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3.1 Charging
The constant voltage charge method is recommended to charge our battery. When charging, the lead sulfate of
the positive plate becomes lead dioxide. As charging continues, the positive plate begins to generate O2
causing a sudden rise in battery voltage. A constant voltage charge, therefore, gives rise to detection of this
voltage increase and control of the charge amount. This type of charging generally employs a constant-voltage
constant-current method with current limitation to prevent the initial current (at low battery voltage) from
increasing.
Table 1 shows the charge voltage and maximum charge current. Figures 3 and 4 shows the constant-voltage
charging characteristics of the GP1272. Figures 3 and 4 show a constant-voltage charge initially made with a
current limited to 0.1CA, with the constant-voltage charge following after the battery voltage reaches a certain
level. The battery was charged at the 100% discharge state and the 50% discharged state. A charge quantity of
110-120% of the discharge quantity is needed to fully charge the battery.
The charge voltage of the battery decreases with increasing temperature and vice versa. Accordingly, charging
with a given voltage requires an increased charge current when the temperature is high and decreased charge
current at a lower temperature. Temperature compensation is not necessary when the battery is charged at an
ambient temperature between 5°C (41°F) to 35°C (95°F). At temperatures below 5°C (41°F) or above 35°C
(95°F), temperature compensation for charging voltage is necessary.
The temperature coefficient is:
(1) For cycle service
-5m V/°C cell
(2) For standby use (trickle charge or float charge)
-3.3mV°C cell

Refer to Figure 5 in order to prevent a poor charge under low temperatures and overcharge under
high temperatures, the charging voltage must be set at the appropriate value according to the battery
temperature. For the charging voltage of each VRLA battery, refer to Table 1.
Table 1 - Charging voltage and maximum charging current
Applications

Charging voltage (V/cell)

Max. charging current (A)

Temperature

Set point

Allowable range

Cycle service

25°C (77°F)

2.45

2.40 ~ 2.50

0.3C

Standby

25°C (77°F)

2.275

2.25 ~ 2.30

0.3C

Figure 3 - GP1272 charging characteristic for constant voltage 14.7V (2.45 V/cell)
(Example of the charging characteristics for the cycle use of CSB VRLA GP series battery.)

Figure 4 .275 V/cell) (Example of the charging characteristics for the standby use of CSB VRLA GP series battery.65V (2.) .GP1272 charging characteristics for the constant voltage 13.

The discharge capacity is affected by the battery temperature during discharge.6C (Ah) This means that the capacity for the one hour rate is 60% less of the 20 hour rate. 0. Table 2: Discharging current and final discharge voltage Discharging current (A) Final discharge voltage (V/cell) . Discharge characteristics are described in Figure 6. Evidently.   For example. The final discharge voltage also varies depending on the discharge current. 0.05C (A) x 20 (h) = 1C (Ah) For 1 hour. Figure 7. The battery capacity also greatly depends on the discharge current.Figure 5: Relation between battery temperature and charging voltage for standby use 3. and Figure 8. compare a 20 hour and a 1 hour rate:   For 20 hours.6C (A) x 1 (h) = 0. increasing discharge current causes a decrease in the apparent Ah capacity. Generally. the capacity decreases when the battery temperature decreases during discharge.2 Discharge The battery capacity (Ah) is an integration of the discharge current I(t). the variation of discharge time is dependent on the discharge current. and discharge time to the final discharge voltage:   Battery capacity (Ah) = ∫ I (t) dt   From the above equation.

Discharge characteristics at various rates Figures 6 shows the discharge performance at various rates for GP1272 and GP12400. Temperature and discharge capacity Figure 8 shows the relation between temperature and discharge capacity.0C 1. This figure shows the result of a charge at 25°C (77°F) and discharge at various temperatures.5C 1.75 0. even with proper charging. Otherwise. For the final discharge voltage. Figure 6: GP1272 discharge characteristics at various rates [25°C (77°F)] Figure 7: GP12400 discharge characteristics at rates [25°C (77°F)] . Avoid operation of the battery below -20°C (4°F) or beyond 50°C (122°F) since damage may occur even though the battery may still operate.70 0.0C 1. over discharging may result. Select the appropriate capacity for the VRLA battery.0.5C £ (A) < 1.30   Discharge current and final discharge voltage For the relation between discharge current and final discharge voltage. Figure 9 shows the relation between the discharge current and time using this figure. respectively. Repeated over discharging may result in capacity failure. refer to Table 2.2C > (A) 1. The battery should never be discharged to less than the predetermined final discharge voltage.55 (A) ³ 1.2C £ (A) < 0. please refer to Table 2.

