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2009
2010
E D I T I O N
MATH
ALGEBRA
THROUGH
CALCULUS
MATH
POWER GUIDE
WRI TERS
Julia Ma & Steven Zhu
CONTRI BUTI ONS
& REVI SI ONS
Michael Nagel
EDI TORS
Dean Schaffer & Sophy Lee
ALPACAI NCHI EF
Daniel Berdichevsky
®
the World
Scholar’s Cup
®
D
O
I
N
G
O
U
R
B
E
S
T
,
S
O
Y
O
U
C
A
N
D
O
Y
O
U
R
S
DemiDec, The World Scholar’s Cup, Power Guide, and Cram Kit are registered trademarks of the DemiDec Corporation.
Academic Decathlon and USAD are registered trademarks of the United States Academic Decathlon Association.
DemiDec is not affiliated with the United States Academic Decathlon.
POWER GUIDE
®
I. WHAT IS A POWER GUIDE?........................................................ 2
II. CURRICULUM OVERVIEW............................................................ 3
III. GENERAL MATH.............................................................................. 4
IV. ALGEBRA…........................................................................................ 10
V. GEOMETRY………….......................................................................... 40
VI. TRIGONOMETRY.............................................................................49
VII. CALCULUS……………………………………………………………………..... 56
VIII. POWER LISTS................................................................................... 66
IX. POWER TABLE..................................................................................73
X. POWER STRATEGIES…………………………………………………………74
XI. ABOUT THE AUTHORS..................................................................76
BY
JULIA MA
CALIF. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ALTA HIGH SCHOOL
STEVEN ZHU
HARVARD UNIVERSITY
FRISCO HIGH SCHOOL
EDITED BY
DEAN SCHAFFER
STANFORD UNIVERSITY
TAFT HIGH SCHOOL
SOPHY LEE
HARVARD UNIVERSITY
PEARLAND HIGH SCHOOL
DEDICATED TO ALPACAS
© 2009 DEMIDEC
Math Power Guide  2
DemiDec, The World Scholar’s Cup, Power Guide, and Cram Kit are registered trademarks of the DemiDec Corporation.
Academic Decathlon and USAD are registered trademarks of the United States Academic Decathlon Association.
DemiDec is not affiliated with the United States Academic Decathlon.
WHAT IS A POWER GUIDE?
“ .”
That’s the sound of 10,000 points looming silently at your doorstep. Although they don’t have weapons,
they do arrive armed with ideas—vague but powerful ones, like “Liberty,” “Equality,” and “Fraternity.”
You can net 3,000 of these points through Speech, Interview, and Essay. That leaves 7,000 that you’ll
have to earn, question by question, test by test.
Do you run? No! Do you hide? No! Do you catch ‘em all? Yes!
After all, you have on your side 10 formidable Power Guides. Each is stocked with every single testable
fact that you will need to know this year. DemiDec Resources will teach you the material. Workbooks
will drill the information. Power Guides will make sure that not a single nuance from the curriculum
falls through the cracks. At the very end of the Power Guide, you will find a collection of Timelines,
Power Tables, and glossarylike Power Lists to help you sweep up every point possible.
Math. The very word strikes fear into the hearts of many. But don’t be discouraged—math, like any
other event, can be mastered through studying, and perhaps more than any other event, through test
taking. Sounds simple, right?
Unfortunately, Decathlon math is so broad that no guide could possibly hope to cover all of nooks and
crannies. This Power Guide, then, is meant as a quick review tool, a cram kit writ large, not a learning
tool. I advise you to go through this guide with textbooks nearby. I’ve found time and time again that
doing example problems is the best way to reinforce the concepts that you learn.
So what are you waiting for? It’s now or never: pick up your calculators, sharpen your pencils, and
rebel—er—review!
Sincerely,
Sophy Lee
Math Power Guide  3
CURRICULUM OVERVIEW
The breakdown of exam questions will be as follows: general math, 10%; algebra, 30%; geometry, 30%;
trigonometry, 20%; and differential calculus, 10%. This is shown in the pie chart below.
Calculus questions tend to be simple (and, thus, mastered with limited studying), but not many of them
appear on the test. The same goes with the general math portion. Algebra and geometry will
undoubtedly form the core of the test, so knowing these areas is key to scoring well.
For math, it’s especially important to remember that many concepts will appear in other sections. While
“general math” is technically only supposed to be tested in five questions, general math concepts can
(and definitely will) appear in problems from the other categories, such as algebra and trig.
Differential
Calculus
10%
Algebra
30%
Geometry
30%
Trigonometry
20%
General Math
10%
Math Power Guide  4
GENERAL MATH
Integers, Fractions, Percents, Decimals
O Integers
O An integer is a whole number, including 0
E 1, 4, and 934 are integers
E 2/3, 4/5, and 0.2 are not integers
O Fraction arithmetic
O To add and subtract fractions, find a common denominator
E Multiply each fraction by a fraction form of n/n to make all the denominators equal
E Example:
21
13
=
21
6
+
21
7
=
3
3
×
7
2
+
7
7
×
3
1
=
7
2
+
3
1
E Remember to abide by the order of operations: parentheses, exponents,
multiplication and division, addition and subtraction
E To remember the order of operations, try this mnemonic: Please Excuse My
Dear Aunt Sally
O Multiplying fractions is done “straight across”
E Numerators are multiplied together, and denominators are multiplied together
E Example:
21
2
=
7 × 3
2 × 1
=
7
2
×
3
1
O To divide fractions, multiply by the reciprocal of the dividend
E The “dividend” is the second fraction (the one that is being divided into the first)
E To find the reciprocal of a fraction, simply flip it over
E Example:
6
7
=
2
7
×
3
1
=
7
2
÷
3
1
O Commonly, fractions come into play when problems describe how fast two people work and
the time it takes for them to finish a job if they work together
E Example: Joe can paint a fence in 3 hours, and Sally can paint 2 fences in 5 hours; how
long will it take them to paint four fences together?
E Joe’s rate of work is 1 fence every 3 hours or
3
1
fence per hour
E Sally’s rate of work is 2 fences every 5 hours or
5
2
fence per hour
POWER PREVIEW POWER NOTES
The topics covered in general math are relevant in our daily
lives, though we often don’t realize it. Whether you are
figuring out how much to tip a waiter or trying to decide on
matching socks, math lurks in the corner of countless
activities.
· According to the USAD outline, 34
questions (10% of the test) will come from
this section
· General math is not covered in the USAD
math basic guide
Math Power Guide  5
E The formula for work is work = rate×time
E Since we’re trying to find time, let’s divide rate from both sides
E time =
rate
work
E To answer the problem, the setup is t =
hours 5
fences 2
+
hours 3
fence 1
fences 4
E We’re dividing the total work (4 fences) by the total rate of work (the combined
speeds of Joe and Sally) to find the time t that it takes for them to finish
E hours 45 . 5 =
11
hours 60
=
fences 11
hours 15
× fences 4 =
hours 15
fences 11
fences 4
= t
1
O Percentages
O 1% represents
100
1
of the whole
E Converting a percentage to a decimal involves dividing by 100
E Example: 12% equals 12 . 0 =
100
12
E Converting a decimal to a percentage involves multiplying by 100
E Example: 0.73 equals % 73 = % 100 × 73 . 0
O Percentages are generally applied to problems dealing with sales (discounts and sales taxes)
E A typical problem asks about an item with a discount of x%
E The discounted price is equal to ) price original )(
100
x
 1 (
E Example: A $20 shirt with a 30% discount sells for (1 – .30)(20) = (.70)(20) = $14
E The total cost of an item with a tax of x% equals ) price original )(
100
x
+ 1 (
E Example: A $10 hat with 6% tax is sold at (1.06)($10) = $10.60
E The discount received, given the original and selling prices, equals
price original
price selling
 1
E Example: Someone who buys a watch at $20 when the original price was $25 receives
a discount of % 20 = 20 . 0 =
25
20
 1
E The order of multiple discounts does not affect the end price
E Example: A $20 book on sale at 20% off that is bought with a coupon for an
additional 25% discount will cost the same as a $20 book on sale at 25% off that is
bought with a coupon for an additional 20% discount
E Both would cost ($20)(0.80)(0.75) = $12
E The original price will not affect the percentage discount
1
A note on rounding: remember that rounding depends on the place to which you are asked to round. Look only at the digit
after that one. Were we to round this number to an integer, it would be 5 because there is a 4 in the tenths place. Somewhere,
some poor elementary math teacher is confusing students by telling them that the 5 in the hundredths place would make the
4 in the tenths place round up to 5, which would then cause the 5 in the ones place to round up to 6. This is NOT how to
round, as 0.45 is obviously less than half and could only round down the ones place.
Math Power Guide  6
E Example: Any item at 30% off with a sales tax of 6% will always be
(0.70) (1.06) = 0.742 = 74.2% of the original price
E Another typical problem asks about the original price of an item before a discount
E Example: What is the price of a shirt that costs $10.32 after a 20% discount and
7.5% tax?
E Here’s the setup: 12 $ =
0.20  1
)
075 . 0 + 1
32 . 10 $
(
= p
E Since tax is included, we had to divide it from the final price
E The order of division, however, does not matter, just as with multiple discounts
E well as 12 $ =
0.075 + 1
)
20 . 0  1
32 . 10 $
(
= p
E ATTENTION: Excise taxes (taxes on specific items) do not compound other taxes
E Excise taxes are based on the item’s original price
E Example: A meal has an original price of $10, an 8% sales tax, a 10% tip, and a 4%
excise tax; what is its final price?
E With the sales tax and tip, the cost is $10×(1 + 0.08) ×(1 + 0.10) = $11.88
E The excise tax is calculated from the original price: $10×0.04 = $0.40
E The final cost is $11.88 + $0.40 = $12.28
Counting
O The multiplication principle
O The multiplication principle helps us find the total number of possibilities when we are
choosing one item from each of several groups
E Multiply the total number of items in each group to find the total number of possibilities
O Example: There are 3 kinds of computers, 4 kinds of monitors, and 2 types of mice
E The total number of ways to pick a unique combination of each is 3×4×2 = 24
O Permutations
O We use permutations to find the total number of possible arrangements of a given set of
objects
E Order is important
E Example: ABCD is a different arrangement from DBAC
O To find the total number of possible arrangements for r objects out of n total objects,
calculate
r)!  n (
! n
= P
r n
E n! = (n)(n1)(n2)…(2)(1)
E n! is called a factorial
2
E Take the number n and keep multiplying by the integers between n and 0
E 9! would be 9×8×7×6×5×4×3×2×1 = 362,880
O Example: There are 5 runners in a race; how many different possibilities are there for the top
three places?
2
The exclamation point is, sadly, not for emphasis. N!!! – Steven
Math Power Guide  7
E Order is important, so do a permutation
E 60 =
1 × 2
1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5
=
3)!  5 (
! 5
= P
3 5
O Combinations
O We use combinations to find the total number of possible arrangements of a given set of
objects when order does not matter
3
E Example: A committee of John, Jake, and Joe is the same as a committee of Joe, John,
and Jake
O To find the total number of combinations for r objects out of n total objects, calculate
E For the same r and n, there will be fewer combinations than permutations by a factor of
r!
E
! r
P
= C
r n
r n
O Example: There are 10 students in Mr. Jacob’s class, and three will get to serve on the
student council; in how many ways can the students be selected for the council?
E Order does not matter, so do a combination
E 120 =
) 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 7 )( 1 × 2 × 3 (
) 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 7 × 8 × 9 × 10 (
=
) ! 7 )( ! 3 (
! 10
= C
3 10
O The arrangement principle
O The arrangement principle allows us to calculate the total number of possible arrangements
when some of the items we are examining are identical
O To arrange n objects where r objects are indistinguishable, divide n! by r!
E Each set of identical objects should be considered as a separate r!
E Example: The number of arrangements for the letters in the word “choose” is 360 =
! 2
! 6
E There are 6 letters with 2 nondistinct o’s
E Example: The number of arrangements for the letters in the word “Mississippi” is
650 , 34 =
) ! 2 )( ! 4 )( ! 4 (
! 11
E There are 11 letters total, with 4 s’s, 4 i’s, and 2 p’s
O Arranging objects in circles
O Test questions occasionally ask the total number of ways to arrange items around a circle
E For example, a question might ask how many different ways 7 people can sit around a
circular table
O When we arrange objects in circles, we need to make sure that our arrangements are actually
different in order rather than just rotated clockwise or counterclockwise
3
The word “combination” might get you thinking about your locker combination. Interestingly enough, locker
combinations are actually permutations: the order in which you enter the numbers does matter. – Dean
Math Power Guide  8
E In the above diagram, circle B has the same order as circle A, just rotated clockwise
E Starting with 1 and moving clockwise, their orders are both 1, 2, 3, 4
E The figures cannot be distinguished from each other by order, so we must not count
both of them when finding the total number of arrangements
E Figure C, however, has a different order
E Starting with 1 and moving clockwise, its order is 1, 4, 3, 2
E To make sure that we only count different orders in circular arrangements, we will have
one object stay in the same place so we can tell that the other objects have moved around
E Since we’re keeping one object in place for circles, we will use (n – 1)! to find the total
number of arrangements that have different orders
E When we arrange objects in lines, we use n! to find the total number of arrangements
E Example: How many different ways can five people sit around a circular table?
E We keep one person in place and let the other four move around
E (5 – 1)! = 4! = 24! different arrangements
O Example: How many different ways can five keys be arranged on a circular keychain?
E Like the table problem, we keep one key in place and move the other four around
E Unlike the table problem, we also need to divide the arrangements in half because half of
the arrangements are repeated if we flip the keychain over
4
E 12 =
2
24
=
2
! 4
=
2
1)!  5 (
different arrangements
O Calculator strategy
O Most scientific and graphing calculators have factorials, combinations, and permutations as
programmed functions
O Being familiar with the keys to access these functions will save you time on the test if you can
identify which ones to use for each problem
4
Watch for similar scenarios such as beads on a bracelet or necklace (both of which can be flipped over).
