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1. Identify the effects of electricity on human body?

1. Muscular contraction
2. Tissue burns at entry and exit
3. Fibrillation irregular heart beat
4. Cardiac arrest
5. Respiratory paralysis Asphyxiation
6. Physical trauma

2. Identify the factors that influence the severity of an electrical shock?

1. Voltage Higher voltage greater the current.
2. Current The frequency of AC current
3. Duration of contact The length of time person is exposed
4. Current path - The route that electricity takes as it flows through body
5. Contact surface area The more the skin is in contact or live surface the higher
the severity.
6. Resistance Higher the resistance, lower the current.
7. Environment Any change in environmental factors, will affect the resistance and
increase the current flow and therefore increase severity.

3. Outline the emergency actions that may need to be taken in an event of an

electric shock?
1. On finding a person suffering from electric shock, raise the alarm by calling for








2. Switch off the power supply and if not possible press the isolation or
emergency switch.
3. Call for the ambulance.
4. If it is not possible to switch off the power, pull or push the person using a good
insulator such as wooden chair.
5. If a person is breathing, place him in a recovery position so that an open










6. If the person in not breathing, provide with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and in

the absence of pulse give chest compressions.
7. Treat the burns by placing a sterile dressing over the burns and secure
with bandage. Any loose skin or blister should not be touched nor any lotions or
ointments applied to the burned wound.










9. Remain with the person till the medical services arrive.

4. Fuse: Is a device made to prevent current over load and designed to melt at
predetermined value of current.
5. Earthing process of providing electricity with a least resistance path is
called earthing.

6. Residual current devices (RCD):

7. Advantages and disadvantages of Fuse and RCDs:
The fuse is cheap, simple to use and allows circuit to be broken and thus
stopping the current flow. However its limitations are it may easily be
replaced with a wrongly rated fuse or inappropriate fuse or improvised











The advantages of RCDs are that it may be designed to operate at low

currents, easy to test and reset, operates quickly (in upto 30 milliseconds).
However the disadvantages are that they may cause nuisance trips and are
generally expensive.

8. Checks on the plug?

1. Open the plug cover and check if correct fuse is fitted
2. Check the cord grip and the connections are secure
3. Check the terminals are secured and with no signs of interned damaged.

9. Identity the checks to be carried out by the user on portable electrical


1. Check it the recent PAT label is in place attached to the equipment.

2. Check it there are any naked wires visible
3. Check if the cable cornering is damaged or has cuts and abrasions.
4. Check if the cable is too long or too short.
5. Check it the plug is in good condition without any cracks in the casing or
bent pins.
6. Check if the cable is taped or any non-standard joints are present.

7. Check if the outer covering (sheath) of the cable gripped where it enters the
equipment (the colored wires should not be visible)
8. Check if the outer casing is not damaged or loose and all the screws are in place.
9. Check if there are any signs of overheating or burns on the plug, socket& cable or
the equipment.
10. Check if the trip devices are working effectively by pressing the test


1. Identify the various sources of ignition that can cause fire in a workplace?
1) Naked flames such as candles.
2) Electrical over heating's or electrical arcing.
3) Smokers material such as cigarettes lighters etc.
4) Hot works- any work involving the use of naked flames or that creates a significant
ignition source.
5) Chemical reactions, which gives off heat (exothermic)
6) Heating appliances such as electrical heaters, room warmers especially when left
7) Friction or mechanical heating generated by moving parts such as motors, gears&
8) Static electricity generated by the movement of substances or liquids in pipes etc.
9) Lighting.
10) Unsafe use and handling of flammable material like flammable liquids & gases.

2. Classification of fire?
Class A: Fires due to combustible materials or organic substances such as wood,
paper, plastic etc.
Class B: Fires due to flammable liquids such as petrol, diesel etc.
Class C: Fires due to flammable gases such as LPG, Propone, methane and H2S
Class D: Fires due to flammable metals such as magnesium, titanium, uranium.
Class F Fires due to high temperature cooking oils or fats.

3. Outline the various methods of heat transfer? (OR) outline the various
methods by which a fire can spread?
1) Conduction the transfer of heat through the material. Any materials such as
pipes wires etc. carry the heat from one place to the other and thereby spreading the
2) Convection movement of hotter gases up through the air. Hot air is less dense
than the cold air, which rises upwards and transfers the heat to the material above at
sufficient intensity to ignite any combustible material in its path.
3) Radiation movement of heat through the air generally in a fire, the direct
transmission of heat through the emission of heat waves from a surface can be so
intense that adjacent materials are heated sufficiently to burst into flames.

