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“Employee Job Fit in Bank Of Baroda”
SUBMITTED TOWARDS THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT (Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India-Equivalent to MBA) ACADEMIC SESSION 2009-2011
Submitted to: Prof. Timira Shukla Chairperson-PGDM IMS Ghaziabad
Submitted by : NIKHIL SINGH
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES C-238 BULANDSHAHR ROAD LAL QUAN, PB-57 GHAZIABAD 201009
This is to certify that We, the student of Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) 3rd Trimester were engaged in Project programme Working on the project titled “Employee Job Fit in Bank Of Baroda”, under the guidance of Prof. Timira Shukla at Institute of Management Studies, Lal Quan, Ghaziabad, U.P. The data mentioned in this report were obtained through internet by us religiously. Data obtained from Primary data, Internet, books, journals and magazines available to us has been duly acknowledged. We, hereby affirm that the work has been done by us with utmost diligence and sincere Endeavour in all its aspects and results reported in this study are genuine and true to best of our knowledge.
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, GHAZIABAD
This is to certify that this report contains bonafide work of Neeti Shree, Neha Gulati, Neha Maindoliya, Neha Rathi, Neha Sahni, Neha Sharma, Neha Singh, Nikhil kr. Garg, Nikhil Singh, Nitesh Kumar, Nitin Lathwal During Term III, session 2009‐2011 for the subject Research Methods in Business(RMB). DATE: Signature of Faculty (Timira Shukla)
A single person alone can never be credited for performing any extraordinary work successfully. It is only possible with the continuous and constant help and guidance that we receives from others and team members. With due respect and regards we wish to express my deep sense of gratitude, indebtedness and sincere phrases of thanks to Prof. Timira Shukla (IMS Ghaziabad) for her valuable mentoring and exuberant guidance, and her support for providing this guidance for making this project successfully. We are highly obliged by the constant support that we have got from our faculty in the project. Finally we would say that the project has helped discover our self. We could decipher that we had talents unknown to our self. Thank you, once again. Neeti Shree(BM-09116) Neha Gulati(BM-09117) Neha Maindoliya (BM-09118) Neha Rathi (BM-09119) Neha Sahani (BM-09120) Neha Sharma (BM-09121) Neha Singh (BM-09122) Nikhil kumar Garg(BM-09123) Nikhil Singh(BM-09124) Nitesh Kumar(BM-09127) Nitin Lathwal(BM-09128)
Defining ideal job is one of the most important aspects of any job search, yet it is often ignored. Why? Because many people simply search for a job like the last one they had. You thought you had finally found the perfect job. It was a promotion with a salary increase, new challenges, and offered professional growth. But in just a short period of time you realize this is not the ideal fit. Fit is essential because it allows you to feel good about your job and will enable you to better perform and grow. A bad fit can lead to serious repercussions such as frustration, poor job performance, leaving your job, and possibly ending up with a poor reference. “Fit” relates to the similarities or match between the individual job candidate and the workplace.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Declaration Certificate Acknowledgement Abstract Table of content 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Fit defined 1.2 The Importance of Fit 1.3 Benefits of aligning “ job fit” 1.4 Implementing Job Fit In The Organization 2.0 Justification of The Study 3.0 Literature Review 4.0 Objective of The Study 5.0 Research Methodology 6.0 Recommendations 7.0 Summary and Conclusion 8.0 Limitations. References Annexure Page No. ii iii iv v vi 7-10 7-8 8-9 9 9-10 11 12-13 14 15-18 19 20 21 22 23-26
Section 1 Introduction
Knowing yourself is essential in finding a good job fit, career experts say. Do you want to lead a department or do you prefer a more low-key, back-office job? What do you wish to gain from your career? What are you willing to tolerate from an employer – and what aren’t you willing to tolerate? Knowing what you want is important and knowing what you don’t want is equally important. Defining ideal job is one of the most important aspects of any job search, yet it is often ignored. Why? Because many people simply search for a job like the last one they had. You thought you had finally found the perfect job. It was a promotion with a salary increase, new challenges, and offered professional growth. But in just a short period of time you realize this is not the ideal fit. Fit is essential because it allows you to feel good about your job and will enable you to better perform and grow. A bad fit can lead to serious repercussions such as frustration, poor job performance, leaving your job, and possibly ending up with a poor reference. Finding the perfect job does not have to be difficult however, there’s no full proof way to ensure a perfect match, but the more research you do, the more likely you are to end up in the right place. One advantage of having been in a job you dislike is that you know what to avoid. Although it’s difficult to tell if something is going to suit you until you actually do it, having a close look at day-to-day realities reduces the risk of making another mistake. When companies make the decision to terminate an employee, the explanation for their action often involves the concept of corporate “fit.” In a recent study, companies indicated that 85 per cent of terminations were based on behavioral incompatibility or lack of fit. Most companies, however, are hard-pressed to define or give substance to the concept of “fit” and seldom give it attention during the recruitment and selection process where the focus tends to be on technical competency only.