1
2
3
4
4
1
2
3
1
4
3
2 A B C
Math Power Guide  9
Probabilities
O Introduction
O Probability is the chance that a certain event will happen
O The probability of event A occurring is defined as P(A), where
outcomes of number possible total
outcomes total of number
= ) A ( P
E Note that this formula only works when all outcomes are equally likely
E Example: A player rolls a standard die, wanting a number greater than 3
E Event A is “getting a number greater than 3” (rolling a 4, 5, or 6)
E The probability this will happen is 5 . 0 =
2
1
=
6
3
= ) A ( P
O More examples
O Use the counting principles to help calculate probability
E Example: A club of 10 people wants to select a president
E If the president is randomly selected, then the probability of a specific person being
selected is
10
1
=
C
1
= ) A ( P
1 10
E Example: When calculating poker probabilities for a 52card deck and a 5card hand, the
denominator will always be the total number of hands possible, in this case
52 5
C
E The 52 on the lowerleft hand corner of the C stands for the total number of items
from which you can choose (52 cards in the entire deck)
E The C denotes “combination”
E The 5 on the lowerright hand corner of the C stands for the total number of items
that we are choosing (5 cards in a hand)
O Often, problems ask about the probability of rolling a certain sum with two dice
E In these cases, the denominator will always be 36 = 6 × 6
E To find the numerator, the easiest way is to list the outcomes for the desired sum
E Example: Find the probability of rolling a sum of 7 with two dice
E The possible outcomes for a sum of 7 are 16, 61, 25, 52, 34, and 43
E So, with six total outcomes, the probability is
6
1
=
36
6
Math Power Guide  10
ALGEBRA
Polynomial Equations
O Introduction
O An equation is a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal
E Example: 4 + 1 = 5
E Example: 2x + 2 = 10
O Linear and quadratic equations
O A linear equation is an equation in which the highest power of the variables is 1
E x = y is a linear equation
E The graph is a straight line
E y = x
2
is not a linear equation because x has a power of 2
E The graph is a parabola
E Often, a problem will ask you to solve for a variable
E To do this, isolate the variable in question by performing equivalent operations on
both sides of the equation
E Example: Solve y = mx + b for m for m
E Subtract b from both sides: y – b = mx
E Then divide both sides by x to get
x
b  y
= m
E A linear equation is graphed as a straight line
E The slopeintercept formula of a linear equation is y = mx + b
E m is the slope of the line
E m =
2 1
2 1
x  x
y  y
for points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
)
E Vertical lines have no slope (or infinite slope)
E Another way to put it is that the slope is “undefined”
E A vertical line looks like an “I” (for “Infinite slope”)
E A vertical line is also the first stroke of “N” (for “No slope”)
E Horizontal lines have 0 slope
E A horizontal line is the first stroke of “Z” (for “Zero slope”)
E Do not confuse 0 slope with “no slope”
E “No slope” means that the slope is nonexistent
E Zero slope has a value, which is 0
5
Hopefully, surgical treatment won’t be necessary when you’re done with this section. – Dean
POWER PREVIEW POWER NOTES
Algebra was brought from ancient Babylon, Egypt, and India
to Europe via the Arabs. The term derives from the Arabic al
jabr or, literally, “the reunion of broken parts.” In addition to
its mathematical meaning, the word also refers to the surgical
treatment of fractures.5
· According to the USAD outline, 1011
questions (30% of the test) will come from
this section
· Covers pages 425 in the USAD math
basic guide
Math Power Guide  11
E (0, b) is the yintercept of the line
E The yintercept is the point where the line intercepts the yaxis
E At the yaxis, x = 0
E Example: Find the equation of the line that passes through (4, 7) and (3, 2)
E As the name of the formula implies, you must find the slope first
E
7 
9
=
3  4 
(2)  7
= m
E Then we move on to the intercept
E We have m, so to find b, we need to plug in a point for x and y
E You can choose either of the points given, but we’ll use the second one
because it has smaller numbers
E Our equation looks like this: b + ) 3 (
7
9
 = 2 
E
7
13
= b
E Now that we have the slope and the intercept, we can write the equation of the
line
E
7
13
+ x
7
9
 = y
E The pointslope formula of a linear equation is y – y
1
= m(x – x
1
)
E In this equation, (x
1
, y
1
) is any point on the given line
E Just as in slopeintercept form, m is the slope of the line
E Example: What is the equation of the perpendicular bisector of a line segment with
endpoints (2, 2) and (4, 4)?
E First, we need to find the slope of the line segment
E m = 3 =
2 
6 
=
4  2
4  2 
E The slope of any perpendicular line will always be the negative reciprocal of the
original slope
E m =
3
1
E The bisector will pass through the midpoint of the line segment, so we need to
find those coordinates
E Remember that the coordinates of the midpoint are the averages of the
endpoints
E At the midpoint, x = 3 =
2
4 + 2
and y = 1 =
2
4 + 2 
E The midpoint is at (3, 1)
E Now, we can plug the point and the slope into the formula
E y – 1 = ) 3  x (
3
1

E In slopeintercept form, the answer is y = 2 + x
3
1

E The standard form of a line is written as ax + by = c
Math Power Guide  12
E
b
a
is the slope and (0,
b
c
) is the yintercept
E In the example above, the answer rewritten in standard form is x + 3y = 6
O A quadratic equation is an equation in which the highest power of the variables is 2
E Notice that if the product of two expressions is 0, then one or both of the expressions
must also be 0
E To solve an equation, use factoring: use the distributive property backwards
E If the equation’s form is Ax
2
+ Bx + C = 0, factor it out to (ax + b)(cx + d) = 0
E ac = A, bd = C, and (ad + bc) = B
E If the form of the equation is x
2
+ Bx + C = 0, factor it out to (x + c)(x + d) = 0
E cd=C and (c + d)=B
E Once the equation is factored, each factor can be set to 0 to solve for x
E Example: If (x + a)(x – b) = 0, then (x + a) = 0 or (x – b) = 0
E This means x = a or x = b
E a and b are each called roots of the quadratic equation
E They are also called zeros (because the equation equals zero when they are
plugged in for x) and xintercepts
E The quadratic formula
6
can also be used to find roots
E Given ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, x =
2a
(4ac)  b ± b 
2
E Example: Solve for the roots of 12x
2
– 7x – 10 = 0
E We can factor the equation into (4x – 5) and (3x + 2)
E Then, we set each factor equal to 0 to find the roots
E 4x – 5 = 0, x =
4
5
E 3x + 2 = 0, x =
3
2

E We can also use the quadratic formula to get the same answer
E
4
5
=
2(12)
4(12)(10)  (7) + (7) 
= x
2
E
3
2
 =
2(12)
4(12)(10)  (7)  (7) 
= x
2
O FOIL
O To convert a factored quadratic back to ax
2
+ bx + c form, use the FOIL process
E FOIL stands for first, outer, inner, last
E Start by multiplying the first parts of each term
E Next, multiply the “outside” parts of the factored form
E Then, multiply the “inside” parts of the factored form
E Next, multiple the last parts of each term
E Finally, take the sum of the products and combine like terms
O Example: convert (3x + 7)(x + 5) to ax
2
+ bx + c form
E “First”: (3x)(x) = 3x
2
6
Many algebra students become familiar with this formula by singing it to the tune of “Pop Goes the Weasel.” It goes: x
equals negative b/ plus or minus the square root/ of b squared minus 4ac/ all over 2a. – Steven
Math Power Guide  13
E “Outer”: (3x)(5) = 15x
E “Inner”: (7)(x) = 7x
E “Last”: (7)(5) = 35
E 3x
2
+ 15x + 7x + 35 = 3x
2
+ 22x + 35
O Higher order equations
O Higher order equations are equations in which the highest power of the variables is greater
than 2
O Sometimes, with a suitable substitution, we can solve a higher order equation like a quadratic
equation
E When we looked at quadratic equations, the first term had a power of 2, and the second
term had a power of 1
E Likewise, we can solve higher order equations if the power of the first term is double the
power of the second term
E Example: Find the roots of x
6
+ 2x
3
+ 1 = 0
E The power of the first term is 6, and the power of the second term is 3
E To change the equation into a quadratic equation, we want the second term to have a
power of 1 and the first term to have a power of 2
E Thus, we will substitute u for
3
x
E The equation turns into u
2
+ 2u + 1 = 0
E Factoring gives us (u + 1)
2
= 0
E u = –1
E Remember, though, we are looking for x, not u
E Because u = –1 and u = x
3
, we know that x
3
= –1
E x =
3
1 
E x = –1
O The sum of cubes and differences of cubes formulas can also be used to solve some cubic
equations (equations in which the highest power of the variables is 3)
E Sum of cubes formula: (x
3
+ y
3
) = (x + y)(x
2
– xy + y
2
)
E Difference of cubes formula: (x
3
– y
3
) = (x – y)(x
2
+ xy + y
2
)
O Factors and roots
O The remainder theorem and factor theorem are used to determine the remainders or factors,
respectively, of a polynomial
E Remainder theorem: if f(x) is a polynomial, then f(c) is the remainder when f(x) is
divided by (x – c)
E Example: Find the remainder when x
6
– 3x
5
+ 7x
4
– 2x
3
– 12x
2
+ x – 5 is divided by
(x + 3)
E Here, c = –3 because the divisor
7
is (x – (–3))
E Now, we plug c into the dividend
E (–3)
6
– 3(–3)
5
+ 7(–3)
4
– 2(–3)
3
– 12(–3)
2
+ (–3) – 5 = 1963
E Make sure you use the parentheses when you punch this expression into your
calculator
7
Remember, when division is written as a fraction, the dividend is on the top, and the divisor is on the bottom.
Math Power Guide  14
E If your calculator allows you to store variables, storing –3 as a variable may help
you avoid mistakes and speed up your typing because then you won’t need
parentheses
E The remainder is 1963
E Factor theorem: if you use the remainder theorem, and the remainder equals 0, then (x –
c) is a factor of f(x)
O The rational roots theorem is used to determine all the possible rational roots of a
polynomial
E We apply the rational roots theorem to polynomials in the form of Ax
n
+ Bx
n1
+…C
E In this form, A is the leading coefficient—the number in front of the term with the
highest power—and C is the constant
E Both A and C must be integers
E We must first find all the factors of A and all the factors of C
E We’ll use q to represent all the factors of C, and we’ll use p to represent all the factors
of A
E According to the theorem, all of the rational real roots can be found with the
expression
p
q
±
E To find all the possible roots, plug the various factors into the above expression
E Example: Find the possible rational roots of 36 + 2x
3
+ x
4
– 11x
2
– 12x
E First, we make sure that we spot the correct coefficient for A
E The highest power is 4, and the coefficient for that term is 1
E Thus, A = 1
E The constant C is 36
E Now, we list all the factors of C over all the factors of A
E The possible rational roots are
1
36
± ,
1
18
± ,
1
12
± ,
1
9
± ,
1
6
± ,
1
4
± ,
1
3
± ,
1
2
± ,
1
1
±
E Luckily, A was 1 in this case
E Had A been 6, we would’ve had to list all the factors of C over 1, 2, 3, and 6,
resulting in four times as many possible rational roots
E After listing all the possible rational roots, we can use the factor theorem to find the
actual roots
E Sometimes you will need to find the sum or product of the roots, but not the roots
themselves
E The formula to find the sum of the roots is
a
b
 for all polynomials, where a is the
leading coefficient, and b is the coefficient of the secondhighest degree term
E Example: Find the sum of the roots of 4x
2
– 7x + 5
E We will use
a
b

E a = 4
E b = –7
E The sum of the roots is –
4
7
=
4
7
E Example: Find the sum of the roots of x
3
+ 3x
2
– 4x – 12
Math Power Guide  15
E We will use
a
b

E a = 1
E b = 3
E The sum of the roots is 3 =
1
3
E The formula to find the product of the roots is
a
c
 for oddnumbered polynomials
and
a
c
for evennumbered polynomials, where a is the leading coefficient, and c is
the constant
E Example: Find the product of the roots of 5x
2
+ 8x – 2
E a = 5
E c = –2
E The product of the roots is
5
2

Solving Inequalities
O Inequality: a definition
O An inequality states that two expressions are not equal
E Example: 4 + 5 < 12
E Example: 4x + 2 > 3y – 4
O Linear and quadratic
O To solve a linear inequality, treat the inequality as an equation and isolate the variable
E Be careful to flip the sign if you multiply or divide by a negative number
E Example: –3x + 7 > 5
E We subtract 7 from both sides to get the term with x by itself
E –3x > –2
E Then we divide both sides by 3 and flip the sign
E x <
3
2
Math Power Guide  16
E In the above graph, the inequality is true in the shaded area, which is the region
to the left of, but not including, x =
3
2
E The answer may also appear in the form of a number line
E The open circle means that the value
3
2
is not included in the solution
E If the inequality were x ≤
3
2
, then the number line would look like this:
E The darkened circle means that the solution includes
3
2
E Linear inequalities can have more than one variable
E Example: y ≤ 2 + x
3
1
E To graph this inequality, we must plot the line and then shade the region above
it
E At the line, y is equal to the function
1 0 1 2 3 2 3
1 0 1 2 3 2 3
Math Power Guide  17
E We shade above the line because y can also be greater than the function
E Example: y < –2x + 1
E Now, we shade below the line because y is less than the function
E Usually in graphs, “less than” looks the same as “less than or equal to,” and
“greater than” looks the same as “greater than or equal to”
E Sometimes when y is not equal to the function, the line of the function is
dotted rather than solid
E But really, the shading is the important part
Math Power Guide  18
O To solve a quadratic inequality, treat it like an equation and solve for the roots
E After finding the roots, place them on a number line
E The roots will partition the number line into different regions
E Test numbers in each region
E The ones that make the inequality true will be part of the solution
E Example: x
2
+ 6x – 7 < 0
E First, we factor
E (x + 7)(x – 1) < 0
E Our roots are 7 and 1
E We will place these roots on a number line
E Notice that the roots divide the line into three regions: x < –7, –7 < x < 1, and x > 1
E We will choose a number in each region to test the inequality
E Let’s use 8, 0 and 2
E Rule of thumb
8
: whenever you can choose 0 as a test value, do so, as it is usually
very easy to plug into the inequality
E When we plug 8 into the inequality, we get 9 < 0, which is false
E When we plug 0 into the inequality, we get –7 < 0, which is true
E When we plug 2 into the inequality, we get 9 < 0, which is false
E On the number line, we will place an x where the inequality is false and a check
where the inequality is true
E Thus, the solution to the quadratic inequality is –7 < x < 1
E Quadratic inequalities may have an x and a y
8
If you’ve ever seen The Boondock Saints, the line at the beginning about “rule of thumb” is most excellent. – Steven
7 1
7 1
Math Power Guide  19
E Example: y ≤ 2 + x
2
E We can represent this inequality graphically
\
E Since y is less than or equal to the function, we shade the area below the curve,
and the area includes the curve itself
O Absolute value
O A number’s absolute value is essentially its distance from 0 on a number line
E It is always nonnegative
E Example: 45 = 45 
E Example: 45 = 0
O When the expression inside the absolute value signs is a function, we set the function equal
to two opposite values
E Example: 2 = 3  x
E x – 3 = 2
E x – 3 = –2
E x = 1 or x = 5
O When we have inequalities with absolute values, we have to be careful with the direction of
the inequality symbol
E Example: 6 + x ≥ 7
E For the first inequality, we just remove the absolute value signs
E 6 + x ≥ 7
E For the second inequality, however, we have to flip the symbol of inequality because
we change the sign of the value to the right of the symbol
E 6 + x ≥ –7
E The value to the right of the inequality is now negative 7, and the symbol is now
less than or equal to
Math Power Guide  20
E Thus, x ≥ 1 or x ≤ 3 – 13
E Example: 7  2x < –3
E Since an absolute value can never make an expression negative, the inequality can
never be true
E Watch out for trick questions like this one
Functions: Rational, Exponential, and Logarithmic
O Functions
O For each possible value of a given independent variable, x, of a function, there can be only
one value of the dependent variable, y
E If you plug in a value for x, you should get one value for y
E Example: y = f(x) = x
2
E When x = 2, f(2) = (2)
2
= 4
E f(x) denotes that y is a function of x
E More than one value of x may have the same value for y
E Example: y = f(x) = x
2
E f(2) = 4
E f(–2) = 4
E In this case, y was 4 when x was 2 and when x was 2
E No value of x, however, may have more than one value for y
E Example: y = f(x) = x
E f(9) = 9 = 3
E f(9) = 9 = –3
E In this case, y may not equal both 3 and 3
O For an equation to be a function, it must pass the vertical line test
E A vertical line placed anywhere on the graph of a function can cross the function in at
most one point
E If the line intersects the graph at more than one point, then it isn’t a function
E We can place a vertical line anywhere on the graph above, and it would only cross
the graph at one point, which means that the graph represents a function
Math Power Guide  21
E A vertical line will cross the graph above at two places when x > 0
E This graph, therefore, does NOT represent a function
O The domain of a function is all possible values of x (the independent variable)
E Any value of x that causes a mathematical error in the function is NOT included in the
domain
E Possible limitations on domain include dividing by 0, taking the square root of a negative
number, and taking the logarithm of a nonpositive number
O The range of a function is all possible values of y (the dependent variable)
E There are several limitations on range
E Square roots and exponential functions only give nonnegative values, for example
E Asymptotes can graphically illustrate range limitations
E In the above graph, y = –1 is a horizontal asymptote
E The curves approach the line y = –1 when x stretches out to infinity and
negative infinity
E The function will never actually reach y = –1
E Thus, 1 is not in the range of the function
E In addition, the line x = 0 is a vertical asymptote
E The curves will approach, but never touch, the line x = 0
O A composite function is the result of combining two or more functions at once
E f(g(x)), sometimes denoted (f g)(x), is a typical example of a composite function
E The above is read as “f of g of x”
E The composite functions f(g(x)) and g(f(x)) are not necessarily the same
Math Power Guide  22
E Example: Given f(x) = 3x + 2 and g(x) =
x
1
E f(g(x)) = 3(
x
1
) + 2
E g(f(x)) =
2 + x 3
1
E The only time the above two composite functions are equal is when x = –1
O Inverses
O An inverse is the “undo” of a function: it takes the output of a function and returns the
input
O The inverse of the function f(x) is denoted as f
1
(x)
O f(f
–1
(x)) = (f f
–1
)(x) = x
O The domain of a function is the range of its inverse
O The range of a function is the domain of its inverse
O Not all inverses are functions
E The graph of an inverse is the mirror image of the function across y = x (see graph below)
E If the function f is onetoone, then its inverse is a function
E Onetoone means that no values in the function’s range appear more than once
E Example: the inverse of f(x) = x is a function because f only maps to each yvalue
once
E The inverse of f(x) is f
1
(x) = x
E A onetoone function (which, as a function, must by definition pass the vertical line
test) passes the horizontal line test—any horizontal line placed on the graph intersects
the function in at most one point
Math Power Guide  23
O The above graph is f(x) = x
2
, which is a function because it passes the verticalline test
E It does not, however, pass the horizontalline test, so its inverse is not a function
E You could also say that its inverse does not pass the verticalline test
O To find the inverse of a function, let y = f(x), change all x’s to y’s and all y’s to x’s
E Example: f(x) = x
3
E Let y = x
3
E To find the inverse, we switch the variables
E x = y
3
E Solving for y, we get the inverse function y =
3
x
E Thus, f
1
(x) =
3
x
E Sometimes we do not need to actually find the inverse equation
E Example: Given that f(x) is a onetoone function, if f(3) = 7, what is f(3) = 7, what is
f
1
(7)?
