daca nu este protejata atunci masuri speciale trebuiesc luate in considerare pentru a
proteja personalul de pericolul de radiatii. Asta inseamna timp pierdut daca personalul trebuie sa
paraseasca zona . Piesa este scanata iar filmul este dupa developat manual sau automat intr-o
camera obscura.
RTR obicei se realizeaza intr-o camera care este construita astfel incat operatorul si cei care
lucreaza in vecinatate sa nu fie expusi radiatiilor. Asta imbunatateste timpul de productie. Si cum
nu este nevoie de o camera obscura sau de substante periculoase pentru a developa filme.

In functie de ce anume este scanat si de ce rezolutie este nevoie sistemele RTR sunt
construite din multe component. Costurile depend de cat de elaborate este sistemul si variaza
intre 50,000 si 200,000 de dolari. Pentru a sti exact costul trebuie contactat producatorul.

Real-time radiography systems are available in a number of configurations and sizes ranging
from tabletop models to units that fill a large room. A typical system is shown in figure 3. The
main components of a real-time radiograph system are shown in Figure 4.

Monitor for
Computer and
Software for Image
Processing and

Figure 3. Photograph of an example real-time radiograph system.


Figure 4. Schematic showing the various components of a real-time system.

The usual source of radiation for RTR systems is the X-ray generator. The main reason that an X-ray
generator is used is because image intensifiers are relatively inefficient at converting radiation to light,
and thus more flux is required than an isotope can offer. Additionally, X-ray energy and current must be
adjustable to permit the correct exposure. (Time cannot be adjusted in this instance because the image is
being viewed in real-time.) With radioactive isotope sources there is also the disadvantage that few
wavelengths of different energies exist, and therefore the beam tends to be monochromatic compared with
the beam from an X-ray machine. As discussed previously, the resolution in RTR systems is generally
less than with film radiography. A way to improve resolution is to use a smaller focal-spot to reduce the
penumbra. This will be discussed in more detail later.

Smaller spot sizes are especially advantageous in instances where magnification of object or region of the
object is necessary. Magnification involves the use of minifocus and microfocus X-ray tubes.

One common way to differentiate between conventional, minifocus, and microfocus is to say that
conventional units have focal-spots greater than 200 microns; minifocus units have focal-spots ranging
from 50 microns to 200 microns (.050 mm to .2 mm); and microfocus have focal-spots smaller than 50
microns. As indicated, the cost of some microfocus tubes can exceed $100,000. Although this
component must be selected carefully, it will enable the best resolution possible. Some manufacturers
combine two filaments of different sizes to make a dual-focus tube. This usually involves a conventional
and a minifocus spot-size and adds flexibility to the system.

An important point to keep in mind is that the milli amperage used in mini- and microfocus units is
smaller than that used in conventional tubes. Amperage determines the intensity of X-rays. Such small
focal-spots cannot withstand a great deal of heat. An X-ray generation feature offsetting the lower current
levels is that mini- and micro-units usually are constant potential. This means that voltage is delivered at
a very constant level, with very little ripple. In a conventional X-ray tube, voltages differ and the
maximum X-ray output occurs when voltage peaks. Output tends, therefore, to vary with time. Because
constant potential systems are essentially always at maximum output, the X-ray output over a given
period of time is greater than that of a conventional tube at the same settings. The final result being that
the output of constant potential units can be greater than the conventional X-ray tube.)

Figure 5. Photograph of a conventional x-ray tube used in a RTR system.

Sistemele RTR sunt disponibile in mai multe configuratii de la modele care se aseaza pe o
masa la unitati care ocupa o camera intreaga. Un asemenea sistem se poate vedea in figura 3. Iar
componetele principale in figura 4.

Monitor for
Computer and
Software for Image
Processing and


Figure 3. Sistem RTR

Figure 4. Componente RTR

Sursa de radiaii de obicei folosita pentru sistemele RTR este generatorul de raze X.
Motivul principal pentru care un generator de raze X este utilizat se datoreaz faptului c
intensificatoare de imagine sunt relativ ineficiente la conversia radiaiilor la lumin, i, prin
urmare, este necesar mai mult flux dect un izotop poate oferi. In plus, energia cu raze X i
curentul trebuie s fie reglabile pentru a permite expunerea corect. (Timpul nu poate fi reglat n
acest caz, deoarece imaginea este vizualizat n timp real.) Cu sursele de izotopi radioactivi
exist i dezavantajul c puine lungimi de unde de diferite energii exist, prin urmare, fasciculul
tinde s fie monocromatic comparativ cu fascicolul unui aparat cu raze X. Aa cum sa discutat
anterior, rezoluia n sistemele RTR este n general mai mic dect radiografia filmului. O
modalitate de a mbunti rezoluia este de a utiliza un spot focal mai mic pentru a reduce
penumbra. Acest lucru va fi discutat n detaliu mai trziu.

Smaller spot sizes are especially advantageous in instances where magnification of object or region of the
object is necessary. Magnification involves the use of minifocus and microfocus X-ray tubes.
One common way to differentiate between conventional, minifocus, and microfocus is to say that
conventional units have focal-spots greater than 200 microns; minifocus units have focal-spots ranging
from 50 microns to 200 microns (.050 mm to .2 mm); and microfocus have focal-spots smaller than 50
microns. As indicated, the cost of some microfocus tubes can exceed $100,000. Although this
component must be selected carefully, it will enable the best resolution possible. Some manufacturers
combine two filaments of different sizes to make a dual-focus tube. This usually involves a conventional
and a minifocus spot-size and adds flexibility to the system.

Dimensiuni mai mici ale punctului focal sunt deosebit de avantajoase, n cazurile n care
o mrire a piesei sau regiune a piesei este necesara. Amplificarea implic utilizarea de tuburi cu
raze X Minifocus si Microfocus.
O metod obinuit de a face diferena ntre convenionale, Minifocus i microfocus este
de a spune c unitile convenionale au spoturi focale mai mari de 200 de microni; Uniti
Minifocus au focal spoturi care variaz de la 50 microni la 200 microni (0.050 mm la 0.2 mm); i
microfocus au focal pete mai mici de 50 microni. Dup cum se indic, costul unor tuburi
microfocus poate depasi 100.000 $. Cu toate c aceast component trebuie s fie atent selectata,
acesta va permite cea mai bun rezoluie posibil. Unii productori combina dou filamente de
diferite dimensiuni pentru a face un tub cu dubl focalizare. Acest lucru implic de obicei o
combinatie intre Micriofocus i o Minifocus i adaug flexibilitate sistemului.
Un punct important de reinut este faptul c mili amperajul utilizat n unitile de mini
i microfocus este mai mic dect cea utilizat n tuburi convenionale. Amperajul determin
intensitatea razelor X. Spoturile focale mici nu pot rezista la o cantitate de cldur mare. O
caracteristic de generare de raze X de compensare a nivelurile actuale mai mici este faptul c
unitatiile mini i microfocus de obicei au potenial constant. Acest lucru nseamn c tensiunea
este livrata la un nivel constant. ntr-un tub cu raze X convenional, tensiuni difera, iar puterea
maxim de raze X are loc cand tensiunea atinge maximum. Producia tinde, prin urmare, s
varieze n timp. Deoarece sistemele de potenial constant sunt, ntotdeauna la puterea maxim de
ieire cu raze X ntr-o anumit perioad de timp este mai mare dect cea a unui tub convenional
la aceleai setri. Rezultatul final fiind c producia de uniti poteniale constante poate fi mai
mare dect tubul de raze X convenionale.

Figure 5. Photograph of a conventional x-ray tube used in a RTR system.


In RTR, as in conventional radiography, X-rays passing through the part are used to produce an image.
For the transmitted energy to be useful, it must be converted to an energy form that the system
components can utilize to produce the image. Usually, radiation is converted to light energy (visible
light), and this light is converted to an electronic signal (a video signal).

The image intensifier commonly used as a converter device, contains a fluorescent material such as
cesium iodide. On the input screen, the visible light is much too dim to produce a usable image. There,
photons are converted to electrons, accelerated, and reconverted to light on the output screen. Light
amplification typically is in the range of 30/10,000 light amplification factors. This factor arises, in part,
from two causes: (1) electron amplification as the electrons are accelerated by a high voltage, 25-30 kv
between the cathode and anode, and (2) electron focusing on a small output screen approximately 10
times smaller than the input screen. See Figure 6 and 7 for an illustration and picture of typical image
intensifier. Figure 8 shows a picture of output phosphor screen that is imaged by the CCD camera.

n RTR, ca i n radiografia convenional, razele X care trec prin piesa sunt folosite
pentru a produce o imagine. Pentru ca energia transmis fie util, trebuie transformat ntr-o
form de energie pe care componentele sistemului o pot utiliza pentru a produce imaginea. De
obicei, radiaia este transformat n energie de lumin (lumin vizibil), iar aceast lumin este
convertit ntr-un semnal electronic (un semnal video).
Intensificatorul de imagine utilizat n mod obinuit ca un dispozitiv de convertire,
conine un material fluorescent, cum ar fi iodur de cesiu. Pe ecranul de intrare, lumina vizibil
este mult prea slab pentru a produce o imagine utilizabil. Acolo, fotoni sunt convertiti n
electroni, accelerati i reconvertiti in lumina pe ecranul de ieire. amplificarea luminii este de
obicei n intervalul 30/10000 factori de amplificare de lumin. Acest factor apare, n parte, din
dou cauze: (1) amplificarea de electroni cand electronii sunt accelerati printr-o tensiune ridicat,
25-30 kV ntre catod i anod, (2) electroni concentrandu-se pe un ecran de ieire mic de
aproximativ 10 ori mai mai mic dect ecranul de intrare. A se vedea figura 6 i 7 pentru o

ilustraie i o imagine a unui intensificator de imagine tipic. Figura 8 prezint o imagine a

ecranului de ieire de fosfor, care este trimisa de camera CCD.

Vacuum Envelope
Entrance Window

X- rays

Light Out Put


Figure 6. Operarea cu un intensificator de imagine.

Figure 7. Intensificator ajustabil cu collimator de plumb in fata.

Figure 8. Ecranul de iesire printru-un intensificator de imagine

The advantage of using the image intensifier for RTR is that it has good light output. The disadvantage is
that it introduces several image artifacts. One of these artifacts is called pin cushioning. Pin cushioning
results from the fact that the distance for the point of focus at the center of the CRT is different from that
at the top or bottom of the CRT due to its curved shape. (See figure 9.) The difference in distance results
in an image that is slightly distorted at the edges as illustrated in figure 10.

Other image artifacts include nonuniform pixel response and phosphor blooming. Nonuniform pixel
response is a condition where the gray level of the pixels at the edge differs from the gray level at the
center of the image. Phosphor blooming is a condition where the x-rays striking the conversion screen
cause the phosphor particle to glow so brightly that the light spreads from one pixel to adjacent pixels and
causes interference with its light output, or blurring.

Avantajul folosirii intensificatoarelor de imagine pentru RTR este c are ieire de lumin
bun. Dezavantajul este c ea introduce mai multe artefacte de imagine. Unul dintre aceste
artefacte se numete PIN-ul de amortizare. PIN-ul de amortizare rezult din faptul c distana de
la punctul de focalizare n centrul CRT este diferit de cel de la partea de sus sau de jos a CRT,
datorat formei sale curbate. (A se vedea figura 9.) Diferena este distana rezultata ntr-o imagine
care este uor deformat la margini aa cum este ilustrat n figura 10. Alte artefacte de imagine
includ raspunsul neuniform al pixelilor cresterea de fosfor. Raspunsul neuniform al pixelulor
este o stare n care nivelul de gri al pixelilor la margine difer de nivelul de gri n centrul
imaginii. Cresterea fosforului este o afeciune n care razele X lovesc ecranul de conversie si
determina particula fosfor s strluceasc att de puternic nct lumina se extinde de la un pixel
la cei adiaceni i cauzeaz interferen cu puterea sa de a lumina.