4) Combustion combustible material coming in contact directly with naked flames.

4. Identify the various types of firefighting media and give certain advantages
and disadvantages of each?
(i).Water based
Colour Red
Advantages 1. Suitable for class A fire.
2. Removes heat by cooling fire.
Limitation Not suitable for class B, D or F fires or lives electrical equipment.
(ii). Foam based
Colour cream
Advantages 1. Suitable for classes A & B
2. Fights by smothering
3. Prevents combustible vapours mixing with air
Limitation not suitable for live electrical equipments
(iii). Dry Powder
Colour blue
Advantage 1. Suitable for classes A, B & C
2. Fights by smothering
3. Functions by reacting chemically with constituents of fire
Limitation Very Messy
(iv). Carbon dioxide
Colour Black
Advantage 1.Suitable for B and electrical equipments.
2. Fights by smothering
3. Cools and excludes oxygen
Limitation 1. Not suitable for class D
2. Gets very cold during use and cause frost bites.

5. Roles and duties of fire marshals?

1) Fire marshals appointed to help and act in emergency situation.
2) To take roll calls of workers at assembly points and report back to responsible
3) Check all areas in the building to ensure that everyone knows that evacuation is in
progress and helps wherever necessary.
4) Gives special assistance to the disabled & infirm.

5) Investigate the site of the fire.

6. Outline the requirements to ensure the safe evacuation of persons from a
building in the event of a fire?
1) Provision of a means for detecting the fire and raising the alarm
2) An acceptable distance to the nearest available exit to the alternate routes
3) Escape routes of sufficient width and fire protected.
4) Clear signages of escape routes.
5) Provision of emergency lighting.
6) Escape routes kept clear off obstructions and exit doors unlocked and fire doors
closed to prevent the spread of fire.
7) Provision of firefighting equipment.
8) Appointment and use of fire marshals.
9) Procedures for evacuation of disabled people, children and visitors.
10) Identification of safe assembly points and the need to practice the evacuation
plan at regular intervals.


1. Identify various forms of biological agents?

1) Bacteria Bacteria are very small single-cell organisms which are much smaller
than the cells within the human body. Leptospira, Legionella.
2) Viruses Viruses are minute non-cellular organisms, which can only reproduce in
the host cells. They are very much smaller than bacteria and cannot be controlled by
antibiotics. Eg. HIV & Hepatitis
3) Fungus Moulds are particular group of very small fungi, which under well
conditions will grow on surfaces such as walls, cheese, bread etc.

Diseases caused by biological agents are:

1. Rabies
2. Anthrax
3. Weils disease
4. Hepatitis
6. Legionnaires disease.

Biological hazards control measure.

1. Cleaning and disinfecting
2. Water treatment programme
3. Vermin control
4. Personal hygiene
5. Immunization
6. Health surveillance
7. Specific training
8. PPE &respiratory equipment.

Forms of chemical agents:

Gases, vapour, mist, aerosols, smoke, fumes, dust, liquids and solids.

2. Leptospirosis
1) Caused by bacterium found in the urine of rats.
2) In humans the kidneys and liver are attacked causing high body temperatures and
headache followed by jaundice.

3) It enters the human body by the way of ingestion or absorption through the skin.
4) Weils disease is considered to be a more serve form of leptospirosis.

3. Legionella
1. Is an airborne bacterium and is found in a variety of water resources.
2. It produces a form of pneumonia caused by the bacteria penetrating to the alveoli
of the lungs. The disease caused is known as legionnaires disease. The bacteria
cannot survive at temperatures above 600C but grows between 20-45 C.
4. Corrosive Substances are those, which destroy the living tissues usually strong
acids. Eg: Caustic soda, ammonia, etc.,
5. Irritant Substances, which cause inflammation when they come in contact with
the skin (dermatitis) or mucous membrane and lungs.
5. Carcinogenic Substances, which may cause abnormal development of body
cells leading to cancer or increasing its incidence. eg: asbestos
6. Mutagenic Substances, which may cause hereditable genetic defects causing
abnormal changes in the cells. eg: methyl isocyanides.

7. Teratogenic

- Substances which can cause sterility or which are toxic for

reproduction causing the non-heritable effects on the progeny or increasing its

incidence. eg: vinyl chloride monomer

8. Acute effects caused due to exposure to high levels of substances generally for
a short duration of time and usually temporary and reversible, eg: exposure to
carbon monoxide leading to asphyxiation.
9. Chronic The effects due to long term or a prolonged exposure to the substance
leading to an effect which is permanent and generally irreversible, eg: exposure to
asbestos dust.