1.1 FIT Defined “Fit” relates to the similarities or match between the individual job candidate and the workplace. Known more formally as person environment fit, the theory has been around since the early 1900s. Since then, a large body of research has amassed supporting its validity and usefulness as an employee selection tool. It has proven to have wide-ranging impact on a variety of factors, including individual job satisfaction, productivity, and employee turnover rates. Recent evidence suggests it deserves more attention than it is currently given during recruitment activity. Fit theory is multi-faceted and can be broken down into four primary components: • Person-job fit (PJ) is the area most widely addressed by hiring authorities. At its most basic level, it relates to the technical competency of the job candidate in relation to the technical job demands. Of equal importance, however, are the underlying human job factors — the personality characteristics and personal work traits that are so critical to on-the-job success. Examples of human job factors include attention to detail, abstract reasoning skills, the ability to persuade or influence, a sense of urgency, creativity, process-focus, being a team player, or the ability to work in isolation. • Person-group fit (PG) and person-supervisor fit (PS) are self-explanatory and relate to the interpersonal alignment between and among the parties. • Person-organization fit (PO) is the area least often considered, and yet research demonstrates that this type of fit is critical to both organizational success and individual health and well being. PO fit relates to the similarities or match between the individual’s values, beliefs, interests and personal work traits, as well as the values, beliefs, and culture of the workplace. The key concept that underpins PO fit is values-alignment. The degree of values-alignment directly impacts the employee’s sense of job satisfaction, level of organizational commitment, and sense of belonging. 1.2 The Importance of Fit Fit is essential because it allows you to feel good about your job, says Carter Womack, president and chief executive officer of Leadership at its Best in Columbus, Ohio. People who fit in at their workplace are better able to perform and grow, he says. Ignoring warnings of a bad fit can lead to serious repercussions.
"You may find yourself frustrated, leaving your job and possibly end up with a bad reference," he says. A variety of factors can lead to a bad job fit, ranging from holding opposing views on etiquette or ethics, to having divergent interests, to possessing conflicting views on the direction of the HR office. Knowing which factors are most important to you is key. 1.3 Benefits of aligning “ job fit” with the candidate when filling any position Every single employee is important to the company’s advancement. And therefore hiring is one of the most important responsibilities a manager possesses. Even hiring a third grade performer brings about a lot of change in the position of the company in the market. Research has shown that having the right people in the jobs brings a lot of business benefits to the organization like: • • • Reduced turnover Increased productivity Increased job satisfaction
Having an efficient selection system in place also results in: • Better knowledge of the requirement of the job • • • • • Capability to distinguish how top performers differ from the other employees More effective recruiting of the job openings Ability to ask focused questions, job specific questions to discover who are the candidates who actually fit in the job Better understanding of new employees’ developmental needs for success in the job Improved coaching by managers to help new employees
1.4 Implementing Job Fit In The Organization. The Job Fit Test is designed to assess certain aspects of the person’s work habits, work attitudes and analytical skills that are essential for success in the industry. The test is meant to help one understand your strengths and Preferences to evaluate your potential to build your career, to identify areas in which you need additional training to succeed in the corporate world.