After conversion of radiation to visible light, the light image must be changed to a video signal so that an
image can be produced for viewing on a monitor. In most instances, a closed-circuit TV camera (CCTV)
is used. The cameras can be very small are typically housed in an enclosure on the back of the image
intensifier. Several camera types are available, and each type has unique capabilities. One camera feature
is the dynamic range, or the range of light levels that it can resolve. A high dynamic range is needed if

part thicknesses differ and bright and dark areas must be imaged at the same time. Some cameras have
very high dynamic ranges and would be especially suitable for RTR. Another feature of cameras is the
type of transducer changing light energy to electrical energy. Some cameras have pickup tubes while
others have solid-state electronics.

Charged couple device (CCD) cameras are very popular in RTR systems and have solid-state electronics
consisting of a very small semiconductor chip. The chip is made up of discrete elements (pixels), which
receive light and create a voltage and a current directly corresponding to the amount of light received.
This same technology is used in home video camcorders and digital cameras. See figure 11 for an
example of a CCD camera. The image is not recorded on film by means of grains of silver; rather, the
voltage produced creates an RS170 signal either to produce an image on a monitor or to record the image
on a VCR tape, CD or other means.

If the CCD camera is not used, another type of pickup device (a transducer) is used to convert the visible
to an electronic signal. This usually involves a vacuum tube containing a light-

Dup conversia radiaiei la lumina vizibil, imaginea de lumin trebuie s fie schimbata
la un semnal video, astfel nct o imagine poate fi produsa pentru vizualizarea pe un monitor. In
cele mai multe cazuri, se utilizeaz un aparat de televiziune cu circuit nchis (CCTV). Camerele
pot fi foarte mici si sunt de obicei adpostite ntr-o incint pe partea din spate a intensificatorului
de imagine. Mai multe tipuri de camere sunt disponibile, iar fiecare tip are capabiliti unice. O
caracteristic a unui aparat de fotografiat este intervalul dinamic, sau intervalul nivelurilor de
lumin pe care le poate rezolva. O gam dinamic ridicat este necesar n cazul n care
grosimile difera, zonele luminoase i ntunecate trebuie s apara n acelai timp. Unele camere au
game dinamice foarte mari i s-ar fi potrivit n special pentru RTR. O alt caracteristic a
camerelor este tipul de traductor n schimbare energie luminoas n energie electric.
Dispozitivele de cuplu ncrcat (CCD) camere sunt foarte populare n sistemele RTR i au
produse electronice cu semiconductori care constau dintr-un cip foarte mic semiconductori.
Chip-ul este alctuit din elemente discrete (pixeli), care primesc lumin i craza o tensiune i un

curent care corespund n mod direct la cantitatea de lumin primit. Aceeai tehnologie este
folosit n camerele video i camere digitale. A se vedea figura 11 pentru un exemplu de o
camer CCD. Imaginea nu este nregistrat pe film prin intermediul unor boabe de argint; mai
degrab, tensiunea produs creeaz un semnal RS170, fie pentru a produce o imagine pe un
monitor sau pentru a nregistra imaginea de pe caseta video, CD-uri sau alte mijloace.
Dac nu este utilizat camera CCD, un alt tip de dispozitiv de preluare (un traductor) este folosit
pentru a converti vizibil la un semnal electronic. Acest lucru implic de obicei un tub cu vid care
conine o lumin

Figure 11. Picture showing one of the many commercially available CCD
cameras that can be used for RTR.
A lens would be attached to the right side of the camera and focused on the image intensifier
output screen. The signal from the camera is then fed to a monitor for viewing.
Sensitive material allowing the conversion of light to an electronic signal. Some common devices using
this system are the image isocon, videcon, newvicon, and plumbicon videcon. These systems give better
resolution than the CCD camera but usually have a lower dynamic range (1/m), which means that the
range of light levels able to be shown is smaller. Vacuum tube devices usually have longer lag times,
which can cause blurring if the part is to be inspected on the fly, or while moving.

O lentil va fi ataat la partea dreapt a camerei i concentrate pe ecranul de ieire

aintensificatorului de imagine. Semnalul de la camer este apoi introdus ntr-un monitor pentru
vizualizare. Materiale sensibile permind conversia luminii la un semnal electronic. Anumite
dispozitive comune care utilizeaz acest sistem sunt isocon imagine, videcon, newvicon i
videcon Plumbicon. Aceste sisteme dau o rezoluie mai bun dect camera CCD, dar, de obicei,
au o gam dinamic mai mic (1 / m), ceea ce nseamn c intervalul de niveluri de lumin n
msur s fie afiat este mai mic. Aparate de vid tub au de obicei lag ori mai mult, ceea ce
poate duce la estomparea n cazul n care o parte este de a fi inspectat pe zbor, sau n timpul

Whichever transducer the camera uses, the RS170 signal produced creates the image on a monitor in the
same way an image is produced on a TV screen. The CRT tube emits an electron beam controlled by two
electromagnetic fields. One field causes the beam to move horizontally on the screen; the other to move
vertically. The TV image or frame is made up of 525 lines (625 lines in Europe), and a new frame is
generated every 1/30th of a second. The 525 lines are scanned rapidly with every other line (odd lines
first, then even lines) being scanned and interlaced with the adjacent line. Each new frame starts in the
upper left-hand corner. Vertical resolution (visible details lying horizontal) is limited by the space
between lines. In summary, the RS170 signal creates the image by means of an electromagnetic field
moving the beam across the screen horizontally and then vertically to make another line. After 525 lines
are created, a new frame is produced. Thirty frames per second is the standard that fools our eyes into
believing we are looking at a steady picture. If fewer frames per second are produced, the eye may detect
flicker in the image.

The monitor image is produced by an analog signal, and its increase or decrease is analogous to the value
it represents. Therefore, the signal is or can be constantly differing in intensity. Examples of analog
information are the column of mercury in a thermometer, or a cars speedometer when a needle in front of
a scale of numbers indicates speed. For more information on digital and analog information, refer to the
appendix of this book.
The image on the monitor produced by the analog RS170 signal can be used without enhancement.
Equipment needed in this case consists of X-ray source, image intensifier, camera, and monitor. If the
combination of components yield the spatial resolution and sensitivity needed, then the system is

Indiferent de traductor camera utilizeaz, semnalul RS170 produs si creeaz imaginea pe

un monitor, n acelai mod o imagine este produs pe un ecran de televizor. Tubul CRT emite un
fascicul de electroni controlat de dou cmpuri electromagnetice. Un cmp face ca fasciculul s
se deplaseze orizontal pe ecran; cellalt s se mite pe vertical. Imaginea televizorului sau pe
cadru este alctuita din 525 linii (625 linii n Europa), i un nou cadru este generat la fiecare 1/30
dintr-o secund. Cele 525 linii sunt scanate rapid (linii impare mai nti, apoi chiar linii). Fiecare
cadru nou ncepe n colul din stnga sus. Rezoluie vertical (detalii vizibile situat orizontal)
este limitat de spaiul dintre rnduri. Pe scurt, semnalul RS170 creeaz imaginea prin
intermediul unui cmp electromagnetic ce deplaseaz fasciculul pe ecran orizontal i apoi
vertical pentru a face o alt linie. Dup ce sunt create 525 linii, un nou cadru este produs.
Treizeci de cadre pe secund este standardul care pacaleste ochii notri s cread ca ne uitm la o
imagine de echilibru. n cazul n care se produc mai puine cadre pe secund, ochiul poate
detecta plpire n imagine.
Imaginea monitorului este produsa printr-un semnal analogic, iar creterea sau scderea
acesteia este similar cu valoarea pe care o reprezint. Prin urmare, semnalul este sau poate fi n
mod constant diferit ca intensitate. Exemple de informaii analogice sunt coloana de mercur ntrun termometru sau vitezometrul la o main atunci cnd un ac n faa unei scale de numere indic
viteza. Pentru mai multe informaii cu privire la informaii digitale i analogice, consultai anexa
acestei cri. Imaginea de pe monitor produs de semnalul analogic RS170 poate fi utilizat fr
accesoriu. Echipamentele necesare n acest caz constau ntr-surs de raze X, un intensificator de
imagine, aparat de fotografiat, i monitor. n cazul n care combinaia de componente se obine
rezoluia spaial i sensibilitatea necesar, atunci sistemul este adecvat.


During inspection in which spatial resolution and contrast are critical, analog information alone may be
inadequate, and computer enhancement is required. Digital image processing, which is possible through
desktop computers with the necessary internal components, is a solution. As indicated, the RS170 signal
is an analog signal that must be converted to a digital signal before a computers digital imaging

processor can work with it. This is referred to as an A to D converter, or an analog to digital converter.
There are also D to A converters, or digital to analog converters. Digital codes are based on the binary
number system having 2 as the base number raised to various powers, e.g., 20 0 = 1 21 = 2, 22 = 4, 23 = 8, 24
= 16, 25 = 32, 26 = 64, 27 = 128, 28 = 256, etc. Digital electronic devices differ from analog devices
because analog values change continuously in regard to what is being represented. Digital devices
change in discreet increments rather than continuously. The digital signal has two modes: it is either on
or off. These are discrete values. Modern computers are digital because the signals have better quality
and can transmit and store more information than analog systems can.

By use of an A to D converter, the RS170 signal can be digitized or changed to a digital value.
Digital image processors are designed to work with 525 lines, 30 frames-per-second TV images. The
computer hardware used to convert the signal is referred to as a frame grabber, which converts the signal
as it is creating the frames. This converter also starts with the upper left-hand corner of the image. With
an eight-bit converter, A to D conversion will take place and resolve the gray scales into 256 levels (2 8 =
256), a value of 0 being black and a value of 255 being white. The digitization process takes place line by
line until all 525 lines are complete. The number of pixels for 525 lines is in many instances 640
horizontally and 480 vertically. The analog signal consists of gray scales: no color is involved and none
produced as a result of digitization. Benefits of this process are that (1) some electronic noise detracting
from the quality of the image is eliminated, (2) when the gray scale is resolved by 256 levels, more
information can be obtained from the image than otherwise and (3) edge detail is improved, and so is
spatial resolution. Pixel size influences resolution because each pixel represents the smallest bit of
information available, i.e., an image made up of small pixels will show greater resolution than an image
made up of large pixels. More information on A to D conversion can be found in Appendix III

n timpul inspeciei, n care rezoluia spaial i contrastul sunt critice, informaii analogice ar
putea fi inadecvate, i este necesar mbuntirea funciei calculatorului. procesarea digital a
imaginii, ceea ce este posibil prin intermediul calculatoarelor desktop cu componentele interne
necesare. Aa cum este indicat, semnalul RS170 este un semnal analogic, care trebuie s fie
convertit ntr-un semnal digital nainte ca procesorul de imagini digitale a unui computer poate
lucra cu el. Acest lucru este menionat ca un convertor D, sau un convertor analog digital. Exist,
de asemenea, D la A convertoare sau convertoare digital analogice. Codurile digitale se bazeaz
pe sistemul numeric binar avnd 2 ca numr de baz ridicat la diferite puteri, de exemplu, 200 =
1 21 = 2, 22 = 4, 23 = 8, 24 = 16, 25 = 32, 26 = 64, 27 = 128, 28 = 256, Dispozitive electronice
digitale difer de dispozitive analogice deoarece valorile analogice schimb n mod continuu
ceea ce este reprezentat. Dispozitivele digitale schimba n trepte discrete, mai degrab dect n
mod continuu. Semnalul digital are dou moduri: fie pornit sau oprit. Acestea sunt valori
discrete. computerele moderne sunt digitale, deoarece semnalele au o calitate mai bun i
poatetransmite i stoca mai multe informaii dect sistemele analogice.
Prin utilizarea unui convertor A la D, semnalul RS170 poate fi digitalizat sau modificat la o
valoare digital.
Procesoare de imagine digitale sunt proiectate pentru a lucra cu 525 linii, 30 de cadre pe
secund.. Componenta folosita pentru a converti semnalul este menionat ca un cadru de tip
Grabber, care convertete semnalul Acest convertor ncepe de asemenea, cu colul din stnga sus
a imaginii. Cu un convertor de opt bii, de la A la conversie D va avea loc i rezolva liniile de gri
n 256 de niveluri (28 = 256), o valoare de 0 fiind negru i o valoare de 255 fiind de culoare alb.
Procesul de digitalizare are loc linie cu linie, pn cnd toate 525 linii sunt complete. Numrul
de pixeli pentru 525 linii este n multe cazuri 640 pe orizontal i pe vertical 480. Semnalul
analogic este format din solzi gri. Beneficiile acestui proces sunt (1) unele zgomote electronice
micornd calitatea imaginii sunt eliminate, (2), atunci cnd scara de gri este rezolvat prin 256
de niveluri, mai multe informaii pot fi obinute din imagine i (3) detalile de margine sunt
mbuntite, i rezoluia spaial. Pixelul influeneaz dimensiunea rezoluie, deoarece fiecare

pixel reprezint cel mai mic bit de informaii disponibile, adic o imagine format din pixeli mici
vor arta rezoluie mai mare dect o imagine format din pixeli mari. Mai multe informaii
despre A la D de conversie pot fi gsite n Anexa III