E The answer is simply 3, since all we do in an inverse is switch the x and the y
O Rational function
O The domain of a function includes all of its possible xvalues
E To determine the domain of a function, find the xvalues at which the denominator
equals 0
E These values will be the only ones excluded from the domain
E Division by zero causes a mathematical error
E Any division by zero produces either a removable or a nonremovable discontinuity
E Removable discontinuities are “holes” in the graph
E If a factor (x – c) is in both the numerator and denominator, the two cancel
each other out, producing a “hole” at x = c
E Nonremovable discontinuities are asymptotes
E If a factor (x – c) is only in the denominator, an asymptote exists at x = c
E In both cases, c must be a real number
Math Power Guide  24
E Example: What is the domain of y =
6  x + x
12  x  x
2
2
?
E We must factor the denominator
E x
2
+ x – 6 = (x – 2)(x + 3)
E The denominator has two roots, 2 and 3
E Thus, the domain includes all values of x except 2 and 3
E If we factor the numerator, we can find out more details about the graph
E y =
3) + 2)(x  x (
3) + 4)(x  x (
E Both the numerator and the denominator have a factor of (x + 3)
E Thus, 3 is the location of a removable discontinuity
E At x = –3, a hole exists in the graph
E The other root, x = 2, is the location of a vertical asymptote
E We cannot cancel (x – 2) out of the expression
O The range of a function includes all of its possible yvalues
E The range of rational functions can be limited by a horizontal asymptote
E If the exponent degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator,
there is no horizontal asymptote
E Example: y =
1  x
2 + x + x
3
E The degree of the numerator is 3
E The degree of the denominator is 1
E The degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator, so
there is no horizontal asymptote
E The range, therefore, includes all real numbers
E If the degree of the numerator is the same as the degree of the denominator, then an
asymptote exists at y =
b
c
E c is the leading coefficient of the numerator, and b is the leading coefficient of the
denominator
E Example: What is the horizontal asymptote of y =
4 3
2 4
x  x 6
x 7 + x 3
?
E Both the numerator and the denominator have a degree of 4
E c = 3 and b = –1
E Remember that the leading coefficient comes before the variable with the
highest power
E In the denominator, the term with the highest power is –x
4
E The horizontal asymptote is y =
1 
3
or y = –3
E Note that even though y = –3 is a horizontal asymptote, it is still in the range
because f( )
18
7
 = –3
E If the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator, an asymptote
exists at y = 0 (the xaxis)
Math Power Guide  25
E As x increases, the numerator will increase at a slower rate than the denominator will
because the denominator has a higher exponent
E Eventually, the ratio of the numerator to the denominator will approach
∞
1
 ,
which effectively equals 0
O The inverse of a rational function is not necessarily a function
E Given rational function
Q(x)
) x ( P
, the inverse is NOT simply
P(x)
) x ( Q
E We must find the inverse by interchanging variables and solving for the new
dependent variable (as before)
O Exponential function
O The independent variable in an exponential function is in an exponent
E The general form of this type of function is a
x
O The base of an exponential function, a, must be positive
O The domain is all real numbers
O The range is all positive numbers
O A horizontal asymptote exists at y = 0
O The inverse of an exponential function is a logarithmic function
O Regardless of its base, an exponential function will contain the point (0, 1) if it has a
coefficient of 1 because a
0
= 1
Math Power Guide  26
O Logarithmic functions
O The independent variable of a logarithmic function is in the argument of a logarithm
E The general form is log(x)
E Log stands for a logarithm taken on base 10
E Log(x) is the same as log
10
(x)
E You may also see Ln(x)
E Ln stands for the natural logarithm, taken on base e
E e is a constant like pi
E e = 2.71828182846…
E e is important because lots of natural phenomena are based on e
E Consequently, the logarithm based on e is called the natural logarithm
E Ln(x) is the same as log
e
(x)
E You will need to know where the Log and Ln functions are on your calculator
O Logarithms are used to find the power to which a base is taken to produce the resulting
argument
E Example: log
2
(8) = x
E The argument is 8, and the base is 2
E Solve for x if 2
x
= 8
E 2
3
= 8, so the power is 3
E x = 3
O Logarithms and exponential expressions cancel each other out when the bases are the same
E Example: log
7
(7
2
) = x
E We can rewrite this equation as 7
2
= 7
x
E Thus, 2 = x
E Example: ln(e
3
2
) = x
E x =
3
2
Math Power Guide  27
O Special rules exist for operations on logarithms
E When the entire argument has an exponent, we can turn the exponent into a coefficient
of the logarithm
E Example 1: log A
2
= 2log A
E Example 2: log(x
3
+ 7x
2
– 5)
2
= 2log(x
3
+ 7x
2
– 5)
E We cannot move the other exponents because they only apply to individual
terms, not the entire argument
E When two logarithms of the same base are added, we can combine them into one
logarithm with the arguments multiplied together
E Example 1: log A + log B = log AB
E Example 2: log
5
(x + 2) + log
5
(x – 6) = log
6
(x+2)(x – 6) = log
5
(x
2
– 4x – 12)
E By the same token, when two logarithms of the same base are subtracted, we can
combine them into one logarithm with the first argument divided by the second
E Example 1: log A – log B = log A/B
E Example 2: log
6
(x + 2) – log
5
(x – 6) = log
5
(
6  x
2 + x
)
E The three rules above can also be used in reverse
E To find a logarithm in a base other than 10 or e, use the following formula
E Log
based
(argument) =
) base log(
) ument log(arg
E Example: Find log
6
(43)
E Since most calculators don’t have a base6 logarithm function, use the formula
and plug in
) 6 log(
) 43 log(
E The answer is about 2.0992
E If you plug in 6 to the 2.0992 power, you get 43
O The base of a logarithmic function must be positive
O The domain is all positive numbers
O The range is all real numbers
O A vertical asymptote exists at x = 0
O The inverse of a logarithmic function is an exponential function
O Regardless of the base, a logarithmic function will contain the point (1, 0), provided the
argument’s coefficient is 1, because log(1) = 0
Complex Numbers
O Definitions
O A complex number is any number in the form a + bi
E a and b are real numbers, and i is the imaginary unit
E i = 1  or i
2
= 1
O All pure real numbers and all pure imaginary numbers are technically complex numbers,
with b = 0 and a = 0, respectively
Math Power Guide  28
O Operations with complex numbers
O We can simplify higher powers of i
E Example: Find the value of i
75
E We need to find the pattern to the powers of i
i
1
= i
i
2
= –1
i
3
= –i
i
4
= 1
i
5
= i
E We can see that the pattern repeats every 4 powers
E This observation gives us easy shortcut to solve i
75
E 1. Divide 75 by 4
E 2. Take the remainder, ¾, and ignore the 4 in the denominator
E 3. Raise i to the power that you found in Step 2
E 4. i
3
= i
75
= i
E Let’s try i
713
E 1. Divide 713 by 4
E 2. Take the remainder, ¼, and ignore the 4 in the denominator
E 3. Raise i to the power that you found in Step 2
E 4. i
1
= i
713
= i
E Notice that the sum of every four terms is 0
E With this rule, we easily find that i
34
+ i
35
+ i
36
+ i
37
= 0
E We can also find i + i
2
+ i
3
+ … + i
53
+ i
54
E We know that i + i
2
+ i
3
+ … + i
52
= 0
E 0 + i
53
+ i
54
= 0 + i + (1) = i – 1
O Treat i as a variable when adding and subtracting (combine like terms)
O Use the distributive property when multiplying two complex numbers
E In the end, simplify i
2
= 1
O Complex conjugates are pairs of complex numbers that come in the form a + bi and a – bi
E The complex conjugate of i is i
E The complex conjugate of 2 – 3i is 2 + 3i
E The complex conjugate of 4 is 4 because there is no imaginary part
O A fraction with an imaginary expression in the denominator needs to be simplified
E Fix this by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate
of the denominator
E Example:
2i  8
3i + 4
E We need to get rid of the i in the denominator
E We will multiply top and bottom by the conjugate of the denominator, 8 + 2i
E
2i) + 2i)(8  (8
2i) + 3i)(8 + (4
=
4 + 16i  16i + 64
6  24i + i 8 + 32
=
68
32i + 26
=
34
i 16 + 13
Math Power Guide  29
O Complex numbers as roots of equations
O Any polynomial with degree n will have n (possibly nondistinct) roots among the complex
numbers
O All complex roots (that have nonzero imaginary parts) come in conjugate pairs
E Example: If a polynomial has a root of 7 + 2i, it must have another root, 7 – 2i
O Since complex roots must come in pairs, then a polynomial with an odd degree must have an
odd number of real roots
O For a quadratic equation, the nature of the roots is determined by the discriminant of the
quadratic formula: b
2
– 4ac
E If the discriminant is positive, both roots are real
E The roots are
2a
nt discrimina ± b 
E If the discriminant is 0, the roots are real and identical
E The root is
2a
b 
E If the discriminant is negative, the roots are complex conjugates
E In the quadratic equation, taking a square root of a negative discriminant creates an
imaginary unit
Reading Graphs of Functions
O Linear Functions
O Linear functions (linear equations) are straightline graphs
E These functions have x raised to the first power
E By reading the graph, we can figure out the equation it represents
E First, we look for the yintercept, the value of y where the line crosses the yaxis
E The yintercept in the graph above is 1
E In slopeintercept form, which is y = mx + b, the yintercept is b
E b = –1
E We still need to find m, the slope
E We can read two points from the graph, (–2,0) and (0, –1)
E Using the formula for slope, m =
1 2
1 2
x  x
y  y
, we have m =
(2)  0
0  1
E m = –
2
1
Math Power Guide  30
E Therefore, the above graph represents y = –
2
1
x – 1
O Quadratic Functions
O Quadratic functions (quadratic equations) are Ushaped graphs
E These functions have x raised to the second power
E The above graph shows a parabola that follows the standard form y = a(x – h)
2
+ k
E Standard form is also known as vertex form because the point (h, k) is the vertex, the
turning point of the parabola
E To find the equation of the parabola, we must find the vertex first
E Since the parabola opens upwards, we look for the lowest point
E The lowest point is (2, 3)
E Putting the vertex into the standard form equation, we have y = a(x – 2)
2
– 3
E To find a, we need to plug in another point
E We can read from the graph the point (0, 1)
E –1 = a(0 – 2)
2
– 3
E a =
2
1
E The graph above represents y =
2
1
(x – 2)
2
– 3
O Higher order functions
O Higher order functions (higher order equations) fall into two general types of graphs
E If the order (degree of the highest exponent) is even, the graph will start and end on the
same side of the yaxis
Math Power Guide  31
E The above graph starts and ends on the same side, the positive side, of the yaxis,
which means the order is even
E The graph shows the function y =
2
1
x
4
+ x
3
– 2x
2
E If a test question ever asks you to find the equation from a graph like this one,
eliminate the answer choices whose orders cannot possibly be correct
E In this case, we would eliminate all the choices with odd orders
E Then, graph the remaining choices on your calculator to find the equation that
matches
E Alternatively, you can plug points from the graph into the remaining equations
and see if they solve correctly
E If the order is odd, the graph will start and end on opposite sides of the yaxis
Math Power Guide  32
E The above graph starts on the negative side of the yaxis and ends on the positive side,
which means the order is odd
E The graph shows the function x
5
+ 2x
4
O Exponential functions
O Exponential functions create curves that have a horizontal asymptote
E The above graph shows y = e
x
, and the asymptote is y = 0
O Logarithmic functions
O Logarithmic functions create curves that have a vertical asymptote
Math Power Guide  33
E The above graph shows y = ln(x), the natural logarithm of x, and the asymptote is x = 0
E Notice that this graph is the inverse of the exponential graph
E Flipping the exponential graph on the x = y line will yield the above logarithmic
graph
Sequences, Series, and Means
O Arithmetic sequences
O Arithmetic sequences are patterns of numbers that have a common difference d
E Example: 2, 5, 8, 11…
E Here, the difference d between consecutive terms is 3
E 8 – 5 = 3
E 11 – 8 = 3
E To find the nth term of an arithmetic sequence, use the formula
nth term = first term + d(n – 1)
E The 8
th
term in the example sequence above would be 2 + 3(8 – 1) = 23
E It makes sense that 7 “gaps” exist between the first and the eighth terms
O Arithmetic series
O An arithmetic series is the sum of an arithmetic sequence
E The formula to find the sum of the first n terms is
2
term) last + term n(first
E
2
term) last + term n(first
gives the average of all the terms, and multiplying the average by
n will yield the total sum
E Example: Find the sum of the arithmetic progression: 31, 34, 37…94, 97
E First, we must find n, the number of terms in the series
E The formula to find the number of terms is n = 1 +
d
term first  term last
Math Power Guide  34
E If we think of the terms as fence posts separated by uniform gaps, then we would
know the number of posts by adding one to the number of gaps
E To find the number of gaps then, we must take the distance between the last post
and the first post and divide that distance by the length of a gap
E We see that the difference d = 3, and our setup is n = 23 = 1 +
3
31  97
E Now that we know n = 23, we can use the summation formula to find the sum of the
series
E Sum = 1472 =
2
97) + 23(31
O Often, summation problems will use sigma notation
E The Greek letter sigma is ∑
E We can express the sum of the numbers 1 to 10 as
∑
10
1 = k
k
E The index k starts at 1, the lower bound, and increases by 1 for each term until it
reaches 10, the upper bound
E The bounds are also called limits of summation
E Our expression is the same as 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10
E Example: Find
∑
12
7 = n
m 3
E Listing the terms, we find that they are 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36
E From m = 7 to m = 12, we have 6 terms (12 – 7 + 1 = 6)
E Again, we can use the summation formula, sum = 171 =
2
) 36 + 6(21
O Arithmetic mean
O An arithmetic mean is the average of two or more numbers
E Example: What is the arithmetic mean of 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13?