10. Routes of entry

1) Inhalation Breathing in the substance with a normal intake. This is the primary
route of contaminants entering into the body. There are many airborne methods such

as sweeping, bagging, spraying, grinding, etc. The substances directly enter into the
2) Ingestion Ingestion is the entry of substances through the mouth and swallowed
into the stomach and moves through the digestive system. This route is mostly
accidental or due to poor hygiene.
3) Absorption The substances comes into contact with the skin and enters through
the poor of the skin or a wound.
4) Injection The substances passes through the skin barrier either by physical
injection or through damaged skin.

11. Identify the factors that affect the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation
1. Poorly positioned intake hoods.
2. Damaged ducts
3. Excessive amount of contaminations.
4. Ineffective fan due to low speed or lack of maintenance.
5. Blocked filters due to excess contaminants or lack up of maintenance.
6. Built up of contaminants in the ducts.
7. Sharp bends in the ducts.
8. Unauthorized alternatives to the system.
12. Health Surveillance is a system of health checkups and often involves some
kind of medical examinations or test on employees exposed to hazardous
13. Identify the information that should be contained in a MSDS?
1) Identification of the substance or preparation and supply.
2) Composition and information on ingredients.
3) Hazard identification including adverse health effects and symptoms
4) First aid measures
5) Firefighting measures
6) Accidental release medical covering environmental protection & clean up
7) Handling and storage with recommendations for best practice and special
8) Exposure control and personal protection
9) Physical and chemical properties
10) Stability and reactivity
11) Toxicological information

12) Ecological information

13) Disposal considerations
14) Transportation information
15) Regulatory information
16) Other information including any relevant information such as abbreviations used

14. (A) Identify 03 different types of respiratory protect equipment?

(B) Outline the factors to be considered when selecting RPE?
(A) 1. Half-mask respirator 2. Full face mask respirator and 3. Powered respirator
(B) 1. Contaminant to be guarded against its chemical, physical and toxicological
2. Type of work situation i.e non-emergency or emergency.
3. The period of time for which RPE is required to be used.
4. Conformity to the relevant standards.
5. Easy to don, use and take off.
6. Adequate protection against possible hazards.
7. It should have adequate protection factor.
8. Should be durable, comfortable and non-irritating.
9. Provide with good field of vision.
10. Provision for communication and for use of prescription glasses.

1. Musculoskeletal Disorders: are back injuries and back pain, WRULDs and
other chronic soft tissue injuries collectively. Musculoskeletal disorders can affect the
bodys muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerves.

2. Identify the possible health effects due to musculoskeletal disorders?

1. Pain in back, neck, shoulders and upper limbs.2. Discomfort, minor aches and
3. Vibration white finger (blanching)
3.WRULDs are medical conditions, which can affect the neck, shoulders, arms,
elbows, wrists, hands and fingers
1. Tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, vibration white finger, triangular fibro cartilage
and thoracic outlet syndrome.
2. Pain, discomfort, numbness and tingling.
3. Repetition strain injuries (RSIs) or cumulative trauma disorder (CTDs)

4. Effects of hand arm vibration?

1. Vibration white finger
2. Numbness
3. Tingling
4. Loss of grip and strength
5. Manual dexterity
6. Loss of sensation
7. Minor damage to muscles, joints & bones may cause aches and pains in lower
arm and hands.
5. Identify factors that could contribute towards the development of WRULDs
affecting supermarket checkout workers?
1. Space constrains resulting in workers to restrict to fixed or static positions.
2. Overreaching especially during the handling of heavy or bulky articles.
3. Environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity.
4. The age of worker having some pre-existing conditions or a lack of training
experience or supervision.
5. The rate imposed by the process

6. Health effects of noise?

1. Tinnitus
2. Temporary & permanent threshold shift
3. Temporary and permanent hearing loss
4. Dislocation of ear bone
5. Rupture of eardrum
6. Decreased ability to monitor the work environment (warning, signals, and
equipment sound)
7. Increased injuries from impaired communication and isolation
8. Anxiety, irritability
9. Stress, fatigue and aggression
10. Sleep disturbance (Insomnia)

7. What is the hierarchy of noise control techniques?

1) Reduction of noise at source (combat)
2) Reduction of noise in the path.
3) Reduction of noise by the receiver.

Reduction of noise at source:

1) Change the process or equipment, or replace Eg: replace solid tyres with rubber
2) Change the speed of noisy equipment or reduce the power.
3) Regular maintenance by lubrication of the bearings, tightening of belt drives.