In TV images, snow or electronic noise detracts from the picture; in RTR, this random noise can also be
present. If the CCD camera is subject to heat, the noise level will rise, detracting from the image. Some
CCD cameras are kept at a lower temperature by a special cooling unit. The digital image processor can
eliminate electronic noise by a process called frame averaging which is a mathematical process. The
image represented by a set of numbers, i.e., is made up of shades of gray, where 0=black and 255=white.
Each pixel is, in effect, given a value between zero and 255. True image information stays the same from
one frame to the next. If numerical values are averaged from one frame to the next, the bogus value plus
the negative effects of random noise are diminished. The data in the tables below illustrate the effect of
frame averaging.

n imagini TV, zpad sau zgomotul electronic de imagine se micsoareaza; n RTR,

acest zgomot aleatoar poate fi de asemenea prezent. n cazul n care camera CCD este supus la
cldur, nivelul de zgomot se va ridica, micornd imaginea. Anumite camere CCD sunt
meninute la o temperatur mai mic de o unitate de rcire special. Procesorul de imagine
digital poate elimina zgomotul electronic printr-un proces numit cadru de calculare a mediei,
care este un proces matematic. Imaginea reprezentat de un set de numere, adic, este alctuit din
nuane de gri, unde 0 = negru i 255 = alb. Fiecare pixel are o valoare ntre zero i 255
.Informatia imaginii adevarate rmne aceeai de la un cadru la altul. n cazul n care valorile
numerice sunt mediate de la un cadru la altul, valoarea fals, plus efectele negative ale zgomotului
aleatorii sunt diminuate. Datele din tabelele de mai jos ilustreaz efectul cadrului de mediere.





































Pixel Values of 1 st Frame

Pixel Values of 2nd Frame

Pixel Values of Averaged

If frame averaging is used, the image is improved; and the more frames averaged, the better the results for
noise decreases with the square root of the number of frames averaged. That is, if 16 frames are
averaged, noise reduction would be a factor of 4. There is a limit: averaging takes time, namely, 1/30 of a
second for each frame averaged. After a certain number of frames are averaged, it is difficult to see any
advantage in increasing the number of frames, and inspection slows.

There are three types of averaging used: integration averaging, averaging, and recursive averaging.
Integration averaging requires a still image. Recursive averaging has the advantage that it can be
performed on the fly. Number of frames that can be averaged is usually 32 or fewer; with integration and
averaging, greater numbers of frames can be dealt with.

In cazul n care se utilizeaz cadru de mediere, imaginea este mbuntit;cu cat mai
multe cadre medii, cu att mai bine, rezultatu de zgomot scade cu rdcina ptrat a numrului
de cadre medii. Aceasta este, n cazul n care 16 cadre sunt n medie, de reducere a zgomotului ar
fi un factor de 4. Exist o limit: de mediere are nevoie de timp, i anume, 1/30 dintr-o secund
pentru fiecare cadru n medie. Dup un anumit numr de cadre sunt n medie, este dificil de a
exista vreun avantaj n creterea numrului de cadre i de inspecie ncetinete.
Exist trei tipuri de calculare a mediei utilizate: integrare de mediere, mediere i
calculare a mediei recursiv. Integrarea necesit o calculare a mediei imagine static. mediere
recursive are avantajul c poate fi realizat pe zbor. Numrul de cadre medii este de obicei de 32
sau mai puine; cu integrare i mediere, un numr mai mare de cadre pot fi tratate.


Real-time radiography is generally less sensitive than film radiography. A number of factors
contribute to this difference. These factors include (1) the difference in size between the silver halide
grains of film and the cesium iodide needles of the RTR scintillation screen, (2) the phosphor bloom of
the fluorescent screen, (3) the random pixel noise inherent in image intensifiers, and (4) the pin-cushion
image distortion also inherent in these systems.

Real-time radiography systems using an image intensifier tube have poorer resolution (2-4 line
pairs per millimeter) [LP/mm] than film (10-20 LP/mm) does. Phosphor bloom, especially in the output
conversion phosphor, is the principle cause of diminished resolution.


As has just been established, a number of factors can adversely affect RTR image quality. With the use of
image enhancement techniques, the difference in sensitivity between film and RTR can be decreased. A
number of image processing techniques, in addition to enhancement techniques, can be applied to
improve the data usefulness. Techniques include convolution edge detection, mathematics, filters, trend
removal, and image analysis. The various image enhancements and image processing techniques will be
introduced in this section. Computer software programs are available, including some or all of the
following programs:


RTR este, n general, mai puin sensibil dect radiografia de film. O serie de factori
contribuie la aceast diferen. Aceti factori includ (1), diferena de mrime ntre granulele de
halogenur de argint de film i ace de iodur de cesiu a ecranului de scintilaie RTR, (2) Marirea
cu fosfor a ecranului fluorescent, (3) pixeli aleatoari, zgomot inerent n intensificatoare de
imagini i (4), imaginea distorsiunea de pini pernei.

Sisteme de radiografie n timp real, folosesc un tub intensificator de imagine si au o

rezoluie mai slab (2-4 perechi de linii pe milimetru) [LP / mm] dect filmul (10-20 LP / mm),
Dup cum tocmai a fost stabilit, o serie de factori pot afecta negativ calitatea imaginii
RTR. Prin utilizarea tehnicilor de mbuntire a imaginii, diferena de sensibilitate ntre film i
RTR poate fi sczut. O serie de tehnici de procesare a imaginii, n plus fa de tehnicile de
clasice pot fi aplicate pentru a mbunti utilitatea datelor. Tehnicile includ de detectare a
convoluie margine, matematic, filtre, ndeprtarea tendin, i de analiz a imaginii. Diversele
mbuntiri de imagine i tehnici de procesare a imaginii vor fi introduse n aceast seciune.
Programe software de calculator sunt disponibile, inclusiv unele sau toate dintre urmtoarele
Enhancement programs make information more visible.
Histogram equalization-Redistributes the intensities of the image of the entire range of
possible intensities (usually 256 gray-scale levels).
Unsharp masking-Subtracts smoothed image from the original image to emphasize intensity
Convolution programs are 3-by-3 masks operating on pixel neighborhoods.
Highpass filter-Emphasizes regions with rapid intensity changes.
Lowpass filter-Smoothes images, blurs regions with rapid changes.
Math processes programs perform a variety of functions.
Add images-Adds two images together, pixel-by-pixel.
Subtract images-Subtracts second image from first image, pixel by pixel.
Exponential or logarithm-Raises e to power of pixel intensity or takes log of pixel intensity.
Nonlinearly accentuates or diminishes intensity variation over the image.
Scaler add, subtract, multiply, or divide-Applies the same constant values as specified by the
user to all pixels, one at a time. Scales pixel intensities uniformly or nonuniformly.
Dilation-Morphological operation expanding bright regions of image.

Erosion-Morphological operation shrinking bright regions of image.

Noise filters decrease noise by diminishing statistical deviations.
Adaptive smoothing filter-Sets pixel intensity to a value somewhere between original value
and mean value corrected by degree of noisiness. Good for decreasing statistical, especially
single-dependent noise.
Median filter-Sets pixel intensity equal to median intensity of pixels in neighborhood. An
excellent filter for eliminating intensity spikes.
Sigma filter-Sets pixel intensity equal to mean of intensities in neighborhood within two of
the mean. Good filter for signal-independent noise.
Trend removal programs remove intensity trends varying slowly over the image.
Row-column fit-Fits image intensity along a row or column by a polynomial and subtract fit
from data. Chooses row or column according to direction that has the least abrupt changes.
Edge detection programs sharpen intensity-transition regions.
First difference-Subtracts intensities of adjacent pixels. Emphasizes noise as well as desired
Sobel operator-3-by-3 mask weighs inner pixels twice as heavily as corner values. Calculates
intensity differences.
Morphological edge detection-Finds the difference between dilated (expanded) and eroded
(shrunken) version of image.
Image analysis programs extract information from an image.
Gray-scale mapping-Alters mapping of intensity of pixels in file to intensity displayed on a
computer screen.
Slice-Plots intensity versus position for horizontal, vertical, or arbitrary direction.
Lists intensity versus pixel location from any point along the slice.
Image extraction-Extracts a portion or all of an image and creates a new image with the selected
Images statistics-Calculates the maximum, minimum, average, standard deviation, variance,
median, and mean-square intensities of the image data.

Programele de mbuntire fac mai multe informaii vizibile.

Egalizare a histogramei-redistribuind intensitile imaginii ntregii game de posibile intensiti
(de obicei 256 de niveluri de scar de gri).
Programele de convoluie sunt 3-cu-3 masti care opereaz pe cartiere de pixel.
Filtruul Highpass -Evideniaz regiunile cu modificri ale intensitii rapide.
Lowpass imagini filtru netezete, estompeaz regiunile cu schimbri rapide.
Math proceseaz programele pentru a efectua o varietate de funcii.
Add images -adaug dou imagini mpreun, pixel-cu-pixel.
Subtract images -a doua imagine din Scade prima imagine, pixel cu pixel.
Exponeniale sau logaritm-raises e la putere de intensitate a pixelilor sau ia jurnal de intensitate a
Nonlinearly accentueaz sau diminueaz variaia de intensitate asupra imaginii.
Demultiplicator aduga, scdere, nmulire, sau divide Se aplic aceleai valori constante aa
cum sunt specificate de ctre utilizator pentru toi pixelii, unul la un moment dat.
operaiune-dilatatie morfologic extinderea regiunilor luminoase ale imaginii.
operaiune eroziuni morfologic n scdere regiuni luminoase ale imaginii.
Filtrele de zgomot reduce zgomotul prin diminuarea deviaii statistice.
Intensitatea pixelilor adaptive Filtru de netezire a-seturi la o valoare undeva ntre valoarea
iniial i valoarea medie corectat n funcie de gradul de noisiness. Bun pentru reducerea
zgomotului statistic, n special cu un singur dependent.
Intensitatea median a pixelilor de filtrare-seturi egal cu intensitatea medie de pixeli n cartier.
Un filtru excelent pentru eliminarea tepi de intensitate.
Intensitatea Sigma filtru-seturi pixel egal cu valoarea medie de intensiti n vecintatea n
termen de dou din media. Filtru bun pentru zgomotul produs de semnal independent.
Programele de eliminare tendin a elimina tendinele de intensitate care variaz lent deasupra
Rnd-coloan fit-Se potrivete intensitatea imaginii, de-a lungul unui rnd sau coloan printr-un
polinom i scade n form de date. Rnd sau coloan alege n funcie de direcia pe care are cele
mai puine modificri brute.