E We can solve this problem by adding up all the terms and dividing by the number of
terms
E 9 =
5
13 + 11 + 9 + 7 + 5
E An alternative strategy is to recognize the terms as an arithmetic sequence
E The term in the middle will equal the average
E In this case, the middle of the five terms is 9
E If the problem had an even number of terms, we would only need to average the
middle two terms to find the average of the whole sequence
E Given a set of unrelated numbers, of course, the arithmetic sequence approach will
not work
O Geometric sequence
O Geometric sequences are patterns of numbers with a common ratio r
E Example: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16…
E Here, the common ratio r is 2
E 2 =
1
2
Math Power Guide  35
E 2 =
2
4
E To find the nth term of a geometric sequence, use the formula nth term = (1st term)r
n–1
E Example: What is the 13
th
term in the sequence that begins with 1024, 512, 256, 128…?
E The common ratio r is
2
1
E
1024
512
=
2
1
E
512
256
=
2
1
E The 13
th
term is (1024)(
2
1
)
13–1
=
4
1
O Geometric series
O A geometric series is the sum of a geometric sequence
E The formula to find the sum of the first n terms is
r  1
) r  term)(1 (first
n
, where r is the
common ratio
E Example: Find
∑
5
1 = p
p
) 2  ( 3
E The first term is 3(–2)
1
= –6
E The second term is 3(–2)
2
= 12
E We can find the common ratio r by dividing:
6 
12
= –2
E We know that n = 5 because the index p goes from 1 to 5
E Thus, the sum is
(2)  1
(2)  6(1 
5
=
3
32) + 6(1 
= –2(33) = –66
O Infinite series
O An infinite series is the sum of a pattern of numbers with an infinite number of terms
E For an infinite series to be solvable, r < 1
E If r ≥ 1, the series will continue to grow infinitely larger and will not approach a
sum
E Example: the series 2, 4, 8, 16… (r = 2) does not have a fixed sum because the
terms will simply keep getting bigger
E Example: Find
∑
∞
0 = x
x
2
1
E Because this series has a common ratio r =
2
1
, the formula we use to find the sum
will be similar to the formula for finding the sum of the first n terms of a geometric
series
E The formula is sum =
r  1
term first
E The numerator differs from the one in the geometric series formula
E Since n = ∞, (
2
1
)
∞
approaches zero, and the (1 – r
n
) in the geometric series
formula becomes 1
Math Power Guide  36
E The sum is 2 =
2
1
1
=
2
1
 1
2
1
0
E We were able to find a number for the sum, which means that the series converged
E An infinite series can also diverge
E Divergent series do not add up to a nice number
E The harmonic series
9
is a common example of a divergent series
E Its progression is
1
1
+
2
1
+
3
1
+
4
1
+
5
1
… or
∑
∞
1 = x
x
1
E Even though the terms become smaller, they don’t scale down like the terms the
convergent example, in which each term was half of the previous one
E In the harmonic series, the terms keep adding up to infinity
O Geometric mean
O A geometric mean is the product of n terms raised to
n
1
E Example: What is the geometric mean of 3 and 27?
E 3 27 × = 81
E 81
1/2
= 9 = 81
E Thus, the geometric mean of 3 and 27 is 9
E The answer makes sense because 3, 9, and 27 form a geometric series with a common
ratio of 3
9
The harmonic series gets its name from the way a string vibrates. The wavelengths of the harmonics (the frequencies that
naturally resonate) are a half, a third, a fourth, etc. of the length of the string.
Math Power Guide  37
O Graphing
O The following are graphs of various sequences and series
E We can tell the above graph represents an arithmetic sequence because the terms have
equal vertical distances between each other
E If we connected the dots, they would form a straight line: the yvalues are increasing
at a constant (linear) rate
E The above graph models the series n
1 = n
∑
10
E The dots no longer have equal vertical distances between each other
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
n
Arithmetic Sequence
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
n
Arithmetic Series
Math Power Guide  38
E In the above geometric sequence, each term is twice as large as the previous one
E This graph models the geometric series
n
1 = n
2
4
∑
10
E The series sums to 3.996094, and we can see that the graph approaches 4
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
n
Geometric Series
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
n
Geometric Sequence
Math Power Guide  39
E This harmonic (infinite) series starts at 1 and keeps adding
2
1
+
3
1
+
4
1
+…
E The harmonic series ALWAYS diverges
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
n
Harmonic Series
Math Power Guide  40
GEOMETRY
Right Triangles
O The Pythagorean theorem
O The Pythagorean theorem states a special relationship that applies to all right triangles:
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
E a and b are the two leg lengths of the right triangle; c
is the length of the hypotenuse
O We can also use the Pythagorean theorem to determine
whether a nonright triangle is acute or obtuse
E If a
2
+ b
2
> c
2
, then the triangle is acute
E c is the length of the triangle’s longest leg; a and b
are the lengths of the other two lengths
E If a
2
+ b
2
< c
2
, then the triangle is obtuse
O A Pythagorean triple is a set of three integers that satisfy the Pythagorean theorem
E Examples of common Pythagorean triples:
E 3, 4, 5
E 5, 12, 13
E 7, 24, 25
E 9, 40, 41
E 8, 15, 17
O Any multiple of a Pythagorean triple also satisfies the Pythagorean theorem
E 6, 8, 10 is a multiple of 3, 4, 5, so it is also a Pythagorean triple
E
5
3
,
5
4
, 1 is also a multiple of 3, 4, 5
O Special triangles: 454590 and 306090
O The 454590 right triangle is an isosceles right triangle
E Two angles are 45, and the 3
rd
angle is 90
E The two legs are equal in length
E The length of the hypotenuse is always 2 times the
length of each leg
E Drawing a diagonal from corner to corner across a
square results in a 454590 triangle
POWER PREVIEW POWER NOTES
Geometry is the study of figures (both two and three
dimensional). Of particular interest are triangles (specifically
right triangles) and quadrilaterals. In this section, we will
explore how to find the area and volume of such figures, in
addition to several other topics.
· According to the USAD outline, 1011
questions (30% of the test) will come from
this section
· Covers pages 2632 in the USAD math
basic guide
c
a
b
45°
45°
x
x
x
2
Math Power Guide  41
30°
60°
2x
x
x
3
O The 306090 right triangle is the second special right triangle
E The angles in this triangle measure 30, 60, and 90
E The shortest side is opposite the 30 angle
E The length of the hypotenuse is 2 times the length of the
shortest side
E The length of the other leg (the leg opposite the 60° angle)
is 3 times the length of the shortest side
E Drawing one altitude in an equilateral triangle results in
two 306090 triangles
Coordinate Geometry
O Lines
O The midpoint of a line segment is the point equidistant from both ends
E Given a line segment with two end points (a, b) and (c, d), the midpoint is found by
taking the average of the two coordinates:
2
d + b
,
2
c + a
O Slope is a line’s ratio of vertical to horizontal change
E Slope can be found given any two points (a, b) and (c, d) on a line: m =
x Δ
y Δ
=
a  c
b  d
E If a = c, then the slope is undefined, and the two points lie on a vertical line
E If b = d, then the slope is 0, and the two points lie on a horizontal line
E Remember this equation as “rise over run”
O We use the distance formula to find the distance between any two points
E d =
2
1 2
2
1 2
) y  y ( + ) x  x ( between two points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
)
E d is the distance
E This formula is derived from the Pythagorean theorem
E We can use a variation of the distance formula to find the distance between two points
(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) in threedimensional space
E d =
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
) z  z ( + ) y  y ( + ) x  x (
O Lines can be parallel or perpendicular
E Parallel lines are lines in the same plane that never intersect
E If lines m and n are parallel, it is notated as m  n
E Parallel lines have the same slope
E Perpendicular lines are lines that intersect to form 90 angles
E If lines m and n are perpendicular, it is notated as m n
E The slopes of perpendicular lines are negative reciprocals of each other
E Example: If a line has a slope of
5
3
, a perpendicular line has a slope of
3
5

E Horizontal and vertical lines are perpendicular to each other, even though their
slopes are 0 and undefined, respectively
Math Power Guide  42
O A transversal is a line that intersects two parallel lines
E Vertical angles (at right, 1 and 3, 2 and 4, 5 and 7, 6
and 8) are congruent
E Corresponding angles (1 and 5, 2 and 6, 4 and 8, 3 and
7) are congruent
E Alternate interior angles (4 and 6, 3 and 5) are
congruent
E Alternate exterior angles (1 and 7, 2 and 8) are
congruent
E Consecutive angles (1 and 4, 2 and 3, 5 and 8, 6 and 7) are supplementary (add up to
180)
E Sameside interior angles (4 and 5, 3 and 6) are supplementary
10
O Properties and types of quadrilaterals
O A quadrilateral is a foursided polygon
E The measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral add up to 360
E The formula for the number of angles in a polygon is (n – 2)/180
O A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
E The parallel sides are called bases
E The nonparallel sides are called legs
E An isosceles trapezoid has congruent legs, base angles, and diagonals
E A right trapezoid has one right base angle
E Area = ) h )( b + b )(
2
1
(
2 1
E b
1
and b
2
are the lengths of the bases and h is the height
E In a coordinate system, the two bases have the same slope (since they are parallel)
E The two legs have different slopes
O A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides
E Opposite angles and sides are congruent
E Consecutive angles are supplementary
E The diagonals bisect each other
E To bisect means to halve an angle
E Area = bh
E b is the length of a base and h is the perpendicular height
E In a coordinate system, opposite sides have the same slope and length
O A rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles
E All properties of parallelograms apply to rectangles
E Its diagonals are congruent
E Area = Lw, where L is the length and w is the width
E In a coordinate system, opposite sides have the same slope and length, and the slopes of
adjacent sides must be perpendicular
O A rhombus is a parallelogram with four congruent sides
E All properties of a parallelogram apply to a rhombus
E Its diagonals are perpendicular to each other
10
The Princeton Review sums all of the above stuff really nicely in “Fred’s Theorem”: all the small angles are congruent. All
the big angles are congruent. A small angle and a big angle are supplementary. – Dean
b
2
h
1
2
3 4
5
6
7 8
b
1
Math Power Guide  43
E The diagonals bisect each other
E The diagonals bisect the corner angles to form 4 congruent right triangles
E Area =
2 1
d d
2
1
E d
1
and d
2
are the lengths of its two diagonals
E In a coordinate system, the slopes of the diagonals are negative reciprocals
of each other (because they are perpendicular)
O A square is a parallelogram that is both a rectangle and a rhombus
E All properties of rectangles and rhombuses apply to squares
E The diagonals form 4 congruent isosceles right triangles
E Area = s
2
E s is the length of one side
E The diagonals are perpendicular, bisect each other, and have the same length
Congruency and Similarity
O Congruence
O Two figures are congruent if they have the same shape and area
E In other words, congruent figures have sides and angles of the same measures
E The following figures are all congruent
E The triangle is rotated and flipped several different ways, but the figure’s shape and
area remain the same
O Similarity
O Two figures are similar if they have the same shape
E The following figures are all similar
Math Power Guide  44
E The ellipses are different sizes, but they all have the same shape
Plane and Solid Figures
O Area of triangles, quadrilaterals, and circles
O There are several formulas that allow us to find the area of a triangle
E A = bh
2
1
E b is the length of the base and h is the height; A is area
E Heron’s formula
11
: A = c)  b)(s  a)(s  s ( s
E a, b, and c are the lengths of the three sides of the triangle; s =
2
c + b + a
E A = C sin ab
2
1
E a and b are two sides and C is the measure of the angle between these two sides
O Formulas for finding the area of quadrilaterals vary depending on the type of quadrilateral in
question
E These formulas can all be found in the previous section (“Coordinate Geometry:
Properties and types of quadrilaterals”)
O A circle is the twodimensional set of all points equidistant from one center point
E A = πr
2
E r is the radius of the circle
E A “sector” of a circle is visually analogous to a slice of pie
E If you have the arc measurement in degrees, A = πr
2
360
measure arc
E “Arc measure” is the degree measure of the “crust” of the sector slice
E If you have the arc measurement in radians, A = πr
2
radians
measure arc
O Area of regular polygons
O Regular polygons have sides of equal length and angles of equal size
E We can divide these polygons into isosceles triangles, with each side of the polygon as a
base
11
This formula is notoriously difficult to type into calculators. Be careful. – Steven
Math Power Guide  45
E We can then find the area of each isosceles triangle and multiply it by the number of
triangles to find the area of the whole polygon
E Example: Find the area of a regular heptagon with a side length of 4 and an apothem
length of 4.153
E A heptagon (sometimes called a septagon) has 7 sides
E The side length is 4, so the base of the isosceles triangle is 4
E An apothem is the distance from the center of a regular polygon to the middle of a
side
E Apothems are always perpendicular to the sides
E In the drawing above, the apothem is the height of the triangle
E Later, you will be able to use trigonometry to find the height of the triangle
E For now, the height (apothem) is given as 4.153
E Using the formula for the area of a triangle, A =
bh
2
1
, we have
A =
306 . 8 = ) 153 . 4 )( 4 (
2
1
E The heptagon has 7 sides and, therefore, 7 isosceles triangles, so we need to multiply
the area of the triangle by 7
E The area of the heptagon is A = 8.306 × 7 = 58.142
O Area and volume of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, spheres, and cones
O A prism consists of two parallel and congruent bases and the space between the two bases
12
E Surface area = area of the 2 bases + area of lateral faces (for our purposes, the lateral faces
are rectangles)
E Volume = (area of a base)(height)
O A pyramid is akin to a prism, but it has one base instead of two
E This base rises up to a vertex (point of intersection of the sides)
E SA = area of the base + area of the lateral faces (for our purposes, triangles)
12
This is actually the definition of a regular prism. Most basic math (including Decathlon math), however, focuses almost
exclusively on regular prisms, so we will, too.