This test has three types of questions, statements, scenarios and skill testing questions. The respondent is required to examine the statements and indicate the degree to which the answers apply to him. For the scenarios, the respondent should answer according to how he would most likely to react in such a situation. The analytical questions should be answered according to the viewpoint of the respondent. The person is even allowed to use a calculator, piece of paper and a pen for this part of the test. To receive the most correct results, the respondent should answer the questions as accurately as possible and with honesty. There are measures in place to pick up attempts to misrepresent one, or to answer untruthfully. After finishing the test one can receive the snapshot of the results with an introduction, graph and a personalized interpretation of one’s test scores.
Section 2 Justification Of Study
We have chosen this topic because this is a concern for every organization and also of individual employees. It is very important that right person is chosen for right job thus “Study of EmployeeJob Fit” is matter of high concern while recruiting and post-recruitment as well. Person-job fit refers to the match between the abilities of a person and the demands of a job or the desires of a person and the attributes of a job. Thus job involvement and satisfaction all depends upon the employee job fit. An employee can give his optimum input only when the job is challenging or appealing and when organization’s goal matches one’s own goal thus everything is interdependent. So we chose this topic as subject of our study.
Person job fit is an important concept in the organizational behavior research. During past few years lot of work has been done on it. This work has given very important results and proved that person job fit is very crucial for the smooth working and higher performance of an organization. Jansen and Kristof-Brown, (2006) said in their study, Just as job satisfaction includes satisfaction of an employee with his work, his co-workers, and his pay, person job fit is a general construct made of lit with the work, work duties, and job profiles. Werbal and Gilliland (1999) gave the concept of person job fit is the traditional foundation for employee selection (). The most important concern in the organizations for employee selection has been of finding those applicants who have the skills and abilities required to do the job. Traditionally, person-job i.e. P-J fit is assessed by determining the demand of the job through job analysis, which identifies the essential job task that an incumbent performs, and requisite skills, knowledge and abilities to perform the job task. Taylor in 1911 stated, the process of determining P-J fit increasingly gain importance with identification of both statistically reliable and valid process that can be used to determine P-J fit. Determination of P-J fit has also achieved legal support with the development of uniform guidelines (1978) on employee selection. Dawis, 1992; Edwards, Caplan, & Harrison, (1998); Muchinsky & Monahan, 1987; Schneider, Kristof, Goldstein, & Smith, (1997) said, Reviews of person job fit research have summarized studies but said little about the theoretical progress made by these studies. In general person job fit refers to the harmony, agreement, match or any kind of similarity between the person and the job. Caldwell & O’Reilly, 1990; Dawis & Lofquist, 1984; French, Caplan, & Harrison, (1982) concluded from their study that, The demand abilities perspective consists of the job demand that are required in order to carry out the task of the job and the abilities that the individual has that can be used to meet the job requirements. Job demands typically consist of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform at the acceptable level of the job. In employee selection 12
practices, the strategies to assess P-J fit include resumes, tests, interviews, reference checks, and a variety of the other selection tools. Studies conducted in the past have demonstrated that proved and structured procedures for determining P-J fit are proved to be more effective for selection of employees in comparison to unstructured techniques (Buckley &Russell, 1997; McDaniel, 1994). According to Locke, Shaw, Saari & Latham (1981), P-J fit can be defined as the fit between the abilities and the skills of the person and the need or requirements of the job or the desire of the person and the attribute of the job. The components of desires perspective include the desires of the individual and the characteristics and the attribute of the job that are required to satisfy those desires. Individual desire includes goals, Psychological needs (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984), interest (Campbell & Hansen 1981) and values (Locke , 1976). Job supplies have been described as general characteristic of the occupation (Holland , 1985) pay ( Lawer 1981) and other job perspective. McGrath (1976), Sells (1970), Shirom (1982) conducted a study on person job fit and said that Specific type of the person job fit involves the abilities of the person and the demands of the job. The person job fit can be analyzed into two dimensions (Edwards, 1991). Requirementsupplies reflects the match between the desires of the employee or the person and the job the individual performs. Demand-abilities reflect the similarities between the person’s knowledge, his skills and abilities and the nature of the job. All the researches conducted till date have emphasized a lot on the importance of job fit or person job fit. This study is an attempt to study about the job fit in the banking sector in India.