Programele margine de detectare a ascui regiunile de intensitate-tranziie.

Prima diferen-intensiti ale pixelilor Scade adiacente. Subliniaz zgomot precum i
modificrile dorite.
Sobei masca operatorului-3-de-3 are o greutate de pixeli interioare, de dou ori mai puternic ca
valori de col. Diferenele de intensitate Calculeaza.
margine morfologic de detectare se gaseste diferenta dintre dilatat (extins) i versiunea erodat
(retractat) a imaginii.
Programele de analiz a imaginii extrage informaii dintr-o imagine.
Scara gri cartografiere-Alters cartografiere a intensitii pixelilor n fiier pentru intensitatea
afiat pe un ecran de computer.
Slice-Loturi de intensitate fa de poziia de direcie orizontal, vertical sau arbitrar.
Intensitatea listelor versus locaie a pixelilor din orice punct de-a lungul felie.
Imagine de extracie lungire o poriune sau toate dintr-o imagine i creeaz o nou imagine cu
zona selectat.
Imagini statistici Calculeaza maxime, minime, deviaia medie standard, variaia, mediana, i
intensitatea datelor de imagine medie-ptrat.


Many RTR systems are interfaced with computers for image manipulation and enhancement.
The X-ray generator also can be interfaced with the computer via an RS232C serial data port. This means
that all RTR controls are at the fingertips of the keyboard operator. This type of connector allows for
serial communication between computers and peripheral equipment. The RS232C standard is set by the
Electronics Industry Association (EIA) and controls the voltages and timing, among other things. The
connector itself may be a DB25 connector (Figure 12) or a DB9 connector (Figure 13). This same
connector is used to connect ultrasonic and eddy current machines to computers.

Interfanta Computerizata
Multe sisteme de RTR sunt completate cu calculatoare pentru manipulare de imagine i
de mbuntire.
Generatorul de raze X, de asemenea, poate fi interfaat cu computerul printr-un port serial
de date RS232C. Acest lucru nseamn c toate controalele sunt RTR la ndemna operatorului
tastaturii. Acest tip de conector permite comunicarea serial ntre calculatoare i echipamente
periferice. Standardul RS232C este stabilit de ctre Asociaia Industriei Electronice (EIA) i
controleaz tensiunile i calendarul, printre altele. Conectorul n sine poate fi un conector DB25
(figura 12) sau un conector DB9 (Figura 13). Acelai conector este utilizat pentru a conecta
maini de curent cu ultrasunete i turbionari la calculatoare.

Figure 12. DB25 connector.

Figure 13. DB9 connector.


Part-handling equipment such as manipulators can make it possible to move, rotate, or tilt the item being
inspected. In some instances, a conveyer satisfactorily moves parts through the X-ray cabinet for
inspection. Five axis manipulators are available for maximum part manipulation. Stepper motors allow
for very close control of the movement of the part. When a manipulator is selected, the maximum weight
of the inspection item must be considered. Fixtures such as a chuck may be necessary to hold the part. In
automatic inspection systems, the manipulator must be capable of being programmed to sequence

properly so that all inspection points are covered. Devices used for fixtures must be materials not
contributing to scatter radiation. A sample positioning system is shown in figure 14.


Echipamente de manipulare a probelor, cum ar fi manipulatori pot face posibil pentru a
muta, roti, sau nclinai elementul care este inspectat. n unele cazuri, o band rulant se mic n
mod satisfctor pri prin dulapul cu raze X pentru inspecie. Cinci manipulatoare de ax sunt
disponibile pentru o parte manipulare maxim. Motoarele stepper permit un control foarte
apropiat al micrii piesei. Atunci cnd este selectat un manipulator, trebuie s se ia n
considerare greutatea maxim a elementului de inspecie. Luminri, cum ar fi o mandrin poate
fi necesar pentru a ine partea. n sistemele de control automat, manipulatorul trebuie s poat fi
programat pentru a secventa in mod corespunzator, astfel nct toate punctele de inspecie sunt
acoperite. Dispozitivele folosite pentru luminri trebuie s fie materiale care nu contribuie la
risipi radiaii. Un sistem de poziionare prob este prezentat n figura 14.


Shutters and masks can help limit the radiation beam as it is directed toward the part, thereby
decreasing scatter radiation by narrowing and decreasing beams to a specific location. Shutters are
usually mounted on the front of the image intensifier and help keep radiation not passing through the part
from impinging on image intensifier screen and causing phosphor blooming. Figure 15 shows examples
of collimators and shutters.

Colimatoarele i sisteme de inchidere

Obloane i mti poate ajuta la limita fasciculul de radiaii este ndreptat spre partea,
scznd astfel radiaia de dispersie prin ngustarea i diminuarea grinzilor la o anumit locaie.
Obloane sunt de obicei montate pe partea frontal a intensificatorul de imagine i de a ajuta la
meninerea radiaiilor care nu trece prin partea de pe ecran a imaginii lovete intensificator i
cauznd fosfor nflorit. Figura 15 prezint exemple de colimatori si rulouri.

Figure 15. Photographs of a beam collimator mounted on the x-ray tube on the left
and shutters mounted to the front of an image intensifier on the right.


Once an image has been produced, it may be necessary to make a copy for comparison purposes or for
future reference. Digital techniques, while offering the best in image quality, must use still images and so
consume large amounts of memory. VCR tapes can record movement, but quality is diminished. Here, as
with other aspects of RTR, compromise is necessary. Optical discs have high-capacity storage


The environment of the RTR equipment contributes to overall RTR performance and end results. The
control room should be dimly lit for viewing the monitor, and air conditioning can help keep the camera
and related equipment at a controlled temperature.

Odat ce o imagine a fost produs, poate fi necesar pentru a face o copie n scopuri de
comparaie sau pentru referine ulterioare. tehnici digitale, n timp ce ofer cea mai bun calitate
a imaginii, trebuie s utilizeze imagini statice i deci consum cantiti mari de memorie. Benzile
VCR pot nregistra micare, dar calitatea este diminuat. Aici, ca i cu alte aspecte ale RTR,
compromisul este necesar. Discurile optice au capaciti de stocare de mare capacitate.


Mediul nconjurtor al echipamentului RTR contribuie la performanta RTR si rezultatele
finale generale. Camera de control ar trebui s fie aprins slab pentru vizualizarea monitorului, iar
aerul condiionat poate ajuta la meninerea camerei i a echipamentelor aferente, la o temperatur


Whether equipment has the capacity to detect and show critical discontinuities is an important
consideration in RTR. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) E1255 indicates that the
system shall be checked each day, a log maintained and a system requalification required when image
quality is diminished. Equipment is usually much more sophisticated than that used for film radiography,
and it must be ascertained that equipment is performing as it should. ASTM E1411 is a standard practice
that can be used initially to qualify and later to requalify a system by determining how it performs in a
static mode-this means that the test object and the radiation beam are stationary. Many different
equipment configurations and arrangements are possible with RTR, and ASTM E1411, addresses the
elements of an RTR system operating together, rather than evaluating them individually. The procedures
intent is to obtain benchmark performance data at certain settings and a standardized test part. Because
inspection of actual parts involves different variables, results differ. Operations differ in their ability to
obtain optimum results from the system. Also, as a system ages, its performance diminishes because
various materials degrade, and the cesium iodide input screen is particularly prone to fading in the image
intensifier. Obtaining an image of quality indicator when the system is new (a socalled golden image) is
important because this image can be used for later comparison.

Measuring the focal spot of the X-ray tube can be done in accordance with ASTM E1165. The caveat is
that this procedure may not produce useful results when the nominal focal spot is smaller than 0.3 mm
(300 microns); with minifocus and microfocus X-ray tubes, this procedure is not recommended, for
geometric unsharpness greatly influences image quality. ASTM E1161 indicates that the film must be
sufficiently fine-grained to resolve discontinuities down to 0.025 mm (25 microns), or .001 inches. When
RTR is evaluated for use in locating small discontinuities, it is necessary to determine whether image
magnification is necessary. If magnification is used, the potential for geometric unsharpness increases
greatly unless extremely small focal spots (microfocus X-ray tubes) are used. To determine X-ray tube
resolution, the LP gauge is used, with values expressed in a certain number of LP/mm. Another test
device, made by Victoreen and consisting of a grid pattern also can be used. As indicated in ASTM E1255
section 6.24, spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity can be checked with LP test pattern and step,
respectively. The step wedge needs to be made from the same material as a test part and in various
thicknesses. (Refer to ASTM E1255 section 6.24.)


Dac echipamentul are capacitatea de a detecta i a arta discontinuitilor critice este un
aspect important n RTR. Societatea Americana pentru Testarea Materialelor (ASTM) E1255
indic faptul c sistemul trebuie s fie verificate n fiecare zi, un jurnal meninut i este necesar
un sistem atunci cnd calitatea recalificrii a imaginii este diminuat. Echipamente este de obicei
mult mai sofisticat dect cel utilizat pentru radiografia de film, i trebuie s se verifice c
echipamentul funcioneaz aa cum trebuie. ASTM E1411 este o practic standard, care poate fi
utilizat iniial pentru a se califica, iar mai trziu s se recalifice un sistem prin determinarea
modului n care efectueaz ntr-un mod static, acest lucru nseamn c obiectul de ncercare i
fasciculul de radiaii sunt staionare. Mai multe configuraii de echipamente diferite i
aranjamente sunt posibile cu RTR, i ASTM E1411, abordeaz elementele unui sistem RTR care
funcioneaz mpreun, mai degrab dect evaluarea acestora n mod individual. intenie
Procedura este aceea de a obine date de referin la performana anumitor setri i o parte de
teste standardizate. Pentru c inspectarea pieselor reale implic diferite variabile, rezultate
diferite. Operaiuni difer n capacitatea lor de a obine rezultate optime din sistem. De
asemenea, ca un sistem de varsta, performanele sale se diminueaz, deoarece diferitele materiale
se degradeaz, iar ecranul de intrare iodur de cesiu este deosebit de predispus la decolorare n
intensificator de imagine. Obinerea unei imagini de indicator de calitate atunci cnd sistemul
este nou (o imagine de aur aa-numita) este important, deoarece aceast imagine poate fi folosit
pentru comparaie mai trziu.

Msurarea locului focal al tubului de raze X poate fi efectuat n conformitate cu ASTM

E1165. Avertizm c aceast procedur nu poate produce rezultate utile atunci cnd la faa
locului focal nominal este mai mic de 0,3 mm (300 microni); cu tuburi Minifocus i
microfocus cu raze X, nu este recomandat aceast procedur, pentru unsharpness geometric
influeneaz foarte mult calitatea imaginii. ASTM E1161 indic faptul c filmul trebuie s fie
suficient de fin granulat pentru a rezolva discontinuiti n jos pn la 0,025 mm (25 microni),
sau .001 inch. Atunci cnd RTR este evaluat pentru utilizarea n localizarea discontinuiti mici,
este necesar s se determine dac este necesar o mrire a imaginii. n cazul n care se utilizeaz
o mrire, se utilizeaz potenialul de creteri unsharpness geometrice n mare msur, cu excepia

cazului n pete extrem de mici focale (tuburi microfocus cu raze X). Pentru a determina rezoluia
tub de raze X, indicatorul LP este utilizat, cu valori exprimate ntr-un anumit numr de LP / mm.
Un alt dispozitiv de testare, realizat de Victoreen i constnd dintr-un model de gril, de
asemenea, poate fi utilizat. Dup cum se indic n ASTM E1255 seciunea 6.24, rezoluia spaial
i sensibilitatea de contrast poate fi verificat cu model de test LP i treapt, respectiv. Treapta de
pan trebuie s fie fcut din acelai material ca i o parte de testare i n diferite grosimi. (A se
vedea ASTM E1255 seciunea 6.24.)