Math Power Guide  46
E Volume = (
3
1
)(area of the base)(height)
O A cylinder is essentially a circular prism
E SA = 2πr
2
+ 2πrh
E r is the radius of a base, and h is the height of the cylinder
E Volume = πr
2
h
O A sphere is the threedimensional set of all points equidistant from one center point
E SA = 4πr
2
E r is the radius of the sphere
E Volume =
3
4
πr
3
O A cone is a pyramid with a circular base
E SA = πr
2
+ πr
2 2
h + r
E r is the radius of the base, and h is the height
E
2 2
h + r is the lateral height, the distance from the edge of the base to the top point
E Volume =
3
1
πr
2
h
O Properties of similar figures
O Corresponding parts of similar figures are proportional
O There are a few ways to test triangles for similarity
E SSS similarity theorem: if two triangles exist such that all three pairs of corresponding
side lengths form a constant ratio, then the two triangles are similar
E SAS similarity theorem: if two triangles exist such that two pairs of corresponding side
lengths form a constant ratio and the angles included between those sides are congruent,
then the two triangles are similar
E AA similarity theorem: if two triangles exist such that two pairs of corresponding angles
are congruent, then the triangles are similar
O These theorems can be extended to other geometric figures, too
E If all the corresponding angles in two figures are congruent, then the two figures are
similar
O Properties of circles
O Angle measures are an important part of circle geometry
E A circle has 360 or 2 radians
E radians = 180
E Example: How many degrees is 1 radian?
E (1)(
π
180
) =
3 . 57
E The measure of a central angle is equal to the measure of the intercepted arc
E The measure of an inscribed angle is equal to the half the measure of the intercepted arc
E The measure of an angle in the interior of the circle is half the sum of the two
intercepted arcs (see circle diagrams on the last page of this section)
E The measure of an angle in the exterior of the circle is half the difference of the two
intercepted arcs
O Tangents, secants, and chords are the main three types of lines associated with circles
Math Power Guide  47
E A tangent is a line that intersects the circle at only one point
E Tangent lines “touch” circles
E Tangents are perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of tangency
E A secant is a line that intersects the circle at two points
E Secant lines go through circles
E A chord is a line segment whose two endpoints lie on the rim of the circle
E The longest chord in a circle is the diameter
E If two chords are the same distance from the center of a circle, they are congruent
E Their intersected arcs are also congruent
E If two chords are congruent or if their intersected arcs are congruent, the two chords
are the same distance from the center of the same circle
E ChordChord Power Theorem: two intersecting chords form four line segments such
that the product of one chord’s line segment lengths equals the product of the other
chord’s line segment lengths (see circle diagrams below)
E SecantTangent Power Theorem: the product of the lengths of the secant and its
external part is equal to the square of the length of the tangent
E SecantSecant Power Theorem: the product of the lengths of one secant and its external
part is equal to the product of the lengths of the other secant and its external part
Math Power Guide  48
O
N
H
C
U
S
O
L
Y
D
O
H
U
E S
E Two tangents from a common
exterior point are congruent; in
this case, DL DY
E Any radius drawn to a point of
tangency is perpendicular to the
tangent; in this case, DL OL⊥
and DY OY⊥
E If a tangent and a secant are drawn from a
common exterior point, the product of the
secant’s length and the length of its
external part equals the square of the
length of the tangent; in this case,
2
(HE) = SE × UE
[SecantTangent Power Theorem]
E If two secants are drawn from a common
point, the product of the first secant’s
length and the length of its external part
equals the product of the second secant’s
length and the length of its external part:
in this case, SH × SN = SU × SC
[SecantSecant Power Theorem]
E mS = ( ) UH m  CN ∠ m )(
2
1
∠
E Two intersecting chords form four line
segments such that the product of one
chord’s line segments equals the product of
the other chord’s line segments; here, BP x
PI = DP x PE.
[ChordChord Power Theorem]
E ) BE m = DI m )(
2
1
( = BPE ∠ m ∠ ∠
P
D
B
I
E
O
Math Power Guide  49
TRIGONOMETRY
Right Triangle Relationships
O In a right triangle ABC where C is the right angle
O sine of an angle =
hypotenuse
opposite
O cosine of an angle =
hypotenuse
adjacent
O tangent of an angle =
adjacent
opposite
13
O Examples
O sinA = cosB =
c
a
O sinB = cosA =
c
b
O tanA = cotB =
b
a
O tanB = cotA =
a
b
O secA = cscB =
b
c
O secB = cscA =
a
c
O csc is the reciprocal of sin
E sinC = 1 = cscC = 1
O sec is the reciprocal of cos
E cosC = 0 = secC is undefined
O cot is the reciprocal of tan
E cotC = 0 = tanC is undefined
13
An easy way to remember these three properties is with the mnemonic “SOHCAHTOA.”
POWER PREVIEW POWER NOTES
Trigonometry is the study of angles and the angular
relationships of planar figures. The trigonometric functions
are also called the circular functions because they can all be
derived from the unit circle.
· According to the USAD outline, 7
questions (20% of the test) will come from
this section
· Covers pages 3335 in the USAD math
basic guide
Math Power Guide  50
Trigonometric Functions
O Trig functions and quadrants
O The sign of the value of a function depends on the quadrant of the angle
E All three main functions (sine, cosine, tangent) are
positive in Quadrant I
E Sine is positive in Quadrant II
E Tangent is positive in Quadrant III
E Cosine is positive in Quadrant IV
14
O Each of the three reciprocal functions (cosecant, secant,
and cotangent) is positive in the same quadrants as its
corresponding “main” function
O Trig functions and reference angles
O We can use the reference angle to determine the value
of a trigonometric function
O If the angle is in Quadrant I, is the reference angle
E Example:
60 is in Quadrant I, so its reference angle is
60
O If the angle is in Quadrant II, 180 – θ (or π ) is the reference angle
E Example:
4
π 3
is in Quadrant II, so its reference angle is
4
π
=
4
π 3
 π
O If the angle is in Quadrant III, θ – 180 or π is the reference angle
E Example:
200 is in Quadrant III, so its reference angle is
200 –
180 =
20
O If the angle is in Quadrant IV, 360 – θ or 2π – θ is the reference angle
E Example:
3
π 5
is in Quadrant IV, so its reference angle is
3
π
=
3
π 5
 π 2
O When using reference angles, follow the ASTC rule mentioned above to put the correct sign
on the result
E Example: Find cos( )
3
π 4
E
3
π 4
is in Quadrant III, so its reference angle is
3
π
= π 
3
π 4
E cos(
2
1
= )
3
π
E In Quadrant III, tangent is positive, and sine and cosine are negative
E Thus, cos(
2
1
 = )
3
π 4
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
O Basic information
O The inverse trig functions include arcsin, arccos, arctan, arccsc, arcsec, and arccot
O Basically, if sinA = B, then arcsinB = A
E Similar relationships apply for the other inverse functions as well
O sin
1
A is the same as arcsinA
14
My Algebra II teacher taught me a trick to remember this. If you go in order from quadrants I to IV, the order of positive
functions is all functions, sine, tangent, and cosine. All students take classes. – Dean
A S
T C
Math Power Guide  51
All inverse trig functions can be notated either way
Evaluating inverse trig expressions
Substitution can be a powerful tool in evaluating inverse trig functions
Example: to evaluate cos(arcsin( ))
2
1
, let θ =arcsin
2
1
Now, we’re just trying to solve cosθ
arcsin
2
π
=
2
1
and cos
2
3
=
6
π
Notice that we use just the principal value of arcsin
Otherwise, cos
2
3
 =
6
π 5
would also be an answer
The domains and ranges of inverse trig functions
Trig functions don’t pass the horizontal line test, so their inverses are not functions
To be able to work with the inverse functions as functions, we must limit their domains and
ranges (see table below)
These limitations ensure that the inverse functions pass the vertical line test
Inverse Trig Functions
Function Domain Range
Arcsin [– 1, 1]
[
2
,
2

π π
]
Arccos [– 1, 1] [0, ]
Arctan ( , )
(
2
π
,
2
π
 )
Arccsc (– ,–1]1, )
π π
[ ,0) (0, ]
2 2
Arcsec (– ,–1]1, )
π π
π [0, ) ( , ]
2 2
Arccot ( , ) (0, )
Graphs
Period
The period of a function is the interval over which it repeats
All trigonometric functions are periodic
Sine and cosine (and their reciprocal functions) have periods of 2
Tangent and cotangent have periods of
The periods of sine and cosine (and their reciprocal functions) can be determined by the
coefficient of the angle (here, x)
Example: the period of sin(kx) is
k
π 2
Math Power Guide  52
E Example: the period of tan(kx) is
k
π
O Amplitude
O The amplitude of a cyclical function is half the distance between the maximum and
minimum height of a wave
E Since amplitude measures distance, it is always positive
O Sin and cos have amplitudes that can be determined by the coefficient of the function
E Example: the amplitude of kcosx is k
O The other functions don’t really have an “amplitude” because their range is unbounded, but
the coefficient can stretch the graph vertically
O Horizontal shifts
O A constant term inside the function can horizontally shift a function’s graph
E Example: the horizontal shift of sec(x – k) is k to the right
E Note that the shift is positive (to the right) even though the coefficient ( – k) is
negative
E If the function were sec(x + k), the shift would be negative (to the left)
O Vertical shifts
O A constant term outside the function can vertically shift the function’s graph
E Example: the vertical shift of sin(x) + k is k upward
E Note that this shift is positive shift
E If the function were sin(x) – k, the shift would be negative (down)
O Combining all these properties
O Example: f(x) = 3cos(7x + 1  )
2
π 7
E The first thing we need to do is factor out the coefficient attached to the x
E f(x) = 3cos[7(x + 1  )]
2
π
E Only when x is by itself can we find the period and horizontal shift
E This function has a period of
7
π 2
, an amplitude of 3, a shift of
2
π
to the left, and a shift
of 1 down
period =
2
C
amplitude = B
amplitude = B
*
*phase displacement =
D
C
vertical shift = A
Graph of Bsin(Cx + D) + A
Math Power Guide  53
Identities
O Purpose
O Oftentimes, problems with trig functions in them will not be solvable as presented
O You’ll have to convert functions using the identities below to solve the problem
O Reciprocal identities
O sin x =
x csc
1
¯ x csc =
x sin
1
O cos x =
x sec
1
¯ x sec
=
x cos
1
O tan x =
x cot
1
¯ x cot
=
x tan
1
O Quotient identities
O tan x =
x cos
x sin
=
x csc
x sec
O cot x =
x sin
x cos
=
x sec
x csc
O Pythagorean identities
O sin
2
x + cos
2
x = 1
O tan
2
x + 1 = sec
2
x
O 1 + cot
2
x = csc
2
x
O Sum identities
O sin(x + y) = (sinx)(cosy) + (cosx)(siny)
O cos(x + y) = (cosx)(cosy) + (sinx)(siny)
O tan(x + y) =
) y )(tan x (tan  1
y tan + x tan
O Difference identities
O sin(x – y) = (sinx)(cosy) – (cosx)(siny)
O cos(x – y) = (cosx)(cosy) + (sinx)(siny)
O tan (x – y) =
) y )(tan x (tan + 1
y tan  x tan
O Double angle identities
O sin(2x) = 2(sinx)(cosx)
O cos(2x) = cos
2
x – sin
2
x = 1 – 2sin
2
x = 2cos
2
x – 1
O tan(2x) =
x tan  1
x tan 2
2
O Half angle identities
O
2
x cos  1
± = )
2
x
sin(
O
2
x cos + 1
± = )
2
x
cos(
O
x cos + 1
x cos  1
± = )
2
x
tan(
O Phase identities
O sinx = ) x 
2
π
cos(
Math Power Guide  54
O cosx = ) x 
2
π
sin(
O Odd/even properties
O sin(–x) = –sinx
O csc(–x) = –cscx
O tan(–x) = –tanx
O cot(–x) = –cotx
O cos(–x) = cosx
O sec(–x) = secx
O Sumtoproduct identities
O )
2
y  x
cos( )
2
y + x
sin( 2 = y sin + x sin
O )
2
y  x
sin( )
2
y + x
cos( 2 = y sin  x sin
O )
2
y  x
cos( )
2
y + x
cos( 2 = y sin  x sin
O )
2
y  x
sin( )
2
y + x
sin( 2  = y cos  x cos
O Producttosum identities
O
2
) y  x sin( + ) y + x sin(
= y cos x sin
O
2
) y  x sin( + ) y + x sin(
= y cos x sin
O
2
) y + x ( os c  ) y  x cos(
= y sin x sin
Trigonometric Equations
O Law of Sines
O The law of sines states that in a triangle, the ratio of the sine of an angle to the length of the
opposite side is the same for all three angles
E
a
A sin
=
b
B sin
=
c
C sin
E As long as we have one angleside pair (A and a, B and b, or C and c) and another side or
angle, we can find the rest of the variables
A
B
C
c
a
b
Math Power Guide  55
O Law of Cosines
O The law of cosines is a general form of the Pythagorean theorem
E Whereas the Pythagorean theorem only works for right triangles, the law of cosines
works for any triangle
E Given two sides and the angle between them, we can find the length of the third side
(refer to the above triangle for the following formula)
E c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
– 2ab(cosC)
E In a right triangle, c is the hypotenuse, which means C is the right angle
E The cosine of ninety degrees is 0, which is why the last term in the formula
disappears in the Pythagorean theorem
O Algebraic equations involving trig functions
O Unless there are restrictions on domain and range, an infinite number of possible solutions
exist to a trigonometric equation
E To solve for all solutions, remember that the functions are periodic
E If x is a solution, then 360 + nx, where n is an integer, is also a solution
E For tangent and cotangent, 180 + nx is also a solution
E The period of these functions is only 180
E Check for other solutions
E Example: if a solution to a sine equation is found in Quadrant I, then there should
also be a solution in Quadrant II, since sine is positive in Quadrants I and II
O To solve trig equations, isolate the trigonometric expression
E Change all trigonometric expressions to the same function
E Example: cos
2
x + sinx + 1 = 0
E First use a Pythagorean identity to convert all the expressions to sine
E Thus, (1 – sin
2
x) + sinx + 1 = 0
E Use substitution if necessary
E Example: 2sin
2
x + sinx – 1 = 0
E Let u = sinx
E Substitution and factoring give (2u – 1)(u + 1) = 0
E The solutions can be found by solving u = sinx =
2
1
and u = sinx = –1
E Then solve for x
E x = 30° and x = 270°
Math Power Guide  56
CALCULUS
Basic Limits and Continuity
O Limits
O A limit is the yvalue that a function approaches when getting infinitely close to a given x
value
O Notation: ) x ( f lim
c x →
means taking the limit of f as x approaches c
E c is the value that x is approaching
O The function does not necessarily have to be defined at c
E The function can approach or at c
E If the function is undefined at c, check for removable discontinuities
E Factor the numerator and denominator and cancel factors if possible, then try
substituting c again
O If the lefthand and righthand limit of a function as x approaches c are not the same, the
limit does not exist
O The limit can be evaluated by substituting c as x in the function if the function exists at c
O Continuity
O A function is continuous at c if the limit at c equals the function’s value at c
E In other words, it’s continuous if ) x ( f lim
c x→
= f(c)
O All polynomials are continuous everywhere
O Rational functions may have discontinuities at vertical asymptotes or removable
discontinuities
O Boundaries and endpoints of piecewise functions are other possible points of discontinuity
O L’Hopital’s rule
15
O After plugging in c, if a limit is indeterminate, we can use L’Hopital’s rule to convert the
limit into a determinate one
E Indeterminate limits come in the form of
0
0
and
O This rule will be covered after the next section on first and second derivatives.