Reduction of noise in the path:

1) Orientation/ location/ relocation Locate the noisy equipment away from the
2) Turn the noisy equipment away from the workforce or relocate away in a separate
and isolated area.
3) Enclosure surrounding the equipment with a sound insulated material, which
can reduce noise levels by up to 30 decibels.
4) Isolation Provision of soundproof workrooms.
5) Screen or absorption walls can be used effectively in the area where sound is
reflecting off the wall.
6) The walls of the room housing noisy equipment are lying with sound absorbent
materials such as mineral wool or acoustic strings are placed around the equipment.

7) Damping use of insulating floor mountings to remove or reduce the transmission

of noise and vibrations through the structure of the building.
8) Silencers Normally fitted to the engine, which exhausts the gas to the
atmosphere. Silencers generally contain absorbent materials or baffles.
9) Lagging Insulation of pipes and fluid containers to reduce the sound
transmission (and also heat).
10) PPE earplugs/ Ear defenders.

8. What are the health effects caused by whole body vibrations?

Body pains such as back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, hand and leg pain.

9. Control measures of vibration?

1. Eliminate or reduce exposure to vibration
2. Choice of work equipment of appropriate to the work being carried out
3. The provision of auxiliary equipments which reduces the risk of injuries caused by
4. Appropriate maintenance programme for work equipment, workplace & workplace
5. The design and layout of workplace, work station and rest facilities.
6. Provision of suitable and sufficient information and training.
10. Ionizing Radiation?
1. Alpha particles.
2. Beta particles.
3. Gamma Rays.
4. X-rays
5. Neutrons.

11. Types of non-Ionising radiation

1. Ultra violet rays
2. Infrared rays.
3. Micro waves
4. Visible light (laser) and 5. Radio waves.

12. Uses of radiation

1. Industrial use NDT & using gamma photography to check welding joints.

2. Medical use using gamma radiation to investigate the liver, X rays, use of
radiation to treat cancer and diseases.
3. Security devices cabinet x-rays, CT machine to check the baggage.
4. Safety devices using alpha particles in smoke detectors and photoelectric

13. Health effects of radiation

1. Radiation burns and cancer
2. Sterility and cataract
3. Blood disorders
4. Anemia& septic infections
5. Cancer of bones, lung and head
6. Nausea
7. Vomiting
8. Headache
9. Loss of white blood cells.
10. Genetic and chromosomal disorders.

14. Protection against radiation strategy?

1. Protection can be achieved by the application of shielding, time and distance TDS
individually or in combination.
2. Shielding is the best method because it is an engineered solution. It involves the
placing of a physical shield such as lead sheet or concrete wall between the source
and the worker.
3. Time involves the use of reduced time exposure principal and thus reduces the
accumulated dose.
4. Distance works on the principal that the effect of radiation decreases with the
increase of the distance between the source and the worker.
5. Other arrangements include emergency arrangements, training of employees
6. Prohibition of eating, drinking or smoking adjacent to exposed areas.
7. Strict adherence to the PPE, which may include full body protection.
8. Procedures to deal with accidents.
9. Adequate supervision.
10. Prominent signs and information regarding the radiation hazards.
15. Causes of stress?
1. Demand Excessive demand in terms of work load, speed of work and deadlines.
Working hours (long working hours) and working patterns.

2. Control Lack of control over the work especially where the work is demanding.
Control means control over what work is to be done, how it is to be done and
priorities involved.
3. Support Lack of encouragement or support in terms of information, instruction
and training to do the work.
4. Relationship Poor workplace relationships and in particular bullying and
5. Role Lack of clarity about the individual roles and responsibilities and authority.
6. Change the threat of change and change process itself. Whether it is a change
that affects just one worker or the entire organization

16. Effects of stress?

1. Psychological anxiety, low self-esteem and depression.
2. Physical Sweating, fast heartbeat, dizziness.
3. Behavioural Sleeplessness, inability to concentrate, poor concentration, and
mood swings, irritability, poor decision making ability.

17. Prevention strategies for stress?

1. Ensure that the workload is in line with workers responsibility.
2. Design jobs to provide meaning, stimulation and opportunity for workers.
3. Clearly define workers roles & responsibilities.
4. Give workers opportunity to participate in decision-making process, which affect
their jobs.
5. Improve their communication and reduce uncertainty about the future prospects.
6. Provide opportunities for social interactions among the workers.
7. Establish work schedules in line with the demands & responsibilities outside the