Image quality indicators are used in RTR for the same reasons they are in film radiography to measure the
performance of technique and equipment. (As with film radiography, contrast changes (seeing small
thickness changes) and definition in film radiography or spatial resolution in RTR is being able to see
small anomalies.) Image quality indicators (IQI) such as plaque type and wire type pentameters can be
used, but the orientation to the X-ray beam is critical. IQIs original use was to indicate quality with a still
image, not with a moving image as with RTR.

A line pair gauge is a device used in many radioscopic inspections (See Figure 16). This deviceindicates
how many line pairs can be discerned in a width of one millimeter (.03937 inches). The resolving
capability of an RTR system often is referred to as a certain number of LP, meaning LP/mm. Typical
ranges are 2-5 LP/mm for conventional RTR systems and up to20 LP/mm for microfocus RTR systems.


indicatori de calitate a imaginii sunt utilizate n RTR pentru aceleai motive ele sunt n
radiografia de film pentru a msura performana tehnicii i echipamentelor. (Ca i n cazul
radiografie film, contrast modificri (vznd mici modificri grosime) i definiie n radiografia
film sau o rezoluie spaial n RTR este posibilitatea de a vedea anomalii mici.) Indicatori de
calitate a imaginii (IQI), cum ar fi tipul de plac i srm pentameters de tip pot fi folosite , dar
orientarea ctre fasciculul de raze X este critic. utilizarea IQIs iniial a fost de a indica o
calitate cu o imagine static, nu cu o imagine n micare ca i cu RTR.

Un indicator de linie pereche este un dispozitiv folosit n multe inspecii radioscopice (A se

vedea figura 16). Acest lucru deviceindicates ct de multe perechi de linii pot fi identificate ntr-o
lime de un milimetru (.03937 inchi). Capacitatea de rezoluie a unui sistem RTR este adesea
menionat ca un anumit numr de LP, adica LP / mm. intervale tipice sunt 2-5 LP / mm pentru
sistemele convenionale RTR i pn to20 LP / mm pentru sistemele Microfocus RTR.

Figure 16. Photograph of a line pair resolution gauge.

Ten LP/mm indicates a space of .003937 inches (1 mm divided by 10). The line pair gauge is made of
lead or gold and situated on a plastic base providing a good contrast. The lines at one end of the gauge
are spaced widely and converge at the opposite end. When the separation of the lines no longer is visible,
the perpendicular line closest to it is noted. Starting at the end of the gauge with the wide spaces,
perpendicular lines are counted until no separation can be seen, and this number of lines is noted as well.
With the gauge being used for this example, there are 18 perpendicular lines on one side and 18
corresponding numbers on the top opposite side. Matching the number with its line indicates the LP/mm.
For instance, if the separation of lines cannot be seen beyond the mark between that labeled 3 and that
labeled 4, this is 3 LP/mm. If the limit of separation of the lines is one mark below the last mark where
they converge or the 17th mark, this corresponds to 18 LP/mm because the 17th number down the scale is
18. In some instances, a part with an actual defect can be used as a check to see if the equipment is
performing at a minimum level.

Another device made by Victoreen appears in Figure 17. This is a wire mesh LP gauge which is used to
verify the resolution achievable by the system. This gauge reads in LP/in and can be placed directly on
the image intensifier.

10 LP / mm indic un spaiu de .003937 inci (1 mm mprit la 10). Ecartamentul liniei pereche

este confectionata din plumb sau aur i situate pe o baz de plastic, oferind un contrast bun.
Liniile de la un capt al gabaritului sunt distanate pe scar larg i converg la captul opus. Cnd
separarea liniilor nu mai este vizibil, se observ perpendicularei cel mai aproape de ea. Pornind
de la captul gabaritului cu spatiile largi, linii perpendiculare sunt numrate pn cnd nici o
separare poate fi vzut, iar acest numr de linii este de remarcat, de asemenea. Cu ecartamentul
utilizat pentru acest exemplu, exist 18 linii perpendiculare pe o parte i 18
Numerele corespunztoare pe partea opus de sus. Potrivire numrul cu linia sa indic LP / mm.
De exemplu, n cazul n care separarea liniilor nu poate fi vzut dincolo de marcajul dintre care 3
etichetate i etichetate 4, acest lucru este de 3 LP / mm. n cazul n care limita de separare a
liniilor este o marca sub ultima marca, acestea converg sau marca al 17-lea, aceasta corespunde
la 18 LP / mm, deoarece numrul 17 n jos scara este 18. n unele cazuri, o parte cu un defect real
poate fi folosit ca o verificare pentru a vedea dac echipamentul funcioneaz la un nivel minim.
Un alt dispozitiv realizat de Victoreen apare n figura 17. Acesta este un LP ecartament
plas de srm, care este folosit pentru a verifica rezoluia realizabile de ctre sistem. Gabaritul
citete n LP / i pot fi plasate direct pe intensificator de imagine.

Figure 17. Photograph of line pair gauge made by Victoreen.

In summary, several different image quality indicators can be used, the most common being the LP gauge
for spatial resolution and the step wedge for contrast sensitivity. Calibration blocks or actual test pieces
with known discontinuities also are used. Some test procedures require a check of the image before and
after each inspection shift.

Pe scurt, mai muli indicatori de calitate a imaginii diferite pot fi utilizate, cele mai
frecvente fiind gabaritul LP de rezoluie spaial i a penei pas pentru sensibilitatea de contrast.
blocuri de calibrare sau piese de ncercare propriu-zise cu discontinuiti cunoscute, de
asemenea, sunt utilizate. Anumite proceduri de testare necesit o verificare a imaginii, nainte i
dup fiecare transfer de inspecie.


In some systems, the constant interaction of a trained operator is required to determine whether the status
is acceptable or rejectable. More sophisticated systems use automatic defect recognition (ADR) or
artificial intelligence software that determines the status, without the constant need for an operator.
Complexity depends on the use of the system, which might determine part presence or absence,
placement, position, density variations, or size variations. For example, in certain instances, defective
conditions are known and ADR algorithms, or stepby-step procedures for solving problems, are written.
If the ground pin of an airbag initiator is being inspected for proper diameter and location, the ADR can
be written to look where the ground pin should be. If it is not in the correct position, the ADR rejects it.
This method allows for the examination of specific regions of interest (ROI), permitting faster inspection
and decreasing the amount of image storage space.

More complex analysis may involve the programs algorithm to determine whether, in a certain ROI,
there are any deviations such as discontinuities, pores, cracks, or inclusions. The RTR system may be
tasked with automatic inspection (without operator interaction), making various required checks and
proper archival records all at a relatively high rate of speed. Figures 18 through 22 show some of the
different objects that are inspected with RTR systems but almost any component could be inspected use


O analiz mai complex poate implica algoritmul programului pentru a determina dac,
ntr-un anumit ROI, exist abateri, cum ar fi discontinuiti, pori, fisuri sau incluziuni. Sistemul
RTR poate fi nsrcinat cu inspecia automat (fr interaciune operatorului), efectuarea
diverselor verificri necesare i nregistrrile de arhiv corespunztoare toate la o rat relativ
ridicat de vitez. Figurile 18 la 22 prezint unele dintre diferitele obiecte care sunt inspectate cu
sisteme RTR, dar aproape orice component ar putea fi inspectate utilizarea RTR.

Figure 18. Hot stage turbine blade.

Figure 20. Aluminum connecting rod.


Figure 19. Capacitor.

Figure 21. Air bag inflator.

Figure 22. Electrical breaker.


The use of RTR for industrial purposes is the result of the NDT industrys latching on to what the
medical profession has been doing with real time in previous years. As a result, there are fewer
specifications for RTR than for the NDT test methods, which have been established for a longer period.

At present, specifications are being put together by industry users in various settings. These are written
for in-house use and for such organizations as the ASTM. (Refer to the applications booklet for
worksheet exercises related to the ASTM.)

The following is a list of RTR specifications listed in the 1996 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section
3 Volume 03.03, Nondestructive Testing. Note the definitions for standard practice, standard test
method, and standard guide.

An ASTM standard practice is a definitive procedure for performing one or more specific operations or
functions and does not produce a test result.

A standard test method is a definitive test procedure producing a result.

A standard guide is a series of options or instructions recommending no specific course of action.


A standard practice for controlling the quality of radiographic examination using wire image
quality indicators.


A standard practice for controlling the quality of radiological examination of electronic



A standard guide for radioscopy.

A standard practice for hole-type image quality indicators.
A standard practice for radioscopy.


A standard practice for qualifying radioscopic systems.


A standard test method for radioscopic examination of weldments.


A standard guide for computer tomography (CT) imaging.


A standard guide for storage of media containing analog or digital radioscopic data.
A standard guide for data fields for computerized transfer of digital radiological test data.

E1647 A standard practice for determining contrast sensitivity in radioscopy. E1734

standard practice for radioscopic examination of castings.

Other standards applying to RTR involve the American National Standard that establishes requirements
for the design and operation of installations using gamma and X-rays for nonmedical uses. The objective
is to protect personnel from overexposure to radiation. The Code of Federal Regulations or the rules of
the applicable state department of health provide other safety RTR equipment rules/regulations relating to


Utilizarea RTR n scopuri industriale este rezultatul industriei NDT care prinde ceea ce
profesia medicala facea n anii anteriori. Ca urmare, exist mai puine specificaii pentru RTR
dect pentru metodele de testare NDT, care au fost stabilite pentru o perioad mai lung.

In prezent, caiete de sarcini sunt cerate de ctre utilizatorii din industrie. Acestea sunt
scrise pentru a fi utilizate in-house i pentru organizaii, cum ar fi ASTM. (Consultai broura
aplicaiilor pentru exerciii de foaie de lucru legate de ASTM.)

Urmtoarea este o list a specificaiilor RTR enumerate n Cartea anual a standardelor

ASTM, seciunea 3 volum 03.03, "Testarea nedistructiv" 1996. Not definiiile pentru "practica
standard", metoda standard de testare i ghid standard de.

O practica standard ASTM este o procedur definitiv pentru efectuarea uneia sau mai
multor operaii sau funcii i nu produce un rezultat al testului.

O metod de testare standard este o procedur de testare definitiv producerea unui rezultat.

Un ghid standard este o serie de opiuni sau instruciuni care recomand nici un curs specific de

E747 O practic standard pentru controlul calitii examinrii radiografice cu ajutorul unor
indicatori de calitate a imaginii de srm.

E801 O practic standard pentru controlul calitii examinrii radiologice a dispozitivelor

E100 Un ghid standard pentru radioscopie.
E1025 O practic standard pentru indicatorii de calitate a imaginii de tip gaur.
E1255 O practica standard pentru radioscopie.
E1411 O practic standard pentru calificarea sistemelor radioscopice.
E1416 Metod de testare standard pentru examinarea radioscopic a sudurilor.
E1441 Un ghid standard pentru tomografie computerizat imagistica (CT).
E1453 Un ghid standard pentru stocarea de medii care conin date analogice sau digitale
E1475 Un ghid standard pentru cmpuri de date pentru transferul electronic al datelor testelor
radiologice digitale.
E1647 O practic standard pentru determinarea sensibilitii de contrast n radioscopie. E1734 O
practic standard pentru examinarea radioscopic a pieselor turnate.