15
Also spelled “L’Hospital,” this rule is “derived” from its common usage in infirmaries and clinics across France. Just
kidding. – Sophy
POWER PREVIEW POWER NOTES
Ideas related to calculus have been around since Archimedes,
but it was through the independent work of Newton and
Leibniz that modern calculus was developed.
· According to the USAD outline, 34
questions (10% of the test) will come from
this section
· Covers pages 3637 in the USAD math
basic guide
Math Power Guide  57
First Derivatives, Second Derivatives, Antiderivatives, and Their Graphical
Interpretations
O Derivatives
O Finding a derivative is known as differentiation
O The derivative of f(x) at c is defined as
h
) c ( f  ) h + c ( f
lim =
c  ) h + c (
) c ( f  ) h + c ( f
lim
c x c x → →
E A derivative is a rate of change
E The formula above attempts to find how fast f(x) changes between x = c and x = c + h,
where h is so small a change that it is almost 0
E Imagine hitting the accelerator in a car and trying to figure out how much the car’s
speed changed over the first millisecond
O The derivative describes the rate of change of the dependent variable, f(x), with respect to the
independent variable, x
O The derivative at a point is like the “slope” of the function at that specific point
E Graphically, it is the slope of straight line that is tangent to the graph at that point
O Notation: if y = f(x), then ) x ( ' f =
dx
dy
O Formula to find derivatives of x raised to a power:
1  p p
px = ) x (
dx
d
O Formula for the derivative of a constant (c): 0 = ) c (
dx
d
E Constants are really cx
0
E Thus, the derivative of any constant is 0
O Prior to 2005, the only derivatives tested at competition were polynomial derivatives
E In 2005, the Product Rule and Chain Rule were tested, as well as the derivatives of
trigonometric functions
E See the tables at the end of this section for formulas for these derivatives
O The derivative of a sum is the sum of the derivatives
E To find the derivative of a polynomial, just take the derivative of each term
E Example: f(x) = 3x
2
+ 5x + 12
E f'(x) = 6x + 5
O First derivative
O The first derivative is the slope of a function at a specific point
E The first derivative taken with respect to time is the velocity of the function at that point
E Displacement is the distance of a point from its starting point
O The first derivative can reveal details about the graph of the function, such as maxima and
minima (see below)
O The first derivative can also give the slope of any point on the function, thus providing a
method of finding the tangent line at that point (see below)
O If the first derivative is positive in a region, then the function is increasing
O If the first derivative is negative in a region, then the function is decreasing
O If the first derivative is zero, the function is not changing at that point
E The point could be a maximum or a minimum (more details later)
O Second derivative
O The second derivative is the slope of a function’s first derivative at a specific point
Math Power Guide  58
E The second derivative of displacement taken with respect to time is the acceleration of
the function at that point
O The second derivative can reveal details about the graph of the function, such as concavity
and points of inflection
E If the second derivative is positive in a region, then the function is concave up
E If the second derivative is negative in a region, then the function is concave down
E A point of inflection is a point in the graph of a function where the function’s concavity
changes (from up to down or down to up)
E The zeros of the second derivative are possible points of inflection
O Antiderivative
O An antiderivative is a possible function that has a known derivative
E Antiderivatives are also called integrals
E Finding an antiderivative is called integration
E To integrate, we reverse the steps of differentiation
E The integration symbol is
E Example: If f’(x) = 3x
2
+ 5, what is a possible function for f(x)?
E Our integration problem is f(x) =
∫
dx ) 5 + x 3 (
2
E The dx at the end of the expression simply shows that the argument inside the
integration is a derivative
E Because the two terms are added, we can split them into two integrations
E f(x) =
∫ ∫
dx 5 + dx ) x 3 (
2
E We can split integrations when the terms are added or subtracted but not when
the terms are multiplied or divided
E The first term in the derivative is 3x
2
E Step 1. Add one to the power
E Step 2. Next, divide the coefficient by the answer you found in Step 1
E The answer that you find in Step 2 is the coefficient of the antiderivative
E Step 3. Finally, add C
E The C at the end is a constant
E Remember, constants differentiate to 0
E We have to put the C at the end of the integral because the antiderivative
could have a constant term
E So, the antiderivative of 3x
2
is x
3
+ C
Concave
up
Concave
down
Math Power Guide  59
E Let’s check: if we differentiate x
3
+ C, we do indeed get 3x
2
E Then we integrate the second term, 5
E The term can also be written 5x
0
E Its integral must have a power of 0 + 1 = 1
E The coefficient of its integral is 5 =
1
5
E Thus, the antiderivative of 5 is 5x + C
E Again, we have to put the C on the integral to account for a possible constant
E Putting the terms back together, we have f(x) = x
3
+ C + 5x + C
E We can combine the unknown constants together
E CAUTION: the sum of the C’s is NOT 2C
E The C’s are constants, not variables
E They will combine into one unknown constant
16
E The final form of the antiderivative is f(x) = x
3
+ 5x + C
E This type of integral is called an indefinite integral
E The answer includes a set of possible functions because the value of C is
indefinite
E Definite integrals produce a value because they have boundaries
E Definite integrals come in the form dx ) x ( ' f
∫
b
a
E The limits of integration are a and b
E After finding f(x), we find the difference between the boundaries
E dx ) x ( ' f
∫
b
a
= f(x)
b
a
= f(b) – f(a)
E Example: dx 5 + x 3
2
5
1
∫
E The integral is the same as the example above except for the limits of integration
E Originally, we found that the antiderivative is f(x) = x
3
+ 5x + C
E Now, we have to plug in the limits and find the difference
E f(5) = (5)
3
+ 5(5) + C = 150 + C
E f(1) = (1)
3
+ 5(1) + C = 6 + C
E f(5) – f(1) = 150 + C – (6 + C) = 144
E Definite integrals always cancel out the C
E Regardless of what value C may be, we know that it is the same in both f(b) and
f(a)
E For this reason, the subtraction always gets rid of C
O L’Hopital’s rule
17
O As mentioned earlier, if a limit is indeterminate, we can use L’Hopital’s rule to convert the
limit into a determinate one
O L’Hopital’s rule takes the derivative of the numerator and denominator (separately)
E After the derivatives, we plug in c again to see if the limit has become determinate
16
In other words, one unknown number plus another unknown number equals a third unknown number.
17
Also spelled “L’Hospital,” this rule is “derived” from its common usage in infirmaries and clinics across France. Just
kidding. – Sophy
Math Power Guide  60
O The next topic will give a more detailed explanation of derivatives
E Here is a basic description of how to take a derivative
E Suppose you have a term 4x
3
E Take the exponent, 3, and multiply it by the coefficient, 4
E The product is 12, which becomes the coefficient of the derivative
E Then subtract one from the exponent
E The exponent of the derivative is 3 – 1 = 2
E The derivative of 4x
3
is 12x
2
O Example:
3  x
9  x
lim
2
x→3
E If we plug in 3, we get 0 on the top and the bottom, which is an indeterminate form
E We will take the derivative of the numerator and the denominator
E Our limit becomes
1
x 2
lim
x→3
E Plugging in 3 again, we find that the limit is 6
O If the limit still yields an indeterminate answer after the application of L’Hopital’s rule, use
the rule again (and so on until you reach a definite answer)
E
O Graphing
O By looking at graphs of derivatives, we can gain information about their original function
O Below are three graphs: a function, its derivative, and its second derivative
E The graph on the left, the parabola, is the original function,
2
x
2
3
E The graph in the middle, the sloped line, is the first derivative, 3x
E This graph starts negative and ends positive, with a critical point at 0
E The change in sign lets us know that the original function decreases until x = 0
and then increases
E x = 0 is the location of a minimum
E At this point, the original function’s slope changes from negative to positive
E The graph on the right, the horizontal line, is the second derivative, 3
E This graph stays positive over its entire domain
E We can tell that the original function is concave up over its entire domain
Math Power Guide  61
Equation of a Tangent Line
O Definition
O The tangent line at a point has the same slope as the function at that point
O Finding the tangent line
O First, evaluate the function at the given point to find (x
1
, y
1
)
O Then, evaluate the function’s first derivative at x to get the function’s slope
E Now we know m at that point
O Next, use the pointslope formula of a line to find the equation of the tangent line
E Its equation will be in the form of y – y
1
= m(x – x
1
)
O Example: Find the line tangent to y = 2x
3
+ 4x at x = 2
E The yvalue at x = 2 is 2(2)
3
+ 4(2) = 24
E The derivative is y’ = m = 6x
2
+ 4
E m = 6(2)
2
+ 4 = 28
E y – 24 = 28(x – 2)
E y = 28x – 56 + 24
E The tangent line is y = 28x – 32
Rates of Change
O Definitions
O Rate of change is the rate at which one variable changes with respect to another variable
under certain conditions
O Problems involving rates of change with two variables are often called related rate problems
O Solving single variable problems
O Single variable rate of change problems usually involve displacement, velocity, and
acceleration
O Example: If the velocity of a rocket is defined as v(t) = 300t
2
+ 20t + 100, where t is time,
what is the acceleration of the rocket when t = 4?
E Notice that the function only has one variable, t
E Acceleration is the derivative, or the rate of change, of velocity
E Thus, we need to take the derivative of the velocity function to arrive at the
acceleration function
E a(t) = v’(t) = 600t + 20
E a(4) = 600(4) + 20 = 2420
O Solving related rate problems
O A related rate word problem usually sets up a situation
E A typical problem might concern an inflating balloon or a plane in flight
O It will give at least one rate
E This rate might be the rate at which the radius of the balloon is increasing as the balloon
inflates or the speed of the plane
O Initial parameters will set up the problem
E In our examples, this parameter could be the radius of the balloon at a certain time or the
distance the plane is from an observer at a certain time
O The problem will ask the rate something else is changing given the above parameters
E For example, it might ask the rate at which the volume of the balloon is changing at t = 5
seconds
Math Power Guide  62
E In another example, the problem might ask the rate at which the plane’s distance from
the observer is changing at v = 50 meters per second
O Drawing a picture will help us set the problem up
O Establish relationships between the given information and what we are supposed to find to
solve the problem
E For our balloon,
3
r π
3
4
= V relates the volume of the balloon to its radius
E For our plane, (distance from observer)
2
= (horizontal distance to plane)
2
+ (vertical
distance to plane)
2
O Implicitly differentiate the equation with respect to time to get a relationship between the
rate we want to find and the rate we are given
E
dt
dV
=
dt
dr
r π 4
2
gives the relationship between the rate of volume change and the rate of
radius change of the balloon
E (2)(dist.) 0 + )
dt
.) dist . horiz ( d
)( plane to . dist . horiz )( 2 ( =
dt
) observer from . dist ( d
E Note that the derivative of the vertical distance component is 0 because it does not
change
O Substitute the known values and solve for the unknown rate
O An example
O A 13 ft ladder is leaning against a wall. The ladder is sliding down the wall at a rate of 2 ft
per second. How fast is the bottom of the ladder moving along the ground when the bottom
of the ladder is 5 ft from the wall?
18
O Physical relationship: set x as the distance from the bottom
of the ladder to the wall, y as the distance from the top of
the ladder to the ground, and l3 as the length of the ladder
E Using the Pythagorean theorem, we establish the
equation x
2
+ y
2
= 13
2
= 169 ft
O Implicit differentiation: 2x
dt
dx
+ 2y
dt
dy
= 0
O Given rate:
dt
dy
= –2 ft/second
O Initial conditions: x = 5 ft, and (from the Pythagorean theorem) y = 12 ft
O Solve: (2)(5ft)(
dt
dx
) + (2)(12 ft)( –2 ft/second) = 0
E
dt
dx
= 4.8 ft/second
18
The trick answer choice would be 2 ft/second. Don’t fall for it.