Section 4 Objective of the study
The study has been conducted with the objective of studying the job fit in the organizations. The main objective of the study has been the following: 1. To study and analyze the Job-Fit in the Bank Of Baroda (NCR and Near by Region branches.). 2. To find the solutions to the problems being faced by the Bank of Baroda regarding the job-fit of their employees. 4.1 Sources of data: 1. Primary Sources (Questionnaire). 2. Secondary sources (articles, books, journals, online journals). 4.2 Statistical tools used: 1. Chi-square test
Section 5 Research Methodology
The objective of the present study can be accomplished by conducting a systematic market research. Market research is the systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and findings that are relevant to different marketing situations facing the company. The employees of banking sector in Bulandshar and Ghaziabad area were taken as the population for this study. A convenient sample (non-probability sampling method) of employees was pooled up for the current study in which respondents of this study were requested to complete the questionnaire on voluntary basis. This will provide us with ample amount of qualitative & quantitative data over the years. For the purpose of the analysis of quantitative data, a number of statistical tools & techniques will be used. This will help us study the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the employees in banking sector and study the relationship between the various factors of satisfaction & dissatisfaction. The data collected was by means of well developed, adopted scale having four parts. This instrument was further modified according to the needs of the current study. The questionnaire was distributed among the employees of BANK OF BARODA (Bulandshar, Ghaziabad region) personally. Total of 35 questionnaires were distributed.. The data was collected in the time frame of 20 days and then responses were fed into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 for analysis and evaluation. The marketing research process that will be adopted in the present study will consist of the following stages: 5.1 Research Instruments: The research instruments generally used to collect the primary data are Questionnaires. 5.1.1 Questionnaires: Questionnaires are formal set of questions prepared to collect the required information. This is one of the most effective and popular techniques used in surveys. However, we had to be careful when drawing up questionnaires. Before deciding on the questions, it was 15
important to understand the exact nature of information required and who should be interviewed. The knowledge level of target respondents was kept in mind, while drawing of questions. The major junk of the respondents were the employees of the bank of managerial and the clerical ranks. 5.2 Sampling: The sample is a subset of a unit of a population, collected as a representation of it. The proper sample design is essential in marketing research. The sample has to be collected in such a way, that it represents the population. The sample was taken from the employees of bank of baroda considering the people of all age groups and work experiences. 5.2.1 Sample Size: The size of the sample is an important element in the research process as it has a direct affect on the result of the research. The sample size in our study is 35. The marketing research process that will be adopted in the present study will consist of following stages: * Collection of data:
Market research requires two kinds of data, i.e., Primary data and Secondary data,the organization being in the service industry, data gathering will involve usage of both primary and secondary data though there will be an extensive usage of primary data. There will be personal interview surveys mostly in branches. The questionnaires will contain close‐ended questions. Secondary data will be collected from various journals, books and web sites. 16
Analyze the collected information:
This involves converting raw data into useful information. It involves tabulation of data, using statistical measures with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 for analysis and evaluation. * Report research findings:
This phase will mark the culmination of the marketing research effort. The report with the research findings is a formal written document. We have used the statistical tools as 5.3 Analysis And Interpretation Of Data The chi-square test is used to test the statistical significance of the observed association in a cross-tabulation. It assists us in determining whether a systematic association exists between two variables. Therefore , we have used the chi-square test to determine the relationship between various variables that would affect the job fit of the employees of Bank of Baroda. Null Hypothesis : H0 : The two factors are independent of each other . Alternative Hypothesis : HA: The two factors are dependent on each other . As it is clear from the output of the chi- square test given in tables above that if we apply chi square test on the factors , ‘pay of employees and their effort level in the organization’ , then we find that the level of significance is .05 and pearsons chi-square is .013 which implies that null hypothesis is rejected and ‘pay of employees and their effort level in the organization” are dependent on each other .Similarly , if we consider the output of the chi- square test given in tables above between the “career profile of the employees and the level of inspiration given by the bank to the employees to move ahead’ , then we find that the level of significance is .05 and pearsons chi-square is .021 which implies that null hypothesis is rejected and the “career profile of the employees and the level of inspiration given by bank’ to the employees to move ahead “ are dependent on each other . Considering the factors, “ similarity between the values of the employees and the organization and collaboration with the supervisors” , we find from the above tables that level of significance is .05 and pearsons chi-square is .004 which implies that null hypothesis is rejected and factors , “similarity between the values of the employees and the organization and collaboration with the supervisors “are dependent on each other. As it is clear from the above tables that the rest of the factors are independent of each other. 17
Section 6 Recommendations
In our study we found that employees of Bank Of Baroda were satisfied with the job profile, their work performance, their pay or appraisal opportunities. Though the satisfaction levels differ when we carefully examined their position whether they are at clerical or managerial level, we found that managerial level employees were more satisfied and thus give in more effort. Though we didn’t find much scope on the part of banks to improve upon certain points we thought if Bank Of Baroda incorporates can further add to their benefit1. Though several training programs are conducted for bank employees but we think their number should be increased. 2. Banks should encourage healthy workplace relations because if employees would be highly satisfied in their jobs they will report good feelings about their bosses, coworkers and peers. 3. Proper breaks should be given between the working hours so as to make work more of fun rather than a burden.