Alte standarde care se aplic RTR implica American National Standard, care stabilete cerinele
pentru proiectarea i exploatarea instalaiilor care folosesc gamma si raze X pentru utilizri
nemedicale. Obiectivul este acela de a proteja personalul de la supraexpunerea la radiaii. Codul
reglementrilor federale sau regulile departamentului de stat care se aplic de sntate furnizeaz
alte norme de echipament RTR siguran / reglementri referitoare la radiaii.


Developing procedures for RTR involves several of the same concerns as that for NDT. As has been
stated before, certain industries are required to use RTR and others do so voluntarily. As a result, the
procedures used differ: some are very formal and specific; others may not be formal. One example of a
specific required procedure is discussed at the end of this section.

Discussions of these areas of procedure development follow next:


determining the inspection requirement and accept/reject criteria

defining part parameters

determining parameters for each area of interest

determining which quality control indicators, if any, to use

determining archival record needs

determining whether parameters meet specification requirements

defining personnel qualifications

verifying system resolution

determining fixtures, masking, shutters, etc.

10 determining defining equipment requirements

Determining the inspection requirements and accept/reject criteria. What discontinuities must be
detected? Cracks, voids, misalignment, or presence or absence of components? Welds may
evidence discontinuities such as incomplete penetration, nonfusion, or slag inclusion. Rolled
plates may evidence lamination; bars may evidence stringers or seams. Castings may evidence
porosity, blowholes, or shrinkage. Forgings may evidence bursts, laps, cold shuts, etc. What
inherent discontinuities exist? Does RTR afford the best probability of detection (POD) for this
part of material? Determining inspection requirements may involve testing and experimentation

to find critical areas if the product or material application is new. Previous industry and
acceptance standards must be considered.

Defining part parameters. What are the thickness and geometric considerations? What type of
material is involved? Is 100% inspection required, or will a sampling suffice? Does the part lend
itself to inspection on the fly? If image processing is to be done, then the part may have to be
stopped. Here, also, testing will probably have to be done to determine parameters. In instances
such as checking food products for contaminants, either the product can be penetrated and the
system will show enough contrast between the contaminant and the product, or it cannot be done.
Comparing RTR images with film images may be helpful.

Determining parameters for each area of interest. Does energy level and the MA need to be
varied for different ROIs? Which source-to-object and object-to-imaging detector distance needs
to be used? Must it be varied during the inspection? A scan plan must be defined: How is the
part to be moved? Tilted? Turned on its axis? What speed can be used which retaining and
detection capability? Testing and experimentation is needed, and comparison to existing filmbased imaging can be utilized if RTR has not previously been used on the part/material.

Determining which indicators, if any, to use. Film-based penetrameters are options, as are, wire
gauges, line pair gauges, and, in the case of food-product tests, a sphere of carbon and stainless
steel down to .5 mm measured through the product. If wire
penetrameters are used, decisions must be made as to what diameter of wire to use. A distinction
must be made between gauges used to set up and to establish the image quality of the system and
those used to check the radiographic image quality of production pieces/materials.

Determining archival record needs. Several possibilities are available. The traditional film
radiograph is considered to have a long archival life. In most instances, however, the archival life
of RTR is even longer. There are instances when due to the subjectivity of the interpretations
process, a need may arise to review an image. Analog recording involves the use of a videotape
recorder. This method is fairly inexpensive and the recorded images have a long life. The
videotape referred to in the application booklet was recorded this way. Hard-copy video
recordings can be made on thermally sensitive paper with modest quality and a limited shelf life.
Digital recording will produce an archival image of the same quality as the original image
because it is stored as a numerical pixel array. Two methods of recording are magnetic and
optical. Magnetic media include magnetic floppy and hard disc and magnetic tape. Optical
media include the laser optical disc and the laser holograph. Attention must be paid to protecting
recorded images that they are not written over. Digital image recording is suited best to single

frames onto a few frames of motion because a great deal of space is required for each video

Determining whether parameters meet specification requirements. What specs are involved? As
RTR gains wider acceptance and use, more and more specifications will emerge regarding the
process. Customers needs must be considered. These can involve a variety of material from the
traditional metals, to composites, to U.S. Department of Agriculture standards for food

Defining personnel qualifications. Because RTR is required at times, and optional at others,
personnel qualifications also differ. Requirements may be those of the American Society for
Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), or a written practice recognized by the ASME. Personnel may
be required to have Level II or III qualifications in radiography, with minimal additional training
in operating, imaging, and interpreting the system. Other sources of specifications may include
the American Welding Society (AWS),
American Petroleum Institute (API), National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Verifying system resolution. Addressing issues of checking the system itself and checking to see
if the resolution of an actual production piece with known defect(s) may be used, ASTM E1255
can be referred to for guidance. These resolution checks usually are conducted at least at the
beginning and at the end of each shift. It must be determined whether the test is to be conducted
in the static mode or on the fly.

Determining fixtures, masking, shutters, etc. Such determinations depend on the specific part and
material and can be determined best by means of testing and experimenting. Surfaces must meet
application specifications. With RTR, as with film radiography, weld ripples may need to be
conditioned so that they do not mask or become confused with the images of other
discontinuities. The area or the section examined must be identified and be traceable back to the
part at a later date, if need be.

10 Determining defining equipment requirements. The necessary components to produce final

image requirements is critical here. Application of RTR involves a wide variety of
parts/materials. Equipment is relatively expensive and, to keep costs down, only the components
necessary to produce the required image should be required. If magnification of images is not
necessary, microfocus X-ray tubes probably are not either. If a new system is being considered,
the decision needs careful consideration because a compromise between minimum system
capability and cost must be achieved.

Procedurile pentru RTR sunt n curs de dezvoltare si implic mai multe dintre aceleasi
preocupri ca si pentru NDT. Dup cum sa menionat mai nainte, anumite industrii sunt obligate
s utilizeze RTR i alii fac acest lucru n mod voluntar. Ca urmare, procedurile utilizate sunt
diferite: unele sunt foarte standardizate i specifice; altele nu pot fi standardizate. Un exemplu al
unei proceduri specifice necesare este discutat la sfritul acestei seciuni.

Discuiile din aceste domenii de dezvoltare procedur urmeaz urmtoare:

1. determinarea cerinei de inspecie i acceptare / respingere criterii
2. definirea parametrilor de piesa
3. determinarea parametrilor pentru fiecare domeniu de interes
4. determinarea calitii indicatorilor de control, dac este cazul, de a utiliza
5. determinarea necesitilor de nregistrare de arhiv
6. determina dac parametrii ndeplinesc cerinele caietului de sarcini
7. Calificarea personalului care definesc
8. verificarea sistemului de rezoluie
9. determinarea program, mascare, obloane, etc.
10. stabilirea necesarului de echipamente care definesc

1. Determinarea cerinelor de inspecie i de acceptare / respingere criterii. Ce

discontinuitile trebuie s fie detectate? Fisuri, golurile, nealinierea, sau prezena sau absena
componentelor? Sudurile pot evidential defecte, cum ar fi discontinuiti penetrarea incomplet,
nefuzinea, sau includerea de zgur. Plci laminate pot evidenia laminare; bare poat evidential

custuri. Piese turnate pot evidenia porozitate, garui de suflare sau contracie. Pot evidenia
exploziile piese forjate, se nchideri la rece etc. Ce exist discontinuiti inerente? RTR produce
cea mai bun probabilitate de detecie (POD) pentru aceast parte a materialului? Cerinele de
inspecie poate de stabilire implica testarea i experimentarea pentru a gsi zone critice, n cazul
n care produsul sau cererea de material este nou. trebuie s fie luate n considerare din industrie
i acceptare anterioare standarde.
2. Definirea parametrilor piesei. Care sunt consideraiile de grosime i geometrice? Ce tip
de material este implicat? Este de 100% de inspecie este necesar, sau va fi suficient o prelevare
de probe? Are parte se preteaz la inspecie pe zbor? n cazul n care procesarea imaginii trebuie
fcut, atunci partea poate s fie oprit. Aici, de asemenea, de testare va trebui, probabil, s fie
fcut pentru a determina parametrii. n cazuri, cum ar fi verificarea produselor alimentare pentru
contaminani, fie produsul poate fi penetrat, iar sistemul va arta suficient de contrast ntre
contaminant i produsul, sau nu se poate face. Compararea imaginilor RTR cu imagini de film
pot fi de ajutor.

3. Determinarea parametrilor pentru fiecare domeniu de interes. Are nivelul de energie i

nevoia MA de a fi variate pentru diferite ROIs? Care-surs-obiect i obiect-la-imagistica distan
detector trebuie s fie utilizat? Trebuie s fie variat n timpul inspeciei? Trebuie definit un plan
de scanare: Cum este partea care urmeaz s fie mutat? nclinat? Se ntoarse n jurul axei sale?
Ce vitez poate fi utilizat, care de reinere i este capacitatea de detecie? este necesar testarea i
experimentarea, i comparaia cu imagistica cu film existent poate fi utilizat n cazul n care nu
RTR a fost utilizat anterior pe partea / materialul.
4. Determinarea indicatorilor care, dac este cazul, de a utiliza. penetrametre pe baz de
film sunt opiuni, cum sunt, manometre de srm, linie pereche manometre, i, n cazul testelor
de alimente produs, o sfer de carbon i oel inoxidabil pn la .5 mm msurat prin produs. n
cazul n care srm
penetrametre sunt utilizate, trebuie luate decizii cu privire la ce diametrul de srm pentru
a utiliza. Trebuie fcut o distincie ntre manometre utilizate pentru a configura i pentru a

stabili calitatea imaginii sistemului i a celor utilizate pentru a verifica calitatea imaginii
radiografice a produciei de piese / materiale.
5. Determinarea nevoilor de nregistrare de arhiv. Mai multe posibiliti sunt disponibile.
Radiografia film tradiional este considerat a avea o via lung de arhiv. In cele mai multe
cazuri, cu toate acestea, durata de arhivare a RTR este chiar mai mult. Exist cazuri cnd din
cauza subiectivitatea procesului de interpretri, o necesitate poate aprea pentru a examina o
imagine. de nregistrare analogic presupune utilizarea unui nregistrator de casete video. Aceast
metod este destul de ieftin, iar imaginile nregistrate au o via lung. Caseta video se face
referire n broura de cerere a fost nregistrat n acest fel. Hard-copiere inregistrari video pot fi
realizate pe hrtie sensibile din punct de vedere termic, cu o calitate modest i o durat de via
limitat. nregistrare digital va produce o imagine de arhiv de aceeai calitate ca i imaginea
original, deoarece aceasta este stocat ca o matrice de pixeli numeric. Dou metode de
nregistrare sunt magnetice i optice. Suporturi magnetice includ floppy magnetice i hard disc i
band magnetic. Suporturile optice includ discul optic laser i hologram cu laser. Trebuie
acordat atenie protejrii imaginilor nregistrate c acestea nu sunt scrise peste. de nregistrare a
imaginilor digitale este potrivit cel mai bine pentru rame simple pe cteva cadre de micare,
deoarece o mare parte din spaiu este necesar pentru fiecare cadru video.
6. Determinarea dac parametrii ndeplinesc cerinele caietului de sarcini. Ce specificatii
sunt implicate? n ceea ce RTR ctig de acceptare i utilizare mai larg, mai multe specificaii
vor aprea n ceea ce privete procesul. trebuie s fie luate n considerare nevoile clientului.
Acestea pot INV


ASTM E1255 section 5.2 indicates that the purchaser and the supplier of radioscopic examination systems
must agree mutually upon a written procedure with the applicable requirements. Other recommendations
are as follows:

Equipment qualifications (system features that must be qualified to ensure adequate


Test-object scan plan: Test-object orientations, motions, and speed of manipulation necessary to
ensure that the examination will be thorough.

Radioscopic parameter (focal-spot size, source-to-object distance, object-to-image plane distance,


Image processing parameter (electronic noise reduction, contrast enhancement).