13
y
x
Math Power Guide  63
Maxima and Minima
O Absolute extrema
O The absolute maximum of a function is the maximum yvalue it reaches
E It is also known as the global maximum
O The absolute minimum of a function is the minimum yvalue it reaches
E It is also known as the global minimum
O Relative extrema
O The relative maximum of a function is a point whose yvalue is greater than those of the
surrounding points
E Relative maxima are located at the very peak of “hills” in a graph
E They are also known as local maxima
O The relative maximum of a function is a point whose yvalue is less than those of the
surrounding points
E Relative minima are located at the very bottom of “valleys” in a graph
E They are also known as local minima
O Relative extrema do not necessarily have to exist
E Linear functions, for example, have no relative extrema
O Finding absolute extrema
O If the function is defined over a closed interval
19
and is continuous over that interval, first
plug in the one or two given endpoints
O Whether or not the function has a specific domain, proceed to take the first derivative of the
function
E Find all points where the derivative is 0 or undefined
E To do so, set the derivative equal to 0 and, if the derivative includes variables in
denominators, set the denominators equal to 0
E These points are known as critical points
O Plug all critical points into the original function
O Compare all of the yvalues generated by plugging in the endpoints and critical points
E The highest yvalue is the function’s absolute (or global) maximum
E The lowest yvalue is the function’s absolute minimum
O Finding relative extrema
O First, take the first derivative of the given function
E Find all critical points
O There are two ways to proceed from here
E The first option is to use the first derivative test
E The second is to use the second derivative test
O The first derivative test involves examining changes in the sign of the first derivative
E If the first derivative changes from negative to positive around a critical point, that point
is a minimum
E If the first derivative changes from positive to negative around a critical point, that point
is a maximum
E If the sign of the first derivative does not change around a critical point, then that point
is not an extreme
19
Meaning the domain has to have two inclusive endpoints.
Math Power Guide  64
O The second derivative test involves examining the sign of the second derivative at a critical
point
E First, take the second derivative of the function
E Then, plug the critical point(s) from the first derivative into the second derivative
equation
E If f''(x) at a critical point is positive, that point is a relative minimum
E If f''(x) at a critical point is negative, that point is a relative maximum
E If f''(x) at a critical point is zero, then there is no extrema at that critical point
O Max/min word problems
O Word problems often involve some sort of optimization (making some quantity the
biggest/smallest) under some kind of constraint
O To solve: write down an equation for the quantity you’re maximizing/minimizing, take the
derivative, find the critical points, and then test those points out
O Example: A farmer has 20 ft of fence and wants to have a rectangular fence that encloses the
largest possible area. What should the dimensions of his fence be?
E The constraint is given by the perimeter: for length L and width w, 20 = 2L + 2w
E The quantity we’re trying to optimize is area: A = Lw
E Through substitution, we can rewrite the equation for area in terms of one variable: A =
(L)(10 – L)
E Now we can take the derivative: A’ = 10L – 2L
E Setting the derivative equal to 0 yields 10 – 2L = 0, or L = 5 ft
E L = 5 ft (and w = 5 ft) will give us the largest fence in terms of area enclosed
E That the length and width are equal is no surprise: when the 4 sides of a rectangle are
limited to a specific perimeter, squares maximize area
E When only 3 sides of a rectangle are limited to a set perimeter, however, squares will
not maximize area
E Example: A farmer has 20 ft of fence and wants to build a rectangular pigpen that
encloses the largest possible area. He will build the pen next to his 20 ftlong barn,
which will provide one side of the pen. What should the dimensions of his pen be?
E The area formula remains the same: A = Lw
E The perimeter formula changes, since only one length and two widths are limited
E 20 = L + 2s
E L = 20 – 2w
E Only one length is limited because the barn is 20 ft long
E The farmer has only 20 ft of fence, so he would not be able to build past the
length of the barn
E We substitute L in the area formula to get A = (20 – 2w)(w)
E A = 20w – 2w
2
E Now we take the derivative to find the maximum
E A’ = 20 – 4w
E 0 = 20 – 4w
E w = 5
E Plugging w = 5 into the perimeter equation, we find that L = 10
E Notice that the maximum area was not achieved by creating a square
Math Power Guide  65
Enrichment: Other Derivatives
THE CURRICULUM OUTLINE IS VAGUE ABOUT “DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS,” BUT THESE
HAVE BEEN TESTED IN COMPETITION
· Derivative of sine functions: ) ' u )( u cos( = )) u (sin(
dx
d
x
· Derivative of cosine functions: ) ' u )( u sin(  = )) u (cos(
dx
d
· Derivatives of exponential functions:
dx
d
(e
u
) = (e
u
)(u’)
· Derivatives of logarithmic functions:
dx
d
(ln(u)) = ) ' u )(
u
1
(
· Chain Rule for differentiation:
dx
d
[f(g(u))] = f’(g(u))g’(u)
· Product Rule for u and v as functions of x: (uv)’ = (u’)(v) + (u)(v’)
· Quotient Rule for u and v as functions of x: )'
v
u
( =
2
v
' uv = ' vu
Enrichment: Still More Derivatives
¬ THESE DERIVATIVES MAY OR MAY NOT BE TESTED AT COMPETITION ÷
·
dx
d
(tan(u)) = (sec
2
(u))(u’)
·
dx
d
(sin
1
(u)) =
2
u  1
' u
·
dx
d
(cot(u)) = (csc
2
(u))(u’)
·
dx
d
(cos
1
(u)) = –
2
u  1
' u
·
dx
d
(sec(u)) = (sec(u))(tan(u))(u’) ·
dx
d
(tan
1
(u)) =
2
u + 1
' u
·
dx
d
(csc(u)) = (cot(u))(csc(u))(u’) ·
dx
d
(cot
1
(u)) = –
2
u + 1
' u
·
dx
d
(a
u
) = ln(a)(a
u
)(u’)
·
dx
d
(sec
1
(u)) =
1  u  u 
' u
2
·
dx
d
log
a
(u) = (
) a ln(
1
)(
u
1
)(u’)
·
dx
d
(csc
1
(u)) = –
1  u  u 
' u
2
Math Power Guide  66
POWER LISTS
TERMS – GENERAL MATH
E Arrangement principle To find the total number of arrangements of n objects where r objects
are indistinguishable, divide the total number of arrangements by r!:
! r
! n
E Combination An arrangement of a collection of objects in which order does not
matter;
)! r  n )( ! r (
! n
= C
r n
E Factorial The product of a nonnegative integer n with all of the positive
integers less than n; this is expressed as n!
E Multiplication principle To find the total number of possibilities when picking one each of
several different objects (each with several choices), multiply the total
number of choices for each object
E Percentage
Represents
100
n
of the whole
E Permutation An arrangement of a collection of objects in which order matters;
r)!  n (
! n
= P
r n
E Probability The chance that a given event will happen; equal to the number of
outcomes in which the event occurs divided by the total number of
possible outcomes
TERMS – ALGEBRA
E Absolute value The nonnegative value of a number; in other words, how far a
number is from 0 on the number line
E Arithmetic sequence A pattern of numbers that have a common difference
E Arithmetic series The sum of an arithmetic sequence
E Arithmetic mean The average of two or more numbers
E Asymptote A line that a function approaches but never reaches
E Complex conjugate A pair of complex numbers in the form a + bi and a – bi
E Complex number Any number in the form a ± bi where a and b are real numbers and i is
the imaginary unit
E Composite function A function resulting from using one function as the input of another
E Convergent Applies to an infinite series which approaches a fixed sum (r < 1)
E Degree The highest exponent power of a polynomial; also known as order
E Discriminant In the quadratic formula, the part under the square root; b
2
= 4ac
Math Power Guide  67
E Divergent Applies to an infinite series which does not approach a fixed sum
(r ≥ 1)
E Domain All possible values for the independent variable (often x) in a function
E Equation A mathematical statement that two expressions are equal
E Exponential function A function in which the independent variable is an exponent
E Function An equation in which each possible value of the independent variable
corresponds to one and only one value of the dependent variable
E Geometric sequence A pattern of numbers that have a common ratio
E Geometric series The sum of a geometric sequence
E Geometric mean The product of n numbers to the power of (1/n)
E Higher order equation An equation in which the highest power of the variables is greater than
2
E Horizontal line test An equation passes this test if a horizontal line intersects its graph at
no more than one point; if a function passes this test, its inverse is also
a function
E Inequality A mathematical statement that two expressions are unequal
E Inverse The “undo” of a function; takes the output of a function and returns
the input
E Infinite series The sum of a pattern of numbers with an infinite number of terms
E Linear equation An equation in which the highest power of the variables is 1
E Logarithmic function A function in which the independent variable is in the argument of a
logarithm
E Parabola The Ushaped graph of a quadratic equation
E Perpendicular line A line with a slope that is the opposite reciprocal of the slope of
another line
E Onetoone function A function in which none of the values of its range repeats more than
once
E Order See degree
E Quadratic equation An equation in which the highest power of the variables is 2
E Range All possible values for the dependent variable (often y) in a function
E Root A number that yields zero when plugged into an expression; also
known as an xintercept and as a zero of an equation
E Vertex The turning point of a parabola
E Vertical line test An equation passes this test if a vertical line intersects its graph at no
more than one point; if an equation passes this test, it is a function
E Xintercept See root
E Yintercept The point where an equation intercepts the yaxis; equal to b in the
slopeintercept form of a line (y = mx + b)
E Zeros (of an equation) See root
Math Power Guide  68
FORMULAS AND THEOREMS – ALBEGRA
E Difference of cubes formula (x
3
– y
3
) = (x – y)(x
2
+ xy + y
2
)
E Factor theorem If f(x) is a polynomial and f(c) = 0, then (x – c) is a factor of f(x); is the
special case of the remainder theorem
E FOIL Stands for “first, outer, inner, last”; a quick way to convert the
factored out form of a quadratic back to ax
2
+ bx + c form
E Pointslope formula y – y
1
= m(x – x
1
)
E Quadratic formula
x =
2a
(4ac)  b ± b 
2
E Rational roots theorem Given a polynomial of the form ax
n
+ … + c, all of the rational real
roots will come in forms like
p
q
± , where p represents all the factors of
a and q represents all the factors of c
E Remainder theorem If f(x) is a polynomial, then f(c) is the remainder of f(x) divided by (x
– c)
E Slopeintercept formula y = mx + b
E Standard form ax + by = c
E Sum of cubes formula (x
3
+ y
3
) = (x + y)(x
2
– xy + y
2
)
TERMS – GEOMETRY
E 306090 triangle A right triangle with one 30° angle and one 60° angle; sides measure x,
x 3 , and 2x
E 454590 triangle
An isosceles right triangle; sides measure x and x 2
E Apothem The distance from the center of a regular polygon to the middle of a
side
E Chord A line segment whose two endpoints lie on the circle
E Circle All points equidistant from one center point (in two dimensions)
E Cone A pyramid with a circular base
E Congruent Having the same size and shape
E Cylinder A circular prism
E Midpoint The point on a line segment that is equidistant from both endpoints
E Parallel lines Lines in the same plane that never intersect
E Parallelogram A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides
E Perpendicular lines Lines that intersect at right angles
E Prism Two parallel and congruent bases and the space between these two
bases
E Pyramid Has one base; its sides rise up from the base and meet at a vertex
E Pythagorean triple Any three natural numbers that satisfy the Pythagorean theorem
Math Power Guide  69
E Quadrilateral A foursided polygon
E Rectangle A parallelogram with four right angles
E Rhombus A parallelogram with four congruent sides
E Secant A line that intersects a circle in two points
E Slope A line’s ratio of vertical to horizontal change
E Sphere All points equidistant from one center point (in three dimensions)
E Square A quadrilateral with equal sides and all right angles; is both a rectangle
and a rhombus
E Tangent A line that intersects a circle at only one point
E Transversal A line that intersects two parallel lines
E Trapezoid A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides
E Triangle A threesided polygon
E Vertex Point of intersection of the sides of a pyramid or cone
FORMULAS AND THEOREMS – GEOMETRY
E AA similarity theorem If two triangles exist such that two pairs of corresponding angles are
congruent, then the triangles are similar
E ChordChord Power Theorem Two intersecting chords form four line segments such that the
product of one chord’s line segments equals the product of the other
chord’s line segments
E Distance formula
In two dimensions: d =
2
1 2
2
1 2
) y  y ( + ) x  x ( ;
in three dimensions: d =
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
) z  z ( + ) y  y ( + ) x  x (
E Hero(n)’s formula
A = c)  b)(s  a)(s  s ( s ; s =
2
c + b + a
E Pythagorean theorem a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
, where a and b are lengths of the two legs of a right triangle
and c is the length of the hypotenuse
E SAS similarity theorem If two triangles exist such that two pairs of corresponding side lengths
form a constant ratio and the angles included between those sides are
congruent, then the two triangles are similar
E SecantSecant Power Theorem The product of the lengths of one secant and its external part is equal
to the product of the lengths of the other secant and its external part
E SecantTangent Power Theorem The product of the lengths of the secant and its external part is equal
to the square of the length of the tangent
E SSS similarity theorem If two triangles exist such that all three pairs of corresponding side
lengths form a constant ratio, then the two triangles are similar
Math Power Guide  70
TERMS – TRIGONOMETRY
E Amplitude Half the distance between the maximum and minimum values of a
cyclical wave function
E Cosecant (csc) In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the hypotenuse to that of
the side opposite to the angle in question; reciprocal of sine
E Cosine (cos) In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the adjacent side to that of
the hypotenuse
E Cotangent (cot) In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the adjacent side to that of
the side opposite to the angle in question; reciprocal of tangent
E Horizontal shift Sliding a graph along the xaxis
E Inverse trigonometric function A function that “undoes” a trigonometric function
E Law of cosines In a triangle, a way to find the length of an unknown side;
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
– 2ab(cosC)
E Law of sines In a triangle, the ratio of the sine of each angle to its opposite side is
the same for all 3 angles;
a
A sin
=
b
B sin
=
c
C sin
E Period The interval over which a function repeats; all trigonometric functions
are periodic
E Reference angle The measure of the angle to the nearest xaxis; always between 0 and
90 degrees
E Secant (sec) In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the hypotenuse to that of
the adjacent side; reciprocal of cosine
E Sine (sin) In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the opposite side to that
of the hypotenuse
E Tangent (tan) In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the opposite side to that
of the length of the adjacent side
E Trigonometric identities Formulas that transform certain trigonometric expressions into other
trigonometric expressions
E Vertical shift Sliding a graph along the yaxis
TERMS – CALCULUS
E Absolute maximum The maximum yvalue a function attains; also known as global
maximum
E Absolute minimum The minimum yvalue a function attains; also known as global
minimum
E Acceleration See second derivative
E Antiderivative A possible function that has a known derivative
E Concavity The direction that a curve is facing; found by taking the second
derivative; a U shape is concave up; an upsidedown U shape is
concave down
Math Power Guide  71
E Continuity A function is continuous at c if the limit as x approaches c equals f(c)
E Critical point All the xvalues at which a function’s derivative equals 0 or is
undefined
E Definite integral An integral with limits or bounds of integration; produces one value
E Derivative The rate of change of the dependent variable with respect to the
independent variable; instantaneous slope
E Differentiation The process of taking a derivative
E Displacement The distance a point is from its starting point; its first derivative is
velocity; its second derivative is acceleration
E First derivative The (instantaneous) slope of a function at a specific point; also known
as velocity when the function is distance
E First derivative test Used to determine if a relative max or min exists at a critical point;
compare the first derivative of the function just before and just after
the point; if the derivative changes from positive to negative, a min
exists; if the derivative changes from negative to positive, a max exists;
if it doesn’t change, no extreme is present at that point
E Global maximum See absolute maximum
E Global minimum See absolute minimum
E Indefinite integral An unbounded integral; produces a set of possible functions
E Integral See antiderivative
E Integration The process of finding an antiderivative
E L’Hopital’s rule If a limit is indeterminate, take the derivative of its numerator and its
denominator, and reevaluate the limit
E Limit The yvalue that a function approaches when getting arbitrarily and
infinitely close to a given xvalue
E Local maximum See relative maximum
E Local minimum See relative minimum
E Point of inflection An xvalue at which a function’s second derivative equals zero; marks
a change in a graph’s concavity
E Rate of change The rate at which one variable changes with respect to another
variable under certain conditions
E Related rate problem Problem that involves rates of change
E Relative maximum A point whose yvalue is greater than those of the surrounding points;
located at the very peak of a graphical “hill”; also known as local
maximum
E Relative minimum A point whose yvalue is less than those of the surrounding points;
located at the very bottom of a graphical “valley”; also known as local
minimum
E Second derivative The instantaneous slope of the first derivative at a specific point; if
positive, the graph is concave up; if negative, the graph is concave
down; also known as acceleration when the function is distance
Math Power Guide  72
E Second derivative test Used to determine if a relative max or min exists at a critical point;
take the second derivative of a function and plug in a critical point; if
the result is positive, a relative min exists at that point; if the result is
negative, a relative max exists; if the result is zero, no extreme is
present at that point
E Tangent line A line that intersects a graph at only one point; the slope of this line at
a specific point in the graph is equal to the derivative of the function
at that point
E Velocity See first derivative
Math Power Guide  73
POWER TABLE
Geometry: Shapes And Figures
Shape 2D or 3D? Area Formula
20
Volume Formula Other Notes
Circle 2D πr2 N/A
2D set of all points a
certain distance (r) from a
central point
Cone 3D
πr
2
+ πr
2 2
h + r 3
1
πr2h Pyramid with circular base
Cylinder 3D 2πr
2
+ 2πrh πr2h Prism with circular base
Parallelogram 2D bh N/A
Has two sets of parallel
sides
Pyramid 3D
(area of base) +
(area of sides)
3
1
(area of the
base)(height)
Figure with one base;
sides rise from base and
meet at a vertex
Rectangle 2D Lw N/A
Parallelogram with four
right angles
Rhombus 2D
2 1
d d
2
1
N/A
Parallelogram with four
congruent sides
Sphere 3D 4πr
2
3
4
πr
3
3D set of all points a
certain distance (r) from a
central point
Square 2D s
2
N/A
Parallelogram with four
right angles and four
congruent sides
Trapezoid 2D ) h )( b + b )(
2
1
(
2 1
N/A
Has one set of parallel
sides
20
Area formulas given for 3D shapes are surface area formulas.