Figure 8: Temperature and discharge capacity [25°C (77°F)] Figure 9: Discharge current and discharge duration time period [25°C (77°F)] .

the charge current remains unchanged during the initial period of charge. Beyond this limit. Over-discharge results in failure to recover normal capacity.45 V/cell with maximum current of 0. If our battery is over-discharged and left standing in a discharged state for several days. However it is necessary to avoid over-discharge situations as much as possible. The original capacity can be recovered after two or three consecutive over-discharges or leaving the battery in a discharged state. The charge voltage range between 2. the battery may not recover to its original capacity. Over-discharge also occurs by leaving the battery in a discharged state.3 Over-discharge Compared to the alkaline battery. Figure 10 shows an example of the charge characteristics after over-discharge and leaving the battery in a discharged state. The CSB VRLA Battery overcomes this problem.275 V/cell may not be enough to recover to the capacity above.3CA. this is not considered abnormal. repeat charge and discharge two or three more times. Always perform constant-voltage charging with a 2. Precautions: 1. As this figure shows. or shortened service life. the VRLA battery is very sensitive to over-discharge. reduced capacity. 2. it can recover its original capacity when charged. Figure 10 shows an example of the charge characteristics after over-discharge and leaving the battery in a discharged state. In this case. Figure 10: An example of the charging characteristics after over-discharge and leaving the battery in a discharged state .3.

Electrochemical Impurities brought to the battery either from local cells or oxidation reduces both electrodes. This is called self-discharge. 2. Self-discharge for a lead acid battery is described below. This means that this battery has a superior capacity retention characteristic. Chemical Both (+) active mass (lead dioxide) and (-) active mass (sponge lead). causing self-discharge. Figure 11 shows capacity retention characteristics and storage guidelines Figure 11: Capacity retention characteristics and the supplementary charge and storage guidelines . its capacity gradually decreases and enters to a discharged state. The self-discharge quantity of the CSB battery is very small.3. are either decomposed or brought to gradual reaction with sulfuric acid in the electrolyte.4 Capacity Retention and Storage (1) Capacity retention When the charged battery is left standing for an extended period of time. 1. 1/3 to 1/4 that of ordinary lead-acid batteries. This disappearance of capacity is inevitable and will occur even if the battery is not being used. The battery consumes the stored electrical energy without releasing it effectively to the circuits. which then changes to stable lead sulfate causing self-discharge. Self-discharge is caused by internal chemical and electrochemical reactions within the battery.

In such a case. Figure 12: Open circuit voltage characteristics . CSB's VRLA Battery. Table 3: Storage temperature and recommended supplementary charge interval Storage temperature Recommended supplementary charge interval Supplementary charging methods Lower than 25℃(77℉) Each 6 months 25.(2) Storage Lead-acid batteries previously were affected by long term storage after charging. Please see Figure 11.05CA for 5~8hrs (3) Open circuit voltage and residual capacity Figure 12 show the relation between open circuit voltage and residual capacity.45V/cell for 5~8hrs Charged by constant current 0.30℃(77 . carry out supplementary charging according to the cycle shown in Table 3. it should be repeated until the capacity is recovered before storage. During storage. one supplementary charge may not recover to 100% capacity.45V/cell. because of its Pb-Ca alloy offers longer extended storage than conventional batteries.05CA. For supplementary charging after prolonged storage.275V/cell for 16~24hrs Charged by constant voltage 2. either the constant-voltage charge with 2. or the constant-current charge with 0. sometimes.86℉) Each 3 months Over 30℃(86℉) Storage to be avoided Charged by constant voltage 2. is recommended. But.

Charging at lower temperature. retainer.5 Service Life Similar to other batteries. its components (plates. however. shallow discharge).) will suffer from deterioration due to electrolytic oxidation. (5) Influence of ambient temperature High ambient temperature accelerates deterioration of battery components. deep discharge). etc. which results in a shorter service life. Cycle service life . (2) Discharge current magnitude After discharge with a small discharge quantity (that is. causes generation of H2 gas. (4) Overcharge quantity When a battery is overcharged. A. and thereby shortens service life. This gas causes the internal pressure to increase or the electrolyte to decrease. CSB's VRLA Battery develops electrode deterioration after extended use. high ambient temperature allows unnecessary large quantities of charge current to flow. the capacity cannot be recovered by charging. The following factors are mainly responsible for shortening the service life of the battery: (1) Discharge depth Repetition of discharge with a large discharge quantity (that is. This causes the internal pressure to rise and gas is expelled by the valve. shortens the cycle life. the electrolyte is expended which requires particular attention during trickle or float charging. Finally. and follow with a very large discharge current will shorten the service life. Depending on the charging method or service temperature.3. (3) Charging current magnitude An excessively large current generates gas in a quantity exceeding the recombination rate of the battery. When the service limit is reached. With constant-voltage charging. the battery may have a shorter life than a lead-acid battery with a large quantity of electrolyte. With both trickle and float charge. the overcharge quantity is a vital factor in determining battery life.

the battery which is designed for expanded capacity will have a better service life. Trickle (float) charging service life Figure 14 shows the battery capacity and trickle (or float) charge service life. the number of service cycles decreases. The dark shaded portion indicates the range of the service life characteristic. B. When used with similar loads. Figure 13: Cycle service life Figure 14: Trickle (or float) service life . As the discharge depth increases during servicing.Figure 13 shows the relationship between the discharge depth and number of discharge cycles.