Section 7 Summary and Conclusion
As it is clear from the interpretation that factors “pay of employees and their effort level in the organization” are dependent on each other . Therefore we conclude from this that if the bank gives more bonus and incentives to the employees , then employees are motivated to work more and give their best effort to the organization and vice-versa. Similarly , “career profile of the employees and the level of inspiration given by the bank to the employees to move ahead” are dependent on each other which implies that if the career profile of an employee is clerical , then there are certain oppurtunities provided by the bank in the form of exams which motivates employees to work hard and move to the managerial position. Considering the factors “ similarity between the values of the employees and the organization and collaboration with the supervisors” , we find that they are dependent on each other. This implies that if an employee’s and an organization’s goal matches , then an employee will be motivated and his performance will improve which in turn will yield positive relations with their supervisors .
Section 8 Limitations
The main limitation in study of our project titled “Study of Employee Job Fit” was that we needed to get our questionnaires filled by clerks and managers, which are of handful only in banks. Thus in order to collect data of sample size 51 we had to visit many branches of Bank Of Baroda in NCR and nearby regions likes Barielly. Another problem which we faced was that we started our collection of data at the time when the working of banks are most hectic as it is the time of closing so they were least interested in giving information to us, we had to persuade them to get the information. The most important of all we got SPSS installed in our Laptops but it was causing a lot of problem in macintosh, we had to enter our data twice before we ultimately run it and get the output.
Malhotra Naresh K.(2008), “Marketing Research”, Dorling Kindersley, India. Ozag, D., Duguma B.,(2004) “The Relationship Between Cognitive Process And Percieved Usefulness”. Narimawati,S.E.U, (2007),“The Influence of Work Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention Towards the Performance of Lecturers at West”, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, INSInet Publication, Java’s Private Higher Education Institution, Vol.3(7), pp. 549-557. Sekiguchi, T., (2004), “Toward A Dynamic Perspective Of Person-Environment Fit”, Osaka Keidai Ronshu, vol. 55. http://nationalcentreoflanguageassessment.com/Documents/PO%20Fit%20Model.pdf https://commerce.metapress.com/content/n578176j3676q530/resourcesecured/?t arget=fulltext.pdf&sid=rbmdu03j2zsq5hiyyofbtq21&sh=www.springerlink.com
Questionnaire This questionnaire is for an academic purpose. The information provided by you will be kept completely confidential.
1. Age: ……years 2. Gender. a) Male b) Female
3.Your qualification. a) Graduate b) Post graduate c) Professional
4. How long have you been working in the bank? …….years 5. Your current position a) Clerical b) Managerial
6. How satisfied are you with your job profile? a) Very satisfied b) Slightly satisfied c) Not at all satisfied d) Slightly dissatisfied. d) Strongly dissatisfied.
7.How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with ...?
satisfied nor satisfied
Your collaboration with your supervisor Your duties Your pay work
Your promotion Opportunities Your relations with your subordinates
8. Overall, how do you feel about your job? Strongly disagree In general, I like work at this Bank In general, I like my Job 9. Please indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following statements Strongly disagree I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected My values and the Bank’s values are very similar My skills and talent is being used in the best way in the bank Name: Designation: Slightly disagree Neither disagree Slightly Strongly agree Slightly disagree Neither agree disagree Slightly nor agree Strongly agree
agree nor agree
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