Image display parameters (brightness, contrast focus, and image linearity).

Accept/reject criteria (expected discontinuity types and rejection levels).

Performance evaluation (qualification tests to ensure system capabilities).

Image archiving requirements (for preserving and recalling the image at a later date).

Minimum operator qualification.

ASTM E1255 seciunea 5.2 indic faptul c cumprtorul i furnizorul sistemelor de
examinare radioscopice trebuie s convin de comun asupra unei proceduri scrise cu cerinele
aplicabile. Alte recomandri sunt dup cum urmeaz:
1. Calificri echipamente (caracteristici de sistem, care trebuie s fie calificat pentru a
asigura o performan adecvat).
2. Test-obiect plan de scanare: orientri Test-obiect, micri, i viteza de manipulare
necesare pentru a se asigura c examinarea va fi aprofundat.
3. Parametrul radioscopic (dimensiune focal spot, de la surs la obiect la distan, obiectla-imagine la distan plan, etc.).

4. Parametrul de procesare a imaginii (de reducere a zgomotului electronic, mbuntirea

5. Parametrii de afiare a imaginii (luminozitate, focalizare de contrast, i liniaritii
6. Acceptarea / respingere a unor criterii (tipuri de discontinuitate ateptate i nivelurile
de respingere).
7. Evaluarea performanelor (teste de calificare pentru asigurarea capacitilor de sistem).
8. Cerine de arhivare a imaginilor (pentru pstrarea i reamintind imaginea la o dat
9. Calificarea minim a operatorului.


When work is being done to the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code, there are
procedure requirements in Article 2 (a mandatory appendix). These are for use in examination of ferrous
and nonferrous weldments. Section II-221 lists specific areas that must be addressed in a written
procedure; they are as follows:

Material and thickness range

Equipment qualification

Test-object scan plan

Radioscopic parameters

Image processing parameters

Image display parameters

Image archiving

Sections of ASTM E1255 are referenced with the procedure requirements. Some requirements are
addressed as follows: examination data shall be recorded and stored on videotape, magnetic disc, or
optical disc.

A calibration block must be made of the same material type and product form as the test object. The
block may be an actual test object or fabricated to simulate the test object with known discontinuities.

An LP test pattern shall be used to evaluate system resolution. A step wedge must be used to evaluate
system contrast sensitivity. This wedge must be made of the same material as the test object and have
steps representing 100%, 99%, 98%, and 97% of the thickest and the thinnest sections to be inspected.
The system must be calibrated in the status mode (no motion between object and image detector) to
satisfying LP test pattern resolution, step wedge contrast sensitivity, and calibration test block detection
System performance parameters must be determined initially and monitored on a regular basis with the
system in operation to ensure consistent results. (Image intensifiers do degrade.) Here, once again, the
LP test pattern, step wedge, and calibration block must be used; and the golden image can be compared
with images produced over time.

The calibration block must be placed in the same position and manipulated through the same range and
speed of motion as the actual test object. This will be a check on the system performance in the dynamic
The system must have, at a minimum, the following features:

Radiation source

Manipulation system

Detection system

Information processing system

Image display system

Archiving system for records

Minimum information regarding radioscopic techniques must accompany test data. These must include at
least operator identification and system performance test data. The manufacturer must interpret test data
for acceptability before giving them to the inspector (an individual who checks for code compliance,
independently of the manufacturer.

Appendix IV contains a set of questions that should be answered about RTR specifications.


Atunci cnd se lucreaz la Societatea Americana pentru ingineri mecanici (ASME), cod,
exist cerine procedurale prevzute la articolul 2 (o anex obligatorie). Acestea sunt utilizate
pentru examinarea sudurilor feroase i neferoase. Seciunea II-221 enumer domenii specifice
care trebuie abordate ntr-o procedur scris; acestea sunt dup cum urmeaz:
1. Material i grosimi
2. Echipamente de calificare
Planul de scanare 3. Test-obiect
4. Parametrii radioscopice
5. Parametrii de procesare a imaginii
6. Parametrii de afiare Imagine
arhivare 7. Imagine

Sectiuni ASTM E1255 se face referire cu cerinele de procedur. Unele cerine sunt
abordate dup cum urmeaz: datele de examinare sunt nregistrate i stocate pe casete video,
discuri magnetice, sau disc optic.

Un bloc de calibrare trebuie s fie confecionate din acelai tip de material i forma
produsului ca obiectul testat. Blocul poate fi un obiect de test real sau fabricat pentru a simula
obiectul de testare cu discontinuiti cunoscute.

Un model de test LP se utilizeaz pentru a evalua rezoluia sistemului. O pan pas trebuie
s fie utilizat pentru a evalua sensibilitatea de contrast de sistem. Aceast pan trebuie s fie
confecionate din acelai material ca i obiectul testat i au etape reprezentnd 100%, 99%, 98%
i 97% din cea mai groas, iar cele mai subiri seciunile care urmeaz s fie inspectate. Sistemul
trebuie s fie calibrat n modul de stare (fr micare ntre obiect i detector de imagine) la
rezolutie satisfacatoare de testare LP model, sensibilitate de contrast pas de pan, precum i
cerinele de detectare a blocului de ncercare de calibrare.

Parametrii de performan ale sistemului trebuie s fie stabilite iniial i monitorizate n

mod regulat cu sistemul n funciune pentru a asigura rezultate consistente. (Intensificatoare de
imagini se degradeaza.) Aici, nc o dat, modelul de test LP, etapa pan, i trebuie s fie utilizat
blocul de calibrare; iar imaginea de aur poate fi comparat cu imaginile produse n timp.

Blocul de calibrare trebuie s fie plasat n aceeai poziie i manipulate prin acelai
interval i viteza de micare ca obiect de test real. Aceasta va fi o verificare asupra performanei
sistemului n modul dinamic.

Sistemul trebuie s aib, cel puin, urmtoarele caracteristici:

A. sursa de radiaie
b. sistemul de manipulare
c. sistemul de detectare a
d. Sistemul de procesare a informaiei
e. Sistem de afiare a imaginii
f. Sistem de arhivare pentru nregistrrile

Informaii minime privind tehnicile de radioscopice trebuie s nsoeasc datele de

testare. Acestea trebuie s includ cel puin identificarea operatorului i a datelor de ncercare a
performanelor sistemului. Productorul trebuie s interpreteze datele de testare pentru
acceptarea nainte de a le da inspectorului (o persoan care verific respectarea codului,
independent de fabricant.

Anexa IV conine un set de ntrebri pe care trebuie s se rspund cu privire la caietul de

sarcini RTR.

All units of length in the metric system are derived from the meter. Although not a commonly
used unit of measure in engineering, the meter is included here to show place value. Prefixes to the basic
unit denote unit length. For example, the prefix cent- signifies onehundredth; therefore, one centimeter is
one one-hundredth of a meter.


1 kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters (m)


1 hectometer (hm) = 100 m

Deca = 10

1 decameter (dam) = 10 m
1 meter (m) = 1 m

deci = 0.1

1 decimeter (dm) = 0.1 m

centi = 0.01

1 centimeter (cm) = 0.01 m

milli = 0.001

1 millimeter (mm) = 0.001 m

micro = 0.000001

1 micrometer (micron) = 0.000001 m

Conversion between units of length in the metric system involves moving the decimal point to the
right or to the left. Listing the units in order from largest to smallest will indicate how many places to
move the decimal point and in which direction.
To convert 4,200 cm to m, write the metric units in order, from largest to smallest. km hm dam
m dm cm mm __ __ micron
Because centimeters are two places to the right of meters, converting cm to m requires moving
two decimal positions left; therefore, 4,200 cm = 42.00 m.
To convert 5.0 microns to mm, list the metric units in order, from largest to smallest. km hm
dam m dm cm mm __ __ micron
Because microns are three positions to the right of millimeters, converting micron to mm requires
moving the decimal point three places left; therefore, 5.0 microns = .005 mm.
Measures of Length

10 millimeters (mm) = 1 centimeter (cm)

10 centimeters = 1 decimeter (dm)
10 decimeters = 1 meter (m)
1,000 meters = 1 kilometer (km)

Metric and English Conversion Table Linear Measure

1 kilometer = 0.6214 mile

1 mile = 1.609 kilometers

1 meter = 39.37 inches

1 yard = 0.9144 meter

3.2808 feet

1 foot = 0.3048 meter

1.0936 yards

1 foot = 304.8 millimeters

1 centimeter = 0.3937 inch

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters

1 millimeter = 0.03937

1 inch = 25.4 millimeters

1 micron = 0.00003937 inch

To convert from mm to inches; divide the millimeters by 25.4.


mm = 21.6535 in.

Or multiply by .03937; 550 mm x .003937 = 21.6535 in.

To convert from in. to mm, multiply the in. by 25.4.

Example: .750 x 25.4 = 19.05 mm.
Or divide by .03937:
Example: .750 in. divided by .03937 = 19.05 mm.

ANEXA I Conversie metric

Toate unitile de lungime din sistemul metric sunt derivate de la contor. Dei nu este o
unitate de msur utilizat n mod obinuit n inginerie, este inclus contorul aici pentru a arta
valoare loc. Prefixe la unitatea de baz denota unitate de lungime. De exemplu, cent- prefixul
semnific onehundredth; De aceea, un centimetru este o sutime dintr-un metru.

1 kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters (m)


1 hectometer (hm) = 100 m

Deca = 10

1 decameter (dam) = 10 m
1 meter (m) = 1 m

deci = 0.1

1 decimeter (dm) = 0.1 m

centi = 0.01

1 centimeter (cm) = 0.01 m

milli = 0.001

1 millimeter (mm) = 0.001 m

micro = 0.000001

1 micrometer (micron) = 0.000001 m

Conversie ntre unitile de lungime n sistemul metric presupune deplasarea punctului

zecimal la dreapta sau la stnga. Listarea unitilor n ordine de la cea mai mare la cel mai mic va
indica numrul de locuri pentru a muta punctul zecimal i n ce direcie.
Pentru a converti 4.200 cm la m, scrie unitile metrice, n ordine, de la cea mai mare la
cea mai mic. km baraj hm m dm cm mm __ __ microni
Pentru c centimetri sunt dou locuri la dreapta de metri, de conversie cm la m necesit
deplasarea dou poziii zecimale din stnga; De aceea, 4.200 cm = 42.00 m.
Pentru a converti 5,0 microni la mm, lista unitilor metrice, n ordine, de la cea mai
mare la cea mai mic. km baraj hm m dm cm mm __ __ microni
Pentru c microni sunt trei poziii la dreapta de milimetri, de conversie microni la mm
necesit deplasarea punctului zecimal de trei locuri din stnga; Prin urmare, 5,0 microni = 0.005

Msuri de lungime

10 milimetri (mm) = 1 centimetru (cm)

10 cm = 1 decimetru (dm)
10 decimeters = 1 metru (m)
1.000 de metri = 1 kilometru (km)

1 kilometer = 0.6214 mile

1 mile = 1.609 kilometers

1 meter = 39.37 inches

1 yard = 0.9144 meter

3.2808 feet

1 foot = 0.3048 meter

1.0936 yards

1 foot = 304.8 millimeters

1 centimeter = 0.3937 inch

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters

1 millimeter = 0.03937

1 inch = 25.4 millimeters

1 micron = 0.00003937 inch

Pentru a converti de la mm la inch; mprii milimetri de 25,4.

Exemplu: mm = 21.6535 n.
Sau se nmulete cu 0.03937; 550 mm x 0.003937 = 21.6535 n.

Pentru a converti de la n. La mm, se nmulete n. Cu 25,4.

Exemplu: 0.750 x 25,4 = 19,05 mm.
Sau se mparte la 0.03937:
Exemplu: 0.750 n mprit la .03937 = 19,05 mm..