Math Power Guide  74
POWER STRATEGIES
Beating the USAD Math Test
O Time management
O Use a silent timer during practice and competition
O Divide the problems into sets of five
E For each set of five, find one question that you’re fairly certain you can get right
E Attempt another question in the set that doesn’t seem too hard or long
E Unless you see another problem that you definitely know how to do, move on to the
next set
E Consider saving all trig identity questions to the end, since these tend to take the
longest
E After you have reached the end, go back and try the other questions
E This method allows you to find all the easy questions on the first pass
O Do not spend too much time on any one question
E On average, each question should take less than a minute
E If you’ve spent more than two minutes on a question and are not close to having the
answer, move on
O At five minutes remaining, stop working on your current problem and guess on all of the
ones you have left blank
E This way, you at least have a chance of getting a few more points
E If you still have time left over after guessing, work on the one you just stopped
O Learning the content
O Math is unique: it requires repetition of problemsolving skills, not memorization
E Take practice tests often
E Then, ask a math teacher, coach, or fellow decathlete to teach you how to solve the
problems that you don’t understand
O Calculator use
O Be familiar with all of the functions on your calculator
E Knowing where to find the most useful keys will save you time
O Practice good calculator syntax
E Calculators interpret your input very strictly
E Use parentheses to avoid miscalculations with fractions or exponents
O When using trig functions, make sure your calculator is in degree mode when working with
degrees and in radian mode when working with radians
O USAD’s calculator policy stipulates that all Decathletes must clear their calculators’ memory
before the start of the math test
E Having programs on your calculator, therefore, won’t be of much help
O What to do when you don’t know the content
O Often, you may be able to plug the answer choices into the problem
E Example: On trigonometric identities, you can choose random angles to substitute and
check which answer choice matches the question
O Before you begin a test, pick your favorite guessing letter
Math Power Guide  75
E Use the same letter every time you guess without eliminating choices first
21
O Goals
O Have a realistic number of questions that you want to get right
E An Algebra I student cannot realistically expect to achieve 35/35
E Recently, even Calculus BC students have not been able to achieve 35/35
21
My team always chose D. – Dean
Shorter Selections Power Guide  76
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Julia Ma grew up in Utah, where the snow is great and the
mountains are mysterious. After being an alternate member
on her first high school’s AD team, she loved AD so much
that she started a new team when she transferred high
schools. She recruited her friends onto the team, and they
renamed the competition to “Akideki.”
Julia attended Caltech and recently graduated with a BS in
Electrical Engineering. While at Caltech, she did research
in various areas, such as computer graphics, robotics, insect
vision, Albert Einstein’s history, and videoconferencing
technology. She is always pleasantly surprised when she meets another Techer who used DemiDec
materials and gloats that they probably took the math tests she wrote.
In her spare time, Julia likes to create music and art, collect computers (she now has three, each with a
different operating system), and make homemade strawberry limeade. Take a box of strawberries and the
juice from 35 limes (depending on how limey you like your drinks), put them in a blender with a cup
of sugar, add ice to fill the rest of the blender, blend until smooth, go outside into the sunshine, sprawl
onto the grass, and enjoy with friends.
Vital Stats:
Þ Competed with Alta High School as an honors decathlete in 20012002
Þ Joined DemiDec in May 2002
Math Power Guide  77
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Steven Zhu joined the Frisco High School AcDec team in 2003. In his
freshman year, he missed having a competing spot on the team by
0.3%. Undeterred, he eventually won the Texas individual state
championship his senior year.
Steven was recruited to write the Math Power Guide in 2007 after
being the only decathlete in the nation to break 900 points on the state
math test. He currently studies economics, computer science, and
Chinese at Harvard University, where he serves on the board of a
student investment club, programs for the daily student newspaper,
grades economics tests, and competes in ballroom dance. While writing
this Power Guide, Steven was working his second summer as an intern
at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
Vital Stats:
Þ Competed with Frisco High School as an honors decathlete at
regionals and at the Texas medium school state competition
Þ In 2006, team placed 2nd at regionals and 5th at state; individual
scores of 8355 and 8010, respectively
Þ In 2007, team placed 1st at regionals; individual score of 8509
Þ In 2007, team placed 2nd at state; individually had the highest score in all divisions with 8823
Þ Decathlon philosophy in a phrase: “Eat duplicate flashcards; make the knowledge yours”
Þ Joined DemiDec in March 2007
Math Power Guide  78
ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTOR
Michael Nagle did not submit his author’s bio in time. However, we
do know a few things about him. He helped lead the North
Hollywood Academic Decathlon team to its first berth at the
California state competition in 2001, under thennew coach Altair
Maine. At MIT, he majored in mathematics and graduated in 2005.
Vital Stats:
Þ Competed with North Hollywood High School at the California state competition in 2001,
finishing in eighth place
Þ Team took fourth at the 2001 Los Angeles Unified School District Regional Competition
Þ Decathlon philosophy in a phrase: "[Decathlon] is like dreaming openeyed"
22
Þ Joined DemiDec in 2005
22
Well, the original quote was about MIT…
Math Power Guide  79
ABOUT THE EDITOR
Sophy Lee recently found out that her friend’s bearded dragons do not
(usually) bite.
Over the years, Sophy has resigned herself to her stunning bad luck
with aquatic animals. Her first pet, a goldfish that she won from a
coloring contest, promptly died after she fed it white bread. The stuff
is apparently as bad for fish as it is for humans.
Sophy’s second pet, a yellow fish named Shrimp, died on New Year’s
Eve from a tragic fungal infection.
Next came Bonnie and Clyde—a brown and a red beta fish,
respectively—that she raised with her Decathlon teammate, Edie.
Clyde died after spending a week in the Pearland High School Acadec classroom and Bonnie,
heartbroken, died soon afterwards.
This series of unfortunate events has convinced Sophy that Harvard University’s policy against pets is
probably best for both her and the world’s fish population. As she heads into her second year of college,
she plans to stay far away from laboratory animals and the campus’s possessed squirrels. You have a
better chance of finding her muttering Russian in the library’s Language Resource Center, avoiding
slushy snow on her way to class, or singing radio songs in an unmarked van on her way to a Mock Trial
tournament.
If you have any suggestions about how Sophy can keep her pets alive, feel free to email her at
sophy@demidec.com.
Vital Stats:
Þ Competed with Pearland High School at the Texas Region V and Texas State competitions in 2007;
competed at Region, State, and Nationals in 2008
Þ Team placed thirteenth at State in 2007; individual scores of 7,741 and 7,542
Þ Team placed third at Nationals in 2008; individual scores of 9041, 9007, and 9304
Þ Decathlon philosophy in a phrase: “No regrets”
Þ Joined DemiDec in June 2007
Math Power Guide  80
ABOUT THE EDITOR/POWER ALPACA
Dean Schaffer believes that in his former life, he was either an
owl (wise and nocturnal), a lolcat (prone to nonsensical
utterances), or a Microsoft Word spellchecker (compulsive but
vulnerable to glitches). In this life, he attends Stanford
University, majors in American Studies, minors in Classics, and
doesn’t really know what he wants to do when he grows up—
something he constantly hopes he’ll never have to do.
Since joining DemiDec to write the Renaissance Music Power
Guide, Dean has taken turns making the Power Guide more
powerful, the flashcard a lot flashier, and the Cram Kit a
bit…crammier? This season marks Dean’s fifth with DemiDec,
and his lengthy tenure has, thus far, given him a glimpse of the
ineffable quirks of the English language and, more notably, of
the ineffable cuteness of the three puppies which inhabit DemiDec HQ (and are probably the single
biggest productivity drain on DemiDec Dan).
In his spare time, Dean ponders whether he’ll ever be able to handle the luxury of spare time; luckily, he
avoids this metaphysical quandary altogether by choosing not to affiliate himself with relaxation of any
form. Instead, he occupies himself with songwriting, playing guitar, and parallel structureing. When he
isn’t doing those things, he’s considering the merits of democratic elections, oligarchic disinterestedness,
and delicious gouda cheese.
Vital Stats:
Þ Competed with Taft High School in Los Angeles, California
Þ In 2005, team placed first at LA regionals and fifth at CA state with individual scores of 8792 and
8887, respectively
Þ In 2006, team placed first at LA regionals, CA state, and nationals with individual scores of 9121,
8903, and 8962, respectively
Þ Decathlon philosophy in a phrase: “Get back to work!”
Þ Joined DemiDec in April 2005
Math Power Guide  81
ABOUT THE BETA TESTERS
Adriana Zamora (adrianaazamora@aol.com) is a senior at Earl Warren High School
and will be in Academic Decathlon for her third year. When Adriana doesn’t have her
nose stuck in her study binder, she is with her twin sister, enjoying the quality time
they have left before they possibly split up for college. She has a bittersweet
relationship with procrastination and public speaking, which tends to be more bitter
than sweet. She enjoys playing soccer, singing along to every song on the radio, and
sleeping because she is usually deprived during the school year.
Quinn Campbell (quinnquest@sbcglobal.net) spends most of his time trying to cram
(seemingly) millions of facts into his head. Quinn then spends what little free time he
has left learning about all sorts of other subjects that will never be tested by an AP or
AcDec test. Quinn particularly enjoys economics, psychology, and space.
Erika Tinley (p.l.t@comcast.net) is entering her second year at Sonoran Science
Academy and will be a senior. She hopes to win more shiny medals during her second
year in Decathlon. She spends most of her time discreetly telling people that her coach
was on "Jeopardy!" When she does have time, she uses it studying Decathlon and
trying to graduate with credits galore. She also reads, shoots archery, has a motorcycle,
and hopes to own a Harley.
Jane Huang (janehuang212@gmail.com) is entering her fourth year of Academic
Decathlon at Walter Payton College Prep in Chicago. When not memorizing the
names of terribly obscure musical instruments and other such minutiae for Acadec,
she swims, plays the piano and the viola, competes on math team, and searches for
random other details to insert in her unabashedly shortish bio.
Anthony Sam Wu, also known by various monikers to different people (Tony,
Pandachan, "Anthany,” et al.), is a scholastic competing for Mark Keppel High, a
school of sorts based in California. The photo shown explains a lot as to why Anthony
is so strange (playing "Duke Nukem II" at age three? Really now).
Lawrence Lan doesn’t usually write about himself in the third person. What he does
do on a usual basis is sleep—anytime, anyplace. When he is not sleeping irregularly,
Lawrence finds satisfaction in good music, freezedried mango pieces, and The Office.
A graduate and exDecathlete from Palos Verdes Peninsula High School in southern
California, Lawrence currently attends Cornell University in Snowyville, New
York—known by the locals as Ithaca.
Fermi Ma (fermima1@gmail.com; not pictured) will be starting his junior year at Northside College
Prep when September rolls around. He has been an active participant in his high school's Academic
Decathlon Team and Math Team for the past two years. In his spare time, Fermi enjoys playing
basketball, running, and solving math problems.
Math Power Guide  82
Miandra Ellis (miandra_ann@yahoo.com; not pictured) has been in Academic Decathlon for the past
two years and this year will be her last. Miandra has learned only one thing from two years in the
program: there is way more to learn out there.
Other beta testers who reviewed this Power Guide:
Þ Hillary Lam
Þ Benjamin Ferell
Þ Shiv Pande