Today, the term digital is a word we hear frequently because digital circuits are becoming so widely used
in computation, robotics, medical science and technology, communication, transportation, etc. Digital
electronics developed from the principle that the circuitry of a transistor could be designed and fabricated
easily to have an output of one or two voltage levels, based on its input voltage.

A transistor is a semiconductor used in circuits that acts as a high-speed switch or to provide

amplification. Transistors have taken the place of vacuum tubes.

The two voltage levels are usually 5 volts (high) and 0 volts (low); the levels can be represented by 1 and
0. The binary numbering system (base-2 numbering system) is one of the numbering systems used in
digital electronics. A digital value is represented by a combination of on and off voltage levels written as
a string of 1s and 0s.

When applying technology, we are constantly dealing with quantities that must be measured, monitored,
recorded, or manipulated. These values must be able to be represented efficiently and accurately. Two
ways of representing these values are analog and digital.

In analog representation, a quantity is represented as on a voltage meter movement or current; the

representation is proportional to the value of the quantity. One example is a column of mercury in a
thermometer. The height of the mercury represents the temperature, and its height changes as the
temperature rises or falls. Another example is an audio microphone, in which sound waves from the
voice alter as they impinge on the microphone; these variations cause output voltage to vary
proportionally. The important point to remember about analog representation is that the output
represented can have a continuous range of values, i.e., the temperature in a room can have any value
ranging from say 60 F to 85 F, and the height of the mercury would respond accordingly.

Digital, on the other hand, utilizes circuitry whereby quantities are represented not proportionally, but by
symbols called digits. An example is the digital watch, which displays the time in the form of decimal
digits. Even though the time of the day is changing continuously, the digital watch changes in steps or

increments of a minute, or second, or hour. Put another way, an analog value is continuous, but a digital
value is discrete; because of this difference, when reading a digital value there is no uncertainty but the
value of an analog quantity depends on how the person reads it and the value may be different from that
which the next person reads.

Consider the following examples and indicate whether they are analog or digital:

ten-position switch

water flowing out of a meter

temperature of a room

grains of sand on a beach

speedometer on an automobile

Answers: A. digital, B. analog, C. analog, D. digital (the number of grains is a discrete value), E. analog
if its the needle type, and digital if its the numerical readout type. Digital systems are usually electronic,
but they can be mechanical, pneumatic, or magnetic. Examples are digital computers and the telephone
system, the worlds largest digital system.


Astzi, termenul este un digitale cuvnt pe care l auzim frecvent, deoarece circuitele digitale
devin att utilizate pe scar larg n calcul, robotica, stiinta medicala si tehnologie, comunicare,
transport, etc electronice digitale dezvoltat de la principiul c circuitele unui tranzistor ar putea fi
proiectate i fabricate cu uurin s aib o putere de una sau dou niveluri de tensiune, n funcie
de tensiunea de intrare.

Un tranzistor este un semiconductor utilizat n circuite care acioneaz ca un comutator de mare

vitez sau pentru a oferi amplificare. Tranzistorii au luat locul tuburilor cu vid.

Cele dou niveluri de tensiune sunt, de obicei 5 voli (ridicat) i 0 voli (sczut); nivelurile pot fi
reprezentate de 1 i 0. Sistemul de numerotare binar (sistemul de numerotare de baz 2) este unul
dintre sistemele de numerotare utilizate n domeniul electronicii digitale. O valoare digital este
reprezentat printr-o combinaie de on i off nivele de tensiune scrise ca un ir de 1 si 0.

Atunci cnd se aplic tehnologia, suntem n mod constant de-a face cu cantiti care trebuie s fie
msurate, monitorizate, nregistrate, sau contrafcute. Aceste valori trebuie s fie n msur s fie
reprezentate n mod eficient i cu acuratee. Dou modaliti de reprezentare a acestor valori sunt
analogice i digitale.

n reprezentarea analogic, o cantitate este reprezentat ca o micare contor de tensiune sau

curent; reprezentarea este proporional cu valoarea cantitii. Un exemplu este o coloan de
mercur ntr-un termometru. nlimea de mercur reprezint temperatura, i i modific nlimea
acestuia pe msur ce temperatura crete sau scade. Un alt exemplu este un microfon audio, n
care undele de sunet de voce modifica, deoarece acestea afecteaz pe microfon; aceste variaii
cauzeaz tensiunea de ieire s varieze n mod proporional. Cel mai important sa ne amintim
despre reprezentarea analogic este c producia a reprezentat poate avea un interval continuu de
valori, adic, temperatura ntr-o camer poate avea orice valoare variind de la spune 60 F 85 F,
iar nlimea mercurului ar rspunde n mod corespunztor .

Digital, pe de alt parte, utilizeaz un circuit prin care cantitile sunt reprezentate nu
proporional, ci prin simboluri numite cifre. Un exemplu este ceas digital, care afieaz timpul
sub form de cifre zecimale. Chiar dac timpul zilei se schimb n mod continuu, schimbrile de
ceas digital n trepte sau trepte de un minut, sau a doua, sau o or. Pune-un alt mod, o valoare
analogic este continu, dar o valoare digital este discret; Din cauza acestei diferene, atunci
cnd citii o valoare digital nu exist nici o incertitudine, dar valoarea unei cantiti analogice
depinde de modul n care persoana citete i valoarea poate fi diferit de cea pe care persoana
urmtoare se spune.

Luai n considerare urmtoarele exemple i s indice dac acestea sunt analogice sau digitale:

A. comutator de zece poziii

b. apa care curge dintr-un metru
c. temperatura unei camere
d. boabe de nisip pe o plaj
e. vitezometru pe un automobil

Rspunsuri: A. digitale, B. analogice, C. analogice, D. digitale (numrul de boabe este o valoare

discret), E. analogic dac este tipul de ac, i digital, n cazul n care este numeric tipul de citire.
Sistemele digitale sunt, de obicei, electronice, dar ele pot fi mecanice, pneumatice sau
magnetice. Exemple sunt calculatoare digitale i a sistemului de telefonie, cel mai mare sistem
digital din lume.

They are easier to design because switching circuits are used.

Storage of information is easy because switching circuits can latch onto information and hold as
long as needed.

If more accuracy and precision is necessary, there is more of both, because additional switching
circuits simply need to be added.

More complex programming can be done.

Circuits are not affected as much by noise or fluctuation in voltage.

Integrated circuit chips have a higher degree of integration.

Digital quantification of values does have some limitations. Values in the real world, e.g., temperature,
position, pressure, velocity, and flow rate, are mainly analog. We may digitally express these quantities
by saying the temperature is 80, but we are simply making a digital estimation of an inherently analogical

To represent accurately a complicated musical signal such as a digital string, several samples of the
analog signal must be taken. The analog signal is produced when sound waves hit the microphone. The
waves make a diaphragm move back and forth in proportion to the sound pressure received. This
diaphragm (a conductor) moving back and forth in a magnetic field creates a voltage. Notice that the
voltage trace in Figure 10 is constantly changing in value. The first point taken is at 2 volts; this converts
to the binary number 0000 0010. (See figure 1.)


1. Ele sunt mai uor de proiectat, deoarece sunt utilizate n circuite de comutare.
2. Stocarea informaiilor este uor, deoarece circuitele de comutare poate dispozitivul de blocare
pe informaii i meninei, atta timp ct este necesar.
3. n cazul n care este necesar mai mult acuratee i precizie, exist mai mult de att, deoarece
circuitele de comutare suplimentare, pur i simplu trebuie s fie adugate.
4. Mai multe complexe de programare se poate face.
5. Circuitele nu sunt afectate n egal msur de zgomot sau de fluctuaie n tensiune.
6. Chips-uri cu circuite integrate au un grad mai mare de integrare.

cuantificarea digital a valorilor are unele limitri. Valorile din lumea real, de exemplu,
temperatura, poziia, presiunea, viteza i viteza de curgere, sunt n principal analogice. S-ar putea
exprima digital aceste cantiti de a spune temperatura este de 80, dar suntem pur i simplu face
o estimare digital a unei cantiti n mod inerent analogica.

Pentru a reprezenta corect un semnal muzical complicat, cum ar fi un ir de caractere digitale,

trebuie luate mai multe eantioane ale semnalului analogic. Semnalul analogic este produs atunci
cnd undele sonore a lovit microfonul. Undele fac o diafragm mite nainte i napoi, n mod
proporional cu presiunea acustic primit. Aceast diafragm (un conductor) se deplaseaz
nainte i napoi ntr-un cmp magnetic creeaz o tensiune. Observai c linia de tensiune din
figura 10 este n continu schimbare n valoare. Primul punct de luat este de la 2 voli; acest
lucru se convertete la numrul binar 0000 0010. (A se vedea figura 1)

Figure 1. Graphical representation of the analog to digital conversion process.

Next, more and more points are taken as samples. To play back the music, this process is reversed. The
more samples taken, the more exact the reproduction of the original conversion can be. Extra steps are
involved, but when imperfections are introduced into a digital signal, variation in the digital level does
not change the on to the off level. The human ear picks up this variation in an analog level, however.
So digitizing can eliminate certain unwanted signals. Because it can help electronic noise, this
characteristic of digital electronics is beneficial in RTR. Moreover, the number of steps (resolution) that
the analog signal can be divided into is determined by converters bit number. If you were converting an
analog signal ranging from 0 16 volts and you had a 2-bit converter, the number of steps would be 2 2 =
4, or four steps. Each value of analog voltage sampled, therefore, would be digitized and given one of
four voltage values. This would not be very accurate or useful. If you used an 8-bit converter, however,
the resolution in 28=256, and now each step will equal 16/256 or 0.0625 volt (1/16 volt). This would
provide much greater accuracy. Many converters currently used in RTR systems are 8 bit. Range of
grays, which provides contrast, to be at 256 different values, where 0 equals black and 255 equals white.
In RTR, use of A-to-D and D-to-A converters common because of the advantages of each, but they do
take time and add complexity and some expense to the system.

n continuare, mai multe i mai multe puncte sunt utilizate ca probe. Pentru a reda muzica, acest
proces este inversat. Cele mai multe probe prelevate, cu att mai exact reproducerea conversiei
original poate fi. msuri suplimentare sunt implicate, dar cnd imperfeciunile sunt introduse
ntr-un semnal digital, variaia nivelului digital nu se schimba "activat" la nivelul "off". Urechea
uman preia aceast variaie ntr-un nivel analogic, cu toate acestea. Deci, "digitizarea" poate
elimina anumite semnale nedorite. Deoarece aceasta poate ajuta la zgomotul electronic, aceast
caracteristic a electronicii digitale este benefic n RTR. Mai mult dect att, numrul de pai
(rezoluie) care semnalul analogic poate fi mprit n este determinat de numrul convertor de
bii. Dac ai fost conversia unui semnal analogic variind de la 0 - 16 voli i ai avut un
convertor 2-bii, numrul de pai ar fi 22 = 4, sau patru trepte. Fiecare valoare a tensiunii
analogice eantionai, prin urmare, ar fi digitalizate i dat fiind una dintre cele patru valori ale
tensiunii. Acest lucru nu ar fi foarte exacte sau utile. Dac ai folosit un convertor de 8 bii, cu
toate acestea, rezoluia din 28 = 256, iar acum fiecare pas va fi egal cu 16/256 sau 0,0625 voli
(1/16 voli). Acest lucru ar oferi mult mai mare acuratee. Multe convertoare utilizate n prezent
n sistemele RTR sunt de 8 bii. Gama de nuane de gri, care ofera un contrast, pentru a fi la 256
de valori diferite, n cazul n care 0 este egal cu negru i 255 este egal cu alb. n RTR,
utilizarea A-la-D i D-to-O convertoare comune din cauza avantajelor fiecruia, dar ei iau timp i
se adaug complexitate i u